WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisotropic cosmological models

  1. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. P.; Srivastava, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar fields with a zero rest mass and an exponential potential are studied, respectively. We find that both assumptions of potential along with the average scale factor as an exponential function of scalar field lead to the logarithmic form of scalar field in each case which further gives power-law form of the average scale factor. Using these forms of the average scale factor, exact solutions of the field equations are obtained to the metric functions which represent a power-law and a hybrid expansion, respectively. We find that the zero-rest-mass model expands with decelerated rate and behaves like a stiff matter. In the case of exponential potential function, the model decelerates, accelerates or shows the transition depending on the parameters. The isotropization is observed at late-time evolution of the Universe in the exponential potential model.

  2. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic cosmological model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P SINGH; MILAN SRIVASTAVA

    2017-02-01

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar fields with a zero rest mass and an exponential potential are studied, respectively. We find that both assumptions of potential along with the average scale factor as an exponential function of scalar field lead to the logarithmic formof scalar field in each case which further gives power-law form of the average scale factor. Using these forms of the average scale factor, exact solutions of the field equations are obtained to the metric functions which represent a power-law and a hybrid expansion, respectively. We find that the zero-rest-mass model expands with decelerated rate and behaves like a stiff matter. In the case of exponential potential function, the model decelerates, accelerates or shows the transition depending on the parameters. The isotropization is observed at late-time evolution of the Universe in the exponential potential model.

  3. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Batul Chandra Santra; Nabajit Chakravarty

    2003-10-01

    In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the physical parameters and solutions have been discussed.

  4. Anisotropic models are unitary: A rejuvenation of standard quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-01-01

    The present work proves that the folk-lore of the pathology of non-conservation of probability in quantum anisotropic models is wrong. It is shown in full generality that all operator ordering can lead to a Hamiltonian with a self-adjoint extension as long as it is constructed to be a symmetric operator, thereby making the problem of non-unitarity in context of anisotropic homogeneous model a ghost. Moreover, it is indicated that the self-adjoint extension is not unique and this non-uniqueness is suspected not to be a feature of Anisotropic model only, in the sense that there exists operator orderings such that Hamiltonian for an isotropic homogeneous cosmological model does not have unique self-adjoint extension, albeit for isotropic model, there is a special unique extension associated with quadratic form of Hamiltonian i.e {\\it Friedrichs extension}. Details of calculations are carried out for a Bianchi III model.

  5. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Bhowmik; A Rajput

    2004-06-01

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  6. Anisotropic Open Cosmological Models of Spin Matter with Magnetic Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENLi-ming; SUNNai-jiang; 等

    2001-01-01

    We have derived a set of field equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid including magnetic interacton among the spinning particles prevailling in spatially homogeneous,but anisotropically cosmological models of Bianchi type V based on Einstein-Cartan theory.We analyze the field equations in three different equations of states specified by p=1(1/3)ρand p=0,The analytical solutions found are non-singular provided that the combined energy arising from matter spin and magnetic interaction among particles overcomes the anisotropy energy in the Universe,We have also deduced that the minimum particle numers for the radiation(p=(1/3)ρ) and matter(p=0) epochs are 1088 and 10108 respectively.the minimum particle number for the state p=ρ is 1096,leading to the conclusion that we must consider the existence of neutrinos and other creation of particles and anti-particles under torsion and strong gravitational field in the early Universe.

  7. Anisotropic cosmological models in $f (R, T)$ theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shri Ram; Priyanka; Manish Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    A class of non-singular bouncing cosmological models of a general class of Bianchi models filled with perfect fluid in the framework of $f (R, T)$ gravity is presented. The model initially accelerates for a certain period of time and decelerates thereafter. The physical behaviour of the model is also studied.

  8. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  9. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  10. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K VERMA; S CHANDEL; SHRI RAM

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble’s parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter. Three physically viable cosmological models of the Universe are presented for the values of parameter $K$ occurring in the metric of the space–time. The model for $K = 0$ corresponds to an accelerating Universe with isotropic dark energy. The other two models for $K = 1$ and $−1$ represent accelerating Universe with anisotropic dark energy, which isotropize for large time. The physical and geometric behaviours of the models are also discussed.

  11. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M. K.; Chandel, S.; Ram, Shri

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter. Three physically viable cosmological models of the Universe are presented for the values of parameter K occurring in the metric of the space-time. The model for K = 0 corresponds to an accelerating Universe with isotropic dark energy. The other two models for K = 1 and -1 represent accelerating Universe with anisotropic dark energy, which isotropize for large time. The physical and geometric behaviours of the models are also discussed.

  12. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan

    2016-11-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either an explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  13. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  14. Anisotropic Inflation and Cosmological Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Emami, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations opened up a new window on the inflationary model building. As it was firstly reported by the WMAP data, there may be some indications of statistical anisotropy on the CMB map, although the statistical significance of these findings are under debate. Motivated by these observations, people begun considering new inflationary models which may lead to statistical anisotropy. The simplest possible way to construct anisotropic inflation is to introduce vector fields. During the course of this thesis, we study models of anisotropic inflation and their observational implications such as power spectrum, bispectrum etc. Firstly we build a new model, which contains the gauge field which breaks the conformal invariance while preserving the gauge invariance. We show that in these kind of models, there can be an attractor phase in the evolution of the system when the back-reaction of the gauge field becomes important in the evolution of the inflaton field. We then study the cosmological perturbation the...

  15. On the existence of anisotropic cosmological models in higher order theories of gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We investigate the behaviour on approach to the initial singularity in higher-order extensions of general relativity by finding exact cosmological solutions for a wide class of models in which the Lagrangian is allowed to depend nonlinearly upon the three possible linear and quadratic scalars built from the Riemann tensor ; R, R ab R ab and R abcd R abcd. We present new anisotropic vacuum solutions analagous to the Kasner solutions of general relativity and extend previous results...

  16. Shear-free Anisotropic Cosmological Models in f(R) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Abebe, Amare; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f(R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f(R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in $f(R)$ gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f(R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.

  17. The anisotropic cosmological models in f( R, T) gravity with Λ(T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, R.; Shukla, A. K.

    2017-04-01

    The general class of anisotropic Bianchi cosmological models in f( R, T) modified theories of gravity with Λ( T) has been considered. This paper deals with f( R, T) modified theories of gravity, where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of Ricci scalar R and the trace of the stress-energy tensor T has been investigated for a specific choice of f( R, T) = f 1( R) + f 2( T). The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. We have discussed three types of solutions of the average scale factor for the general class of Bianchi cosmological models by using a special law for deceleration parameter which is linear in time with a negative slope. The solutions to the Einstein field equations are obtained for three different physical viable cosmologies. All physical parameters are calculated and discussed in each model.

  18. A Class of LQC--inspired Models for Homogeneous, Anisotropic Cosmology in Higher Dimensional Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rama, S Kalyana

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a (3 + 1) dimensional homogeneous anisotropic universe is modified by Loop Quantum Cosmology and, consequently, it has generically a big bounce in the past instead of a big-bang singularity. This modified dynamics can be well described by effective equations of motion. We generalise these effective equations of motion empirically to (d + 1) dimensions. The generalised equations involve two functions and may be considered as a class of LQC -- inspired models for (d + 1) dimensional early universe cosmology. As a special case, one can now obtain a universe which has neither a big bang singularity nor a big bounce but approaches asymptotically a `Hagedorn like' phase in the past where its density and volume remain constant. In a few special cases, we also obtain explicit solutions.

  19. A class of LQC-inspired models for homogeneous, anisotropic cosmology in higher dimensional early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, S. Kalyana

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of a (3 + 1) dimensional homogeneous anisotropic universe is modified by loop quantum cosmology and, consequently, it has generically a big bounce in the past instead of a big-bang singularity. This modified dynamics can be well described by effective equations of motion. We generalise these effective equations of motion empirically to (d + 1) dimensions. The generalised equations involve two functions and may be considered as a class of LQC-inspired models for (d + 1) dimensional early universe cosmology. As a special case, one can now obtain a universe which has neither a big bang singularity nor a big bounce but approaches asymptotically a `Hagedorn like' phase in the past where its density and volume remain constant. In a few special cases, we also obtain explicit solutions.

  20. Classical and quantum solutions to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type I model from a time-dependent toroidal compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Sesma, L Toledo; Loaiza, O

    2015-01-01

    In this work we construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type I model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Under this approach, we present an isotropization mechanism for the Bianchi I cosmological model through the analysis of the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the Universe which in general keeps constant or runs into zero for late times. Finally, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation in the context of Standard Quantum Cosmology.

  1. Anisotropic cosmological models with bulk viscosity and particle creation in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandel S; Ram Shri

    2016-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of particle creation and bulk viscosity in the evolution of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological models in the framework of Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Particle creation and bulk viscosity are considered as separate irreversible processes. The energy–momentum tensor is modified to accommodate the viscous pressure and creation pressure which is associated with the creation of matter out of gravitational field. A special law of variation of Hubble parameter is applied to obtain exact solutions of field equations in two types of cosmologies, one with power-law expansion and the other with exponential expansion. Cosmological model with power-law expansion has a Big-Bang singularity at time $t = 0$, whereas the model with exponential expansion has no finite singularity. We study bulk viscosity and particle creation in each model in four different cases. The bulk viscosity coefficient is obtained for full causal, Eckart’s and truncated theories. All physical parameters are calculated and thoroughly discussed in both models.

  2. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: anisotropic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Assanioussi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter $\\beta$ in the modified dispersion relation of the modes. Hence inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [arXiv:1412.6000], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  3. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  4. Effect of inflation on anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of anisotropic cosmologies on inflation are studied. By properly formulating the field equations it is possible to show that any model that undergoes sufficient inflation will become isotropic on scales greater than the horizon today. Furthermore, we shall show that it takes a very long time for anisotropies to become visible in the observable part of the Universe. It is interesting to note that the time scale will be independent of the Bianchi Model and of the initial anisotropy. 6 refs.

  5. Effect of inflation on anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    We study the effects of anisotropic cosmologies on inflation. By properly formulating the field equations it is possible to show that any model that undergoes sufficient inflation will become isotropic on scales greater than the horizon today. Furthermore, we shall show that it takes a very long time for anisotropies to become visible in the observable part of the Universe. It is interesting to note that the time scale will be independent of the Bianchi model and of the initial anisotropy.

  6. Remarks on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument was given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this paper we discuss important properties of the mean curvature flow of spacelike surfaces in Lorentzian manifolds. We show that singularities may form during cosmic evolution, and the theorems forbidding the global recollapse lose their validity. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that may kinematically prevent the recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis indicates a caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.

  7. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)

  8. Comments on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument is given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this note we point out a few important issues about the proposed deformations and in particular indicate that in the presence of large spatial variations the mean curvature flow may deform an initially spacelike surface to a surface with null or timelike portions. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that prevents recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis also indicates a possible caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.

  9. Temperature and Polarization Patterns in Anisotropic Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Rockhee

    2010-01-01

    We study the coherent temperature and polarization patterns produced in homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models. We show results for all Bianchi types with a Friedman-Robertson-Walker limit (i.e. Types I, V, VII$_{0}$, VII$_{h}$ and IX) to illustrate the range of possible behaviour. We discuss the role of spatial curvature, shear and rotation in the geodesic equations for each model and establish some basic results concerning the symmetries of the patterns produced. We also give examples of the time-evolution of these patterns in terms of the Stokes parameters $I$, $Q$ and $U$.

  10. Phase Space of Anisotropic $R^n$ Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2014-01-01

    We construct general anisotropic cosmological scenarios governed by an $f(R)=R^n$ gravitational sector. Focusing then on some specific geometries, and modelling the matter content as a perfect fluid, we perform a phase-space analysis. We analyze the possibility of accelerating expansion at late times, and additionally, we determine conditions for the parameter $n$ for the existence of phantom behavior, contracting solutions as well as of cyclic cosmology. Furthermore, we analyze if the universe evolves towards the future isotropization without relying on a cosmic no-hair theorem. Our results indicate that anisotropic geometries in modified gravitational frameworks present radically different cosmological behaviors compared to the simple isotropic scenarios.

  11. Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I Magnetized String Cosmological Models with Decaying Vacuum Energy Density A(t)*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anirudh Pradhan

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-I cosmological models representing massive strings with magnetic field and decaying vacuum energy density A. The energy-momentum tensor,as formulated by Letelier (1983), has been used to construct massive string cosmological models for which we assume the expansion scalar in the models is proportional to one of the components of shear tensor. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter in Bianchi-I space-time. The variation law for Hubble's parameter generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. Using these two forms, Einstein's field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. We have made a comparative study of accelerating and decelerating models in the presence of string scenario. The study reveals that massive strings dominate in the decelerating universe whereas strings dominate in the accelerating universe. The strings eventually disappear from the universe for sufficiently large times, which is in agreement with current astronomical observations. The cosmological constant A is found to be a positive decreasing function of time which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. The physical and geometric properties of the models have been also discussed in detail.

  12. Dynamics of anisotropic f(R) cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2010-01-01

    We construct general anisotropic cosmological scenarios governed by an f(R) gravitational sector. Focusing then on Kantowski-Sachs geometries in the case of $R^n$-gravity we perform a detailed phase-space analysis. We find that at late times the universe can result to a state of accelerating expansion, and additionally, for a particular n-range (2cosmological bounce and turnaround, as well as of cyclic cosmology. These features indicate that anisotropic geometries in modified gravitational frameworks present radically different cosmological behaviors comparing to the simple isotropic scenarios.

  13. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f( R) cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f( R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f( R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f( R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f( R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f( R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  14. Local equilibrium solutions in simple anisotropic cosmological models, as described by relativistic fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogin, Dmitry; Amund Amundsen, Per

    2016-10-01

    We test the physical relevance of the full and the truncated versions of the Israel–Stewart (IS) theory of irreversible thermodynamics in a cosmological setting. Using a dynamical systems method, we determine the asymptotic future of plane symmetric Bianchi type I spacetimes with a viscous mathematical fluid, keeping track of the magnitude of the relative dissipative fluxes, which determines the applicability of the IS theory. We consider the situations where the dissipative mechanisms of shear and bulk viscosity are involved separately and simultaneously. It is demonstrated that the only case in the given model when the fluid asymptotically approaches local thermal equilibrium, and the underlying assumptions of the IS theory are therefore not violated, is that of a dissipative fluid with vanishing bulk viscosity. The truncated IS equations for shear viscosity are found to produce solutions which manifest pathological dynamical features and, in addition, to be strongly sensitive to the choice of initial conditions. Since these features are observed already in the case of an oversimplified mathematical fluid model, we have no reason to assume that the truncation of the IS transport equations will produce relevant results for physically more realistic fluids. The possible role of bulk and shear viscosity in cosmological evolution is also discussed.

  15. Axially symmetric anisotropic string cosmological models in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakavalli, T.; Rao, G. Ananda; Reddy, D. R. K.

    2017-02-01

    Field equations of a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (Phys. Lett. A 113:467, 1986) are derived with the help of a spatially homogeneous axially symmetric anisotropic Bianchi type metric in the presence of cosmic string source. To obtain determinate solutions of the field equations we have used the fact that the scalar expansion is proportional to shear scalar and the equations of state which correspond to geometric, Takabayasi and massive strings. It is found that geometric and massive strings do not coexist with the Saez-Ballester Scalar field. However, Takabayasi string which survives has been determined. Also, physical discussion of the dynamical parameters of the model is presented.

  16. Local equilibrium solutions in simple anisotropic cosmological models, as described by relativistic fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We test the physical relevance of the full and truncated versions of the Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics in a cosmological setting. Using a dynamical systems method, we determine the asymptotic future of plane symmetric Bianchi type I spacetimes filled with a viscous {\\gamma}-fluid, keeping track of the magnitude of relative dissipative fluxes, which determines the applicability of the Israel-Stewart theory. We consider the situations when the dissipative mechanisms of shear and bulk viscosity are involved separately and simultaneously. Also, we apply two different temperature models in the full version of the theory in order to compare the results. We demonstrate that the only case when the fluid asymptotically approaches local equilibrium, and the underlying assumptions of the IS theory are therefore not violated, is that of a dissipative fluid with vanishing bulk viscosity. The truncated Israel-Stewart equations for shear viscosity are found to produce solutions which manifest patholog...

  17. Cosmological MHD simulations of cluster formation with anisotropic thermal conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszkowski, M; Bruggen, M; Parrish, I; Oh, S Peng

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) The ICM has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially. Using cosmological simulations of the Santa Barbara cluster we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and SKA and future X-ray spectroscopic stu...

  18. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-11-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/H decreases with the decrease of v. As long as the conditions |Σ| ll H and v2 ll phi2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where phi is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state wDE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value wDE(iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  19. Quantum cosmology in an anisotropic n-dimensional universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Júnior, F A P; Barreto, A B; Romero, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate quantum cosmological models in an n-dimensional anisotropic universe in the presence of a massless scalar field. Our basic inspiration comes from Chodos and Detweiler's classical model which predicts an interesting behaviour of the extra dimension, shrinking down as time goes by. We work in the framework of a recent geometrical scalar-tensor theory of gravity. Classically, we obtain two distinct type of solutions. One of them has an initial singularity while the other represents a static universe considered as a whole. By using the canonical approach to quantum cosmology, we investigate how quantum effects could have had an influence in the past history of these universes.

  20. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component $v$ of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate $\\Sigma$ and the isotropic expansion rate $H$ remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where $\\Sigma/H$ is constant, the spatial vector component $v$ works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to $1/3$. During the matter era, the ratio $\\Sigma/H$ decreases with the decrease of $v$. As long as the conditions $|\\Sigma| \\ll H$ and $v^2 \\ll \\phi^2$ are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where $\\phi$ is the temporal vector ...

  1. Light propagation in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Fleury, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the hypothesis that the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. When interpreting most observations, this cosmological principle is applied stricto sensu: the light emitted by distant sources is assumed to propagate through a Friedmann-Lema\\^itre spacetime. The main goal of the present thesis was to evaluate how reliable this assumption is, especially when small scales are at stake. After having reviewed the laws of geometric optics in curved spacetime, and the standard interpretation of cosmological observables, the dissertation reports a comprehensive analysis of light propagation in Swiss-cheese models, designed to capture the clumpy character of the Universe. The resulting impact on the interpretation of the Hubble diagram is quantified, and shown to be relatively small, thanks to the cosmological constant. When applied to current supernova data, the associated corrections tend however to improve the agreement between the cosmological parameters inferre...

  2. Anisotropic Four-Dimensional NS-NS String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Mak, M K; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2001-01-01

    An anisotropic (Bianchi type I) cosmology is considered in the four-dimensional NS-NS sector of low-energy effective string theory coupled to a dilaton and an axion-like $H$-field within a de Sitter-Einstein frame background. The time evolution of this Universe is discussed in both the Einstein and string frames.

  3. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2017-02-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N-point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  4. Blue Spectra of Kalb-Ramond Axions and Fully Anisotropic String Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    1999-01-01

    The inhomogeneities associated with massless Kalb-Ramond axions can be amplified not only in isotropic (four-dimensional) string cosmological models but also in the fully anisotropic case. If the background geometry is isotropic, the axions (which are not part of the homogeneous background) develop, outside the horizon, growing modes leading, ultimately, to logarithmic energy spectra which are "red" in frequency and increase at large distance scales. We show that this conclusion can be evaded not only in the case of higher dimensional backgrounds with contracting internal dimensions but also in the case of string cosmological scenarios which are completely anisotropic in four dimensions. In this case the logarithmic energy spectra turn out to be "blue" in frequency and, consequently, decreasing at large distance scales. We elaborate on anisotropic dilaton-driven models and we argue that, incidentally, the background models leading to (or flat) logarithmic energy spectra for axionic fluctuations are likely to ...

  5. Accelerating Cosmologies with an Anisotropic Equation of State: Vector Fields, Modified Gravity and Astrophysical Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Koivisto, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate cosmologies where the accelerated expansion of the Universe is driven by a field with an anisotropic equation of state. We model such scenarios within the Bianchi I framework, introducing two skewness parameters to quantify the deviation of pressure from isotropy. Several viable vector alternatives to the inflaton and quintessence scalar fields are found. We reconstruct a vector-Gauss-Bonnet model which generates the concordance model background expansion at late times and supports an inflationary epoch at high curvatures. We show general conditions for the existence of scaling solutions for spatial fields. In particular, a vector with an inverse power-law potential, even if minimally coupled, scales with the matter component. Asymmetric generalizations of a cosmological constant are presented also. The anisotropic expansion is then confronted with, in addition to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies for which the main signature appears to be a quadrupole contribution, the redshif...

  6. Frequentist comparison of CMB local extrema statistics in the five-year WMAP data with two anisotropic cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Zhen; Górski, K M; Groeneboom, N E; Eriksen, H K

    2009-01-01

    We present local extrema studies of two models that introduce a preferred direction into the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature field. In particular, we make a frequentist comparison of the one- and two-point statistics for the dipole modulation and ACW models with data from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). This analysis is motivated by previously revealed anomalies in the WMAP data, and particularly the difference in the statistical nature of the temperature anisotropies when analysed in hemispherical partitions. The analysis of the one-point statistics indicates that the previously determined hemispherical variance difficulties can be apparently overcome by a dipole modulation field, but new inconsistencies arise if the mean and the l-dependence of the statistics are considered. The two-point correlation functions of the local extrema, the temperature pair product and the point-point spatial pair-count, demonstrate that the impact of such a modulation is to over...

  7. Vacuum self similar anisotropic cosmologies in $F(R)-$gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S

    2016-01-01

    The implications from the existence of a proper Homothetic Vector Field (HVF) on the dynamics of vacuum anisotropic models in $F(R)$ gravitational theory are studied. The fact that \\emph{every} Spatially Homogeneous vacuum model is equivalent, formally, with a \\textquotedblleft flux\\textquotedblright -free anisotropic fluid model in standard gravity and the induced power-law form of the functional $F(R)$ due to self-similarity enable us to close the system of equations. We found some new exact anisotropic solutions that arise as fixed points in the associated dynamical system. The non-existence of Kasner-like (Bianchi type I) solutions in proper $F(R)-$gravity (i.e. $R\

  8. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kats, C. M.

    2008-10-01

    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are searching for colloidal materials with specific physical properties to better understand our surrounding world.Until recently research in colloid science was mainly focused on spherical (isotropic) particles. Monodisperse spherical colloids serve as a model system as they exhibit similar phase behaviour as molecular and atomic systems. Nevertheless, in many cases the spherical shape is not sufficient to reach the desired research goals. Recently the more complex synthesis methods of anisotropic model colloids has strongly developed. This thesis should be regarded as a contribution to this research area. Anisotropic colloids can be used as a building block for complex structures and are expected not only to lead to the construction of full photonic band gap materials. They will also serve as new, more realistic, models systems for their molecular analogues. Therefore the term ‘molecular colloids” is sometimes used to qualify these anisotropic colloidal particles. In the introduction of this thesis, we give an overview of the main synthesis techniques for anisotropic colloids. Chapter 2 describes the method of etching silicon wafers to construct monodisperse silicon rods. They subsequently were oxidized and labeled (coated) with a fluorescent silica layer. The first explorative phase behaviour of these silica rods was studied. The particles showed a nematic ordering in charge stabilized suspensions. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of colloidal gold rods and the (mesoporous) silica coating of gold rods. Chapter 4 describes the physical and optical properties of these particles when thermal energy is added. This is compared to the case where the particles are irradiated with

  9. Instability of anisotropic cosmological solutions supported by vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmetoglu, Burak; Contaldi, Carlo R; Peloso, Marco

    2009-03-20

    Models with vector fields acquiring a nonvanishing vacuum expectation value along one spatial direction have been proposed to sustain a prolonged stage of anisotropic accelerated expansion. Such models have been used for realizations of early time inflation, with a possible relation to the large scale cosmic microwave background anomalies, or of the late time dark energy. We show that, quite generally, the concrete realizations proposed so far are plagued by instabilities (either ghosts or unstable growth of the linearized perturbations) which can be ultimately related to the longitudinal vector polarization present in them. Phenomenological results based on these models are therefore unreliable.

  10. Improved cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    We study a class of nonlocal, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the Universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense Universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the Universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller antiscreening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.

  11. An Improved Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2016-01-01

    We study a class of non-local, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller anti-screening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.

  12. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikash Chandra Paul; Dilip Paul

    2008-12-01

    We study an anisotropic Bianchi-I universe in the presence of a phantom field and a cosmological constant. Cosmological solutions are obtained when the kinetic energy of the phantom field is of the order of anisotropy and dominates over the potential energy of the field. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration. A class of new cosmological solutions is obtained for an anisotropic universe in case an initial anisotropy exists which is bigger than the value determined by the parameter of the kinetic part of the field. Later, an autonomous system of equations for an axially symmetric Bianchi-I universe with phantom field in an exponential potential is studied. We discuss the stability of the cosmological solutions.

  13. The Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire 3-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realisation of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision in order to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas which might explain the values of its parameters. Althoug...

  14. FLRW viscous cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Khadekar, G S; Meng, X -H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve Friedmann equations by considering a universal media as a non-perfect fluid with bulk viscosity and is described by a general "gamma law" equation of state of the form $p= (\\gamma -1) \\rho + \\Lambda(t)$, where the adiabatic parameter $\\gamma$ varies with scale factor $R$ of the metric and $\\Lambda$ is the time dependent cosmological constant. A unified description of the early evolution of the universe is presented by assuming the bulk viscosity and cosmological parameter in a linear combination of two terms of the form: $\\Lambda(t)=\\Lambda_{0} + \\Lambda_{1}\\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$ and $\\zeta = \\zeta_{0} + \\zeta_{1} \\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$, where $\\Lambda_{0},\\;\\Lambda_{1},\\, \\zeta_{0}$ and $ \\zeta_{1}$ are constants, in which an inflationary phase is followed by the radiation dominated phase. For this general gamma law equation of state, an entirely integrable dynamical equation to the scale factor $R$ is obtained along with its exact solutions. In this framework we demonstrate that the model can...

  15. Quantum cosmological metroland model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Edward [DAMTP, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franzen, Anne, E-mail: ea212@cam.ac.u, E-mail: a.t.franzen@uu.n [Spinoza Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-21

    Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale of four particles on a line, so that the only physically significant quantities are ratios of relative separations between the constituents' physical objects. Many of our ideas and workings extend to the N-particle case. As such models' configurations resemble depictions of metro lines in public transport maps, we term them 'N-stop metrolands'. This 4-stop model's configuration space is a 2-sphere, from which our metroland mechanics interpretation is via the 'cubic' tessellation. This model yields conserved quantities which are mathematically SO(3) objects like angular momenta but are physically relative dilational momenta (i.e. coordinates dotted with momenta). We provide and interpret various exact and approximate classical and quantum solutions for 4-stop metroland; from these results one can construct expectations and spreads of shape operators that admit interpretations as relative sizes and the 'homogeneity of the model universe's contents', and also objects of significance for the problem of time in quantum gravity (e.g. in the naive Schroedinger and records theory timeless approaches).

  16. Matrix Model Approach to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chaney, A; Stern, A

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to matrix models, or more specifically the bosonic sector of Lorentzian IKKT-type matrix models, in dimensions $d$ less than ten, specifically $d=3$ and $d=5$. After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield $d-1$ dimensional space-time surfaces, with an attached Poisson structure, which can be associated with closed, open or static cosmologies. For $d=3$, we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a matrix resolution of cosmological singularities. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the $d=3$ soluti...

  17. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal; Dayanandan, Baiju

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analogue of Durgapal-Fuloria (1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of anisotropic factor $\\Delta$ by the help of both metric potentials $e^{\

  18. Cosmolog\\'ia Cu\\'antica de Lazos: Anisotrop\\'ias e Inhomogeneidades

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Benito, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Loop Quantum Cosmology adapts the techniques of Loop Quantum Gravity in the quantization of homogeneous cosmological models obtained from General Relativity by symmetry reduction. As a necessary step towards the extraction of realistic results from Loop Quantum Cosmology, we should consider the inclusion of inhomogeneities, which play a central role in current cosmology. The main goal of this thesis is to progress in this direction. With this aim we have studied a natural test bed to incorporate inhomogeneities in Loop Quantum Cosmology: the linearly polarized Gowdy T3 model. This model can be regarded as a homogeneous Bianchi I background filled with inhomogeneities propagating in one direction. We have completed its quantization by means of a hybrid approach, that combines the loop quantization of the homogeneous sector, within the so-called improved dynamics scheme, with a Fock quantization for the inhomogeneities. In order to perform this quantization as thorough as possible, we have also reviewed the (im...

  19. Stability of some Kaluza-Klein cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, J.D.; Stein-Schabes, J.

    1986-02-06

    The stability is examined of some exact Kaluza-Klein cosmological solutions that possess static extra dimensions and standard Friedman behaviour for the remaining three spatial dimensions. It is shown that even when the extra dimensions are asymptotically static they produce a deviation from Friedman behaviour in the observable three spatial dimensions. A similar effect is found for models with anisotropically expanding three-spaces. (orig.).

  20. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  1. Warm Anisotropic Inflationary Universe Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the warm inflation using vector fields in the background of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model. We formulate the field equations, slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) under slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of directional Hubble parameter during intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

  2. PHENOMENOLOGICAL DAMAGE MODELS OF ANISOTROPIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bobyr, M.; Khalimon, O.; Bondarets, O.

    2015-01-01

    Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. A formulation for anisotropic damage is established in the framework of the principle of strain equivalence, principle of increment complementary energy equivalence and principle of elastic energy equivalence. This paper presents the development of an anisotropic damage theory. This work is focused on the development of evolution anisotropic damage models which is based on a Young’s modulus/Poisson’s ratio change of...

  3. Cosmological models of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menci, N.

    I review the present status of galaxy formation models within a cosmological framework. I focus on semi-analytic models based on the Cold Dark Matter scenario, discussing the role of the different physical process involving dark matter and baryons in determining the observed statistical properties of galaxies and their dependence on cosmic time and on environment evolution. I will highlight some present problems and briefly present the main effects of assuming a Warm Dark Matter scenario.

  4. Exactly solvable model for cosmological perturbations in dilatonic brane worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Koyama, Kazuya; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2003-01-01

    We construct a model where cosmological perturbations are analytically solved based on dilatonic brane worlds. A bulk scalar field has an exponential potential in the bulk and an exponential coupling to the brane tension. The bulk scalar field yields a power-law inflation on the brane. The exact background metric can be found including the back-reaction of the scalar field. Then exact solutions for cosmological perturbations which properly satisfy the junction conditions on the brane are derived. These solutions provide us an interesting model to understand the connection between the behavior of cosmological perturbations on the brane and the geometry of the bulk. Using these solutions, the behavior of an anisotropic stress induced on the inflationary brane by bulk gravitational fields is investigated.

  5. Anisotropic loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A loop quantization of the diagonal class A Bianchi models starting from the complex-valued self-dual connection variables is presented in this paper. The basic operators in the quantum theory correspond to areas and generalized holonomies of the Ashtekar connection and the reality conditions are implemented via the choice of the inner product on the kinematical Hilbert space. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is given explicitly for the case when the matter content is a massless scalar field (in which case the scalar field can be used as a relational clock), and it is shown that the big-bang and big-crunch singularities are resolved in the sense that singular and non-singular states decouple under the action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator.

  6. Anisotropic loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A loop quantization of the diagonal class A Bianchi models starting from the complex-valued self-dual connection variables is presented in this paper. The basic operators in the quantum theory correspond to areas and generalized holonomies of the Ashtekar connection, and the reality conditions are implemented via the choice of the inner product on the kinematical Hilbert space. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is given explicitly for the case when the matter content is a massless scalar field (in which case the scalar field can be used as a relational clock), and it is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved in the sense that singular and nonsingular states decouple under the action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator.

  7. SNe Ia Tests of Quintessence Tracker Cosmology in an Anisotropic Background

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, W; Pigozzo, C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the observational effects of a quintessence model in an anisotropic spacetime. The anisotropic metric is a non-rotating particular case of a generalized Godel's metric and is classified as Bianchi III. This metric is an exact solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations with an anisotropic scalar field, which is responsible for the anisotropy of the spacetime geometry. We test the model against observations of type Ia supernovae, analyzing the SDSS dataset calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and the results are compared to standard quintessence models with Ratra-Peebles potentials. We obtain a good agreement with observations, with best values for the matter and curvature density parameters $\\Omega_M = 0.29$ and $\\Omega_k= 0.01$ respectively. We conclude that present SNe Ia observations cannot, alone, distinguish a possible anisotropic axis in the cosmos.

  8. SNe Ia tests of quintessence tracker cosmology in an anisotropic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, W.; Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the observational effects of a quintessence model in an anisotropic spacetime. The anisotropic metric is a non-rotating particular case of a generalized Gödel's metric and is classified as Bianchi III. This metric is an exact solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations with an anisotropic scalar field ψ, which is responsible for the anisotropy of the spacetime geometry. We test the model against observations of type Ia supernovae, analyzing the SDSS dataset calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and the results are compared to standard quintessence models with Ratra-Peebles potentials. We obtain a good agreement with observations, with best values for the matter and curvature density parameters ΩM = 0.29 and Ωk= 0.01 respectively. We conclude that present SNe Ia observations cannot, alone, distinguish a possible anisotropic axis in the cosmos.

  9. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...

  10. Quantization ambiguities and bounds on geometric scalars in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    We study quantization ambiguities in loop quantum cosmology that arise for space-times with non-zero spatial curvature and anisotropies. Motivated by lessons from different possible loop quantizations of the closed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we find that using open holonomies of the extrinsic curvature, which due to gauge-fixing can be treated as a connection, leads to the same quantum geometry effects that are found in spatially flat cosmologies. More specifically, in contrast to the quantization based on open holonomies of the Ashtekar-Barbero connection, the expansion and shear scalars in the effective theories of the Bianchi type II and Bianchi type IX models have upper bounds, and these are in exact agreement with the bounds found in the effective theories of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I models in loop quantum cosmology. We also comment on some ambiguities present in the definition of inverse triad operators and their role.

  11. Post-Newtonian cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghai, Viraj A A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a framework to probe the effect of non-linear structure formation on the large-scale expansion of the universe. We take a bottom-up approach to cosmological modelling by splitting our universe into cells. The matter content within each cell is described by the post-Newtonian formalism. We assume that most of the cell is in the vicinity of weak gravitational fields, so that it can be described using a perturbed Minkowski metric. Our cells are patched together using the Israel junction conditions. We impose reflection symmetry across the boundary of these cells. This allows us to calculate the equation of motion for the boundary of the cell and, hence, the expansion rate of the universe. At Newtonian order, we recover the standard Friedmann-like equations. At post-Newtonian orders, we obtain a correction to the large-scale expansion of the universe. Our framework does not depend on the process of averaging in cosmology. As an example, we use this framework to investigate the cosmological evolution ...

  12. Plane symmetric cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Ray, Saibal; Mallick, A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we perform the Lie symmetry analysis on the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in plane symmetric spacetime. Here Lie point symmetries and optimal system of one dimensional subalgebras are determined. The similarity reductions and exact solutions are obtained in connection to the evolution of universe. The present study deals with the electromagnetic energy of inhomogeneous universe where $F_{12}$ is the non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor. To get a deterministic solution, it is assumed that the free gravitational field is Petrov type-II non-degenerate. The electromagnetic field tensor $F_{12}$ is found to be positive and increasing function of time. As a special case, to validate the solution set, we discuss some physical and geometric properties of a specific sub-model.

  13. Axially Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Bulk-Viscous Cosmological Models with Time-Dependent and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nawsad Ali

    2013-09-01

    The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic axially symmetric Bianchi type-I cosmological model with time variable cosmological term in the presence of bulk viscous fluid. The Einstein’s field equations are solved explicitly by time varying deceleration parameter . Consequences of the four cases of phenomenological decay of have been discussed which are consistent with observations. Physical and kinematical parameters of the models are discussed.

  14. Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models

    CERN Document Server

    I., Eddy G Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump provides a better description of the observations than a local void. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  15. Magnetic monopoles and relativistic cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A dissertation is presented on magnetic monopoles and relativistic cosmological models. The maximum number density of monopoles in various astrophysical scenarios was investigated along with: the monopole flux in the galaxy, the allowed monopole abundance, and the formation of stable monopole orbits. Limits on the mass and lifetime of monopolonium were calculated. Boltzmann's equation was used to calculate the monopole abundance in a magnetic axisymmetric Bianchi I cosmological model, and a solution was found describing an axisymmetric Bianchi I magnetic cosmology with monopoles. New inhomogeneous solutions to Einstein's equations were found. Finally, stability and inflation in Kaluza-Klein cosmologies in d + D + 1 dimensions was studied.

  16. Cosmological model with dynamical curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Stichel, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently introduced relativistic Lagrangian darkon fluid model (EPJ C (2015) 75:9) by starting with a self-gravitating geodesic fluid whose energy-momentum tensor is dust-like with a nontrivial energy flow. The corresponding covariant propagation and constraint equations are considered in a shear-free nonrelativistic limit whose analytic solutions determine the 1st-order relativistic correction to the spatial curvature. This leads to a cosmological model where the accelerated expansion of the Universe is driven by a time-dependent spatial curvature without the need for introducing any kind of dark energy. We derive the differential equation to be satisfied by the area distance for this model.

  17. Full dynamical analysis of anisotropic scalar-field cosmology with arbitrary potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fadragas, Carlos R; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of anisotropic scalar-field cosmologies, and in particular of the most significant Kantowski-Sachs, Bianchi I and Bianchi III cases. We follow the new and powerful method of $f$-devisers, which allows us to perform the whole analysis for arbitrary potentials. Thus, one can just substitute the specific potential form in the final results and obtain the corresponding behavior, without the need of new calculations. We find a very rich behavior, and amongst others the universe can result in isotropized solutions with observables in agreement with observations, such as de Sitter, quintessence-like, or stiff-dark energy solutions. Additionally, in the case of Kantowski-Sachs geometry we find that a cosmological bounce and turnaround are realized in a part of the parameter-space. Finally, applying the general results to the well-studied exponential and power-law potentials, we find that some of the general stable solutions disappear. This feature may be an indication that suc...

  18. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan

    2016-11-01

    A new spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence is proposed. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.

  19. Will Quantum Cosmology Resurrect Chaotic Inflation Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Won

    2016-07-01

    The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.

  20. Will quantum cosmology resurrect chaotic inflation model?

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.

  1. Thick brane isotropization in the 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld model

    CERN Document Server

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Malagon-Morejon, Dagoberto; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel; Nucamendi, Ulises

    2014-01-01

    We study a smooth cosmological solution of the 5D anisotropic standing wave braneworld model generated by gravity coupled to a phantom-like scalar field. In this model the brane emits anisotropic waves into the bulk with different amplitudes along different spatial dimensions. We found a natural mechanism which isotropizes the braneworld, rendering a 3-brane with de Sitter symmetry embedded in a 5D de Sitter space-time for a wide class of initial conditions. The resulting thick geometrical braneworld (a de Sitter 3-brane) possesses a series of remarkable features. By explicitly solving the bulk field equations we are able to give a physical interpretation of the anisotropic dissipation: as the anisotropic energy on the 3-brane rapidly leaks into the bulk, through the nontrivial Weyl tensor components, the bulk becomes less isotropic.

  2. Anisotropic Heisenberg model in thin film geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the phase diagrams and magnetization behavior of the Heisenberg thin film has been investigated with effective field formulation in a two spin cluster using the decoupling approximation. Phase diagrams and magnetization behaviors have been obtained for several different cases, by grouping the systems in accordance with, whether the surfaces/interior of the film has anisotropic exchange interaction or not. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of the anisotropic Heisenberg model on the thin film obtained • Dependence of the critical properties on the film thickness obtained • Effect of the anisotropy on the magnetic properties obtained.

  3. Isotropic cosmological singularities other matter models

    CERN Document Server

    Tod, K P

    2003-01-01

    Isotropic cosmological singularities are singularities which can be removed by rescaling the metric. In some cases already studied (gr-qc/9903008, gr-qc/9903009, gr-qc/9903018) existence and uniqueness of cosmological models with data at the singularity has been established. These were cosmologies with, as source, either perfect fluids with linear equations of state or massless, collisionless particles. In this article we consider how to extend these results to a variety of other matter models. These are scalar fields, massive collisionless matter, the Yang-Mills plasma of Choquet-Bruhat, or matter satisfying the Einstein-Boltzmann equation.

  4. Observational signatures of anisotropic inflationary models

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    We study observational signatures of two classes of anisotropic inflationary models in which an inflaton field couples to (i) a vector kinetic term F_{mu nu}F^{mu nu} and (ii) a two-form kinetic term H_{mu nu lambda}H^{mu nu lambda}. We compute the corrections from the anisotropic sources to the power spectrum of gravitational waves as well as the two-point cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations. The signs of the anisotropic parameter g_* are different depending on the vector and the two-form models, but the statistical anisotropies generally lead to a suppressed tensor-to-scalar ratio r and a smaller scalar spectral index n_s in both models. In the light of the recent Planck bounds of n_s and r, we place observational constraints on several different inflaton potentials such as those in chaotic and natural inflation in the presence of anisotropic interactions. In the two-form model we also find that there is no cross correlation between scalar and tensor perturbations, while in the vector ...

  5. A discrete anisotropic model for Scheibe aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bang

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available A discrete anisotropic nonlinear model for the dynamics of Scheibe aggregates is investigated. The collapse of the collective excitations found by Möbius and Kuhn is described as a shrinking ring wave, which is eventually absorbed by an acceptor molecule. An optimal acceptor loss is found.

  6. Inhomogeneous Universe Models with Varying Cosmological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, L P; Chimento, Luis P.; Pavon, Diego

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of a class of inhomogeneous spherically symmetric universe models possessing a varying cosmological term and a material fluid, with an adiabatic index either constant or not, is studied.

  7. Current status of cosmological MDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Mikheeva, E V; Arkhipova, N A; Malinovsky, A M

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of cosmological models in spatially flat Friedmann Universe with cosmic gravitational wave background and zero $\\Lambda$-term is presented. The number of free parameters is equal to 5, they are $\\sigma_8$, $n$, $\\Omega_\

  8. Standard Model Background of the Cosmological Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The inflationary universe can be viewed as a "Cosmological Collider" with energy of Hubble scale, producing very massive particles and recording their characteristic signals in primordial non-Gaussianities. To utilize this collider to explore any new physics at very high scales, it is a prerequisite to understand the background signals from the particle physics Standard Model. In this paper we describe the Standard Model background of the Cosmological Collider.

  9. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorio, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.

  10. Investigating inhomogeneous Szekeres models and their applications to precision cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Austin Chandler

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations that can describe the evolution of complex structures in the universe provide complementary frameworks to standard perturbation theory in which to analyze cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. The flexibility and generality of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric make it the best known exact solution to explore nonlinearities in the universe. We study applications of Szekeres models to precision cosmology, focusing on the influence of inhomogeneities in two primary contexts---the growth rate of cosmic structures and biases in distance determinations to remote sources. We first define and derive evolution equations for a Szekeres density contrast, which quantifies exact deviations from a smooth background cosmology. Solving these equations and comparing to the usual perturbative approach, we find that for models with the same matter content, the Szekeres growth rate is larger through the matter-dominated cosmic era. Including a cosmological constant, we consider exact global perturbations, as well as the evolution of a single extended structure surrounded by an almost homogeneous background. For the former, we use growth data to obtain a best fit Szekeres model and find that it can fit the data as well as the standard Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmological model but with different cosmological parameters. Next, to study effects of inhomogeneities on distance measures, we build an exact relativistic Swiss-cheese model of the universe, where a large number of non-symmetric and randomly placed Szekeres structures are embedded within a LCDM background. Solving the full relativistic propagation equations, light beams are traced through the model, where they traverse the inhomogeneous structures in a way that mimics the paths of real light beams in the universe. For beams crossing a single structure, their magnification or demagnification reflects primarily the net density encountered along the path

  11. Simulating the Anisotropic Clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies with Subhalos: A Direct Confrontation with Observation and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    We examine how well we can explain the large-scale anisotropic clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with mock galaxies assigned to subhalos identified in a large suite of high-resolution cosmological simulations. Instead of relying on an analytical model, we vary the parameters that characterize the condition of subhalos to host LRGs and search for the best-fit parameters to the observed multipole moments of the power spectrum using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method. After demonstrating that we cannot find a reasonable fit to the observation when we assign mock LRGs only to the central population of subhalos sitting at the center of their host halos, we show that simple models using both centrals and satellites can simultaneously fit the multipole moments up to hexadecapole at large scale ($k\\lesssim0.3\\,h\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$). The multiplicity function measured from the best-fit mock catalogs shows good agreement with the observation, when the mean spacial number density...

  12. Anisotropic Generalized Ghost Pilgrim Dark Energy Model in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, M. Vijaya; Rao, V. U. M.; Aditya, Y.

    2017-02-01

    A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type- I Universe filled with matter and generalized ghost pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) has been studied in general theory of relativity. To obtain determinate solution of the field equations we have used scalar expansion proportional to the shear scalar which leads to a relation between the metric potentials. Some well-known cosmological parameters (equation of state (EoS) parameter ( ω Λ), deceleration parameter ( q) and squared speed of sound {vs2}) and planes (ω _{Λ }-dot {ω }_{Λ } and statefinder) are constructed for obtained model. The discussion and significance of these parameters is totally done through pilgrim dark energy parameter ( β) and cosmic time ( t).

  13. Nonstandard cosmologies from physics beyond the Standard model

    OpenAIRE

    Khlopov, M. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy.It implies extension of particle symmetry beyond the Standard model. Studies of physical basis of the modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play important role. The cosmological consequences of particle models inevitably go beyond the 'standard' cosmological $\\Lambda$CD...

  14. Homoclinic Chaos in Axisymmetric Bianchi-IX cosmological models with an "ad hoc" quantum potential

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, G. C.; Stuchi, T. J.; Jorás, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmological model with a term of quantum potential added. As it is well known this class of Bianchi IX models are homogeneous and anisotropic with two scale factors, $A(t)$ and $B(t)$, derived from the solution of Einstein's equation for General Relativity. The model we use in this work has a cosmological constant and the matter content is dust. To this model we add a quantum-inspired potential that is intended to represent sh...

  15. Bond diluted anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2013-10-15

    Effects of the bond dilution on the critical temperatures, phase diagrams and the magnetization behaviors of the isotropic and anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model have been investigated in detail. For the isotropic case, bond percolation threshold values have been determined for several numbers of two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional lattices. In order to investigate the effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the results obtained for the isotropic model, a detailed investigation has been made on a honeycomb lattice. Some interesting results, such as second order reentrant phenomena in the phase diagrams have been found. - Highlights: • Anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model with bond dilution investigated. • Bond percolation threshold values given for 2D and 3D lattices in isotropic case. • Phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations investigated in detail. • Variation of the bond percolation threshold values with anisotropy determined.

  16. Cosmological models with running cosmological term and decaying dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Marek; Stachowski, Aleksander

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the generalized ΛCDM model, which the Λ term is running with the cosmological time. On the example of the model Λ(t) =Λbare + α2/t2 we show the existence of a mechanism of the modification of the scaling law for energy density of dark matter: ρdm ∝a - 3 + λ(t). We use an approach developed by Urbanowski in which properties of unstable vacuum states are analyzed from the point of view of the quantum theory of unstable states. We discuss the evolution of Λ(t) term and pointed out that during the cosmic evolution there is a long phase in which this term is approximately constant. We also present the statistical analysis of both the Λ(t) CDM model with dark energy and decaying dark matter and the ΛCDM standard cosmological model. We use data such as Planck, SNIa, BAO, H(z) and AP test. While for the former we find the best fit value of the parameter Ωα2,0 is negative (energy transfer is from the dark matter to dark energy sector) and the parameter Ωα2,0 belongs to the interval (- 0 . 000040 , - 0 . 000383) at 2- σ level. The decaying dark matter causes to lowering a mass of dark matter particles which are lighter than CDM particles and remain relativistic. The rate of the process of decaying matter is estimated. Our model is consistent with the decaying mechanism producing unstable particles (e.g. sterile neutrinos) for which α2 is negative.

  17. Isotropic and anisotropic pointing models

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Mészáros, László; Mező, György

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative approach for generating pointing models for telescopes equipped with serial kinematics, esp. equatorial or alt-az mounts. Our model construction does not exploit any assumption for the underlying physical constraints of the mount, however, one can assign various effects to the respective components of the equations. In order to recover the pointing model parameters, classical linear least squares fitting procedures can be applied. This parameterization also lacks any kind of parametric singularity. We demonstrate the efficiency of this type of model on real measurements with meter-class telescopes where the results provide a root mean square accuracy of 1.5-2 arcseconds.

  18. Cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter model

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Jiro; Sushkov, Sergey V

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological evolution of mimetic matter model with arbitrary scalar potential. The cosmological reconstruction is explicitly done for different choices of potential. The cases that mimetic matter model shows the evolution as Cold Dark Matter(CDM), wCDM model, dark matter and dark energy with dynamical $Om(z)$ or phantom dark energy with phantom-non-phantom crossing are presented in detail. The cosmological perturbations for such evolution are studied in mimetic matter model. For instance, the evolution behavior of the matter density contrast which is different from usual one, i.e. $\\ddot \\delta + 2 H \\dot \\delta - \\kappa ^2 \\rho \\delta /2 = 0$ is investigated. The possibility of peculiar evolution of $\\delta$ in the model under consideration is shown. Special attention is paid to the behavior of matter density contrast near to future singularity where decay of perturbations may occur much earlier the singularity.

  19. Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE)

    CERN Document Server

    Placidi, Luca; Seddik, Hakime; Faria, Sergio H

    2009-01-01

    A complete theoretical presentation of the CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is given. The CAFFE model is an application of the theory of mixtures with continuous diversity for the case of large ice masses in which the induced anisotropy can not be neglected. The anisotropic response of the material is considered via a simple anisotropic generalization of Glen's flow law based on a scalar anisotropic enhancement factor. Such an enhancement factor depends upon the orientation mass density, that corresponds to the distribution of lattice orientations or simply to the orientation distribution function. The evolution of anisotropy is assumed to be modeled by the evolution of the orientation mass density, that is governed by the balance of mass of the present mixture with continuous diversity and explicitly depends upon four distinct effects interpreted, respectively, with grain rotation, local rigid body rotation, grain boundary migration (...

  20. Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali

    2010-11-01

    String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.

  1. Nonstandard cosmologies from physics beyond the Standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    The modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy.It implies extension of particle symmetry beyond the Standard model. Studies of physical basis of the modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play important role. The cosmological consequences of particle models inevitably go beyond the 'standard' cosmological $\\Lambda$CDM model and some possible feature of such 'nonstandard'cosmological scenarios is the subject of the present brief review.

  2. Cosmological models with constant deceleration parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.S.; de Mello Gomide, F.

    1988-02-01

    Berman presented elsewhere a law of variation for Hubble's parameter that yields constant deceleration parameter models of the universe. By analyzing Einstein, Pryce-Hoyle and Brans-Dicke cosmologies, we derive here the necessary relations in each model, considering a perfect fluid.

  3. Gravitational lens models for cosmological black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Capozziello, S.; Stornaiolo, C.

    2017-03-01

    If really such objects like cosmological black holes exist they may be studied with a standard technique like strong and weak gravitational lensing. Cosmological voids can be explained as the result the collapse of large perturbations into black hole with masses of the order of 1014 M ⊙ and the expansion of the universe. The resulting image of the universe is that it is more homogeneous than expected from present observations. In this paper we discuss some lensing properties related to the cosmological black holes (CBHs), namely we consider differences in gravitational lensing for point like mass and extended mass distributions. We consider the singular isothermal sphere model as a toy (illustrative) model for an extended distribution of dark matter and a slightly more complicated isothermal sphere with a core.

  4. Cosmological constraints on superconducting dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological tests of a scalar-vector-tensor gravitational model, in which the dark energy is included in the total action through a gauge invariant, electromagnetic type contribution. The ground state of dark energy, corresponding to a constant potential $V$ is a Bose-Einstein type condensate with spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry. In another words dark energy appears as a massive vector field emerging from a superposition of a massless vector and a scalar field, the latter corresponding to the Goldstone boson. Two particular cosmological models, corresponding to pure electric and pure magnetic type potentials, respectively are confronted with Type IA Supernovae and Hubble parameter data. In the electric case good fit is obtained along a narrow inclined stripe in the $\\Omega _{m}-\\Omega _{V}$ parameter plane, which includes the $\\Lambda $CDM limit. The other points on this admissible region represent superconducting dark energy as a sum of a cosmological constant and a time-evolving contribution...

  5. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Cosmological Quintessence Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Rossen I

    2016-01-01

    The time-evolution dynamics of two nonlinear cosmological real gas models has been reexamined in detail with methods from the theory of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. These examples are FRWL cosmologies, one based on a gas, satisfying the van der Waals equation and another one based on the virial expansion gas equation. The cosmological variables used are the expansion rate, given by the Hubble parameter, and the energy density. The analysis is aided by the existence of global first integral as well as several special (second) integrals in each case. In addition, the global first integral can serve as a Hamiltonian for a canonical Hamiltonian formulation of the evolution equations. The conserved quantities lead to the existence of stable periodic solutions (closed orbits) which are models of a cyclic Universe. The second integrals allow for explicit solutions as functions of time on some special trajectories and thus for a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. In particular, it is shown that any pos...

  6. Evolution of initially contracting Bianchi Class A models in the presence of an ultra-stiff anisotropic pressure fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2015-01-01

    We study the behaviour of Bianchi class A universes containing an ultra-stiff isotropic ghost field and a fluid with anisotropic pressures which is also ultra-stiff on the average. This allows us to investigate whether cyclic universe scenarios, like the ekpyrotic model, do indeed lead to isotropisation on approach to a singularity (or bounce) in the presence of dominant ultra-stiff pressure anisotropies. We specialise to consider the closed Bianchi type IX universe and show that when the anisotropic pressures are stiffer on average than any isotropic ultra-stiff fluid then, if they dominate on approach to the singularity, it will be anisotropic. We include an isotropic ultra-stiff ghost fluid with negative energy density in order to create a cosmological bounce at finite volume in the absence of the anisotropic fluid. When the dominant anisotropic fluid is present it leads to an anisotropic cosmological singularity rather than an isotropic bounce. The inclusion of anisotropic stresses generated by collisionl...

  7. A model with cosmological Bell inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of devising cosmological observables which violate Bell's inequalities. Such observables could be used to argue that cosmic scale features were produced by quantum mechanical effects in the very early universe. As a proof of principle, we propose a somewhat elaborate inflationary model where a Bell inequality violating observable can be constructed.

  8. On non-singular inhomogeneous cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Jambrina, L

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we would like to review recent results on non-singular cosmological models. It has been recently shown that among stiff perfect fluid inhomogeneous spacetimes the absence of singularities is more common than it was expected in the literature. We would like to generalize these results and apply them to other matter sources.

  9. Realistic coasting cosmology from the Milne model

    CERN Document Server

    John, Moncy V

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the recent synchronicity problem in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, coasting models such as the classic Milne model and the $R_h=ct$ model have attracted much attention. Also, a very recent analysis of supernovae Ia data is reported to favour models with constant expansion rates. We point out that the nonempty $R_h=ct$ model has some known antecedents in the literature. Some of these are published even before the discovery of the accelerated expansion and were shown to have none of the cosmological problems and also that $H_0t_0=1$ and $\\Omega_m/\\Omega_{dark \\; energy}$ = some constant of the order of unity. In this paper, we also derive such a model by a complex extension of scale factor in the Milne model.

  10. Bianchi Type Ⅲ Bulk Viscous Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Models with Variable G and A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Ba-li; Seema Tinker

    2009-01-01

    Bianchi type-Ⅲ bulk viscous barotropic fluid cosmological model with variables G and A is investigated. To obtainthe realistic model, we assume the conditions between the metric potentials A, B, C as A/A = B/B = m1/tnand C/C = m2/tn, P = p - 3ηH, η= ηops, p =γp, 0 γ 1, where p is isotropic pressure, η the coefficient of bulk viscosity, ηo and S the constants, H the Hubble constant, m1= 2m2 where m1 0, m2 0. The solutions obtained lead to inflationary phase and the results obtained match with the observations. The case n = 1 for S = 1 is also discussed, relating the results with the observations.PACS: 98. 80. Hω, 04.50. +h, 98.80. CqSpatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmologi-cal models play a significant role in description of the large scale behaviour of the universe. The choice of anisotropic model in the Einstein system of field equa-tions permits us to obtain cosmological model more general than the Robertson-Walker model. Tikekar and Patel[1] have investigated some exact solutions of massive string for Bianchi type-Ⅲ spacetime in the presence and absence of magnetic field. They have also discussed the behaviour of the model in the ab-sence of magnetic field. Bali and Dave[2] investigated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological model with bulk viscosity. Recently Bali and Pradhan[3] investi-gated the Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with time-dependent bulk viscosity.

  11. Constraining Cosmological Models with Different Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. J.

    2016-07-01

    With the observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), scientists discovered that the Universe is experiencing an accelerated expansion, and then revealed the existence of dark energy in 1998. Since the amazing discovery, cosmology has became a hot topic in the physical research field. Cosmology is a subject that strongly depends on the astronomical observations. Therefore, constraining different cosmological models with all kinds of observations is one of the most important research works in the modern cosmology. The goal of this thesis is to investigate cosmology using the latest observations. The observations include SNe Ia, Type Ic Super Luminous supernovae (SLSN Ic), Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), angular diameter distance of galaxy cluster, strong gravitational lensing, and age measurements of old passive galaxies, etc. In Chapter 1, we briefly review the research background of cosmology, and introduce some cosmological models. Then we summarize the progress on cosmology from all kinds of observations in more details. In Chapter 2, we present the results of our studies on the supernova cosmology. The main difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing SN luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model of the Universe. We have confirmed that one should optimize all of the parameters by carrying out the method of maximum likelihood estimation in any situation where the parameters include an unknown intrinsic dispersion. The commonly used method, which estimates the dispersion by requiring the reduced χ^{2} to equal unity, does not take into account all possible variances among the parameters. We carry out such a comparison of the standard ΛCDM cosmology and the R_{h}=ct Universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. Moreover, it is quite evident that SLSNe Ic may be useful

  12. Cosmological Models with Time Dependent G and A Coupling Scalars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Ibotombi Singh; S.Kiranmla Chanu; S.Surendra Singh

    2009-01-01

    A cosmological model in which the universe has its critical density and gravitational constants generalized as coupling scalars in Einstein's theory is considered.A general method of solving the field equations is given.An exact solution for matter distribution in cosmological models satisfying G = Go(R/Ro)n is presented.Corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  13. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. A model for anisotropic strange stars

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Debabrata; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B K

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to find a singularity free interior solution for a neutral and static stellar model. We consider that (i) the star is made up of anisotropic fluid and (ii) the MIT bag model can be used. The total system is defined by assuming the density profile given by Mak and Harko \\cite{Mak2002}, which satisfies all the physical conditions of a stellar system and is stable by nature. We find that those stellar systems which obey such a non-linear density function must have maximum anisotropy at the surface. We also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are mostly acceptable within certain range. As a special mention, from our investigation we find that the maximum mass and radius of the quark star are $11.811 km$ and $3.53 {M}_{\\odot}$ respectively.

  15. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  16. Homogeneous cosmological models and new inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of the inflationary-universe scenario is to free the present state of the universe from extreme dependence upon initial data. Paradoxically, inflation is usually analyzed in the context of the homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker cosmological models. It is shown that all but a small subset of the homogeneous models undergo inflation. Any initial anisotropy is so strongly damped that if sufficient inflation occurs to solve the flatness and horizon problems, the universe today would still be very isotropic.

  17. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  18. Quench dynamics of the anisotropic Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshuo; Andrei, Natan

    2014-06-27

    We develop an analytical approach for the study of the quench dynamics of the anisotropic Heisenberg model (XXZ model) on the infinite line. We present the exact time-dependent wave functions after a quench in an integral form for any initial state and for any anisotropy Δ by means of a generalized Yudson contour representation. We calculate the evolution of several observables from two particular initial states: starting from a local Néel state we calculate the time evolution of the antiferromagnetic order parameter-staggered magnetization; starting from a state with consecutive flipped spins (1) we calculate the evolution of the local magnetization and express it in terms of the propagation of magnons and bound state excitations, and (2) we predict the evolution of the induced spin currents. These predictions can be confronted with experiments in ultracold gases in optical lattices. We also show how the "string" solutions of Bethe ansatz equations emerge naturally from the contour approach.

  19. Starobinsky cosmological model in Palatini formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowski, Aleksander; Borowiec, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We classify singularities in FRW cosmologies, which dynamics can be reduced to the dynamical system of the Newtonian type. This classification is performed in terms of geometry of a potential function if it has poles. At the sewn singularity, which is of a type of the finite scale factor, the singularity in the past meets the singularity in the future. We show, that such singularities appear in the Starobinsky model in $f(\\hat{R})=\\hat{R}+\\gamma \\hat{R}^2$ in the Palatini formalism, when dynamics is determined by the corresponding piece-wise smooth dynamical system. As an effect we obtain a degenerated singularity, which can be interpreted as a place, when history of the Universe ends and originates simultaneously. Detailed analytical calculations are given for the cosmological model with matter and the cosmological constant in the Starobinsky model. In this case we obtain an exact formula for values of redshift at the singularity points. The dynamics of model is also studied using dynamical system methods wh...

  20. The simplest possible bouncing quantum cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrick; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present and expand the simplest possible quantum cosmological bouncing model already discussed in previous works: the trajectory formulation of quantum mechanics applied to cosmology (through the Wheeler-De Witt equation) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) minisuperspace without spatial curvature. The initial conditions that were previously assumed were such that the wave function would not change its functional form but instead provide a dynamics to its parameters. Here, we consider a more general situation, in practice consisting of modified Gaussian wave functions, aiming at obtaining a nonsingular bounce from a contracting phase. Whereas previous works consistently obtain very symmetric bounces, we find that it is possible to produce highly non-symmetric solutions, and even cases for which multiple bounces naturally occur. We also introduce a means of treating the shear in this category of models by quantizing in the Bianchi I minisuperspace.

  1. The simplest possible bouncing quantum cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present and expand the simplest possible quantum cosmological model already discussed in a previous work: the trajectory formulation of quantum mechanics applied to cosmology in the FLRW minisuperspace without spatial curvature. The initial conditions that were assumed there were such that the wave function would not change its functional form but instead provide a dynamics to its parameters. Here, we consider a more general situation, in practice consisting of modified Gaussian wave functions, aiming at obtaining a bounce from a contracting phase. Whereas previous works consistently obtain very symmetric bounces, we find that it is possible to produce highly non symmetric solutions, and even cases for which multiple bounces naturally occur. We also introduce a means of treating the shear in this category of models by quantizing in the Bianchi I minisuperpace.

  2. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  3. Past Eras In Cyclic Cosmological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2009-01-01

    In infinitely cyclic cosmology past eras are discussed using set theory and transfinite numbers. One consistent scenario, already in the literature, is where there is always a countably infinite number, $\\aleph_0$, of universes and no big bang. I describe here an alternative where the present number of universes is $\\aleph_0$ and in the infinite past there was only a finite number of universes. In this alternative model it is also possible that there was no big bang.

  4. The best-fit universe. [cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Inflation provides very strong motivation for a flat Universe, Harrison-Zel'dovich (constant-curvature) perturbations, and cold dark matter. However, there are a number of cosmological observations that conflict with the predictions of the simplest such model: one with zero cosmological constant. They include the age of the Universe, dynamical determinations of Omega, galaxy-number counts, and the apparent abundance of large-scale structure in the Universe. While the discrepancies are not yet serious enough to rule out the simplest and most well motivated model, the current data point to a best-fit model with the following parameters: Omega(sub B) approximately equal to 0.03, Omega(sub CDM) approximately equal to 0.17, Omega(sub Lambda) approximately equal to 0.8, and H(sub 0) approximately equal to 70 km/(sec x Mpc) which improves significantly the concordance with observations. While there is no good reason to expect such a value for the cosmological constant, there is no physical principle that would rule out such.

  5. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rubakov, V A

    2014-01-01

    In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.

  6. Cosmological aspects of a vector field model

    CERN Document Server

    Sadatian, S Davood

    2012-01-01

    We have studied a DGP-inspired braneworld scenario where the idea of Lorentz invariance violation has been combined into a specifying preferred frame that embed a dynamical normal vector field to brane. We propose the Lorentz violating DGP brane models with enough parameters can explain crossing of phantom divide line. Also we have considered the model for proper cosmological evolution that is according to the observed behavior of the equation of state. In other view point, we have described a Rip singularity solution of model that occur in this model.

  7. A classical cosmological model for triviality

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H; Rashidi, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the triviality of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in a classical gravitational model. Starting from a conformal invariant scalar tensor theory with a self-interaction term $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$, we investigate the effect of a conformal symmetry breaking emerging from the gravitational coupling of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. Taking in this cosmological symmetry breaking phase the infinite limit of the maximal length (the size of the universe) and the zero limit of the minimal length (the Planck length) implies triviality, i.e. a vanishing coupling constant $\\lambda$. It suggests that the activity of the self-interaction term $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ in the cosmological context implies that the universe is finite and a minimal fundamental length exists.

  8. Scrutinizing Exotic Cosmological Models Using ESSENCE Supernova Data Combined With Other Cosmological Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tamara M.; Mortsell, E.; Sollerman, J.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Filippenko, A.V.; Foley, R.J.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Krisciunas, K.; Kirshner, R.P.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; Schmidt, B.P.; /Bohr Inst. /Stockholm U. /Washington U.,

    2007-01-25

    The first cosmological results from the ESSENCE supernova survey (Wood-Vasey et al. 2007) are extended to a wider range of cosmological models including dynamical dark energy and non-standard cosmological models. We fold in a greater number of external data sets such as the recent Higher-z release of high-redshift supernovae (Riess et al. 2007) as well as several complementary cosmological probes. Model comparison statistics such as the Bayesian and Akaike information criteria are applied to gauge the worth of models. These statistics favor models that give a good fit with fewer parameters. Based on this analysis, the preferred cosmological model is the flat cosmological constant model, where the expansion history of the universe can be adequately described with only one free parameter describing the energy content of the universe. Amongst the more exotic models that provide good fits to the data, we note a preference for models whose best-fit parameters reduce them to the cosmological constant model.

  9. Hybrid models in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first proposed for the simplest cosmological midisuperspaces: the Gowdy models, and it has been later applied to the case of cosmological perturbations. This paper reviews the construction and main applications of hybrid LQC.

  10. Magnetized Anisotropic Dark Energy Models in Barber’s Second Self-Creation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with Bianchi type IX cosmological model with magnetized anisotropic dark energy by using Barber’s self-creation theory. The energy momentum tensor consists of anisotropic fluid with EoS parameter ω and a uniform magnetic field of energy density ρB. In order to obtain the exact solution we have assumed that dark energy components and the components of magnetic field interact minimally and obey the law of conservation of energy momentum tensors. We have also used the special law of variation for the mean generalized Hubble parameter and power law relation between scalar field and scale factor. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed.

  11. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Paul

    2003-12-01

    LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceleration parameter as variable. The metric potentials and are functions of as well as . Assuming '/=(), where prime denotes differentiation with respect to , it was found that =('/) and =(), where =() and is the scale factor which is a function of only. The value of Hubble’s constant 0 was found to be less than half for non-flat model and is equal to 1.3 for a flat model.

  12. Standard cosmological model with non vanishing Weyl tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, E

    2013-01-01

    We have solved Einstein's equations of general relativity for a homogeneous and isotropic metric with constant spatial curvature and found a non vanishing Weyl tensor in the presence of an anisotropic pressure component of the energy-momentum tensor. The time evolution of the space-time is guided by the usual Friedman equations and the properties of the spatial components comprise a separated system of equations that can be independently solved. The physical features of this solution are elucidated by using the Quasi-Maxwellian equations of general relativity which directly connect the anisotropic pressure to the electric part of the Weyl tensor for the cosmological fluid.

  13. Beyond the Cosmological Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2014-01-01

    After a decade and a half of research motivated by the accelerating universe, theory and experiment have a reached a certain level of maturity. The development of theoretical models beyond \\Lambda, or smooth dark energy, often called modified gravity, has led to broader insights into a path forward, and a host of observational and experimental tests have been developed. In this review we present the current state of the field and describe a framework for anticipating developments in the next decade. We identify the guiding principles for rigorous and consistent modifications of the standard model, and discuss the prospects for empirical tests. We begin by reviewing attempts to consistently modify Einstein gravity in the infrared, focusing on the notion that additional degrees of freedom introduced by the modification must screen themselves from local tests of gravity. We categorize screening mechanisms into three broad classes: mechanisms which become active in regions of high Newtonian potential, those in wh...

  14. Dynamical system approach to running $\\Lambda$ cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    We discussed the dynamics of cosmological models in which the cosmological constant term is a time dependent function through the scale factor $a(t)$, Hubble function $H(t)$, Ricci scalar $R(t)$ and scalar field $\\phi(t)$. We considered five classes of models; two non-covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 1) $\\Lambda(H)$CDM cosmologies where $H(t)$ is the Hubble parameter, 2) $\\Lambda(a)$CDM cosmologies where $a(t)$ is the scale factor, and three covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 3) $\\Lambda(R)$CDM cosmologies, where $R(t)$ is the Ricci scalar, 4) $\\Lambda(\\phi)$-cosmologies with diffusion, 5) $\\Lambda(X)$-cosmologies, where $X=\\frac{1}{2}g^{\\alpha\\beta}\

  15. Density contrast indicators in cosmological dust models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Filipe C Mena; Reza Tavakol

    2000-10-01

    We discuss ways of quantifying structuration in relativistic cosmological settings, by employing a family of covariant density constrast indicators. We study the evolution of these indicators with time in the context of inhomogeneous Szekeres models. We find that different observers (having either different spatial locations or different indicators) see different evolutions for the density contrast, which may or may not be monotonically increasing with time. We also find that monotonicity seems to be related to the initial conditions of the model, which may be of potential interest in connection with debates regarding gravitational entropy and the arrow of time.

  16. Testing cosmological models with COBE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, S. [Observatorio Astronomico, Bogota` (Colombia)]|[Centro Internacional de Fisica, Bogota` (Colombia); Cayon, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Center for Particle Astrophysics, Berkeley (United States); Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J. L. [Santander, Univ. de Cantabria (Spain). Instituto de Fisica. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    1997-02-01

    The authors test cosmological models with {Omega} < 1 using the COBE two-year cross-correlation function by means of a maximum-likelihood test with Monte Carlo realizations of several {Omega} models. Assuming a Harrison-Zel`dovich primordial power spectrum with amplitude {proportional_to} Q, it is found that there is a large region in the ({Omega}, Q), parameter space that fits the data equally well. They find that the flatness of the universe is not implied by the data. A summary of other analyses of COBE data to constrain the shape of the primordial spectrum is presented.

  17. Cosmological modelling with Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rex G

    2015-01-01

    The late universe's matter distribution obeys the Copernican principle at only the coarsest of scales. The relative importance of such inhomogeneity is still not well understood. Because of the Einstein field equations' non-linear nature, some argue a non-perturbative approach is necessary to correctly model inhomogeneities and may even obviate any need for dark energy. We shall discuss an approach based on Regge calculus, a discrete approximation to general relativity: we shall discuss the Collins--Williams formulation of Regge calculus and its application to two toy universes. The first is a universe for which the continuum solution is well-established, the $\\Lambda$-FLRW universe. The second is an inhomogeneous universe, the `lattice universe' wherein matter consists solely of a lattice of point masses with pure vacuum in between, a distribution more similar to that of the actual universe compared to FLRW universes. We shall discuss both regular lattices and one where one mass gets perturbed.

  18. Inflation in the standard cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The inflationary paradigm is now part of the standard cosmological model as a description of its primordial phase. While its original motivation was to solve the standard problems of the hot big bang model, it was soon understood that it offers a natural theory for the origin of the large-scale structure of the universe. Most models rely on a slow-rolling scalar field and enjoy very generic predictions. Besides, all the matter of the universe is produced by the decay of the inflaton field at the end of inflation during a phase of reheating. These predictions can be (and are) tested from their imprint of the large-scale structure and in particular the cosmic microwave background. Inflation stands as a window in physics where both general relativity and quantum field theory are at work and which can be observationally studied. It connects cosmology with high-energy physics. Today most models are constructed within extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry or string theory. Inflation also disrupts our vision of the universe, in particular with the ideas of chaotic inflation and eternal inflation that tend to promote the image of a very inhomogeneous universe with fractal structure on a large scale. This idea is also at the heart of further speculations, such as the multiverse. This introduction summarizes the connections between inflation and the hot big bang model and details the basics of its dynamics and predictions. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Dynamics in Nonlocal Cosmological Models Derived from String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joukovskaya, Liudmila

    2007-01-01

    A general class of nonlocal cosmological models is considered. A new method for solving nonlocal Friedmann equations is proposed, and solutions of the Friedmann equations with nonlocal operator are presented. The cosmological properties of these solutions are discussed. Especially indicated is $p$-adic cosmological model in which we have obtained nonsingular bouncing solution and string field theory tachyon model in which we have obtained full solution of nonlocal Friedmann equations with $w=...

  20. Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study anisotropic Bianchi-V Universe with magnetic field and bulk viscous fluid in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the equation of state (EoS) for a cloud of strings, and a relationship between bulk viscous coefficient and scalar expansion. The bulk viscous coefficient is assumed to be inversely proportional to the expansion scalar. It is interesting to examine the effects of magnetized bulk viscous string model in early and late stages of evolution of the Universe. This paper presents different string models like geometrical (Nambu string), Takabayasi (p-string) and Reddy string models by taking certain physical conditions. We discuss the nature of classical potential for viscous fluid with and without magnetic field. The presence of bulk viscosity stops the Universe from becoming empty in its future evolution. It is observed that the Universe expands with decelerated rate in the presence of viscous fluid with magnetic field whereas, it expands with marginal inflation in the presence of viscous fluid without magnetic field. The other physical and geometrical aspects of each string model are discussed in detail.

  1. Considering Late-Time Acceleration in Some Cosmological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davood Sadatian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two cosmological models: a nonminimally coupled scalar field on brane world model and a minimally coupled scalar field on Lorentz invariance violation model. We compare some cosmological results in these scenarios. Also, we consider some types of Rip singularity solution in both models.

  2. Standard cosmological evolution in the f(R) model to Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghmohammadi, A; Abolhassani, M R [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saaidi, Kh; Vajdi, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: agha35484@yahoo.com, E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: mrhasani@modares.ac.ir, E-mail: Avajdi@uok.ac.ir

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, using f(R) theory of gravity we explicitly calculate cosmological evolution in the presence of a perfect fluid source in four- and five-dimensional space-time in which this cosmological evolution in self-creation is presented by Reddy et al (2009 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48 10). An exact cosmological model is presented using a relation between Einstein's gravity field equation components due to a metric with the same component from f(R) theory of gravity. Some physics and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.

  3. Anisotropic exchange-interaction model: From the Potts model to the exchange-interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.

    1995-04-01

    A spin model called the anisotropic exchange-interaction model is proposed. The Potts model, the exchange-interaction model, and the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg model are special cases of the proposed model. Thermodynamic properties of the model on the bcc and the fcc lattices are determined by the constant-coupling approximation.

  4. Modelling of a compact anisotropic star as an anisotropic fluid sphere in $f(T)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, D; Qaisar, S; Zaz, Zaid; Myrzakulov, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the new exact model of anisotropic star in $f(T)$ theory of gravity. The dynamical equations in $f(T)$ theory with the anisotropic fluid have been solved by using Krori-Barua solution. We have determined that all the obtained solutions are free from central singularity and potentially stable. The observed values of mass and radius of the different strange stars RX J 1856-37, Her X-1, and Vela X-12 have been used to calculate the values of unknown constants in Krori and Barua metric. The physical parameters like anisotropy, stability and redshift of the stars have been investigated in detail.

  5. Cosmological applications of the Szekeres model

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the cosmological applications of the quasispherical Szekeres model. The quasispherical Szekeres model is an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, which represents a time-dependent mass dipole superposed on a monopole and therefore is suitable for modelling double structures such as voids and adjourning galaxy superclusters. Moreover, as the Szekeres model is an exact solution of the Einstein equations it enables tracing light and estimation of the impact of cosmic structures on light propagation. This paper presents the evolution of a void and adjourning supercluster and also reports on how the Szekeres model might be employed either for the estimation of mass of galaxies clusters or for the estimation of the luminosity distance.

  6. A New Class of Cosmologically `Viable' $f(R)$ Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rohin

    2016-01-01

    Instead of assuming a form of gravity and demand cosmology fit with $\\Lambda CDM$, a potentially `viable' $f(R)$ gravity model is derived assuming an alternative model of cosmology. Taking the `designer' approach to $f(R)$, a new class of solutions are derived starting with linear coasting cosmology in which scale factor linearly increases with time during matter domination. The derived forms of $f(R)$ are presented as result.

  7. Spatially Homogeneous Bianchi Type V Cosmological Model in the Scale-Covariant Theory of Gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shri Ram; M.K.Verma; Mohd.Zeyauddin

    2009-01-01

    We discuss spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V spacetime filled with a perfect fluid in the framework of the scaie-covariant theory of gravitation proposed by Canuto et al.By applying the law of variation for Hubble's parameter,exact solutions of the field equations are obtained,which correspond to the model of the universe having a big-bang type singularity at the initial time t=0.The cosmological model,evolving from the initial singularity,expands with power-law expansion and gives essentially an empty space for a large time.The physical and dynamical properties of the model are also discussed.

  8. Structure formation in the DGP cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Koyama, Kazuya; Maartens, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The DGP brane-world model provides an alternative to the standard LCDM cosmology, in which the late universe accelerates due to a modification of gravity rather than vacuum energy. The cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in LCDM is replaced by a single parameter, the crossover scale $r_c$, in DGP. The Supernova redshift observations can be fitted by both models, with $\\Lambda\\sim H_0^2$ and $r_c \\sim H_0^{-1}$. This degeneracy is broken by structure formation, which is suppressed in different ways in the two models. There is some confusion in the literature about how the standard linear growth factor is modified in DGP. While the luminosity distance can be computed purely from the modified 4-dimensional Friedman equation, the evolution of density perturbations requires an analysis of the 5-dimensional gravitational field. We show that if the 5-dimensional effects are inappropriately neglected, then the 4-dimensional Bianchi identities are violated and the computed growth factor is incorrect. By using the 5-dimens...

  9. Cosmological Attractor Models and Higher Curvature Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cecotti, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmological $\\alpha$-attractors in superconformal/supergravity models, where $\\alpha$ is related to the geometry of the moduli space. For $\\alpha=1$ attractors \\cite{Kallosh:2013hoa} we present a generalization of the previously known manifestly superconformal higher curvature supergravity model \\cite{Cecotti:1987sa}. The relevant standard 2-derivative supergravity with a minimum of two chiral multiplets is shown to be dual to a 4-derivative higher curvature supergravity, where in general one of the chiral superfields is traded for a curvature superfield. There is a degenerate case when both matter superfields become non-dynamical and there is only a chiral curvature superfield, pure higher derivative supergravity. Generic $\\alpha$-models \\cite{Kallosh:2013yoa} interpolate between the attractor point at $\\alpha=0$ and generic chaotic inflation models at large $\\alpha$, in the limit when the inflaton moduli space becomes flat. They have higher derivative duals with the same number of matter fields as...

  10. Scale Factor Self-Dual Cosmological Models

    CERN Document Server

    dS, U Camara; Sotkov, G M

    2015-01-01

    We implement a conformal time scale factor duality for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models, which is consistent with the weak energy condition. The requirement for self-duality determines the equations of state for a broad class of barotropic fluids. We study the example of a universe filled with two interacting fluids, presenting an accelerated and a decelerated period, with manifest UV/IR duality. The associated self-dual scalar field interaction turns out to coincide with the "radiation-like" modified Chaplygin gas models. We present an equivalent realization of them as gauged K\\"ahler sigma models (minimally coupled to gravity) with very specific and interrelated K\\"ahler- and super-potentials. Their applications in the description of hilltop inflation and also as quintessence models for the late universe are discussed.

  11. Modified FRW cosmologies arising from states of the hybrid quantum Gowdy model

    CERN Document Server

    Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena

    2015-01-01

    We construct approximate solutions of the hybrid quantum Gowdy cosmology with three-torus topology, linear polarization, and local rotational symmetry, in the presence of a massless scalar field. More specifically, we determine some families of states for which the complicated inhomogeneous and anisotropic Hamiltonian constraint operator of the Gowdy model is approximated by a much simpler one. Our quantum states follow the dynamics governed by this simpler constraint, while being at the same time also approximate solutions of the full Gowdy model. This is so thanks to the quantum correlations that the considered states present between the isotropic and anisotropic sectors of the model. Remarkably, this simpler constraint can be regarded as that of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different kinds of perfect fluids and geometrically corrected by homogeneous and isotropic curvature-like terms. Therefore, our quantum states, which are intrinsically inhomogeneous, admit approximate homogeneo...

  12. Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)

  13. Equivalent off-diagonal cosmological models and ekpyrotic scenarios in f(R)-modified, massive and Einstein gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2015-01-01

    We re-investigate how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates can be constructed in massive and f-modified gravity using the anholonomic frame deformation method. There are constructed new classes of locally anisotropic and (in) homogeneous cosmological metrics with open and closed spatial geometries. By resorting such solutions, we show that they describe the late time acceleration due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions, possible modifications of the gravitational action and graviton mass. The cosmological metrics and related St\\" uckelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lama\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. The solutions include matter, graviton mass and other effective sources modelling nonlinear gravitational and matter fields interactions with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain dark ene...

  14. Accelerating dark energy models with anisotropic fluid in Bianchi type Ⅵ0 space-time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anirudh Pradhan

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing evidence for the need of a geometry that resembles Bianchi morphology to explain the observed anisotropy in the WMAP data,we have discussed some features of Bianchi type Ⅵ0 universes in the presence of a fluid that has an anisotropic equation of state (EoS) parameter in general relativity.We present two accelerating dark energy (DE) models with an anisotropic fluid in Bianchi type Ⅵ0 space-time.To ensure a deterministic solution,we choose the scale factor a(t) =(√tnet),which yields a time-dependent deceleration parameter,representing a class of models which generate a transition of the universe from the early decelerating phase to the recent accelerating phase.Under suitable conditions,the anisotropic models approach an isotropic scenario.The EoS for DE ω is found to be time-dependent and its existing range for derived models is in good agreement with data from recent observations of type Ⅰa supernovae (SNe Ⅰa) (Knop et al.2003),SNe Ⅰa data combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and galaxy clustering statistics (Tegmark et al.2004a),as well as the latest combination of cosmological datasets coming from CMB anisotropies,luminosity distances of high redshift SNe Ⅰa and galaxy clustering.For different values of n,we can generate a class of physically viable DE models.The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a positive decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at late time (i.e.the present epoch),which is corroborated by results from recent SN Ⅰa observations.We also observe that our solutions are stable.The physical and geometric aspects of both models are also discussed in detail.

  15. Cosmological constraint on Brans-Dicke Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ji-Xia; Li, Yi-Chao; Gong, Yan; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We combine new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck with Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, in which the gravitational constant $G$ evolves with time. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) provide another important set of cosmological data, as they may be regarded as standard candles after some empirical corrections. However, in theories that include modified gravity like the BD theory, there is some risk and complication when using the SNIa data because their luminosity may depend on $G$. In this paper, we assume a power law relation between the SNIa luminosity and $G$, but treat the power index as a free parameter. We then test whether the difference in distances measured with SNIa data and BAO data can be reduced in such a model. We also constrain the BD theory and cosmological parameters by making a global fit with the CMB, BAO and SNIa data set. For the CMB+BAO+SNIa data set, we find $0.08\\times10^{-2} < \\zeta <0.33\\times10^{-2} $ at ...

  16. Frontiers in Anisotropic Shock-Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    contact info: Tel.: +44 07840355383, Fax: +44 (0) 1234 758217. Studies of anisotropic materials and the discovery of various novel and unexpected phenomena...19 Figure 4. The Kevlar ...Epoxy IFPT simulated and experimental back surface velocities for 572, 788, and 1015 m/s. The experimental data Kevlar /Epoxy materials recovered after

  17. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.K. Shchigolev

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given.

  18. Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    1987-05-01

    From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.

  19. Statistics, Computation, and Modeling in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jeff; Guiness, Joe; SAMSI 2016 Working Group in Cosmology

    2017-01-01

    Current and future ground and space based missions are designed to not only detect, but map out with increasing precision, details of the universe in its infancy to the present-day. As a result we are faced with the challenge of analyzing and interpreting observations from a wide variety of instruments to form a coherent view of the universe. Finding solutions to a broad range of challenging inference problems in cosmology is one of the goals of the “Statistics, Computation, and Modeling in Cosmology” workings groups, formed as part of the year long program on ‘Statistical, Mathematical, and Computational Methods for Astronomy’, hosted by the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI), a National Science Foundation funded institute. Two application areas have emerged for focused development in the cosmology working group involving advanced algorithmic implementations of exact Bayesian inference for the Cosmic Microwave Background, and statistical modeling of galaxy formation. The former includes study and development of advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms designed to confront challenging inference problems including inference for spatial Gaussian random fields in the presence of sources of galactic emission (an example of a source separation problem). Extending these methods to future redshift survey data probing the nonlinear regime of large scale structure formation is also included in the working group activities. In addition, the working group is also focused on the study of ‘Galacticus’, a galaxy formation model applied to dark matter-only cosmological N-body simulations operating on time-dependent halo merger trees. The working group is interested in calibrating the Galacticus model to match statistics of galaxy survey observations; specifically stellar mass functions, luminosity functions, and color-color diagrams. The group will use subsampling approaches and fractional factorial designs to statistically and

  20. Improving lognormal models for cosmological fields

    CERN Document Server

    Xavier, Henrique S; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    It is common practice in cosmology to model large-scale structure observables as lognormal random fields, and this approach has been successfully applied in the past to the matter density and weak lensing convergence fields separately. We argue that this approach has fundamental limitations which prevent its use for jointly modelling these two fields since the lognormal distribution's shape can prevent certain correlations to be attainable. Given the need of ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys for fast joint simulations of clustering and weak lensing, we propose two ways of overcoming these limitations. The first approach slightly distorts the power spectra of the fields using one of two algorithms that minimises either the absolute or the fractional distortions. The second one is by obtaining more accurate convergence marginal distributions, for which we provide a fitting function, by integrating the lognormal density along the line of sight. The latter approach also provides a way to determine ...

  1. Unified models of the cosmological dark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimdahl, W; Velten, H E S [Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, EspIrito Santo (Brazil); Hipolito-Ricaldi, W S, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br, E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br [Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas e Naturais, CEUNES Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, CEP 29932-540, Sao Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2011-09-22

    We model the cosmological substratum by a viscous fluid that is supposed to provide a unified description of the dark sector and pressureless baryonic matter. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically non-adiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0} {approx} -0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, different from other approaches, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  2. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic...... plate equation and the Galerkin method. Utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is

  3. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chaisi; S D Maharaj

    2006-03-01

    Einstein field equations for static anisotropic spheres are solved and exact interior solutions obtained. This paper extends earlier treatments to include anisotropic models which accommodate a wider variety of physically viable energy densities. Two classes of solutions are possible. The first class contains the limiting case ∝ -2 for the energy density which arises in many astrophysical applications. In the second class the singularity at the centre of the star is not present in the energy density

  4. (Non?)-Equivalence of Einstein and Jordan frames in quantized cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    The present work sheds light on the nature of mathematical equivalence of Jordan frame and its conformally transformed version, the Einstein frame, as far as Brans-Dicke theory is concerned. It is shown that question of equivalence surviving a quantization of cosmological models in the theory is intricately related to whether the canonical structure breaks down while going from one frame to the other. It is found that that the consistent operator ordering to make two frames equivalent requires a non-canonical transformation that mixes gravity sector with scalar sector to undo the non minimal coupling, present in Jordan frame. The question of equivalence thus depends on the details of quantization prescriptions, i.e. whether we are allowed to make any such non-canonical transformation at classical level before quantizing the theory. We work with the Wheeler-deWitt quantization scheme and take up quite a few anisotropic cosmological models as examples.

  5. Dynamical system approach to running Λ cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    We study the dynamics of cosmological models with a time dependent cosmological term. We consider five classes of models; two with the non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term Λ: Λ(H)CDM cosmologies, Λ(a)CDM cosmologies, and three with the covariant parametrization of Λ: Λ(R)CDM cosmologies, where R(t) is the Ricci scalar, Λ(φ)-cosmologies with diffusion, Λ(X)-cosmologies, where X = (1)/(2)g{sup αβ}∇{sub α}∇{sub β}φ is a kinetic part of the density of the scalar field. We also consider the case of an emergent Λ(a) relation obtained from the behaviour of trajectories in a neighbourhood of an invariant submanifold. In the study of the dynamics we used dynamical system methods for investigating how an evolutionary scenario can depend on the choice of special initial conditions. We show that the methods of dynamical systems allow one to investigate all admissible solutions of a running Λ cosmology for all initial conditions. We interpret Alcaniz and Lima's approach as a scaling cosmology. We formulate the idea of an emergent cosmological term derived directly from an approximation of the exact dynamics. We show that some non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term like Λ(a), Λ(H) gives rise to the non-physical behaviour of trajectories in the phase space. This behaviour disappears if the term Λ(a) is emergent from the covariant parametrization. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to particle cosmology the standard model of cosmology and its open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of particle cosmology and covers all the main aspects of the Big Bang Model (expansion of the Universe, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, large scale structures) and the search for new physics (inflation, baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy). It also includes the majority of recent discoveries, such as the precise determination of cosmological parameters using experiments like WMAP and Planck, the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, the non-discovery to date of supersymmetric particles, and the search for the imprint of gravitational waves on the CMB polarization by Planck and BICEP.   This textbook is based on the authors’ courses on Cosmology, and aims at introducing Particle Cosmology to senior undergraduate and graduate students. It has been especially written to be accessible even for those students who do not have a strong background in General Relativity and quantum field theory. The content of this book is organized in an easy-to-use ...

  7. Non-standard Models and the Sociology of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, Martin

    2013-01-01

    I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang": the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.

  8. Non-standard models and the sociology of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2014-05-01

    I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard "Big Bang": the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a vicious circle. The fact that most cosmologists do not pay them any attention and only dedicate their research time to the standard model is to a great extent due to a sociological phenomenon (the "snowball effect" or "groupthink"). We might well wonder whether cosmology, our knowledge of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other fields of physics or a predominant ideology.

  9. Cosmological model in 2d dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mishima, T; Mishima, Takashi; Nakamichi, Akika

    1993-01-01

    We apply CGHS-type dilaton gravity model to (1+1)-dimensional cosmological situations. First the behavior of a compact 1-dimensional universe (i.e. like a closed string) is classified on the assumption of homogeneity of universe. Several interesting solutions are found, which include a Misner-type universe having closed time-like curves, and an asymptotically de Sitter universe first pointed out by Yoshimura. In the second half of this talk, we discuss the modification of the classical homogeneous solutions, considering inhomogeneity of classical conformal matters and also quantum back-reaction respectively. (An expanded version of the talk presented by T. Mishima at Yukawa Institute of Theoretical Physics workshop `Quantum Gravity' 24-27, November 1992.)

  10. Irreversible Processes in Inflationary Cosmological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, G M

    2002-01-01

    By using the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes and Einstein general relativity, a cosmological model is proposed where the early universe is considered as a mixture of a scalar field with a matter field. The scalar field refers to the inflaton while the matter field to the classical particles. The irreversibility is related to a particle production process at the expense of the gravitational energy and of the inflaton energy. The particle production process is represented by a non-equilibrium pressure in the energy-momentum tensor. The non-equilibrium pressure is proportional to the Hubble parameter and its proportionality factor is identified with the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The dynamic equations of the inflaton and the Einstein field equations determine the time evolution of the cosmic scale factor, the Hubble parameter, the acceleration and of the energy densities of the inflaton and matter. Among other results it is shown that in some regimes the acceleration is positive which simulate...

  11. Hybrid Models in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Navascués, B Elizaga; Marugán, G A Mena

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology, inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes, and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first prop...

  12. Anisotropic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert models of dissipation in qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Philip J. D.; Green, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We derive a microscopic model for dissipative dynamics in a system of mutually interacting qubits coupled to a thermal bath that generalizes the dissipative model of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert to the case of anisotropic bath couplings. We show that the dissipation acts to bias the quantum trajectories towards a reduced phase space. This model applies to a system of superconducting flux qubits whose coupling to the environment is necessarily anisotropic. We study the model in the context of the D-Wave computing device and show that the form of environmental coupling in this case produces dynamics that are closely related to several models proposed on phenomenological grounds.

  13. A Conceptual Tour About the Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, A L; Maroto, Antonio L.; Ramirez, Juan

    2004-01-01

    With the beginning of the XXIst century, a physical model of our Universe, usually called the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM), is reaching an important level of consolidation, based on accurate astrophysical data and also on theoretical developments. In this paper we review the interplay between the basic concepts and observations underlying this model. The SCM is a complex and beautiful building, recieving inputs from many branches of physics. Major topics reviewed are: General Relativity and the cosmological constant, the Cosmological Principle and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-Lemaitre models, Hubble diagrams and dark energy, large scale structure and dark matter, the cosmic microwave background, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and inflation.

  14. Modeling anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions: derivation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we develop a model for the anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution and examine its properties. First, we provide the characteristic conditions that the modeling of consistent and well-defined anisotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distributions needs to fulfill. Then, we examine several models, showing their possible advantages and/or failures in accordance to these conditions. We derive a consistent model, and examine its properties and its connection with thermodynamics. We show that the temperature equals the average of the directional temperature-like components, as it holds for the classical, anisotropic Maxwell distribution. We also derive the internal energy and Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, where we show that both are maximized for zero anisotropy, that is, the isotropic Maxwell-Jüttner distribution.

  15. Power law cosmology model comparison with CMB scale information

    CERN Document Server

    Tutusaus, Isaac; Blanchard, Alain; Dupays, Arnaud; Zolnierowski, Yves; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ealet, Anne; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Ilić, Stéphane; Piazza, Federico; Pisani, Alice; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Sakr, Ziad; Salvatelli, Valentina; Schücker, Thomas; Tilquin, André; Virey, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ability of the cosmological concordance model ($\\Lambda$CDM) to describe the cosmological observations exceedingly well, power law expansion of the Universe scale radius has been proposed as an alternative framework. We examine here these models, analyzing their ability to fit cosmological data using robust model comparison criteria. Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and acoustic scale information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been used. We find that SNIa data either alone or combined with BAO, can be well reproduced by both $\\Lambda$CDM and power law expansion models with $n \\sim 1.5$, while the constant expansion rate model ($n = 1$) is clearly disfavored. Allowing for some redshift evolution in the SNIa luminosity essentially removes any clear preference for a specific model. The CMB data is well known to provide the most stringent constraints on standard cosmological models, in particular through the position of the first peak of the temperature ...

  16. Well behaved anisotropic compact star models in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, M. K.; Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, B.

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic compact star models have been constructed by assuming a particular form of a metric function e^{λ}. We solved the Einstein field equations for determining the metric function e^{ν}. For this purpose we have assumed a physically valid expression of radial pressure (pr). The obtained anisotropic compact star model is representing the realistic compact objects such as PSR 1937 +21. We have done an extensive study about physical parameters for anisotropic models and found that these parameters are well behaved throughout inside the star. Along with these we have also determined the equation of state for compact star which gives the radial pressure is purely the function of density i.e. pr=f(ρ).

  17. The Derived Equivalent Circuit Model for Magnetized Anisotropic Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ying S; Ruehli, Albert E

    2015-01-01

    Due to the static magnetic field, the conductivity for graphene becomes a dispersive and anisotropic tensor, which complicates most modeling methodologies. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit model is proposed for graphene with the magnetostatic bias based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE). To characterize the anisotropic property of the biased graphene, the resistive part of the unit circuit is replaced by a resistor in series with current control voltage sources (CCVSs). The CCVSs account for the off-diagonal parts of the surface conductivity tensor for the magnetized graphene. Furthermore, the definitions of the absorption cross section and the scattering cross section are revisited to make them feasible for derived circuit analysis. This proposed method is benchmarked with several numerical examples. This paper also provides a new equivalent circuit model to deal with dispersive and anisotropic materials.

  18. Particle Physics And Cosmology In Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Morrissey, D E

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics provides an excellent description of the elementary particle interactions observed in particle collider experiments, but the model does less well when it is applied to cosmology. Recent measurements of the Universe over very large distances indicate the existence of non-luminous dark matter and an excess of baryons over anti-baryons. The SM is unable to account for either of these results, implying that an extension of the SM description is needed. One such extension is supersymmetry. Within the minimal supersymmetric version of the SM, the MSSM, the lightest superpartner particle can make up the dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry can be generated by the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). In this work, we examine these issues together in order to find out whether the MSSM can account for both of them simultaneously. We find that the MSSM can explain both the baryon asymmetry and the dark matter, but only over a very constrained region of the model para...

  19. A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sam- pling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spec- troscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology.

  20. Realistic cosmological model with dynamical cancellation of vacuum energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D

    2003-01-01

    We propose a model with a compensating scalar field whose back reaction to the cosmological curvature cancels possible vacuum energy density down to the terms of the order of the time dependent critical energy density. Thus the model simultaneously solves the mystery of the compensation of vacuum energy with the accuracy of 120 orders of magnitude and explains existence of the observed dark energy. At an early stage the suggested cosmological model might experience exponential expansion without an additional inflaton field.

  1. Cluster variation studies of the anisotropic exchange interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.

    The cluster variation method is applied to study critical properties of the Potts-like ferromagnetic anisotropic exchange interaction model. Phase transition temperatures, order parameter discontinuities and latent heats of the model on the triangular and the fcc lattices are determined by the triangle approximation; and those on the square and the sc lattices are determined by the square approximation.

  2. Imperfect fluid cosmological model in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, G C

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we considered the bulk viscous fluid in the formalism of modified gravity in which the general form of a gravitational action is $f(R, T)$ function, where $R$ is the curvature scalar and $T$ is the trace of the energy momentum tensor within the frame of flat FRW space time. The cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with total bulk viscous coefficient expressed as a linear combination of the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that $\\xi=\\xi_0+\\xi_1\\frac{\\dot{a}}{a}+\\xi_2\\frac{\\ddot{a}}{\\dot{a}}$, where $\\xi_0$, $\\xi_1$ and $\\xi_2$ are constants. We take $p=(\\gamma-1)\\rho$, where $0\\le\\gamma\\le2$ as an equation of state for perfect fluid. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained by assuming a particular model of the form of $f(R, T)=R+2f(T)$, where $f(T)=\\lambda T$, $\\lambda$ is constant. We studied the four possible scenarios for different values of $\\gamma$, such as $\\gamma=0$, $\\gamma=\\frac{2}{3}$, $\\gamma=1$ and...

  3. Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Rahaman; S Chakraborty; N Begum; M Hossain; M Kalam

    2003-06-01

    A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  4. Field Fractal Cosmological Model As an Example of Practical Cosmology Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The idea of the global gravitational effect as the source of cosmological redshift was considered by de Sitter (1916, 1917), Eddington (1923), Tolman (1929) and Bondi (1947), also Hubble (1929) called the discovered distance-redshift relation as "De Sitter effect". For homogeneous matter distribution cosmological gravitational redshift is proportional to square of distance: z_grav ~ r^2. However for a fractal matter distribution having the fractal dimension D=2 the global gravitational redshift is the linear function of distance: z_grav ~ r, which gives possibility for interpretation of the Hubble law without the space expansion. Here the field gravity fractal cosmological model (FGF) is presented, which based on two initial principles. The first assumption is that the field gravity theory describes the gravitational interaction within the conceptual unity of all fundamental physical interactions. The second hypothesis is that the spatial distribution of matter is a fractal at all scales up to the Hubble radi...

  5. An alternative to the cosmological 'concordance model'

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sarkar, S; Blanchard, Alain; Douspis, Marian; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Sarkar, Subir

    2003-01-01

    Precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background by WMAP are believed to have established a flat Lambda-dominated universe, seeded by nearly scale-invariant adiabatic primordial fluctuations. However by relaxing the hypothesis that the fluctuation spectrum can be described by a single power law, we demonstrate that an Einstein-de Sitter universe with ZERO cosmological constant can fit the data as well as the best concordance model. Moreover unlike a $\\Lambda$-dominated universe, such an universe has no strong integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, so is in better agreement with the low quadrupole seen by WMAP. The main problem is that the Hubble constant is required to be rather low: H_0 ~ 46 km/s/Mpc; we discuss whether this can be consistent with observations. Furthermore for universes consisting only of baryons and cold dark matter, the amplitude of matter fluctuations on cluster scales is too high, a problem which seems generic. However, an additional small contribution (Omega_X \\sim 0.1) of matter which...

  6. Cosmological perturbations from the Standard Model Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Riotto, Antonio, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: antonio.riotto@unige.ch [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP), 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2013-02-01

    We propose that the Standard Model (SM) Higgs is responsible for generating the cosmological perturbations of the universe by acting as an isocurvature mode during a de Sitter inflationary stage. In view of the recent ATLAS and CMS results for the Higgs mass, this can happen if the Hubble rate during inflation is in the range (10{sup 10}−10{sup 14}) GeV (depending on the SM parameters). Implications for the detection of primordial tensor perturbations through the B-mode of CMB polarization via the PLANCK satellite are discussed. For example, if the Higgs mass value is confirmed to be m{sub h} = 125.5 GeV and m{sub t},α{sub s} are at their central values, our mechanism predicts tensor perturbations too small to be detected in the near future. On the other hand, if tensor perturbations will be detected by PLANCK through the B-mode of CMB, then there is a definite relation between the Higgs and top masses, making the mechanism predictive and falsifiable.

  7. Complementary cosmological tests of RSII brane models

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L; Dahia, F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore observational bounds on flat and non-flat cosmological models in Type II Randall-Sundrum (RSII) branes. In a first analysis, we consider current measurements of the expansion rate H(z) (with two priors on the local Hubble parameter) and 288 Type Ia supernovae from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (within the framework of the mlcs2k2 light-curve fitting method). We find that the joint analysis involving these data is an interesting tool to impose limits on the brane tension density parameter (Omega_{lambda}) and that the spatial curvature has a negligible influence on Omega_{lambda} estimates. In order to obtain stronger bounds for the contribution of the $\\Omega_{\\lambda}$ we also add in our analysis the baryon oscillation peak (BAO) and cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) observations by using the so-called CMB/BAO ratio. From this analysis we find that the Omega_{lambda} contribution is less than 4.10^{-5} (1sigma).

  8. Nonlinear analysis of traffic jams in an anisotropic continuum model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Kumar Gupta; Sapna Sharma

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our study of the nonlinear stability of a new anisotropic continuum traffic flow model in which the dimensionless parameter or anisotropic factor controls the non-isotropic character and diffusive influence. In order to establish traffic flow stability criterion or to know the critical parameters that lead, on one hand, to a stable response to perturbations or disturbances or, on the other hand, to an unstable response and therefore to a possible congestion, a nonlinear stability criterion is derived by using a wavefront expansion technique. The stability criterion is illustrated by numerical results using the finite difference method for two different values of anisotropic parameter. It is also been observed that the newly derived stability results are consistent with previously reported results obtained using approximate linearisation methods. Moreover, the stability criterion derived in this paper can provide more refined information from the perspective of the capability to reproduce nonlinear traffic flow behaviors observed in real traffic than previously established methodologies.

  9. Cosmic Transit and Anisotropic Models in f(R,T) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, S K; Sahoo, P K; Nath, A

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating cosmological models are constructed in a modified gravity theory at the backdrop of an anisotropic Bianchi type-III universe. The models are constructed for two different ways of modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action that includes a bit of matter field. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a novel of method of integration. We have explored the behaviour of the cosmic transit from an decelerated phase of expansion to an accelerated phase to get the dynamical features of the universe. We obtained that, the modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action does not affect the scale factor, however, it significantly affects the dynamics of the effective dark energy equation of state.

  10. A Time-Dependent Λ and G Cosmological Model Consistent with Cosmological Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing constant Λ-G cosmological model agrees with observational evidence including the observed red shift, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN, and the current rate of acceleration. It assumes that matter contributes 27% to the current density of the universe, with the rest (73% coming from dark energy represented by the Einstein cosmological parameter Λ in the governing Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations, derived from Einstein’s equations of general relativity. However, the principal problem is the extremely small value of the cosmological parameter (~10−52 m2. Moreover, the dark energy density represented by Λ is presumed to have remained unchanged as the universe expanded by 26 orders of magnitude. Attempts to overcome this deficiency often invoke a variable Λ-G model. Cosmic constraints from action principles require that either both G and Λ remain time-invariant or both vary in time. Here, we propose a variable Λ-G cosmological model consistent with the latest red shift data, the current acceleration rate, and BBN, provided the split between matter and dark energy is 18% and 82%. Λ decreases (Λ~τ-2, where τ is the normalized cosmic time and G increases (G~τn with cosmic time. The model results depend only on the chosen value of Λ at present and in the far future and not directly on G.

  11. Deparametrization and path integral quantization of cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The problem of time is a central feature of quantum cosmology: differing from ordinary quantum mechanics, in cosmology there is nothing "outside" the system which plays the role of clock, and this makes difficult the obtention of a consistent quantization. A possible solution is to assume that a subset of the variables describing the state of the universe can be a clock for the remaining of the system. Following this line, in this book a new proposal consisting in the previous identification of time by means of gauge fixation is applied to the quantization of homogeneous cosmological models. B

  12. Hysteresis behavior of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the hysteresis loops within the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model has been investigated with the effective field theory for two spin cluster. Particular attention has been devoted on the behavior of the hysteresis loop area, coercive field and remanent magnetization with the anisotropy in the exchange interaction for both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases.

  13. Bianchi Type I Cosmological Models in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Harko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamics of a barotropic cosmological fluid in an anisotropic, Bianchi type I space-time in Eddington-inspired Born–Infeld (EiBI gravity. By assuming isotropic pressure distribution, we obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form. The behavior of the geometric and thermodynamic parameters of the Bianchi type I Universe is studied, by using both analytical and numerical methods, for some classes of high density matter, described by the stiff causal, radiation, and pressureless fluid equations of state. In all cases the study of the models with different equations of state can be reduced to the integration of a highly nonlinear second order ordinary differential equation for the energy density. The time evolution of the anisotropic Bianchi type I Universe strongly depends on the initial values of the energy density and of the Hubble function. An important observational parameter, the mean anisotropy parameter, is also studied in detail, and we show that for the dust filled Universe the cosmological evolution always ends into isotropic phase, while for high density matter filled universes the isotropization of Bianchi type I universes is essentially determined by the initial conditions of the energy density.

  14. Bianchi type-V cosmological models with perfect fluid and heat flow in Saez–Ballester theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shri Ram; M Zeyauddin; C P Singh

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the variation law for Hubble's parameter with average scale factor in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time model, which yields constant value of the deceleration parameter. We derive two laws of variation of the average scale factor with cosmic time, one is of power-law type and the other is of exponential form. Exact solutions of Einstein field equations with perfect fluid and heat conduction are obtained for Bianchi type-V space-time in these two types of cosmologies. In the cosmology with the power-law, the solutions correspond to a cosmological model which starts expanding from the singular state with positive deceleration parameter. In the case of exponential cosmology, we present an accelerating non-singular model of the Universe. We find that the constant value of deceleration parameter is reasonable for the present day Universe and gives an appropriate description of evolution of Universe. We have also discussed different types of physical and kinematical behaviour of the models in these two types of cosmologies.

  15. A model for self-tuning the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J E; Lee, H M; Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok; Lee, Hyun Min

    2001-01-01

    The vanishing cosmological constant in the four dimensional space-time is obtained in a 5D Randall-Sundrum model with a brane (B1) located at $y=0$. The matter fields can be located at the brane. For settling any vacuum energy generated at the brane to zero, we need a three index antisymmetric tensor field $A_{MNP}$ with a specific form for the Lagrangian. For the self-tuning mechanism, the bulk cosmological constant should be negative.

  16. Prestack exploding reflector modelling and migration for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-10-09

    The double-square-root equation is commonly used to image data by downward continuation using one-way depth extrapolation methods. A two-way time extrapolation of the double-square-root-derived phase operator allows for up and downgoing wavefields but suffers from an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity is also associated with an anisotropic version of the double-square-root extrapolator. Perturbation theory allows us to separate the isotropic contribution, as well as the singularity, from the anisotropic contribution to the operator. As a result, the anisotropic residual operator is free from such singularities and can be applied as a stand alone operator to correct for anisotropy. We can apply the residual anisotropy operator even if the original prestack wavefield was obtained using, for example, reverse-time migration. The residual correction is also useful for anisotropic parameter estimation. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach. It also proves useful in approximately imaging the Vertical Transverse Isotropic Marmousi model.

  17. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  18. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  19. A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equations of embedding class one metric. The solution represents realistic objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37. We perform a detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if the anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and the metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects as regards a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behaviour, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the stability condition in a relativistic compact star. (orig.)

  20. A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K; Dayanandan, Baiju; Ray, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equation of embedding class one metric. The solution is representing the realistic objects such as $Her~X-1$ and $RXJ~1856-37$. We perform detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations under with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects on a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behavior, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications...

  1. A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Dayanandan, Baiju; Ray, Saibal

    2016-05-01

    In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equations of embedding class one metric. The solution represents realistic objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37. We perform a detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if the anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and the metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects as regards a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behaviour, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the stability condition in a relativistic compact star.

  2. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  3. Cosmological Model Based on Gauge Theory of Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2005-01-01

    A cosmological model based on gauge theory of gravity is proposed in this paper. Combining cosmological principle and field equation of gravitational gauge field, dynamical equations of the scale factor R(t) of our universe can be obtained. This set of equations has three different solutions. A prediction of the present model is that, if the energy density of the universe is not zero and the universe is expanding, the universe must be space-flat, the total energy density must be the critical density ρc of the universe. For space-flat case, this model gives the same solution as that of the Friedmann model. In other words, though they have different dynamics of gravitational interactions, general relativity and gauge theory of gravity give the same cosmological model.

  4. Cosmological Bianchi Class A models in S\\'aez-Ballester theory

    CERN Document Server

    Socorro, J; Espinoza-García, Abraham; Pimentel, Luis O; Romero, Priscila

    2011-01-01

    We use the S\\'aez-Ballester (SB) theory on anisotropic Bianchi Class A cosmological model, with barotropic fluid and cosmological constant, using the Hamilton or Hamilton-Jacobi approach. Contrary to claims in the specialized literature, it is shown that the S\\'aez-Ballester theory cannot provide a realistic solution to the dark matter problem of Cosmology for the dust epoch, without a fine tunning because the contribution of the scalar field in this theory is equivalent to a stiff fluid (as can be seen from the energy--momentum tensor for the scalar field), that evolves in a different way as the dust component. To have similar contributions of the scalar component and the dust component implies that their past values were fine tunned. So, we reinterpreting this null result as an indication that dark matter plays a central role in the formation of structures and galaxy evolution, having measureable effects in the cosmic microwave bound radiation, and than this formalism yield to this epoch as primigenius resu...

  5. Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2016-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...

  6. Five-Dimensional Cosmological Model with Variable G and Λ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Baysal; (I). Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    @@ Einstein's field equations with G and Λ both varying with time are considered in the presence of a perfect fluid for five-dimensional cosmological model in a way which conserves the energy momentum tensor of the matter content. Several sets of explicit solutions in the five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein type cosmological models with variable G and Λ are obtained. The diminishment of extra dimension with the evolution of the universe for the five-dimensional model is exhibited. The physical properties of the models are examined.

  7. A New Type of Isotropic Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    The Einstein equations with quantum one-loop contributions of conformally covariant matter fields in the poresence of frac{1}{t^2} decaying matter density and decaying cosmological constant is used to study an isotropic homogenous FRW space-time. We show that scale factor depends on the sums of contributions from quantum fields with different spin values. For some specific values of this later, the Universe could be in an accelerated regime.

  8. Cosmological and astrophysical constraints on tachyon dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    Rolling tachyon field models are among the candidates suggested as explanations for the recent acceleration of the Universe. In these models the field is expected to interact with gauge fields and lead to variations of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$. Here we take advantage of recent observational progress and use a combination of background cosmological observations of Type Ia supernovas and astrophysical and local measurements of $\\alpha$ to improve constraints on this class of models. We show that the constraints on $\\alpha$ imply that the field dynamics must be extremely slow, leading to a constraint of the present-day dark energy equation of state $(1+w_0)<2.4\\times10^{-7}$ at the $99.7\\%$ confidence level. Therefore current and forthcoming standard background cosmology observational probes can't distinguish this class of models from a cosmological constant, while detections of $\\alpha$ variations could possibly do so since they would have a characteristic redshift dependence.

  9. Cosmological and astrophysical constraints on tachyon dark energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Moucherek, F. M. O.

    2016-06-01

    Rolling tachyon field models are among the candidates suggested as explanations for the recent acceleration of the Universe. In these models the field is expected to interact with gauge fields and lead to variations of the fine-structure constant α . Here we take advantage of recent observational progress and use a combination of background cosmological observations of type Ia supernovas and astrophysical and local measurements of α to improve constraints on this class of models. We show that the constraints on α imply that the field dynamics must be extremely slow, leading to a constraint of the present-day dark energy equation of state (1 +w0)<2.4 ×10-7 at the 99.7% confidence level. Therefore current and forthcoming standard background cosmology observational probes cannot distinguish this class of models from a cosmological constant, while detections of α variations could possibly do so since they would have a characteristic redshift dependence.

  10. A fresh view of cosmological models describing very early Universe: general solution of the dynamical equations

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, A T

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of any spherical cosmology with a scalar field (`scalaron') coupling to gravity is described by the nonlinear second-order differential equations for two metric functions and the scalaron depending on the `time' parameter. The equations depend on the scalaron potential and on arbitrary gauge function that describes time parameterizations. This dynamical system can be integrated for flat, isotropic models with very special potentials. But, somewhat unexpectedly, replacing the independent variable $t$ by one of the metric functions allows us to completely integrate the general spherical theory in any gauge and with arbitrary potentials. In this approach, inflationary solutions can be easily identified, explicitly derived, and compared to the standard approximate expressions. This approach is also applicable to intrinsically anisotropic models with a massive vector field (`vecton') as well as to some non-inflationary models.

  11. Bianchi type string cosmological models in f(R,T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P. K.; Mishra, B.; Sahoo, Parbati; Pacif, S. K. J.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied Bianchi-III and - VI 0 cosmological models with string fluid source in f( R, T) gravity (T. Harko et al., Phys. Rev. D 84, 024020 (2011)), where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of the stress energy-momentum tensor in the context of late time accelerating expansion of the universe as suggested by the present observations. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using a time-varying deceleration parameter. The universe is anisotropic and free from initial singularity. Our model initially shows acceleration for a certain period of time and then decelerates consequently. Several dynamical and physical behaviors of the model are also discussed in detail.

  12. Anisotropic Bianchi Type-Ⅰ Model with a Varying A Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Tiwari; Divya Singh

    2012-01-01

    Einstein field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of a perfect fluid for a Bianchi type-I universe by assuming that the cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter..The variation law for vacuum density was recently proposed by Schützhold on the basis of quantum field estimation in a curved expanding background.The cosmological term tends asymptotically to a genuine cosmological constant and the model tends to a de Sitter universe.We obtain that the present universe is accelerating with a large fraction of cosmological density in the form of a cosmological term.

  13. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....

  14. Decaying Domain Walls in an Extended Gravity Model and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cosmological consequences of an extended gravity model which belongs to the same class studied by Accetta and Steinhardt in an extended inflationary scenario. But we do not worry about inflation in our model; instead, we focus on a topological object formed during cosmological phase transitions. Although domain walls appear during first-order phase transitions such as QCD transition, they decay at the end of the phase transition. Therefore the "domain wall problem" does not exist in the suitable range of pameters and, on the contrary, the "fragments" of walls may become seeds of dark matter. A possible connection to "oscillating universe" model offered by Morikawa et al. is also discussed.

  15. On Radiative Fluids in Anisotropic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We apply the second-order Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic fluid- and thermodynamics to a physically realistic model of a radiative fluid in a simple anisotropic cosmological background. We investigate the asymptotic future of the resulting cosmological model and review the role of the dissipative phenomena in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the transport properties of the fluid alone, if described appropriately, do not explain the presently observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Also, we show that, in constrast to the mathematical fluid models widely used before, the radiative fluid does approach local thermal equilibrium at late times, although very slowly, due to the cosmological expansion.

  16. Holographic transports and stability in anisotropic linear axion model

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Niu, Chao; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We study thermoelectric conductivities and shear viscosities in a holographically anisotropic model. Momentum relaxation is realized through perturbing the linear axion field. AC conductivity exhibits a conherent/incoherent metal transition. The longitudinal shear viscosity for prolate anisotropy violates the bound conjectured by Kovtun-Son-Starinets. We also find that thermodynamic and dynamical instabilities are not always equivalent, which provides a counter example of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.

  17. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  18. Inflationary Weak Anisotropic Model with General Dissipation Coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of warm intermediate and logamediate inflationary models during weak dissipative regime with a general form of dissipative coefficient. We analyze these models within the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe. In both cases, we evaluate solution of inflaton, effective scalar potential, dissipative coefficient, slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor to scalar ratio under slow-roll approximation. We constrain the model parameters using recent data and conclude that anisotropic inflationary universe model with generalized dissipation coefficient remains compatible with WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.

  19. LRS Bianchi type-II string cosmological models in a modified theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakavalli, T.; Ananda Rao, G.; Reddy, D. R. K.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of spatially homogeneous anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-II cosmological models with string source in a modified theory of gravitation formulated by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) which is universally known as f( R, T) gravity. Here R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy momentum tensor. By solving the field equation we have presented massive string and Takabyasi or p-string models in this theory. However it is interesting to note that geometric string in this space-time does not exist in this theory. Physical and geometrical properties of the strings obtained are also discussed.

  20. Hmong Cosmology: Proposed Model, Preliminary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent K. Her

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Is there an underlying structure to Hmong cosmology? What are its components? And how might these interrelate? In this paper, I will show that the Hmong cosmos consists of three separate realms and that these are connected together by the cycle of the human soul. Using zaaj qhuabke, I will trace the journey of the deceased and look at how ritual movement is expressive of human agency, narrative experience and community history. My insights are based on primary fieldwork research carried out for a doctoral dissertation on Hmong funeral rites in the Midwest.

  1. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  2. Current Status of cosmological models with mixed dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mikheeva, E V

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of cosmological mixed dark matter models in spatially flat Friedmann Universe with zero $\\Lambda$-term is presented. We argue that the introduction of cosmic gravity waves helps to satisfy observational constraints. The analysis of models is based on the confrontation with the mass function of clusters of galaxies and the CMB anisotropy. The implication of Press-Schechter formalism allowed to constrain $\\sigma_8=0.52 \\pm 0.01$. This normalisation of the spectrum of density perturbations has been used to calculate numerically the value of the large scale CMB anisotropy and the relative contribution of cosmological gravitational waves, T/S. We found that increasing $\\Omega_\

  3. Physical Models of Galaxy Formation in a Cosmological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel

    2015-08-01

    Modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context presents one of the greatest challenges in astrophysics today due to the vast range of scales and numerous physical processes involved. Here we review the current status of models that employ two leading techniques to simulate the physics of galaxy formation: semianalytic models and numerical hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on a set of observational targets that describe the evolution of the global and structural properties of galaxies from roughly cosmic high noon (z â¼ 2-3) to the present. Although minor discrepancies remain, overall, models show remarkable convergence among different methods and make predictions that are in qualitative agreement with observations. Modelers have converged on a core set of physical processes that are critical for shaping galaxy properties. This core set includes cosmological accretion, strong stellar-driven winds that are more efficient at low masses, black hole feedback that preferentially suppresses star formation at high masses, and structural and morphological evolution through merging and environmental processes. However, all cosmological models currently adopt phenomenological implementations of many of these core processes, which must be tuned to observations. Many details of how these diverse processes interact within a hierarchical structure formation setting remain poorly understood. Emerging multiscale simulations are helping to bridge the gap between stellar and cosmological scales, placing models on a firmer, more physically grounded footing. Concurrently, upcoming telescope facilities will provide new challenges and constraints for models, particularly by directly constraining inflows and outflows through observations of gas in and around galaxies.

  4. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Shuchi Dave

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  5. Critical state model with anisotropic critical current density

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, K V; Ravikumar, G

    2003-01-01

    Analytical solutions of Bean's critical state model with critical current density J sub c being anisotropic are obtained for superconducting cylindrical samples of arbitrary cross section in a parallel geometry. We present a method for calculating the flux fronts and magnetization curves. Results are presented for cylinders with elliptical cross section with a specific form of the anisotropy. We find that over a certain range of the anisotropy parameter the flux fronts have shapes similar to those for an isotropic sample. However, in general, the presence of anisotropy significantly modifies the shape of the flux fronts. The field for full flux penetration also depends on the anisotropy parameter. The method is extended to the case of anisotropic J sub c that also depends on the local field B, and magnetization hysteresis curves are presented for typical values of the anisotropy parameter for the case of |J sub c | that decreases exponentially with |B|.

  6. Power law cosmology model comparison with CMB scale information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutusaus, Isaac; Lamine, Brahim; Blanchard, Alain; Dupays, Arnaud; Zolnierowski, Yves; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ealet, Anne; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Ilić, Stéphane; Pisani, Alice; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Sakr, Ziad; Salvatelli, Valentina; Schücker, Thomas; Tilquin, André; Virey, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Despite the ability of the cosmological concordance model (Λ CDM ) to describe the cosmological observations exceedingly well, power law expansion of the Universe scale radius, R (t )∝tn, has been proposed as an alternative framework. We examine here these models, analyzing their ability to fit cosmological data using robust model comparison criteria. Type Ia supernovae (SNIa), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and acoustic scale information from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been used. We find that SNIa data either alone or combined with BAO can be well reproduced by both Λ CDM and power law expansion models with n ˜1.5 , while the constant expansion rate model (n =1 ) is clearly disfavored. Allowing for some redshift evolution in the SNIa luminosity essentially removes any clear preference for a specific model. The CMB data are well known to provide the most stringent constraints on standard cosmological models, in particular, through the position of the first peak of the temperature angular power spectrum, corresponding to the sound horizon at recombination, a scale physically related to the BAO scale. Models with n ≥1 lead to a divergence of the sound horizon and do not naturally provide the relevant scales for the BAO and the CMB. We retain an empirical footing to overcome this issue: we let the data choose the preferred values for these scales, while we recompute the ionization history in power law models, to obtain the distance to the CMB. In doing so, we find that the scale coming from the BAO data is not consistent with the observed position of the first peak of the CMB temperature angular power spectrum for any power law cosmology. Therefore, we conclude that when the three standard probes (SNIa, BAO, and CMB) are combined, the Λ CDM model is very strongly favored over any of these alternative models, which are then essentially ruled out.

  7. Modeling anisotropic elasticity of fluid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, N; Ipsen, John H; 10.1002/mats.201100002

    2011-01-01

    The biological membrane, which compartmentalizes the cell and its organelles, exhibit wide variety of macroscopic shapes of varying morphology and topology. A systematic understanding of the relation of membrane shapes to composition, external field, environmental conditions etc. have important biological relevance. Here we review the triangulated surface model, used in the macroscopic simulation of membranes and the associated Monte Carlo (DTMC) methods. New techniques to calculate surface quantifiers, that will facilitate the study of additional in-plane orientational degrees of freedom, has been introduced. The mere presence of a polar and nematic fields in the ordered phase drives the ground state conformations of the membrane to a cylinder and tetrahedron respectively.

  8. Magnetostriction simulation using anisotropic vector Preisach-type models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adly, A.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Electric Power and Machines Dept.; Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Magnetic materials exhibiting gigantic magnetostriction, especially Terfenol, are currently being widely used in fine positioning and active vibration damping devices. By involving accurate magnetostriction models during design stages, precision of such devices may be significantly enhanced. In this paper a straight-forward approach that employs anisotropic vector Preisach-type hysteresis models in simulating field-stress effects on magnetic materials is presented. Formulation of the proposed model is given and its identification problem is solved. The presented approach has been numerically implemented and numerous digital computer simulations have been performed for Terfenol material. Sample simulation results as well as comparisons with experimentally observed magnetostriction curves are reported in the paper.

  9. Exacerbating the Cosmological Constant Problem with Interacting Dark Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M. C. David

    2017-01-01

    Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density. We show that current estimates of the number of flux vacua in string theory, Nvac˜O (1 0272 000) , are far too small to realize certain simple models of interacting dark energy and solve the cosmological constant problem anthropically. These models admit distinctive observational signatures that can be targeted by future gamma-ray observatories, hence making it possible to observationally rule out the anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem in theories with a finite number of vacua.

  10. Efficient Modeling and Migration in Anisotropic Media Based on Prestack Exploding Reflector Model and Effective Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui

    2014-05-01

    This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my

  11. Alternative Solutions to Bianchi Type-Ⅰ Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Ying; LI Fang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We present a class of new exact solutions in string cosmology theory, and the solutions describe a homogeneous but anisotropic plane-symmetric string universe within the framework of Bianchi type-Ⅰ cosmology. Some solutions previously discussed are included in the class of exact solutions as the special cases. Our result may provide further quantitative description and theoretical basis for the string cosmology model.

  12. Scale invariant cosmology II: model equations and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We want to establish the basic properties of a scale invariant cosmology, that also accounts for the hypothesis of scale invariance of the empty space at large scales. We write the basic analytical properties of the scale invariant cosmological models. The hypothesis of scale invariance of the empty space at large scale brings interesting simplifications in the scale invariant equations for cosmology. There is one new term, depending on the scale factor of the scale invariant cosmology, that opposes to gravity and favours an accelerated expansion. We first consider a zero-density model and find an accelerated expansion, going like t square. In models with matter present, the displacements due to the new term make a significant contribution Omega_l to the energy-density of the Universe, satisfying an equation of the form Omega_m + Omega_k + Omega_l = 1. Unlike the Friedman's models, there is a whole family of flat models (k=0) with different density parameters Omega_m smaller than 1. We examine the basic relat...

  13. A Dynamical System Analysis of Three Fluid cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mahata, Nilanjana

    2015-01-01

    In Friedman-Robertson-Walker flat spacetime, we consider a three fluid cosmological model which contains dark matter, dark energy and baryonic matter in the form of perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state. Dark matter is taken in form of dust and dark energy is described by a scalar field with a potential $V(\\phi)$. Einstein's field equations are reduced to an autonomous dynamical system by suitable redefinition of basic variables. Considering exponential potential for the scalar field, critical points are obtained for the autonomous system. Finally stability of the critical points and cosmological implications are analyzed.

  14. Modeling Kleinian cosmology with electronic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, David; Gomes, Felipe A.; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of Klein-Gordon particles in flat background spacetime exhibiting discontinuous metric changes from a Lorentzian signature (-,+,+,+) to a Kleinian signature (-,+,+,-) . A formal analogy with the propagation of electrons at a junction between an anisotropic semiconductor and an electronic metamaterial is presented. From that analogy, we study the dynamics of these particles falling onto planar boundary interfaces between these two families of media and show a mirror-like behavior for the particle flux. Finally, the case of a double junction of finite thickness is examined and the possibility of tunneling through it is discussed. A physical link between the metamaterial and the Kleinian slabs is found by calculating the time of flight of the respective traversing particles.

  15. Modeling Kleinian cosmology with electronic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, David; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Betrand; Moraes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of Klein-Gordon particles in flat background spacetime exhibiting discontinuous metric changes from a Lorentzian signature (-,+,+,+) to a Kleinian signature (-,+,+,-). A formal analogy with the propagation of electrons at a junction between an anisotropic semiconductor and an electronic metamaterial is presented. From that analogy, we study the dynamics of these particles falling onto planar boundary interfaces between these two families of media and show a mirror-like behavior for the particle flux. Finally, the case of a double junction of finite thickness is examined and the possibility of tunneling through it is discussed. A physical link between the metamaterial and the Kleinian slabs is found by calculating the time of flight of the respective traversing particles.

  16. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  17. Secondary Cosmic Positrons in an Anisotropic Diffusion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kappl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    One aim of cosmic ray measurements is the search for possible signatures of annihilating or decaying dark matter. The so-called positron excess has attracted a lot of attention in this context. On the other hand it has been proposed that the data might challenge the established diffusion model for cosmic ray propagation. We investigate an anisotropic diffusion model by solving the corresponding equations analytically. Depending on the propagation parameters we find that the spectral features of the positron spectrum are affected significantly. We also discuss the influence of the anisotropy on hadronic spectra.

  18. Phase diagram of model anisotropic particles with octahedral symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Noya, E. G.; Vega, C.; Doye, J. P. K.; Louis, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    We computed the phase diagram for a system of model anisotropic particles with six attractive patches in an octahedral arrangement. We chose to study this model for a relatively narrow value of the patch width where the lowest-energy configuration of the system is a simple cubic crystal. At this value of the patch width, there is no stable vapour-liquid phase separation, and there are three other crystalline phases in addition to the simple cubic crystal that is most stable at low pressure. F...

  19. Testing Cosmological Models with Type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The use of type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae (SLSN Ic) to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 11 SLSNe Ic, which have thus far been used solely in tests involving $\\Lambda$CDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ and $\\Lambda$CDM cosmologies. We individually optimize the parameters in each cosmological model by minimizing the $\\chi^{2}$ statistic. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on these current SLSN Ic measurements to estimate how large the sample would have to be in order to rule out either model at a $\\sim 99.7\\%$ confidence level. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of $\\sim$$70-80\\%$ that the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe is the correct cosmology versus $\\sim$$20-30\\%$ for the standard model. These results are suggest...

  20. Supersymmetric quantum cosmology for Bianchi class A models

    CERN Document Server

    Macías, A; Socorro, J; Macías, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Socorro, José

    1998-01-01

    The canonical theory of (N=1) supergravity, with a matrix representation for the gravitino covector-spinor, is applied to the Bianchi class A spatially homogeneous cosmologies. The full Lorentz constraint and its implications for the wave function of the universe are analyzed in detail. We found that in this model no physical states other than the trivial "rest frame" type occur.

  1. KINEMATIC WAVE PROPERTIES OF ANISOTROPIC DYNAMICS MODEL FOR TRAFFIC FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锐; 吴清松; 朱祚金

    2002-01-01

    The analyses of kinematic wave properties of a new dynamics model for traffic flow are carried out. The model does not exhibit the problem that one characteristic speed is always greater than macroscopic traffic speed, and therefore satisfies the requirement that traffic flow is anisotropic. Linear stability analysis shows that the model is stable under certain condition and the condition is obtained. The analyses also indicate that the model has a hierarchy of first-and second-order waves, and allows the existence of both smooth traveling wave and shock wave. However, the model has a distinctive criterion of shock wave compared with other dynamics models, and the distinction makes the model more realistic in dealing with some traffic problems such as wrong-way travel analysis.

  2. Pairwise velocities in the "Running FLRW" cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiano, Antonio; Croton, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the pairwise velocity statistics from a suite of cosmological N-body simulations describing the "Running Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker" (R-FLRW) cosmological model. This model is based on quantum field theory in a curved space-time and extends ΛCDM with a time-evolving vacuum energy density, ρ _Λ. To enforce local conservation of matter a time-evolving gravitational coupling is also included. Our results constitute the first study of velocities in the R-FLRW cosmology, and we also compare with other dark energy simulations suites, repeating the same analysis. We find a strong degeneracy between the pairwise velocity and σ8 at z = 0 for almost all scenarios considered, which remains even when we look back to epochs as early as z = 2. We also investigate various Coupled Dark Energy models, some of which show minimal degeneracy, and reveal interesting deviations from ΛCDM which could be readily exploited by future cosmological observations to test and further constrain our understanding of dark energy.

  3. Dark-energy cosmological models in f( G) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss dark-energy cosmological models in f( G) gravity. For this purpose, a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered. First, exact solutions with a well-known form of the f( G) model are explored. One general solution is discussed using a power-law f( G) gravity model and physical quantities are calculated. In particular, Kasner's universe is recovered and the corresponding f( G) gravity models are reported. Second, the energy conditions for the model under consideration are discussed using graphical analysis. It is concluded that solutions with f( G) = G 5/6 support expansion of universe while those with f( G) = G 1/2 do not favor the current expansion.

  4. Cosmological Models with Variable Deceleration Parameter in Lyra's Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, A; Singh, C B

    2006-01-01

    FRW models of the universe have been studied in the cosmological theory based on Lyra's manifold. A new class of exact solutions has been obtained by considering a time dependent displacement field for variable deceleration parameter from which three models of the universe are derived (i) exponential (ii) polynomial and (iii) sinusoidal form respectively. The behaviour of these models of the universe are also discussed. Finally some possibilities of further problems and their investigations have been pointed out.

  5. Physical Models of Galaxy Formation in a Cosmological Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel

    2014-01-01

    Modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context presents one of the greatest challenges in astrophysics today, due to the vast range of scales and numerous physical processes involved. Here we review the current status of models that employ two leading techniques to simulate the physics of galaxy formation: semi-analytic models and numerical hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on a set of observational targets that describe the evolution of the global and structural properties of galaxies ...

  6. Magnetized cosmological models in bimetric theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; R S Rane

    2006-08-01

    Bianchi type-III magnetized cosmological model when the field of gravitation is governed by either a perfect fluid or cosmic string is investigated in Rosen's [1] bimetric theory of gravitation. To complete determinate solution, the condition, viz., = (), where is a constant, between the metric potentials is used. We have assumed different equations of state for cosmic string [2] for the complete solution of the model. Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed and studied.

  7. A cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Puetzfeld, D; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2001-01-01

    We present a cosmological model for early stages of the universe on the basis of a Weyl-Cartan spacetime. In this model, torsion $T^{\\alpha}$ and nonmetricity $Q_{\\alpha \\beta}$ are proportional to the vacuum polarization. Extending earlier work of Tresguerres, we discuss the behaviour of the cosmic scale factor and the Weyl 1-form in detail. We show how our model fits into the more general framework of metric-affine gravity (MAG).

  8. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Hyperelastic anisotropic microplane constitutive model for annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Ferhun C; Guo, Zaoyang; Moran, Brian; Bazant, Zdenek P; Carol, Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    In a recent paper, Peng et al. (2006, "An Anisotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Fiber-Matrix Interaction for the Human Annulus Fibrosis," ASME J. Appl. Mech., 73(5), pp. 815-824) developed an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model for the human annulus fibrosus in which fiber-matrix interaction plays a crucial role in simulating experimental observations reported in the literature. Later, Guo et al. (2006, "A Composites-Based Hyperelastic Constitutive Model for Soft Tissue With Application to the Human Fibrosis," J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54(9), pp. 1952-1971) used fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory to formulate a model in which the fiber-matrix interaction was simulated using only composite effect. It was shown in these studies that the classical anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive models for soft tissue, which do not account for this shear interaction, cannot accurately simulate the test data on human annulus fibrosus. In this study, we show that the microplane model for soft tissue developed by Caner and Carol (2006, "Microplane Constitutive Model and Computational Framework for Blood Vessel Tissue," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(3), pp. 419-427) can be adjusted for human annulus fibrosus and the resulting model can accurately simulate the experimental observations without explicit fiber-matrix interaction because, in microplane model, the shear interaction between the individual fibers distributed in the tissue provides the required additional rigidity to explain these experimental facts. The intensity of the shear interaction between the fibers can be adjusted by adjusting the spread in the distribution while keeping the total amount of the fiber constant. A comparison of results obtained from (i) a fiber-matrix parallel coupling model, which does not account for the fiber-matrix interaction, (ii) the same model but enriched with fiber-matrix interaction, and (iii) microplane model for soft tissue adapted to annulus fibrosus with two

  10. Physical Models of Galaxy Formation in a Cosmological Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    Modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context presents one of the greatest challenges in astrophysics today, due to the vast range of scales and numerous physical processes involved. Here we review the current status of models that employ two leading techniques to simulate the physics of galaxy formation: semi-analytic models and numerical hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on a set of observational targets that describe the evolution of the global and structural properties of galaxies from roughly Cosmic High Noon ($z\\sim 2-3$) to the present. Although minor discrepancies remain, overall, models show remarkable convergence between different methods and make predictions that are in qualitative agreement with observations. Modelers seem to have converged on a core set of physical processes that are critical for shaping galaxy properties. This core set includes cosmological accretion, strong stellar-driven winds that are more efficient at low masses, black hole feedback that preferentially suppresses star...

  11. Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza

    1999-08-01

    Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.

  12. The models of cosmological inflation in the context of kinetic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, I.

    2016-07-01

    In this work the building of models of cosmological inflation with approximate linear dependence of the scalar field kinetic energy on the state parameter is considered. The key parameters of cosmological perturbations are also calculated.

  13. Evolution of Interacting Viscous Dark Energy Model in Einstein Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-Hua; ZHOU Sheng; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the viscous dark energy (DE) interacting with the dark matter (DM) in the Einstein cosmology model. By using the linearizing theory of the dynamical system, we find that, in our model,there exists a stable late time scaling solution which corresponds to the accelerating universe. We also find the unstable solution under some appropriate parameters. In order to alleviate the coincidence problem, some authors considered the effect of quantum correction due to the conform anomaly and the interacting dark energy with the dark matter. However, if we take into account the bulk viscosity of the cosmic fluid, the coincidence problem will be softened just like the interacting dark energy cosmology model. That is to say, both the non-perfect fluid model and the interacting the dark energy cosmic model can alleviate or soften the singularity of the universe.%@@ We investigate the evolution of the viscous dark energy (DE) interacting with the dark matter (DM) in the Einstein cosmology model.By using the linearizing theory of the dynamical system, we find that, in our model, there exists a stable late time scaling solution which corresponds to the accelerating universe.We also find the unstable solution under some appropriate parameters.In order to alleviate the coincidence problem, some authors considered the effect of quantum correction due to the conform anomaly and the interacting dark energy with the dark matter.However, if we take into account the bulk viscosity of the cosmic fluid, the coincidence problem will be softened just like the interacting dark energy cosmology model.That is to say, both the non-perfect fluid model and the interacting the dark energy cosmic model can alleviate or soften the singularity of the universe.

  14. Anisotropic Models for Globular Clusters, Galactic Bulges and Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Spherical systems with a polytropic equation of state are of great interest in astrophysics. They are widely used to describe neutron stars, red giants, white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, main sequence stars, galactic halos and globular clusters of diverse sizes. In this paper we construct analytically a family of self-gravitating spherical models in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. These models present interesting cusps in their density profiles which are appropriate for the modeling of galaxies and dark matter halos. The systems described here are anisotropic in the sense that their equiprobability surfaces in velocity space are non-spherical, leading to an overabundance of radial or circular orbits, depending on the parameters of the model in consideration. Among the family, we find the post-Newtonian generalization of the Plummer and Hernquist models. A close inspection of their equation of state reveals that these solutions interpolate smoothly between a polytropic sphere in the asymptoti...

  15. The GRBs Hubble diagram in quintessential cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek; Rubano, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    It has been recently empirically established that some of the directly observed pa- rameters of GRBs are correlated with their important intrinsic parameters, like the luminosity or the total radiated energy. These correlations were derived, tested and used to standardize GRBs, i.e., to derive their luminosity or radiated energy from one or more observables, in order to construct an estimated fiducial Hubble diagram, assuming that radiation propagates in the standard LambdaCDM cosmological model. We extend these analyses by considering more general models of dark energy, and an updated data set of high redshift GRBs. We show that the correlation parameters only weakly depend on the cosmological model. Moreover we apply a local regression technique to estimate, in a model independent way, the distance modulus from the recently updated SNIa sample containing 307 SNIa (Astier et al. 2006), in order to calibrate the GRBs 2D correlations, considering only GRBs with z <1.4. The derived calibration parameters are...

  16. Viscous dissipative Chaplygin gas dominated homogenous and isotropic cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, C S J; Mak, M K; Kovács, Z; Szabó, G M; Harko, T

    2008-01-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, which interpolates between a high density relativistic era and a non-relativistic matter phase, is a popular dark energy candidate. We consider a generalization of the Chaplygin gas model, by assuming the presence of a bulk viscous type dissipative term in the effective thermodynamic pressure of the gas. The dissipative effects are described by using the truncated Israel-Stewart model, with the bulk viscosity coefficient and the relaxation time functions of the energy density only. The corresponding cosmological dynamics of the bulk viscous Chaplygin gas dominated universe is considered in detail for a flat homogeneous isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry. For different values of the model parameters we consider the evolution of the cosmological parameters (scale factor, energy density, Hubble function, deceleration parameter and luminosity distance, respectively), by using both analytical and numerical methods. In the large time limit the model describes an acceleratin...

  17. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  18. A Dark Energy Model in Kaluza-Klein Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Ray, Saibal; Usmani, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study a dynamic Λ model with varying gravitational constant G under the Kaluza-Klein cosmology. Physical features and the limitations of the present model have been explored and discussed. Solutions are found mostly in accordance with the observed features of the accelerating universe. Interestingly, signature flipping of the deceleration parameter is noticed and the present age of the Universe is also attainable under certain stringent conditions. We find that the time variation of gravitational constant is not permitted without vintage Λ.

  19. A Dark Energy Model in Kaluza-Klein Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Ray, Saibal; Usmani, A A

    2014-01-01

    We study a dynamic $\\Lambda$ model with varying gravitational constant $G$ under the Kaluza-Klein cosmology. Physical features and the limitations of the present model have been explored and discussed. Solutions are found mostly in accordance with the observed features of the accelerating universe. Interestingly, signature flipping of the deceleration parameter is noticed and the present age of the Universe is also attainable under certain stringent conditions. We find that the time variation of gravitational constant is not permitted without vintage $\\Lambda$.

  20. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The loop quantum cosmology "improved dynamics" of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present the effective equations which provide modifications to the classical equations of motion due to quantum geometry effects.

  1. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2010-08-01

    The loop quantum cosmology “improved dynamics” of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.

  2. Cosmological model in 5D, stationarity, yes or no

    CERN Document Server

    Belayev, W B

    1999-01-01

    We consider cosmological model in 4+1 dimensions with variable scale factor in extra dimension and static external space. The time scale factor is changing. Variations of light velocity, gravity constant, mass and pressure are determined with four-dimensional projection of this space-time. Data obtained by space probes Viking on mission to Mars, Pioneer 10/11 and Ulysses are analyzed within the framework of this model.

  3. Cosmological bounds in MaVaN models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriero, D.F.; Holanda, P.C. de [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) is a class of models which in cosmology try to explain the coincidence of dark energy density through a tracking mechanism related with neutrinos. This special model couples the quintessential scalar field with neutrino generating an effective mass which becomes variable. Furthermore, it has been shown that an additional coupling among the quintessential field and baryons could generate specific dependences of neutrino mass with baryonic density.

  4. Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar Yadav; Vineet Kumar Yadav; Lallan Yadav

    2011-04-01

    Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein’s field equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale function. Solutions for particular forms of cosmic scale functions are also obtained. Some physical and geometrical aspects of the models are discussed.

  5. Classical Bianchi type I cosmology in K-essence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Socorro, J; Espinoza-García, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and we apply it to the classical anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content and with cosmological constant. The classical solutions for any but the stiff fluid and without cosmological constant are found in closed form, using a time transformation. We also present the solution whith cosmological constant and some particular values of the barotropic parameter. We present the possible isotropization of the cosmological model, using the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the universe and show that this tend to a constant or to zero for different cases. We include also a qualitative analysis of the analog of the Friedmann equation.

  6. New Cosmological Model and Its Implications on Observational Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahovic Branislav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of ΛCDM cosmology works impressively well and with the concept of inflation it explains the universe after the time of decoupling. However there are still a few concerns; after much effort there is no detection of dark matter and there are significant problems in the theoretical description of dark energy. We will consider a variant of the cosmological spherical shell model, within FRW formalism and will compare it with the standard ΛCDM model. We will show that our new topological model satisfies cosmological principles and is consistent with all observable data, but that it may require new interpretation for some data. Considered will be constraints imposed on the model, as for instance the range for the size and allowed thickness of the shell, by the supernovae luminosity distance and CMB data. In this model propagation of the light is confined along the shell, which has as a consequence that observed CMB originated from one point or a limited space region. It allows to interpret the uniformity of the CMB without inflation scenario. In addition this removes any constraints on the uniformity of the universe at the early stage and opens a possibility that the universe was not uniform and that creation of galaxies and large structures is due to the inhomogeneities that originated in the Big Bang.

  7. Efficient Multigrid Preconditioners for Anisotropic Problems in Geophysical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Dedner, Andreas; Scheichl, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many problems in geophysical modelling require the efficient solution of highly anisotropic elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) in "flat" domains. For example, in numerical weather- and climate-prediction an elliptic PDE for the pressure correction has to be solved at every time step in a thin spherical shell representing the global atmosphere. This elliptic solve can be one of the computationally most demanding components in semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian time stepping methods which are very popular as they allow for larger model time steps and better overall performance. With increasing model resolution, algorithmically efficient and scalable algorithms are essential to run the code under tight operational time constraints. We discuss the theory and practical application of bespoke geometric multigrid preconditioners for equations of this type. The algorithms deal with the strong anisotropy in the vertical direction by using the tensor-product approach originally analysed by B\\"{o}rm and Hiptmair ...

  8. Robertson-Walker cosmological models with perfect fluid in general relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rishi Kumar Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    Einstein's field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of perfect fluid for a Robertson-Walker universe by assuming the cosmological term to be proportional to R-m (R is a scale factor and m is a constant). A variety of solutions is presented. The physical significance of the cosmological models has also been discussed.

  9. Anisotropic rock physics models for interpreting pore structures in carbonate reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sheng-Jie; Shao Yu; Chen Xu-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We developed an anisotropic effective theoretical model for modeling the elastic behavior of anisotropic carbonate reservoirs by combining the anisotropic self-consistent approximation and differential effective medium models. By analyzing the measured data from carbonate samples in the TL area, a carbonate pore-structure model for estimating the elastic parameters of carbonate rocks is proposed, which is a prerequisite in the analysis of carbonate reservoirs. A workfl ow for determining elastic properties of carbonate reservoirs is established in terms of the anisotropic effective theoretical model and the pore-structure model. We performed numerical experiments and compared the theoretical prediction and measured data. The result of the comparison suggests that the proposed anisotropic effective theoretical model can account for the relation between velocity and porosity in carbonate reservoirs. The model forms the basis for developing new tools for predicting and evaluating the properties of carbonate reservoirs.%♦Corresponding author: Li Sheng-Jie (Email: Richard@cup.edu.cn)

  10. Constraints on cosmological models from lens redshift data

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structures, formations, and evolutions). Now several hundreds of strong lens systems produced by massive galaxies have been discovered, which may form well-defined samples useful for statistical analyses. To collect a relatively complete lens redshift data from various large systematic surveys of gravitationally lensed quasars and check the possibility to use it as a future complementarity to other cosmological probes. We use the distribution of gravitationally-lensed image separations observed in the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS), the PMN-NVSS Extragalactic Lens Survey (PANELS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and other surveys, considering a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE) model for galactic potentials as well as improved new measurements of the velocity dispersion function of galaxies based on the SDSS DR5 data and recent semi-analytical modeling of galaxy formation, to constrain tw...

  11. First cosmological constraints on the Superfluid Chaplygin gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this work we set observational constraints of the Superfluid Chaplygin gas model, which gives a unified description of the dark sector of the Universe as a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that behaves as dark energy (DE) while it is in the ground state and as dark matter (DM) when it is in the excited state. We first show and perform the various steps leading to a form of the equations suitable for the observational tests to be carried out. Then, by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) code, we constrain the model with a sample of cosmology-independent long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) calibrated using their Type I Fundamental Plane, as well as the Union2.1 set and observational Hubble parameter data. In this analysis, using our cosmological constraints, we sketch the effective equation of state parameter and deceleration parameter, and we also obtain the redshift of the transition from deceleration to acceleration: $z_t$.

  12. The Cosmological Constant for the Crystalline Vacuum Cosmic Space Model

    CERN Document Server

    Montemayor-Aldrete, J A; Morales-Mori, A; Mendoza-Allende, A; Montemayor-Varela, A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J

    2005-01-01

    The value of the cosmological constant arising from a crystalline model for vacuum cosmic space with lattice parameter of the order of the neutron radius [1] has been calculated. The model allows to solve, in an easy way, the problem of the cosmological constant giving the right order of magnitude, which corresponds very well with the mean value of matter density in the universe. The obtained value is about 10-48 Km-2. Diffraction experiments with non-thermal neutron beam in cosmic space are proposed to search for the possibility of crystalline structure of vacuum space and to measure the lattice parameter. PACS numbers: 98.80.Es, 04.20.-q, 03.65.-w, 61.50.-f, 98.80.Ft

  13. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the

  14. Homogeneous cosmologies and the Maupertuis-Jacobi principle

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, L A; Elias, Luciana A.; Saa, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    A recent work showing that homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies involving scalar fields are equivalent to the geodesics of certain effective manifolds is generalized to the non-minimally coupled and anisotropic cases. As the Maupertuis-Jacobi principle in classical mechanics, such result permits us to infer some dynamical properties of cosmological models from the geometry of the associated effective manifolds, allowing us to go a step further in the study of cosmological dynamics. By means of some explicit examples, we show how the geometrical analysis can simplify considerably the dynamical analysis of cosmological models.

  15. Wave functions in SUSY cosmological models with matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, C. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Rosales, J.J. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Prolongacion Tampico 912, Bellavista, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico); Socorro, J. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: socorro@fisica.ugto.mx; Torres, J. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Tkach, V.I. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2005-06-06

    In this work we consider the n=2 supersymmetric superfield approach for the FRW cosmological model and the corresponding term of matter content, perfect fluid with barotropic state equation p={gamma}{rho}. We are able to obtain a normalizable wave function (at zero energy) of the universe. Besides, the mass parameter spectrum is found for the closed FRW case in the Schrodinger picture, being similar to those obtained by other methods, using a black hole system.

  16. Perturbations of Kantowski-Sachs models with a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Bradley, Michael; Dunsby, Peter K S; Gergely, László Á

    2013-01-01

    We investigate perturbations of Kantowski-Sachs models with a positive cosmological constant, using the gauge invariant 1+3 and 1+1+2 covariant splits of spacetime together with a harmonic decomposition. The perturbations are assumed to be vorticity-free and of perfect fluid type, but otherwise include general scalar, vector and tensor modes. In this case the set of equations can be reduced to six evolution equations for six harmonic coefficients.

  17. On black hole solutions in model with anisotropic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Dehnen, H; Melnikov, V N

    2003-01-01

    A family of spherically symmetric solutions in the model with 1-component anisotropic fluid is considered. The metric of the solution depends on a parameter q > 0 relating radial pressure and the density and contains n -1 parameters corresponding to Ricci-flat ``internal space'' metrics. For q = 1 and certain equations of state the metric coincides with the metric of black brane solutions in the model with antisymmetric form. A family of black hole solutions corresponding to natural numbers q = 1,2, ... is singled out. Certain examples of solutions (e.g. containing for q =1 Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m, M2 and M5 black brane metrics) are considered. The post-Newtonian parameters beta and gamma corresponding to the 4-dimensional section of the metric are calculated.

  18. Micro-macro modelling of stress-dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartok, A; Daniel, L; Razek, A, E-mail: andras.bartok@lgep.supelec.fr, E-mail: laurent.daniel@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris (LGEP), CNRS (UMR 8507)-SUPELEC-UPMC Paris 6-Univ Paris-Sud 11, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-06

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is the basic phenomenon of a spread class of sensors. AMR effect has a strong mechanical stress dependence. Micromagnetic simulations are often used for modelling the magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic materials, but these approaches do not allow us to investigate macroscopic effects (for example behaviour of a polycrystal under stress) due to the high number of interactions and degrees of freedom. On the other hand macroscopic phenomenological approaches fail in describing the main role of microstructure on the effective behaviour. In this work a micro-macro model is proposed to describe the effect of stress on the AMR in ferromagnetic polycrystals. Results are discussed and compared with experimental data from the literature.

  19. Anisotropic damage coupled modeling of saturated porous rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the natural rock mass is anisotropic and its failing type is also non-isotropic. An orthotropic elastic damaged model has been proposed in which the elastic deformation,the damaged deformation and irreversible deformation can be identified respectively. A second rank damage tensor is employed to characterize the induced damage and damage evolution related to the propagation conditions of microcracks. A specific form of the Gibbs free energy function is used to obtain the effective elastic stiffness and the limited scopes of damage parameters are suggested. The model’s parameter determination is proposed by virtue of conventional tri-axial test. Then,the proposed model is developed to simulate the coupled hydraulic mechanical responses and traction behaviors in different loading paths of porous media.

  20. Heterogeneous anisotropic complex structure gradual model and constitutive relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 宋健; 张志民

    2003-01-01

    Four new gradually delaminate models of the three-dimensional macro-/mesoscopic structure and delamination of the heterogeneous anisotropic composite (HAC) are set up by conducting research into its structure and performance. A general theory, which demonstrates the three-dimensional constitutive relation of the macro-/mesoscopic performance of this structure is further developed. The macroscopic expression of HAC is presented in terms of a Tanigawa delaminate homogeneous equivalent approach, the mesoscopic problems are analysed utilizing Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka theory, with the introduction of the representative volume elements of monolayer single unit cell and interlaminar double unit cells.According to the gradual continuity of the structure as a whole, great attention is given to the modelling and research of the interlaminar macroscopic and mesoscopic problems of HAC structure. Comparison with the existing solutions is made through calculation of typical cases.

  1. Cosmological Structure Formation in Decaying Dark Matter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Dalong; Tang, Jiayu

    2015-01-01

    The standard cold dark matter (CDM) model predicts too many and too dense small structures. We consider an alternative model that the dark matter undergoes two-body decays with cosmological lifetime $\\tau$ into only one type of massive daughters with non-relativistic recoil velocity $V_k$. This decaying dark matter model (DDM) can suppress the structure formation below its free-streaming scale at time scale comparable to $\\tau$. Comparing with warm dark matter (WDM), DDM can better reduce the small structures while being consistent with high redshfit observations. We study the cosmological structure formation in DDM by performing self-consistent N-body simulations and point out that cosmological simulations are necessary to understand the DDM structures especially on non-linear scales. We propose empirical fitting functions for the DDM suppression of the mass function and the mass-concentration relation, which depend on the decay parameters lifetime $\\tau$ and recoil velocity $V_k$, and redshift. The fitting ...

  2. On spherically symmetric singularity-free models in relativistic cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh Tikekar

    2000-10-01

    The introduction of time dependence through a scale factor in a non-conformally flat static cosmological model whose spacetime can be embedded in a five demensional flat spacetime is shown to give rise to two spherical models of universe filled with perfect fluid acompannied with radial heat flux without any Big Bang type singularity. The first model describes an ever existing universe which witnesses a transition from state of contraction to that of ever expansion. The second model represents a universe oscillating between two regular states.

  3. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ρ=kλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy density is ζ∝ρ1/2.

  4. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  5. Cosmology of generalized modified gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean M.; de Felice, Antonio; Duvvuri, Vikram; Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark; Turner, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the far future evolution of the Universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models.

  6. The Cosmology of Generalized Modified Gravity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Duvvuri, V; Easson, D A; Trodden, M; Turner, M S; Carroll, Sean M.; Felice, Antonio De; Duvvuri, Vikram; Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark; Turner, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the far future evolution of the universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models.

  7. An anisotropic illumination model of Seyfert I galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O

    1996-01-01

    We present a new model of accretion disk where the disk luminosity is entirely due to the reprocessing of hard radiation impinging on the disk. The hard radiation itself is emitted by a hot point source above the disk, that could be physically realized by a strong shock terminating an aborted jet. This hot source contains ultra-relativistic leptons scattering the disk soft photons by Inverse Compton (IC) process. Using simple formula to describe the IC process in an anisotropic photon field, we derive a self-consistent solution in the Newtonian geometry, where the angular distribution of soft and hard radiation, and the radial profile of the disk effective temperature are determined in a univocal way. This offers an alternative picture to the standard accretion disk emission law, reproducing individual spectra and predicting new scaling laws that fit better the observed statistical properties. General relativistic calculations are also carried out. It appears that differences with the Newtonian case are weak,...

  8. SN1987A-Neutrino emission from Supernova': in Dynamic universe model of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    SN1987A-Neutrino emission from supernova before the star bursts' is an important discovery, when viewed from `Dynamic universe model of cosmology' point of view. In OMEG05, we have successfully presented the reasons for calculation error called `missing mass' in an inhomoge-neous, anisotropic and multi-body Dynamic universe Model, where this error is not occurring. But there are some new voices that say about generation of some flavors of neutrinos during Bigbang. We find from SN1987A Neutrino generation covers all flavors. Remaining flavors of Neutrinos are generated from sun and stars. This covers the whole spectrum. This paper covers all these aspects. And other earlier results by Dynamic Universe Model 1. Offers Singularity free solutions 2. Non-collapsing Galaxy structures 3. Solving Missing mass in Galaxies, and it finds reason for Galaxy circular velocity curves. . . . 4. Blue shifted and red shifted Galaxies co-existence. . . 5. Explains the force behind expansion of universe. 6. Explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities. 7. Explains the Pioneer anomaly 8. Predicts the trajectory of New Horizons satellite. 9 Jeans swindle test 10. Existence of large number of blue shifted Galaxies `SITA Simulations' software was developed about 18 years back for Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology. It is based on Newtonian physics. It is Classical singularity free N-body tensor solution to the old problem announced by King Oscar II and tried by Poincare in year AD1888 for 133 masses, tested extensively for so many years. This was developed on 486 based PC of those days; the same software was used repeatedly for so many years for solving different Physical problems on Different PCs and Laptops. It is based on Dynamic Universe Model's mathematical back ground.

  9. The Qualitative and Numerical Analysis of the Cosmological Model Based on Phantom Scalar Field with Self

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the cosmological model based on phantom scalar field on the ground of qualitative analysis of the system of the cosmological model's differential equations and show that as opposed to models with classical scalar field, such models have stable asymptotic solutions with constant value of the potential both in infinite past and infinite future. We also develop numerical models of the cosmological evolution models with phantom scalar field in this paper. {\\bf keywords}: cosmological model, phantom scalar field, quality analysis, asymptotic behavior, numerical simulation, numerical gravitation.\\\\ {\\bf PACS}: 04.20.Cv, 98.80.Cq, 96.50.S 52.27.Ny

  10. Cosmological Perturbations in Phantom Dark Energy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanol Albarran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ΛCDM paradigm, characterised by a constant equation of state w = − 1 for dark energy, is the model that better fits observations. However, the same observations strongly support the possibility of a dark energy content where the corresponding equation of state is close to but slightly smaller than − 1 . In this regard, we focus on three different models where the dark energy content is described by a perfect fluid with an equation of state w ≲ − 1 which can evolve or not. The three proposals show very similar behaviour at present, while the asymptotic evolution of each model drives the Universe to different abrupt events known as (i Big Rip; (ii Little Rip (LR; and (iii Little Sibling of the Big Rip. With the aim of comparing these models and finding possible imprints in their predicted matter distribution, we compute the matter power spectrum and the growth rate f σ 8 . We conclude that the model which induces a LR seems to be favoured by observations.

  11. Two models of anisotropic propagation of a cardiac excitation wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, I. S.; Agladze, K. I.

    2014-11-01

    Propagation of the action potential in the real heart is direction-dependent (anisotropic). We propose two general physical models explaining this anisotropy on the cellular level. The first, "delay" model takes into account the frequency of the cell-cell transitions in different directions of propagation, assuming each transition requires some small time interval. The second model relies on the assumption that the action potential transmits to the next cell only from the area at the pole of the previous cell. We estimated parameters of both models by doing optical mapping and fluorescent staining of cardiac cell samples grown on polymer fiber substrate. Both models gave reasonable estimations, but predicted different behaviors of the anisotropy ratio (ratio of the highest and lowest wave velocities) after addition of the suppressor of sodium channels such as lidocaine. The results of the experiment on lidocaine effect on anisotropy ratio were in favor of the first, "delay" model. Estimated average cell-cell transition delay was 240 ± 80 μs, which is close to the characteristic values of synaptic delay.

  12. Wormholes in viscous cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Deng

    2016-01-01

    We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...

  13. Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model: $\\Lambda\

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative analysis of the system of differential equations of the standard cosmological model it is shown that in the case of zero cosmological constant this system has a stable center corresponding to zero values of potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has an oscillating character and changes from $-2$ (braking), to $+1$ (acceleration). Average value of the cosmological acceleration is negative and is equal to $-1/2$. Oscillations of the cosmological acceleration happen on the background of rapidly falling Hubble constant. In the case of nonzero value of the cosmological constant depending on its value there are possible three various qualitative behavior typ...

  14. Redshift remapping and cosmic acceleration in dark-matter-dominated cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    The standard relation between the cosmological redshift and cosmic scale factor underlies cosmological inference from virtually all kinds of cosmological observations, leading to the emergence of the LambdaCDM cosmological model. This relation is not a fundamental theory and thus observational determination of this function (redshift remapping) should be regarded as an insightful alternative to holding its standard form in analyses of cosmological data. Here we present non-parametric reconstructions of redshift remapping in dark-matter-dominated models and constraints on cosmological parameters from a joint analysis of all primary cosmological probes including the local measurement of the Hubble constant, Type Ia supernovae, baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (temperature power spectrum) and cosmic chronometers. The reconstructed redshift remapping points to an additional boost of redshift operating in late epoch of cosmic evolution, bu...

  15. Antiproton Flux in Cosmic Ray Propagation Models with Anisotropic Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Grajek, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Recently a cosmic ray propagation model has been introduced, where anisotropic diffusion is used as a mechanism to allow for $\\mathcal{O}(100)$ km/s galactic winds. This model predicts a reduced antiproton background flux, suggesting an excess is being observed. We implement this model in GALPROP v50.1 and perform a $\\chi^2$ analysis for B/C, $^{10}$Be/$^{9}$Be, and the recent PAMELA $\\bar{p}/p$ datasets. By introducing a power-index parameter $\\alpha$ that dictates the dependence of the diffusion coefficient $D_{xx}$ on height $|z|$ away from the galactic plane, we confirm that isotropic diffusion models with $\\alpha=0$ cannot accommodate high velocity convective winds suggested by ROSAT, while models with $\\alpha=1$ ($D_{xx}\\propto |z|$) can give a very good fit. A fit to B/C and $^{10}$Be/$^{9}$Be data predicts a lower $\\bar{p}/p$ flux ratio than the PAMELA measurement at energies between approximately 2 GeV to 20 GeV. A combined fit including in addition the $\\bar{p}/p$ data is marginal, suggesting only a...

  16. Constraining interacting dark energy models with latest cosmological observations

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Dong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The local measurement of $H_0$ is in tension with the prediction of $\\Lambda$CDM model based on the Planck data. This tension may imply that dark energy is strengthened in the late-time Universe. We employ the latest cosmological observations on CMB, BAO, LSS, SNe, $H(z)$ and $H_0$ to constrain several interacting dark energy models. Our results show no significant indications for the interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The $H_0$ tension can be moderately alleviated, but not totally released.

  17. Constraining interacting dark energy models with latest cosmological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Mei; Wang, Sai

    2016-11-01

    The local measurement of H0 is in tension with the prediction of Λ cold dark matter model based on the Planck data. This tension may imply that dark energy is strengthened in the late-time Universe. We employ the latest cosmological observations on cosmic microwave background, the baryon acoustic oscillation, large-scale structure, supernovae, H(z) and H0 to constrain several interacting dark energy models. Our results show no significant indications for the interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The H0 tension can be moderately alleviated, but not totally released.

  18. On hyperbolicity violations in cosmological models with vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological models with vector fields received much attention in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are plagued with severe instabilities or other problems. In particular, it was noted by G. Esposito-Farese, C. Pitrou and J.-Ph. Uzan in arXiv:0912.0481 that the models with a non-linear function of the Maxwellian kinetic term do always imply violations of hyperbolicity somewhere in the phase space. In this work we make this statement more precise in several respects and show that those violations may not be present around spatially homogeneous configurations of the vector field.

  19. Anistropic Invariant FRW Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chagoya, J F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of including anisotropic scaling invariance in the minisuperspace Lagrangian for a universe modelled by the Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric, a massless scalar field and cosmological constant. We find that canonical quantization of this system leads to a Schroedinger type equation, thus avoiding the frozen time problem of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Furthermore, we find numerical solutions for the classical equations of motion, and we also find evidence that under some conditions the big bang singularity is avoided in this model.

  20. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-06-20

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  1. Cosmological study of reconstructed f(T) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Saleem, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we construct f(T) models by using some dark energy models taking FRW space-time under reconstruction scenario. These dark energy models consist of pilgrim dark energy model with event horizon and Granda-Oliveros as infrared cutoff and higher order time derivatives of Hubble parameter. Using these models we drive the cosmological parameters such as equation of state, square speed of sound and ωT-ωT' plane taking power-law form of scale factor. We discuss these parameters graphically for different values of scale factor parameter. The first and second models represent quintessence and phantom era with stable behavior and freezing region for smaller values of scale factor parameter. The third model shows unstable behavior while phantom era of the universe.

  2. Examining subgrid models of supermassive black holes in cosmological simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M

    2010-01-01

    While supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play an important role in galaxy and cluster evolution, at present they can only be included in large-scale cosmological simulation via subgrid techniques. However, these subgrid models have not been studied in a systematic fashion. Using a newly-developed fast, parallel spherical overdensity halo finder built into the simulation code FLASH, we perform a suite of dark matter-only cosmological simulations to study the effects of subgrid model choice on relations between SMBH mass and dark matter halo mass and velocity dispersion. We examine three aspects of SMBH subgrid models: the choice of initial black hole seed mass, the test for merging two black holes, and the frequency of applying the subgrid model. We also examine the role that merging can play in determining the relations, ignoring the complicating effects of SMBH-driven accretion and feedback. We find that the choice of subgrid model can dramatically affect the black hole merger rate, the cosmic SMBH mass densit...

  3. Elasto-viscoplastic phase field modelling of anisotropic cleavage fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthraj, P.; Svendsen, B.; Sharma, L.; Roters, F.; Raabe, D.

    2017-02-01

    A finite-strain anisotropic phase field method is developed to model the localisation of damage on a defined family of crystallographic planes, characteristic of cleavage fracture in metals. The approach is based on the introduction of an undamaged configuration, and the inelastic deformation gradient mapping this configuration to a damaged configuration is microstructurally represented by the opening of a set of cleavage planes in the three fracture modes. Crack opening is modelled as a dissipative process, and its evolution is thermodynamically derived. To couple this approach with a physically-based phase field method for brittle fracture, a scalar measure of the overall local damage is introduced, whose evolution is determined by the crack opening rates, and weakly coupled with the non-local phase field energy representing the crack opening resistance in the classical sense of Griffith. A finite-element implementation of the proposed model is employed to simulate the crack propagation path in a laminate and a polycrystalline microstructure. As shown in this work, it is able to predict the localisation of damage on the set of pre-defined cleavage planes, as well as the kinking and branching of the crack resulting from the crystallographic misorientation across the laminate boundary and the grain boundaries respectively.

  4. Chiral spin liquid in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin-Chen; Sheng, D N; Chen, Yan

    2014-04-04

    Kalmeyer-Laughlin (KL) chiral spin liquid (CSL) is a type of quantum spin liquid without time-reversal symmetry, and it is considered as the parent state of an exotic type of superconductor--anyon superconductor. Such an exotic state has been sought for more than twenty years; however, it remains unclear whether it can exist in a realistic system where time-reversal symmetry is breaking (T breaking) spontaneously. By using the density matrix renormalization group, we show that KL CSL exists in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model, which has spontaneous T breaking. We find that our model has two topological degenerate ground states, which exhibit nonvanishing scalar chirality order and are protected by finite excitation gap. Furthermore, we identify this state as KL CSL by the characteristic edge conformal field theory from the entanglement spectrum and the quasiparticles braiding statistics extracted from the modular matrix. We also study how this CSL phase evolves as the system approaches the nearest-neighbor kagome Heisenberg model.

  5. Constraining anisotropic models of early Universe with WMAP9 data

    CERN Document Server

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    2013-01-01

    We constrain several models of the early Universe that predict statistical anisotropy of the CMB sky. We make use of WMAP9 maps deconvolved with beam asymmetries. As compared to previous releases of WMAP data, they do not exhibit the anomalously large quadrupole of the statistical anisotropy. This allows to strengthen limits on parameters of models established earlier in literature. In particular, the amplitude of the special quadrupole, whose direction is aligned with ecliptic poles, is now constrained as g_* =0.002 \\pm 0.041 at 95% CL (\\pm 0.020 at 68% CL). The upper limit is obtained on the total number of e-folds in anisotropic inflation with the Maxwellian term non-minimally coupled to the inflaton, namely N_{tot} models of (pseudo)-Conformal Universe. The strongest constraint is obtained for spectator scenarios involving a long stage of subhorizon evolution after conformal rolling, which reads h^2 < 0.006 at 95% CL, in terms ...

  6. Cosmological data analysis of f(R) gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Girones, Z; Mena, O; Pena-Garay, C; Rius, N

    2009-01-01

    A class of well-behaved modified gravity models with long enough matter domination epoch and a late-time accelerated expansion is confronted with SNIa, CMB, SDSS, BAO and H(z) galaxy ages data, as well as current measurements of the linear growth of structure. We show that the combination of geometrical probes and growth data exploited here allows to rule out f(R) gravity models, in particular, the logarithmic of curvature model. We also apply solar system tests to the models in agreement with the cosmological data. We find that the exponential of the inverse of the curvature model satisfies all the observational tests considered and we derive the allowed range of parameters. Current data still allows for small deviations of Einstein gravity. Future, high precision growth data, in combination with expansion history data, will be able to distinguish tiny modifications of standard gravity from the LambdaCDM model.

  7. Cosmological data analysis of f(R) gravity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironés, Z.; Marchetti, A.; Mena, O.; Peña-Garay, C.; Rius, N., E-mail: girones@ific.uv.es, E-mail: alida.marchetti@unimi.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: carlos.penya@ific.uv.es, E-mail: nuria@ific.uv.es [Depto. de Física Teórica, IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apt. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    A class of well-behaved modified gravity models with long enough matter domination epoch and a late-time accelerated expansion is confronted with SNIa, CMB, SDSS, BAO and H(z) galaxy ages data, as well as current measurements of the linear growth of structure. We show that the combination of geometrical probes and growth data exploited here allows to rule out f(R) gravity models, in particular, the logarithmic of curvature model. We also apply solar system tests to the models in agreement with the cosmological data. We find that the exponential of the inverse of the curvature model satisfies all the observational tests considered and we derive the allowed range of parameters. Current data still allows for small deviations of Einstein gravity. Future, high precision growth data, in combination with expansion history data, will be able to distinguish tiny modifications of standard gravity from the ΛCDM model.

  8. Cosmological model with interactions in the dark sector

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2007-01-01

    A cosmological model is proposed for the current Universe consisted of non-interacting baryonic matter and interacting dark components. The dark energy and dark matter are coupled through their effective barotropic indexes, which are considered as functions of the ratio between their energy densities. It is investigated two cases where the ratio is asymptotically stable and their parameters are adjusted by considering best fits to Hubble function data. It is shown that the deceleration parameter, the densities parameters, and the luminosity distance have the correct behavior which is expected for a viable present scenario of the Universe.

  9. Testing coupled dark energy models with their cosmological background evolution

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Morrice, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider a cosmology in which dark matter and a quintessence scalar field responsible for the acceleration of the Universe are allowed to interact. Allowing for both conformal and disformal couplings, we perform a global analysis of the constraints on our model using Hubble parameter measurements, baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, and a Supernovae Type Ia data set. We find that the additional disformal coupling relaxes the conformal coupling constraints. Moreover we show that, at the background level, a disformal interaction within the dark sector is preferred to both $\\Lambda$CDM and uncoupled quintessence, hence favouring interacting dark energy.

  10. Tachyonization of the $\\La$CDM cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P; Kremer, Gilberto M; Ribas, Marlos O

    2008-01-01

    In this work a tachyonization of the $\\Lambda$CDM model for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time is proposed. A tachyon field and a cosmological constant are considered as the sources of the gravitational field. Starting from a stability analysis and from the exact solutions for a standard tachyon field driven by a given potential, the search for a large set of cosmological models which contain the $\\Lambda$CDM model is investigated. By the use of internal transformations two new kinds of tachyon fields are derived from the standard tachyon field, namely, a complementary and a phantom tachyon fields. Numerical solutions for the three kinds of tachyon fields are determined and it is shown that the standard and complementary tachyon fields reproduces the $\\Lambda$CDM model as a limiting case. The standard tachyon field can also describe a transition from an accelerated to a decelerated regime, behaving as an inflaton field at early times and as a matter field at late times. The complementary t...

  11. Nonspherical Szekeres models in the language of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Delgado Gaspar, Ismael; Germán, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We study the differences and equivalences between the nonperturbative description of the evolution of cosmic structure furnished by the Szekeres dust models (a nonspherical exact solution of Einstein's equations) and the dynamics of cosmological perturbation theory (C P T ) for dust sources in a Λ CDM background. We show how the dynamics of Szekeres models can be described by evolution equations given in terms of "exact fluctuations" that identically reduce (at all orders) to evolution equations of C P T in the comoving isochronous gauge. We explicitly show how Szekeres linearized exact fluctuations are specific (deterministic) realizations of standard linear perturbations of C P T given as random fields, but, as opposed to the latter perturbations, they can be evolved exactly into the full nonlinear regime. We prove two important results: (i) the conservation of the curvature perturbation (at all scales) also holds for the appropriate linear approximation of the exact Szekeres fluctuations in a Λ CDM background, and (ii) the different collapse morphologies of Szekeres models yields, at nonlinear order, different functional forms for the growth factor that follows from the study of redshift space distortions. The metric-based potentials used in linear C P T are computed in terms of the parameters of the linearized Szekeres models, thus allowing us to relate our results to linear C P T results in other gauges. We believe that these results provide a solid starting stage to examine the role of non-perturbative general relativity in current cosmological research.

  12. The adhesion model as a field theory for cosmological clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: rigopoulos@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion model has been proposed in the past as an improvement of the Zel'dovich approximation, providing a good description of the formation of the cosmic web. We recast the model as a field theory for cosmological large scale structure, adding a stochastic force to account for power generated from very short, highly non-linear scales that is uncorrelated with the initial power spectrum. The dynamics of this Stochastic Adhesion Model (SAM) is reminiscent of the well known Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation with the difference that the viscosity and the noise spectrum are time dependent. Choosing the viscosity proportional to the growth factor D restricts the form of noise spectrum through a 1-loop renormalization argument. For this choice, the SAM field theory is renormalizable to one loop. We comment on the suitability of this model for describing the non-linear regime of the CDM power spectrum and its utility as a relatively simple approach to cosmological clustering.

  13. Kinematic equivalence between models driven by DBI field with constant $\\gamma$ and exotic holographic quintessence cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    We show the kinematic equivalence between cosmological models driven by Dirac-Born-Infeld fields $\\phi$ with constant proper velocity of the brane and exponential potential $V=V_0e^{-B\\phi}$ and interactive cosmological systems with Modified Holographic Ricci type fluids as dark energy in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.

  14. Quantum cosmology of (loop) quantum gravity condensates: An example

    CERN Document Server

    Gielen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Spatially homogeneous universes can be described in (loop) quantum gravity as condensates of elementary excitations of space. Their treatment is easiest in the second-quantised group field theory formalism which allows the adaptation of techniques from the description of Bose-Einstein condensates in condensed matter physics. Dynamical equations for the states can be derived directly from the underlying quantum gravity dynamics. The analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation defines an anisotropic quantum cosmology model, in which the condensate wavefunction becomes a quantum cosmology wavefunction on minisuperspace. To illustrate this general formalism, we give a mapping of the gauge-invariant geometric data for a tetrahedron to a minisuperspace of homogeneous anisotropic 3-metrics. We then study an example for which we give the resulting quantum cosmology model in the general anisotropic case and derive the general analytical solution for isotropic universes. We discuss the interpretation of these solutions a...

  15. Constraints On Holographic Cosmological Models From Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Alexander Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    We use Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) data to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. GRBs are the most energetic events in the Universe and provide a complementary probe of dark energy by allowing the measurement of cosmic expansion history that extends to redshifts greater than 6 and they are complementary to SNIa test. We found that the LCDM model is the best fit to the data, although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, except Ricci Scale CPL model. These results show the importance of GRBs measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to clarify the way in the paradigm of dark energy or potential alternatives.

  16. Modelling of Charged anisotropic compact stars with EOS $\\rho=f(p)$

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K

    2016-01-01

    Charged compact star models have been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein's- Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star models by using radial pressure, metric function $e^{\\lambda}$ and electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like, causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via. adiabatic index, TOV equations and Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. However we also presented the EOS $\\rho=f(p)$ for present charged compact star model.

  17. Investigation of dark matter-dark energy interaction cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test the dark matter-dark energy interacting cosmological model with a dynamic equation of state $w_{DE}(z)=w_{0}+w_{1}z/(1+z)$, using type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), Hubble parameter data, baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. This interacting cosmological model has not been studied before. The best-fitted parameters with $1 \\sigma$ uncertainties are $\\delta=-0.022 \\pm 0.006$, $\\Omega_{DM}^{0}=0.213 \\pm 0.008$, $w_0 =-1.210 \\pm 0.033$ and $w_1=0.872 \\pm 0.072$ with $\\chi^2_{min}/dof = 0.990$. At the $1 \\sigma$ confidence level, we find $\\delta<0$, which means that the energy transfer prefers from dark matter to dark energy. We also find that the SNe Ia are in tension with the combination of CMB, BAO and Hubble parameter data. The evolution of $\\rho_{DM}/\\rho_{DE}$ indicates that this interacting model is a good approach to solve the coincidence problem, because the $\\rho_{DE}$ decrease with scale factor $a$. The transition r...

  18. New model of axion monodromy inflation and its cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yi-Fu [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology,Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Chen, Fang [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Quintin, Jerome [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    We propose a new realization of axion monodromy inflation in which axion monodromy arises from torsional cycles in a type IIB compactification. A class of monomial potentials is obtained with specific values for the power index. Moreover, the inflaton mass changes profile due to the couplings between various fields after compactification. Consequently, the potential obtains a step-like profile at some critical scale. We study the cosmological implications of one concrete realization of this model. At the background level, it realizes a sufficiently long inflationary stage, which allows for the violation of the slow-roll conditions for a short period of time when the inflaton is close to the critical scale. Accordingly, the Hubble horizon is perturbed and affects the dynamics of primordial cosmological perturbations. In particular, we analyze the angular power spectrum of B-mode polarization and find a boost on very large scales. We also find that the amplitude of scalar perturbations is suppressed near the critical scale. Thus our model provides an interpretation for the low-ℓ suppression of temperature anisotropies in the CMB power spectrum. We examine these effects and confront the model to observations.

  19. A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Time Delay Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of $\\Lambda$CDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between {\\it competing} models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of $\\sim 70-80%$ that the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe is the correct cosmology versus $\\sim 20-30%$ for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic sa...

  20. A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Strong Gravitational Lensing Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems allow us to compare competing cosmologies as long as one can be reasonably sure of the mass distribution within the intervening lens. In this paper, we assemble a catalog of 69 such systems, and carry out a one-on-one comparison between the standard model, LCDM, and the R_h=ct Universe. We find that both models account for the lens observations quite well, though the precision of these measurements does not appear to be good enough to favor one model over the other. Part of the reason is the so-called bulge-halo conspiracy that, on average, results in a baryonic velocity dispersion within a fraction of the optical effective radius virtually identical to that expected for the whole luminous-dark matter distribution. Given the limitations of doing precision cosmological testing using the current sample, we also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on the current lens measurements to estimate how large the source catalog would have to be in order to rule o...

  1. The Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) : An answer to the missing cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, Gilles; Petit, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological antimatter absence remains unexplained. Twin universes 1967 Sakarov's model suggests an answer: excess of matter and anti-quarks production in our universe is balanced by equivalent excess of antimatter and quark in twin universe. JCM provides geometrical framework, with a single manifold , two metrics solutions of two coupled field equations, to describe two populations of particles, one with positive energy-mass and the other with negative energy-mass : the `twin matter'. In a quantum point of view, it's a copy of the standard matter but with negative mass and energy. The matter-antimatter duality holds in both sectors. The standard and twin matters do not interact except through the gravitational coupling expressed in field equations. The twin matter is unobservable from matter-made apparatus. Field equations shows that matter and twin matter repel each other. Twin matter surrounding galaxies explains their confinement (dark matter role) and, in the dust universe era, mainly drives the process of expansion of the positive sector, responsible of the observed acceleration (dark energy role).

  2. DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Yeremy [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)

    2014-11-15

    The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch (element of = +1). For the negative branch (element of = -1) we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form αH{sup 2} + βH, H being the Hubble parameter and α, β positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for r{sub c}H(z), where r{sub c} is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters α and β, in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as r{sub c}H{sub 0} in the positive branch, where H{sub 0} is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for (r{sub c}H{sub 0}, α, β) lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  3. Cosmological degeneracy versus cosmography: a cosmographic dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Luongo, Orlando; Troisi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we use cosmography to alleviate the degeneracy among cosmological models, proposing a way to parameterize matter and dark energy in terms of cosmokinematics quantities. The recipe of using cosmography allows to expand observable quantities in Taylor series and to directly compare those expansions with data. We adopt this strategy and we propose a fully self-consistent parametrization of the total energy density driving the late time universe speed up. Afterwards, we describe a feasible \\emph{cosmographic dark energy model}, in which matter is fixed whereas dark energy evolves by means of the cosmographic series. Our technique provides robust constraints on cosmokinematic parameters, permitting one to separately bound matter from dark energy densities. Our cosmographic dark energy model turns out to be one parameter only, but differently from the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm, it does not contain ansatz on the dark energy form. In addition, we even determine the free parameter of our model in suitable $1\\...

  4. Experimental Characterization and Micromechanical Modelling of Anisotropic Slates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Wei, Kai; Liu, Wu; Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory tests were performed in this study to examine the anisotropic physical and mechanical properties of the well-foliated Jiujiang slate. The P-wave velocity and the apparent Young's modulus were found to increase remarkably with the foliation angle θ, and the compressive strength at any confining pressure varies in a typical U-shaped trend, with the maximum strength consistently attained at θ = 90° and the minimum strength at θ = 45°. The slate samples failed in three typical patterns relevant to the foliation angle, i.e. shear failure across foliation planes for θ ≤ 15°, sliding along foliation planes for 30° ≤ θ ≤ 60° and axial splitting along foliation planes for θ = 90°. The stress-strain curves at any given foliation angle and confining pressure display an initial nonlinear phase, a linear elastic phase, a crack initiation and growth phase, as well as a rapid stress drop phase and a residual stress phase. Based on the experimental evidences, a micromechanical damage-friction model was proposed for the foliated slate by simply modelling the foliation planes as a family of elastic interfaces and by characterizing the interaction between the foliation planes and the rock matrix with a nonlinear damage evolution law associated with the inclination angle. The proposed model was applied to predict the deformational and strength behaviours of the foliated slate under triaxial compressive conditions using the material parameters calibrated with the uniaxial and/or triaxial test data, with good agreement between the model predictions and the laboratory measurements.

  5. Anisotropic distributions in a multi-phase transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You; Feng, Zhao; Liu, Feng; Snellings, Raimond

    2015-01-01

    With A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model we investigate the relation between the magnitude, fluctuations and correlations of the initial state spatial anisotropy $\\varepsilon_{n}$ and the final state anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{n}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}=$ 200 GeV. It is found that the relative eccentricity fluctuations in AMPT account for the observed elliptic flow fluctuations, in agreement with measurements of the STAR collaboration. In addition, the studies based on 2- and multi-particle correlations and event-by-event distributions of the anisotropies suggest that the Elliptic-Power function is a promising candidate of the underlying probability density function of the event-by-event distributions of $\\varepsilon_{n}$ as well as $v_{n}$. Furthermore, the correlations between different order symmetry planes and harmonics in the initial coordinate space and final state momentum space are presented. Non-zero values of these correlations have been observed. The comparison between...

  6. Bayesian analysis of an anisotropic universe model: systematics and polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Groeneboom, Nicolaas E; Wehus, Ingunn Kathrine; Eriksen, Hans Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the anisotropic universe model previously developed by Ackerman, Carroll and Wise (ACW), and generalize both the theoretical and computational framework to include polarization and various forms of systematic effects. We apply our new tools to simulated WMAP data in order to understand the potential impact of asymmetric beams, noise mis-estimation and potential Zodiacal light emission. We find that neither has any significant impact on the results. We next show that the previously reported ACW signal is also present in the 1-year WMAP temperature sky map presented by Liu & Li, where data cuts are more aggressive. Finally, we reanalyze the 5-year WMAP data taking into account a previously neglected (-i)^{l-l'}-term in the signal covariance matrix. We still find a strong detection of a preferred direction in the temperature map. Including multipoles up to l=400, the anisotropy amplitude for the W-band is found to be g = 0.29 +- 0.031, nonzero at 9 sigma. However, the corresponding preferred direc...

  7. Statistical Anisotropy from Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    We review an inflationary scenario with the anisotropic expansion rate. An anisotropic inflationary universe can be realized by a vector field coupled with an inflaton, which can be regarded as a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture. We show generality of anisotropic inflation and derive a universal property. We formulate cosmological perturbation theory in anisotropic inflation. Using the formalism, we show anisotropic inflation gives rise to the statistical anisotropy in primordial fluctuations. We also explain a method to test anisotropic inflation using the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).

  8. Mathematical Structure of Loop Quantum Cosmology: Homogeneous Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bojowald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of homogeneous loop quantum cosmology is analyzed, starting with and taking into account the general classification of homogeneous connections not restricted to be Abelian. As a first consequence, it is seen that the usual approach of quantizing Abelian models using spaces of functions on the Bohr compactification of the real line does not capture all properties of homogeneous connections. A new, more general quantization is introduced which applies to non-Abelian models and, in the Abelian case, can be mapped by an isometric, but not unitary, algebra morphism onto common representations making use of the Bohr compactification. Physically, the Bohr compactification of spaces of Abelian connections leads to a degeneracy of edge lengths and representations of holonomies. Lifting this degeneracy, the new quantization gives rise to several dynamical properties, including lattice refinement seen as a direct consequence of state-dependent regularizations of the Hamiltonian constraint of loop quantum gravity. The representation of basic operators - holonomies and fluxes - can be derived from the full theory specialized to lattices. With the new methods of this article, loop quantum cosmology comes closer to the full theory and is in a better position to produce reliable predictions when all quantum effects of the theory are taken into account.

  9. Stable and unstable cosmological models in bimetric massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Könnig, Frank; Amendola, Luca; Motta, Mariele; Solomon, Adam R

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear, ghost-free massive gravity has two tensor fields; when both are dynamical, the mass of the graviton can lead to cosmic acceleration that agrees with background data, even in the absence of a cosmological constant. Here the question of the stability of linear perturbations in this theory is examined. Instabilities are presented for several classes of models, and simple criteria for the cosmological stability of massive bigravity are derived. In this way, we identify a particular self-accelerating bigravity model, infinite-branch bigravity (IBB), which exhibits both viable background evolution and stable linear perturbations. We discuss the modified gravity parameters for IBB, which do not reduce to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM result at early times, and compute the combined likelihood from measured growth data and type Ia supernovae. IBB predicts a present matter density $\\Omega_{m0}=0.18$ and an equation of state $w(z)=-0.79+0.21z/(1+z)$. The growth rate of structure is well-approximated at late times...

  10. Sequestered String Models: Supersymmetry Breaking and Cosmological Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the present thesis I studied the phenomenology arising from a class of string models called sequestered compactifications, which were born with the aim of getting low-energy SUSY from strings. This is not an easy task if combined with cosmological constraints, since the mechanism of moduli stabilization fixes both the scale of supersymmetric particles and the scale of moduli, which tend to be of the same order. However, if on the one hand supersymmetric particles with TeV mass are desired in order to address the hierarchy problem, on the other hand the cosmological moduli problem requires the moduli to be heavier than 100 TeV. The specific setup of sequestered compactifications makes this hierarchy achievable, at least in principle: as in these models the visible sector is located on a stack of D3-branes at singularities, a physical separation between the visible degrees of freedom and the SUSY-breaking sources takes place. Such decoupling translates into a hierarchy between the scale of SUSY-breaking and ...

  11. Self-Consistent Modeling of Reionization in Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Oñorbe, Jose; Lukić, Zarija

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet background (UVB) emitted by quasars and galaxies governs the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM), regulates the formation of high-redshift galaxies, and is thus a key quantity for modeling cosmic reionization. The vast majority of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations implement the UVB via a set of spatially uniform photoionization and photoheating rates derived from UVB synthesis models. We show that simulations using canonical UVB rates reionize, and perhaps more importantly, spuriously heat the IGM, much earlier z ~ 15 than they should. This problem arises because at z > 6, where observational constraints are non-existent, the UVB amplitude is far too high. We introduce a new methodology to remedy this issue, and generate self-consistent photoionization and photoheating rates to model any chosen reionization history. Following this approach, we run a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of different reionization scenarios, and explore the impact of the timing of ...

  12. A Caveat on Building Nonlocal Models of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, N C

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal models of cosmology might derive from graviton loop corrections to the effective field equations from the epoch of primordial inflation. Although the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism would automatically produce causal and conserved effective field equations, the models so far proposed have been purely phenomenological. Two techniques have been employed to generate causal and conserved field equations: either varying an invariant nonlocal effective action and then enforcing causality by the ad hoc replacement of any advanced Green's function with its retarded counterpart, or else introducing causal nonlocality into a general ansatz for the field equations and then enforcing conservation. We point out here that the two techniques access very different classes of models, and that neither one of them may represent what would actually arise from fundamental theory.

  13. Quintessence models and the cosmological evolution of α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon; Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim

    2004-10-01

    The cosmological evolution of a quintessencelike scalar field ϕ coupled to matter and gauge fields leads to effective modifications of the coupling constants and particle masses over time. We analyze a class of models where the scalar field potential V(ϕ) and the couplings to matter B(ϕ) admit common extremum in ϕ, as in the Damour-Polyakov ansatz. We find that even for the simplest choices of potentials and B(ϕ), the observational constraints on Δα/α coming from quasar absorption spectra, the Oklo phenomenon and Big Bang nucleosynthesis provide complementary constraints on the parameters of the model. We show the evolutionary history of these models in some detail and describe the effects of a varying mass for dark matter.

  14. Quintessence Models and the Cosmological Evolution of alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S; Pospelov, M; Lee, Seokcheon; Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    The cosmological evolution of a quintessence-like scalar field, phi, coupled to matter and gauge fields leads to effective modifications of the coupling constants and particle masses over time. We analyze a class of models where the scalar field potential V(phi) and the couplings to matter B(phi) admit common extremum in phi, as in the Damour-Polyakov ansatz. We find that even for the simplest choices of potentials and B(phi), the observational constraints on delta alpha/alpha coming from quasar absorption spectra, the Oklo phenomenon and Big Bang nucleosynthesis provide complementary constraints on the parameters of the model. We show the evolutionary history of these models in some detail and describe the effects of a varying mass for dark matter.

  15. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe

    2016-08-01

    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  16. Inflation Cosmological Solutions in Two-Dimensional Brans-Dicke Gravity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study cosmological properties of two-dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity model. For massless scalar field, the new cosmological solutions are found by integration of field equation, these solutions correspond to the inflation solutions with positive cosmological constant. The result of this paper show that the inflation process of universe is controlled by the classical and quantum effect of the scalar field.

  17. Bianchi Type-Ⅲ Cosmological Models with Gravitational Constant G and the Cosmological Constant Λ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Singh; R.K.Tiwari; Pratibha Shukla

    2007-01-01

    Einstein field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of perfect fluid for the Bianchi type-Ⅲ universe by assuming conservation law for the energy-momentum tensor.Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the scalar of expansion proportional to the shear scalar θχσ,which leads to a relation between metric potential B=Cn,where n is a constant.The corresponding physical interpretation of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  18. Anisotropic viscoelastic models in large deformation for architectured membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouah, Marie; Chagnon, Gregory; Heuillet, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Due to the industrial elaboration process, membranes can have an in-plane anisotropic mechanical behaviour. In this paper, anisotropic membranes elaborated with two different materials were developed either by calendering or by inducing a force in one direction during the process. Experimental tests are developed to measure the differences of mechanical behaviour for both materials in different in-plane properties: stiffness, viscoelasticity and stress-softening. A uniaxial formulation is developed, and a homogenisation by means of a sphere unit approach is used to propose a three-dimensional formulation to represent the materials behaviour. An evolution of the mechanical parameters, depending on the direction, is imposed to reproduce the anisotropic behaviour of the materials. Comparison with experimental data highlights very promising results.

  19. Effects of staggered magnetic field on entanglement in the anisotropic XY model

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Z; Li, Y Q; Sun, Zhe; Wang, XiaoGuang; Li, You-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We investigate effects of staggered magnetic field on thermal entanglement in the anisotropic XY model. The analytic results of entanglement for the two-site cases are obtained. For the general case of even sites, we show that when the anisotropic parameter is zero, the entanglement in the XY model with a staggered magnetic field is the same as that with a uniform magnetic field.

  20. Anisotropic strange star with de Sitter spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Mehedi; Rahaman, Farook; Ray, Saibal; Hossein, Sk. Monowar; Karar, Indrani; Naskar, Jayanta

    2012-12-01

    Stars can be treated as self-gravitating fluid. Krori and Barua (J. Phys. A., Math. Gen. 8:508, 1975) gave an analytical solution to that kind of fluids. In this connection, we propose a de Sitter model for an anisotropic strange star with the Krori-Barua spacetime. We incorporate the existence of the cosmological constant on a small scale to study the structure of anisotropic strange stars and come to the conclusion that this doping is very well compatible with the well-known physical features of strange stars.

  1. Notes on shear viscosity bound violation in anisotropic models

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Xian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The shear viscosity bound violation in Einstein gravity for anisotropic black branes is discussed, with the aim of constraining the deviation of the shear viscosity-entropy density ratio from the shear viscosity bound using causality and thermodynamics analysis. The results show that no stringent constraints can be imposed. The diffusion bound in anisotropic phases is also studied. Ultimately, it is concluded that shear viscosity violation always occurs in cases where the equation of motion of the metric fluctuations cannot be written in a form identical to that of the minimally coupled massless scalar fields.

  2. Quintessence a natural model to parametrize the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Macorra, A D L

    2003-01-01

    We show how a scalar field with gravitational interaction only, i e. quintessence, can account for present day acceleration of the universe and it gives the correct acoustic scale and peaks of the CMP,R anisotropy. We show that the quintessence field can be naturally be described by the fermion condensates of a non-abelian gauge group. This gauge group is unified with the standard model gauge groups. The model has no free parameters. Even the initial energy density at the unification scale and at the condensation scale are fixed by the number of degrees of freedom of the gauge group. We study the evolution of all fields from the unification scale and we calculate the relevant cosmological quantities. (Author)

  3. Modelling neutral hydrogen in galaxies using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Alan R; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Schaye, Joop

    2011-01-01

    The characterisation of the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of high-redshift galaxies is a major observational challenge that will be addressed over the coming years with a new generation of radio telescopes. We investigate this important issue by considering the states of hydrogen across a range of structures within high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, our simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of our results to numerical resolution and to sub-grid baryonic physics (especially feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei). We find that the most significant uncertainty in modelling the neutral hydrogen distribution arises from our need to model a self-shielding correction in moderate density regions. Future simulations incorporating radiative transfer schemes will be vital to improve on our empirical self-shielding threshold. Irrespective of the exact nature of the threshold we find that while the atomic hydrogen mass function evolves only mildly fro...

  4. Adiabatic density perturbations in a cosmological model with massive neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynski, M.

    Lifshitz (1946) has investigated the gravitational instability of a Friedmann Universe model. He treated the matter content of the universe as a single perfect fluid. In other studies, a two fluid approach was used to represent neutrinos and other kinds of matter separately. A distribution function was used by Peebles and Yu (1970), and also by Silk and Wilson (1980) to describe photons of the black-body background during and after the recombination of the primeval plasma. The approach used in the present investigation is similar, except for two differences. No collisional term is used in the kinetic equation, and massive particles are considered. A detailed description is provided of the method used to investigate the gravitational instability of a cosmological model with massive neutrinos. It is pointed out that the obtained results are preliminary. The final spectrum of perturbations is similar to those of Peebles and Yu (1970), and Wilson and Silk (1981).

  5. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.

  6. An exotic k-essence interpretation of interactive cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Monica [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-01-15

    We define a generalization of scalar fields with non-canonical kinetic term which we call exotic k-essence or, briefly, exotik. These fields are generated by the global description of cosmological models with two interactive fluids in the dark sector and under certain conditions they correspond to usual k-essences. The formalism is applied to the cases of constant potential and of inverse square potential and also we develop the purely exotik version for the modified holographic Ricci type (MHR) of dark energy, where the equations of state are not constant. With the kinetic function F = 1 + mx and the inverse square potential we recover, through the interaction term, the identification between k-essences and quintessences of an exponential potential, already known for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I geometries. Worked examples are shown that include the self-interacting MHR and also models with crossing of the phantom divide line (PDL). (orig.)

  7. An analytical model of anisotropic low-field electron mobility in wurtzite indium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulong; Liu, Hongxia; Song, Xin; Guo, Yulong; Yang, Zhaonian [Xidian University, School of Microelectronics, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of anisotropic transport properties and develops an anisotropic low-field electron analytical mobility model for wurtzite indium nitride (InN). For the different effective masses in the Γ-A and Γ-M directions of the lowest valley, both the transient and steady state transport behaviors of wurtzite InN show different transport characteristics in the two directions. From the relationship between velocity and electric field, the difference is more obvious when the electric field is low in the two directions. To make an accurate description of the anisotropic transport properties under low field, for the first time, we present an analytical model of anisotropic low-field electron mobility in wurtzite InN. The effects of different ionized impurity scattering models on the low-field mobility calculated by Monte Carlo method (Conwell-Weisskopf and Brooks-Herring method) are also considered. (orig.)

  8. Spherical collapse model in $f(T)$ cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we extend the spherical collapse model (SCM) in the $f(T)$ gravity models. In the context of a specific form of $f(T)$ model, the so-called power law model, we first investigate the background evolution of the universe using the Friedmann Robertson Walker (FRW) metric in a flat geometry. We then follow the linear and non-linear evolutions of the growth of spherical overdensities in perturbation levels. In the linear phase of perturbations, we show that the growth factor of fluctuations depends strongly on the power-law parameter of $f(T)$ model, $b$. We also observe that in the non-linear regime the parameters of SCM depend on the model parameter $b$. We finally compare the predicted number of virialized haloes in the $f(T)$ cosmologies with respect to a concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model and find out that in general the $f(T)$ model with positive (negative) model parameter $b$ has more (less) abundant objects compare to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM universe.

  9. Asymptotic modelling of a thermopiezoelastic anisotropic smart plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yufei

    Motivated by the requirement of modelling for space flexible reflectors as well as other applications of plate structures in engineering, a general anisotropic laminated thin plate model and a monoclinic Reissner-Mindlin plate model with thermal deformation, two-way coupled piezoelectric effect and pyroelectric effect is constructed using the variational asymptotic method, without any ad hoc assumptions. Total potential energy contains strain energy, electric potential energy and energy caused by temperature change. Three-dimensional strain field is built based on the concept of warping function and decomposition of the rotation tensor. The feature of small thickness and large in-plane dimension of plate structure helped to asymptotically simplify the three-dimensional analysis to a two-dimensional analysis on the reference surface and a one-dimensional analysis through the thickness. For the zeroth-order approximation, the asymptotically correct expression of energy is derived into the form of energetic equation in classical laminated plate theory, which will be enough to predict the behavior of plate structures as thin as a space flexible reflector. A through-the-thickness strain field can be expressed in terms of material constants and two-dimensional membrane and bending strains, while the transverse normal and shear stresses are not predictable yet. In the first-order approximation, the warping functions are further disturbed into a high order and an asymptotically correct energy expression with derivatives of the two-dimensional strains is acquired. For the convenience of practical use, the expression is transformed into a Reissner-Mindlin form with optimization implemented to minimize the error. Transverse stresses and strains are recovered using the in-plane strain variables. Several numerical examples of different laminations and shapes are studied with the help of analytical solutions or shell elements in finite element codes. The constitutive relation is

  10. Generalized anisotropic strange star models for compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mauryaa, S K; Dayanandan, Baiju; Jasim, M K; Al-Jamel, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We present new anisotropic generalization of Buchdahl [1] type perfect fluid solution by using the method of earlier work [2]. In similar approach we have constructed the new pressure anisotropy factor {\\Delta} by the help both the metric potential e^{\\lambda} and e^{\

  11. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of airflow inside lungs using heterogenous anisotropic lung tissue elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis.

  12. Heat Flow Pattern and Thermal Resistance Modeling of Anisotropic Heat Spreaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakzaadeh, F.; Mehryar, R.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure safe operating temperatures of the ever smaller heat generating electronic devices, drastic measures should be taken. Heat spreaders are used to increase surface area, by spreading the heat without necessarily transferring it to the ambient in the first place. The heat flow pattern is investigated in heat spreaders and the fundamental differences regarding how heat conducts in different materials is addressed. Isotropic materials are compared with anisotropic ones having a specifically higher in-plane thermal conductivity than through plane direction. Thermal resistance models are proposed for anisotropic and isotropic heat spreaders in compliance with the order of magnitude of dimensions used in electronics packaging. After establishing thermal resistance models for both the isotropic and anisotropic cases, numerical results are used to find a correlation for predicting thermal resistance in anisotropic heat spreaders with high anisotropy ratios.

  13. Preon models, relativity, quantum mechanics and cosmology (I)

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Preons are hypothetic constituents of the standard particles. They were initially assumed to have basically similar properties to those of conventional matter. But this is not necessarily the case: the ultimate constituents of matter may feel a different space-time from that of special relativity and exhibit mechanical properties different from those predicted by standard quantum mechanics. They can also play an important cosmological role (inflation, dark matter, dark energy...). It is even not obvious that energy and momentum would have to be conserved in such a scenario. In this series of papers, we review the subject using the superbradyon model as an example, and suggest new ways to explore possible tests of the preon hypothesis.

  14. Gaussian covariance matrices for anisotropic galaxy clustering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Vecchia, Claudio dalla

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the redshift-space galaxy clustering have been a prolific source of cosmological information in recent years. In the era of precision cosmology, accurate covariance estimates are an essential step for the validation of galaxy clustering models of the redshift-space two-point statistics. For cases where only a limited set of simulations is available, assessing the data covariance is not possible or only leads to a noisy estimate. Also, relying on simulated realisations of the survey data means that tests of the cosmology dependence of the covariance are expensive. With these two points in mind, this work aims at presenting a simple theoretical model for the linear covariance of anisotropic galaxy clustering observations with synthetic catalogues. Considering the Legendre moments (`multipoles') of the two-point statistics and projections into wide bins of the line-of-sight parameter (`clustering wedges'), we describe the modelling of the covariance for these anisotropic clustering measurements f...

  15. The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy and variable Λ and G in viscous cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, R.; Shukla, A. K.; Raushan, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy in the form of modified Chaplygin gas with variable Λ and G and bulk viscosity have been considered. We discuss three types of average scale factor by using a special law for deceleration parameter which is linear in time with negative slope. The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained. We obtain the solution of bulk viscosity ( ξ), cosmological constant (Λ), gravitational parameter ( G) and deceleration parameter ( q) for different equations of state. The model describes an accelerating Universe for large value of time t, wherein the effective negative pressure induced by Chaplygin gas and bulk viscous pressure are driving the acceleration.

  16. Anisotropic inflation from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Litterio, M; Amendola, L; Dyrek, A; Litterio, Marco; Amendola, Luca; Dyrek, Andrzej

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum multidimensional cosmological models with internal spaces being compact n-dimensional Lie group manifolds are considered. Products of 3-spheres and SU(3) manifold (a novelty in cosmology) are studied. It turns out that the dynamical evolution of the internal space drives an accelerated expansion of the external world (power law inflation). This generic solution (attractor in a phase space) is determined by the Lie group space without any fine tuning or arbitrary inflaton potentials. Matter in the four dimensions appears in the form of a number of scalar fields representing anisotropic scale factors for the internal space. Along the attractor solution the volume of the internal space grows logarithmically in time. This simple and natural model should be completed by mechanisms terminating the inflationary evolution and transforming the geometric scalar fields into ordinary particles.

  17. Torsion gravity with non-minimally coupled fermionic field: some cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Vignolo, Stefano; Fabbri, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some cosmological models arising from a non-minimal coupling of a fermionic field to gravity in the geometrical setting of Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble gravity. The role played by the non-minimal coupling together with torsion in facing problems such as cosmological singularity, inflation and dark energy is discussed.

  18. A no hair theorem and the problem of initial conditions. [in cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars Gerhard; Stein-Schabes, Jaime A.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that under very general conditions, any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This renders the problem of initial conditions less severe.

  19. The effects of a non-zero cosmological constant on the Veltmann models

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, Manasvi

    2014-01-01

    The Veltmann models, which include the Plummer and Hernquist models as special cases, are studied in the presence of a cosmological constant. Physically relevant quantities such as the velocity dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter are computed through the use of the self-consistent approach. The cutoff radii for these models and the mass contained within this volume are also calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of a cosmological constant leads to many observable quantities such as the surface density, dispersion profiles and the anisotropy parameter becoming increasingly modified. In some scenarios, they are easily distinguished from the case where the cosmological constant is absent, as a result of their non-monotonic behaviour. The effects of neighbouring gravitational systems on the central system are also studied, and compared against the effects arising from the cosmological constant. Consequently, it is suggested that the effects of a cosmological constant can prove to be quite importa...

  20. nIFTy Cosmology: Comparison of Galaxy Formation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Knebe, Alexander; Thomas, Peter A; Benson, Andrew; Blaizot, Jeremy; Bower, Richard; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cora, Sofia A; Croton, Darren J; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; De Lucia, Gabriella; Devriendt, Julien E; Elahi, Pascal J; Font, Andreea; Fontanot, Fabio; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Gargiulo, Ignacio D; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Helly, John; Henriques, Bruno; Hirschmann, Michaela; Lee, Jaehyun; Mamon, Gary A; Monaco, Pierluigi; Onions, Julian; Padilla, Nelson D; Power, Chris; Pujol, Arnau; Skibba, Ramin A; Somerville, Rachel S; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Vega-Martinez, Cristian A; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2015-01-01

    We present a comparison of 14 galaxy formation models: 12 different semi-analytical models and 2 halo-occupation distribution models for galaxy formation based upon the same cosmological simulation and merger tree information derived from it. The participating codes have proven to be very successful in their own right but they have all been calibrated independently using various observational data sets, stellar models, and merger trees. In this paper we apply them without recalibration and this leads to a wide variety of predictions for the stellar mass function, specific star formation rates, stellar-to- halo mass ratios, and the abundance of orphan galaxies. The scatter is much larger than seen in previous comparison studies primarily because the codes have been used outside of their native environment within which they are well tested and calibrated. The purpose of the `nIFTy comparison of galaxy formation models' is to bring together as many different galaxy formation modellers as possible and to investig...

  1. Non-gaussianity and Statistical Anisotropy in Cosmological Inflationary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A

    2010-01-01

    We study the statistical descriptors for some cosmological inflationary models that allow us to get large levels of non-gaussianity and violations of statistical isotropy. Basically, we study two different class of models: a model that include only scalar field perturbations, specifically a subclass of small-field slow-roll models of inflation with canonical kinetic terms, and models that admit both vector and scalar field perturbations. We study the former to show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the levels of non-gaussianity f_{NL} and \\tao_{NL} in the bispectrum B_\\zeta and trispectrum T_\\zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta respectively. Such a result is obtained by taking care of loop corrections in the spectrum P_\\zeta, the bispectrum B_\\zeta and the trispectrum T_\\zeta . Sizeable values for f_{NL} and \\tao_{NL} arise even if \\zeta is generated during inflation. For the latter we study the spectrum P_\\zeta, bispectrum B_\\zeta and trispectrum $T_\\ze...

  2. Bianchi Type-I cosmological mesonic stiff fluid models in Lyra's geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; S V Thakare; K S Adhao

    2008-07-01

    Bianchi Type-I cosmological models in Lyra's geometry are obtained when the source of gravitational field is a perfect fluid coupled with massless mesonic scalar field. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

  3. Integrability conditions of quasi-Newtonian cosmologies in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Abebe, Amare; Solomons, Deon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the integrability conditions of a class of shear-free perfect-fluid cosmological models within the framework of anisotropic fluid sources, applying our results to f(R) dark energy models. Generalising earlier general relativistic results for time-like geodesics, we extend the potential and acceleration terms of the quasi-Newtonian formulation of integrable dust cosmological models about a linearized Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background and derive the equations that describe their dynamical evolutions. We show that in general, models with an anisotropic fluid source are not consistent, but because of the particular form the anisotropic stress takes in f(R) gravity, the general integrability conditions, in this case, are satisfied.

  4. A continuum-mechanical model for the flow of anisotropic polar ice

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Ralf; Seddik, Hakime

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical behaviour of polar ice masses, the method of continuum mechanics is used. The newly developed CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is described, which comprises an anisotropic flow law as well as a fabric evolution equation. The flow law is an extension of the isotropic Glen's flow law, in which anisotropy enters via an enhancement factor that depends on the deformability of the polycrystal. The fabric evolution equation results from an orientational mass balance and includes constitutive relations for grain rotation and recrystallization. The CAFFE model fulfills all the fundamental principles of classical continuum mechanics, is sufficiently simple to allow numerical implementations in ice-flow models and contains only a limited number of free parameters. The applicability of the CAFFE model is demonstrated by a case study for the site of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice core ...

  5. Age Estimates of Universe: from Globular Clusters to Cosmological Models and Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Hira; Rahman, Syed Faisal Ur

    2016-01-01

    We performed the photometric analysis of M2 and M92 globular clusters in g and r bands of SLOAN photometric system. We transformed these g and r bands into BV bands of Johnson-Cousins photometric system and built the color magnitude diagram (CMD). We estimated the age, and metallicity of both the clusters, by fitting Padova isochrones of different age and metallicities onto the CMD. We studied Einstein and de Sitter model, bench mark model, the cosmological parameters by WMAP and Planck surveys. Finally, we compared estimated age of globular clusters to the ages from the cosmological models and cosmological parameters values of WMAP and Planck surveys.

  6. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Skugoreva, Maria A.; Toporensky, Alexey V.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.

    2016-12-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs-like potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  7. Possible evolution of a bouncing universe in cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O; Toporensky, Alexey V; Vernov, Sergey Yu

    2016-01-01

    We explore dynamics of cosmological models with bounce solutions evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models that contain the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term, the induced gravity term with a negative coupled constant, and even polynomial potentials of the scalar field. Bounce solutions with non-monotonic Hubble parameters have been obtained and analyzed. The case when the scalar field has the conformal coupling and the Higgs potential with an opposite sign is studied in detail. In this model the evolution of the Hubble parameter of the bounce solution essentially depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  8. Cosmological model with local symmetry of very special relativity and constraints on it from supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin; Wang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    Based on Cohen & Glashow's very special relativity [A. G. Cohen and S. L. Glashow, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 97} (2006) 021601], we propose an anisotropic modification to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) line element. An arbitrarily oriented 1-form is introduced and the FRW spacetime becomes of the Randers-Finsler type. The 1-form picks out a privileged axis in the universe. Thus, the cosmological redshift as well as the Hubble diagram of the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) becomes anisotropic. By directly analyzing the Union2.1 compilation, we obtain the privileged axis pointing to ((l,b)=({242^\\circ}\\pm{44^\\circ},{-42^\\circ}\\pm{23^\\circ})) ((68%\\rm{C.L.})). This privileged axis is close to those obtained by comparing the best-fit Hubble diagrams in pairs of hemispheres.

  9. 3D constitutive model of anisotropic damage for unidirectional ply based on physical failure mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2010-01-01

    A 3D anisotropic continuum damage model is developed for the computational analysis of the elastic–brittle behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite. The damage model is based on a set of phenomenological failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite, which can distinguish the matrix and fibre...... failure under tensile and compressive loading. The homogenized continuum theory is adopted for the anisotropic elastic damage constitutive model. The damage modes occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage vector. The elastic damage model is implemented...

  10. An anisotropic constitutive model with biaxial-tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoshuang; Peng, Xiongqi; Gong, Youkun

    2016-10-01

    Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory, an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model with biaxial tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements is developed. Experimental data from literature are used to identify material parameters in the constitutive model for a specific balanced plain woven fabric. The developed model is validated by comparing numerical results with experimental biaxial tension data under different stretch ratios and picture-frame shear data, demonstrating that the developed constitutive model is highly suitable to characterize the highly non-linear and strongly anisotropic mechanical behaviors of woven composite reinforcements under large deformation.

  11. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field which includes baryons and dark matter. The constituents are supposed to be in interaction and irreversible processes are taken into account through the inclusion of a non-equilibrium pressure. The non-equilibrium pressure is considered to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which are considered as functions of the ratio between their energy densities. The free parameters of the model are adjusted from the best fits of the Hubble parameter data. A comparison of the viscous model with the non-viscous one is performed. It is shown that the equality of the dark energy and matter density parameters and the decelerated-accelerated transition occur at earlier times when the irreversible processes are present. Furthermore, ...

  12. Bulk viscous cosmological model with interacting dark fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Sobreiro, Octavio A.S., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    We study a cosmological model for a spatially flat Universe whose constituents are a dark energy field and a matter field comprising baryons and dark matter. The constituents are assumed to interact with each other, and a non-equilibrium pressure is introduced to account for irreversible processes. We take the nonequilibrium pressure to be proportional to the Hubble parameter within the framework of a first-order thermodynamic theory. The dark energy and matter fields are coupled by their barotropic indexes, which depend on the ratio between their energy densities. We adjust the free parameters of the model to optimize the fits to the Hubble parameter data. We compare the viscous model with the non-viscous one, and show that the irreversible processes cause the dark-energy and matter-density parameters to become equal and the decelerated-accelerated transition to occur at earlier times. Furthermore, the density and deceleration parameters and the distance modulus have the correct behavior, consistent with a viable scenario of the present status of the Universe . (author)

  13. Cosmological models with the spinor and non-minimally interacting scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Osetrin, K E; Rybalov, Yu A

    2014-01-01

    The solution to the current extending Universe problem, and the description of all stages of evolution compels scientists to consider various cosmological models. Scalar - tensor models are rather simple and also allow us to clearly define the separate stages of evolution. Furthermore, other cosmological models are reduced. Our work takes into consideration the non-minimally interacted scalar field and the spinor field. The spinor field has been considered to establish a better understanding of the stages of evolution in our Universe.

  14. Accurate modelling of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowers, O. D.; Duxbury, D. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2014-02-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of austenitic steel welds is challenging due to the formation of highly anisotropic and heterogeneous structures post-welding. This is due to the intrinsic crystallographic structure of austenitic steel, driving the formation of dendritic grain structures on cooling. The anisotropy is manifested as both a `steering' of the ultrasonic beam and the back-scatter of energy due to the macroscopic granular structure of the weld. However, the quantitative effects and relative impacts of these phenomena are not well-understood. A semi-analytical simulation framework has been developed to allow the study of anisotropic effects in austenitic stainless steel welds. Frequency-dependent scatterers are allocated to a weld-region to approximate the coarse grain-structures observed within austenitic welds and imaged using a simulated array. The simulated A-scans are compared against an equivalent experimental setup demonstrating excellent agreement of the Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. Comparison of images of the simulated and experimental data generated using the Total Focusing Method (TFM) indicate a prominent layered effect in the simulated data. A superior grain allocation routine is required to improve upon this.

  15. Cosmological perturbations in coherent oscillating scalar field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.; Jareño, S. J. Núñez

    2016-03-01

    The fact that fast oscillating homogeneous scalar fields behave as perfect fluids in average and their intrinsic isotropy have made these models very fruitful in cosmology. In this work we will analyse the perturbations dynamics in these theories assuming general power law potentials V( ϕ) = λ| ϕ| n /n. At leading order in the wavenumber expansion, a simple expression for the effective sound speed of perturbations is obtained c eff 2 = ω = ( n - 2)/( n + 2) with ω the effective equation of state. We also obtain the first order correction in k 2/ ω eff 2 , when the wavenumber k of the perturbations is much smaller than the background oscillation frequency, ω eff. For the standard massive case we have also analysed general anharmonic contributions to the effective sound speed. These results are reached through a perturbed version of the generalized virial theorem and also studying the exact system both in the super-Hubble limit, deriving the natural ansatz for δϕ; and for sub-Hubble modes, exploiting Floquet's theorem.

  16. Cosmological perturbations in coherent oscillating scalar field models

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, J A R; Jareño, S J Núñez

    2015-01-01

    The fact that fast oscillating homogeneous scalar fields behave as perfect fluids in average and their intrinsic isotropy have made these models very fruitful in cosmology. In this work we will analyse the perturbations dynamics in these theories assuming general power law potentials $V(\\phi)=\\lambda \\vert\\phi\\vert^{n}/n$. At leading order in the wavenumber expansion, a simple expression for the effective sound speed of perturbations is obtained $c_{\\text{eff}}^2 = \\omega=(n-2)/(n+2)$ with $\\omega$ the effective equation of state. We also obtain the first order correction in $k^2/\\omega_{\\text{eff}}^2$, when the wavenumber $k$ of the perturbations is much smaller than the background oscillation frequency, $\\omega_{\\text{eff}}$. For the standard massive case we have also analysed general anharmonic contributions to the effective sound speed. These results are reached through a perturbed version of the generalized virial theorem and also studying the exact system both in the super-Hubble limit, deriving the nat...

  17. Bulk flows and CMB dipole anisotropy in cosmological void models

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    1999-01-01

    The observational behavior of spherically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models is studied, which consist of inner and outer homogeneous regions connected by a shell or an intermediate self-similar region. It is assumed that the present matter density parameter in the inner region is smaller than that in the outer region, and the present Hubble parameter in the inner region is larger than that in the outer region. Then galaxies in the inner void-like region can be seen to have a bulk motion relative to matter in the outer region, when we observe them at a point O deviated from the center C of the inner region. Their velocity $v_p$ in the CD direction is equal to the difference of two Hubble parameters multiplied by the distance between C and O. It is found also that the velocity $v_d$ corresponding to CMB dipole anisotropy observed at O is by a factor $\\approx 10$ small compared with $v_p$. This behavior of $v_d$ and $v_p$ may explain the puzzling situation of the cosmic flow of cluster galaxies, when t...

  18. Cosmological-constant cold dark matter models and the cobe two-year Sky maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, E F; Emory F Bunn; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. We compare the two-year COBE DMR sky maps with the predictions of cosmological-constant cold dark matter models. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find that the most likely value of the cosmological constant in such a model is Lambda = 0. The data set an upper limit on Lambda of 0.71 (0.78) at 90% confidence, and 0.78 (0.86) at 95% confidence with (without) the quadrupole anisotropy.

  19. Baryon isocurvature scenario in inflationary cosmology - A particle physics model and its astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Jun'ichi; Suto, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    A phenomenological model to produce isocurvature baryon-number fluctuations is proposed in the framework of inflationary cosmology. The resulting spectrum of density fluctuation is very different from the conventional Harrison-Zel'dovich shape. The model, with the parameters satisfying several requirements from particle physics and cosmology, provides an appropriate initial condition for the minimal baryon isocurvature scenario of galaxy formation discussed by Peebles.

  20. Exact solutions of a Flat Full Causal Bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Cornejo-Pérez, O

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical flat full causal bulk viscous FRW cosmological model through the factorization method. The method allows to find some new exact parametric solutions for different values of the viscous parameter $s$. Special attention is given to the well known case $s=1/2$, for which the cosmological model admits scaling symmetries. Also, some exact parametric solutions for $s=1/2$ are obtained through the Lie group method.

  1. Simple inflationary models in Gauss-Bonnet brane-world cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Satomi

    2016-06-01

    In light of the recent Planck 2015 results for the measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, we study simple inflationary models in the context of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) brane-world cosmology. The brane-world cosmological effect modifies the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations generated by inflation and causes a dramatic change for the inflationary predictions of the spectral index (n s) and the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) from those obtained in the standard cosmology. In particular, the predicted r values in the inflationary models favored by the Planck 2015 results are suppressed due to the GB brane-world cosmological effect, which is in sharp contrast with inflationary scenario in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world cosmology, where the r values are enhanced. Hence, these two brane-world cosmological scenarios are distinguishable. With the dramatic change of the inflationary predictions, the inflationary scenario in the GB brane-world cosmology can be tested by more precise measurements of n s and future observations of the CMB B-mode polarization.

  2. Early universe cosmology. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Jochen Peter

    2012-03-19

    In this thesis we investigate possible connections between cosmological inflation and leptogenesis on the one side and particle physics on the other side. We work in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. A key role is played by the right-handed sneutrino, the superpartner of the right-handed neutrino involved in the type I seesaw mechanism. We study a combined model of inflation and non-thermal leptogenesis that is a simple extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with conserved R-parity, where we add three right-handed neutrino super fields. The inflaton direction is given by the imaginary components of the corresponding scalar component fields, which are protected from the supergravity (SUGRA) {eta}-problem by a shift symmetry in the Kaehler potential. We discuss the model first in a globally supersymmetric (SUSY) and then in a supergravity context and compute the inflationary predictions of the model. We also study reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis in this model. A numerical simulation shows that shortly after the waterfall phase transition that ends inflation, the universe is dominated by right-handed sneutrinos and their out-of-equilibrium decay can produce the desired matter-antimatter asymmetry. Using a simplified time-averaged description, we derive analytical expressions for the model predictions. Combining the results from inflation and leptogenesis allows us to constrain the allowed parameter space from two different directions, with implications for low energy neutrino physics. As a second thread of investigation, we discuss a generalisation of the inflationary model discussed above to include gauge non-singlet fields as inflatons. This is motivated by the fact that in left-right symmetric, supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), like SUSY Pati-Salam unification or SUSY SO(10) GUTs, the righthanded (s)neutrino is an indispensable ingredient and does not have to be put in by hand as in the MSSM. We discuss

  3. Modeling anisotropic plasticity: Eulerian hydrocode applications of high strain-rate deformation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, S.P.; Burkett, M.W.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1997-05-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength are implemented in the two-dimensional MESA hydrodynamics code. Quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure are utilized. An associative flow strength formulation incorporating these yield functions is solved using a geometric normal return method. A stretching rod problem is selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on a tensile plastic instability (necking). The rod necking rate and topology are compared for MESA simulations performed for both isotropic and anisotropic cases utilizing the Mechanical Threshold Stress flow stress model.

  4. Explicit analytical solutions of the anisotropic Brinkman model for the natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Ruixian(蔡睿贤); ZHANG; Na(张娜)

    2002-01-01

    Some algebraically explicit analytical solutions are derived for the anisotropic Brinkman model an improved Darcy model describing the natural convection in porous media. Besides their important theoretical meaning (for example, to analyze the non-Darcy and anisotropic effects on the convection), such analytical solutions can be the benchmark solutions to promoting the develop ment of computational heat and mass transfer. For instance, we can use them to check the accuracy,convergence and effectiveness of various numerical computational methods and to improve numerical calculation skills such as differential schemes and grid generation ways.

  5. A fully coupled elasto-plastic damage model applied to anisotropic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, M; Habraken, Anne; Duchene, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an elastoplastic energy-based anisotropic damage model for ductile fracture is described. A calibration method is also presented. The potential applicability of this model is illustrated by numerical examples of tensile test and Forming Limit Diagram establishment on a steel. Peer reviewed

  6. Validation of Modified Lemaitre’s Anisotropic Damage Model with the Cross Die Drawing Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, T.

    2012-01-01

    Dual Phase (DP) steels are widely replacing the traditional forming steels in automotive industry. Advanced damage models are required to accurately predict the formability of DP steels. In this work, Lemaitre’s anisotropic damage model has been slightly modified for sheet metal forming applications

  7. A Direct Calculation of Critical Exponents of Two-Dimensional Anisotropic Ising Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Gang; WANG Xiang-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Using an exact solution of the one-dimensional quantum transverse-field Ising model, we calculate the critical exponents of the two-dimensional anisotropic classicalIsing model (IM). We verify that the exponents are the same as those of isotropic classical IM. Our approach provides an alternative means of obtaining and verifying these well-known results.

  8. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function. Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies.

  9. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu; Liao, Shenghui; Duan, Xuanchu; Zheng, Wanqiu; Zou, Beiji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function. Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies.

  10. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite reinforced with aligned triangular bars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bryan Pajarito; Masatoshi Kubouchi; Saiko Aoki

    2014-02-01

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by least-square curve fitting to the experimental data. Diffusion parameters of epoxy and vinyl ester resin were used as input during development of finite element (FE) model of polymer composite. Through transient FE diffusion analysis, anisotropic water transport in thickness direction of the polymer composite was numerically predicted and validated against experimental results. The case of using impermeable triangular bars was also numerically simulated. The diffusivity of reinforced aligned triangular bars was confirmed to affect anisotropic water transport in the composite. The results of this work suggest possible use of polymer composite for barrier and fluid removal applications.

  11. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  12. Forward modeling of marine DC resistivity method for a layered anisotropic earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Ping; Cai, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Since the ocean bottom is a sedimentary environment wherein stratification is well developed, the use of an anisotropic model is best for studying its geology. Beginning with Maxwell's equations for an anisotropic model, we introduce scalar potentials based on the divergence-free characteristic of the electric and magnetic (EM) fields. We then continue the EM fields down into the deep earth and upward into the seawater and couple them at the ocean bottom to the transmitting source. By studying both the DC apparent resistivity curves and their polar plots, we can resolve the anisotropy of the ocean bottom. Forward modeling of a high-resistivity thin layer in an anisotropic half-space demonstrates that the marine DC resistivity method in shallow water is very sensitive to the resistive reservoir but is not influenced by airwaves. As such, it is very suitable for oil and gas exploration in shallowwater areas but, to date, most modeling algorithms for studying marine DC resistivity are based on isotropic models. In this paper, we investigate one-dimensional anisotropic forward modeling for marine DC resistivity method, prove the algorithm to have high accuracy, and thus provide a theoretical basis for 2D and 3D forward modeling.

  13. Hamiltonian cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M.

    1972-01-01

    The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.

  14. Bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic Heisenberg model on a triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: antpires@fisica.ufmg.br

    2013-08-15

    Motivated by the fact that the study of disordered phases at zero temperature is of great interest, I study the spin-one quantum antiferromagnet with a next-nearest neighbor interaction on a triangular lattice with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single ion anisotropy, using a SU(3) Schwinger boson mean-field theory. I calculate the critical properties, at zero temperature, for values of the single ion anisotropy parameter D above a critical value D{sub C}, where a quantum phase transition takes place from a higher D disordered phase to a lower D ordered phase. - Highlights: • The quantum phase transition of the bilinear-biquadratic anisotropic antiferromagnet is studied. • The effect of competing interaction is analyzed. • The zero temperature phase diagram is obtained.

  15. The Coyote Universe II: Cosmological Models and Precision Emulation of the Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.

  16. Jacobi stability analysis of scalar field models with minimal coupling to gravity in a cosmological background

    CERN Document Server

    Dănilă, Bogdan; Mak, Man Kwong; Pantaragphong, Praiboon; Sabau, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    We perform the study of the stability of the cosmological scalar field models, by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In the KCC approach we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a "second geometrization", by considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection associated to the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition of the Jacobi stability for scalar field cosmologies in the second order formalism. As an application of the developed methods we consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. We find that the Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, ...

  17. Theories of modified gravity and reconstruction schemes of cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    López Revelles, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    [spa] En esta memoria de tesis se expone el trabajo llevado a cabo por el doctorando durante los últimos cuatro años, el cual versa principalmente sobre diversos aspectos de soluciones cosmológicas obtenidas a partir de teorías de gravedad modificada. Para entender el origen y la importancia de las teorías de gravedad modificada es necesario comentar antes algunos hechos acontecidos durante el siglo XX en el marco de la cosmología. La cosmología como ciencia nació gracias a la Teoría de la Re...

  18. Polarization-tailored Fano interference in plasmonic crystals: A Mueller matrix model of anisotropic Fano resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, S K; Singh, A K; Kumar, A; Misra, A Mandal S; Mitra, P; Ghosh, N

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple yet elegant Mueller matrix approach for controlling the Fano interference effect and engineering the resulting asymmetric spectral line shape in anisotropic optical system. The approach is founded on a generalized model of anisotropic Fano resonance, which relates the spectral asymmetry to two physically meaningful and experimentally accessible parameters of interference, namely, the Fano phase shift and the relative amplitudes of the interfering modes. The differences in these parameters between orthogonal linear polarizations in an anisotropic system are exploited to desirably tune the Fano spectral asymmetry using pre- and post-selection of optimized polarization states. Experimental control on the Fano phase and the relative amplitude parameters and resulting tuning of spectral asymmetry is demonstrated in waveguided plasmonic crystals using Mueller matrix-based polarization analysis. The approach enabled tailoring of several exotic regimes of Fano resonance including the complete reve...

  19. Anisotropic seismic-waveform inversion: Application to a seismic velocity model from Eleven-Mile Canyon in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sabin, Andrew [Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Accurate imaging and characterization of fracture zones is crucial for geothermal energy exploration. Aligned fractures within fracture zones behave as anisotropic media for seismic-wave propagation. The anisotropic properties in fracture zones introduce extra difficulties for seismic imaging and waveform inversion. We have recently developed a new anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion method using a modified total-variation regularization scheme and a wave-energy-base preconditioning technique. Our new inversion method uses the parameterization of elasticity constants to describe anisotropic media, and hence it can properly handle arbitrary anisotropy. We apply our new inversion method to a seismic velocity model along a 2D-line seismic data acquired at Eleven-Mile Canyon located at the Southern Dixie Valley in Nevada for geothermal energy exploration. Our inversion results show that anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion has potential to reconstruct subsurface anisotropic elastic parameters for imaging and characterization of fracture zones.

  20. Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.

  1. Cosmological models with spinor and scalar fields by Noether symmetry approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    General cosmological models with spinor and scalar fields playing the role of gravitational sources are analyzed. The Noether symmetry approach is taken as a criterion to constrain the undefined potentials and couplings of the generic actions. For all the found Noether symmetries the corresponding dynamical systems can be analytically integrated. The obtained cosmological solutions describe the early and late Universe as expected by basing on the known eras of the Universe.

  2. Interacting dark energy models in Cosmology and large-scale structure observational tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael José França Marcondes

    2016-01-01

    Modern Cosmology offers us a great understanding of the universe with striking precision, made possible by the modern technologies of the newest generations of telescopes. The standard cosmological model, however, is not absent of theoretical problems and open questions. One possibility that has been put forward is the existence of a coupling between dark sectors. The idea of an interaction between the dark components could help physicists understand why we live in an epoch of the universe wh...

  3. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model using general second order damage tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad; Wisselink, Harm; Meinders, Timo; Horn, ten Carel; Mori, K.; Pietrzyk, M.; Kusiak, J.; Majta, J.; Hartley, P.; Lin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. With the growing complexity in materials and forming proc-esses, it becomes inevitable to include anisotropy in damage (tensorial damage variable). Most of the anisotropic damage models define the damage tensor in the prin

  4. Dynamics of gravitating hadron matter in Bianchi-IX cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Pavluchenko, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the Einstein-Skyrme cosmological model in Bianchi-IX background. We analytically describe asymptotic regimes and semi-analytically -- generic regimes. It appears that depending on the product of Newtonian constant $\\kappa$ with Skyrme coupling $K$, in absence of the cosmological term there are three regimes possible -- recollapse with $\\kK 2$. In presence of the positive cosmological term, power-law regimes turn to exponential (de Sitter) ones while recollapse regime turn to exponential if the value for $\\Lambda$-term is sufficiently large, otherwise the regime remains recollapse. Negative cosmological term leads to the recollapse regardless of $\\kK$. All nonsingular regimes have the squashing coefficient $a(t) \\to 1$ at late times, which is associated with restoring symmetry dynamics. Also all nonsingular regimes appear to be linearly stable -- exponential solutions always while power-law for an open region of initial conditions.

  5. Anisotropic thermal conduction in galaxy clusters with MHD in Gadget

    CERN Document Server

    Arth, Alexander; Beck, Alexander M; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for SPH. The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the GADGET code and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with an efficiency of one per cent. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism ...

  6. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Mahesh Kumar Yadav

    2005-02-01

    Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get a deterministic model, we have assumed the condition = ( is a constant) between metric potentials and where is the coefficient of shear viscosity and the scalar of expansion in the model. The coefficient of bulk viscosity () is taken as constant. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  7. Newtonian cosmology - Problems of cosmological didactics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarzynski, E.

    1983-03-01

    The article presents different methods of model construction in Newtonian cosmology. Newtonian cosmology is very convenient for discussion of local problems, so the problems presented are of great didactic importance. The constant k receives a new interpretation in relativistic cosmology as the curvature of the space in consequence of the greater informational capacity of Riemann space in comparison to Euclidean space. 11 references.

  8. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

  9. Observational constraints on models of the Universe with time variable Gravitational and Cosmological constants along MOG

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R; Raza, M

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to investigate the weak regime covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) theory, known as the MOdified gravity (MOG) theory of gravity. First, we show that the MOG in the absence of scalar fields is converted into $\\Lambda(t),G(t)$ models. Time evolution of the cosmological parameters for a family of viable models have been investigated. Numerical results with the cosmological data have been adjusted. We've introduced a model for dark energy (DE) density and cosmological constant which involves first order derivatives of Hubble parameter. To extend this model, correction terms including the gravitational constant are added. In our scenario, the cosmological constant is a function of time. To complete the model,interaction terms between dark energy and dark matter (DM) manually entered in phenomenological form. Instead of using the dust model for DM, we have proposed DM equivalent to a barotropic fluid. Time evolution of DM is a function of other cosmological parameters. Using ...

  10. Simple inflationary models in Gauss-Bonnet brane-world cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2014-01-01

    In light of the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the WMAP and Planck satellite experiments and the observation of CMB $B$-mode polarization announced by the BICEP2 collaboration, we study simple inflationary models in the context of the Gauss-Bonnet brane-world cosmology. The brane-world cosmological effect modifies the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations generated by inflation and causes a dramatic change for the inflationary predictions of the spectral index ($n_s$) and the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r$) from those obtained in the standard cosmology. In particular, the power spectrum of tensor perturbation is suppressed due to the Gauss-Bonnet brane-world cosmological effect, which is in sharp contrast with inflationary scenario in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world cosmology where the power spectrum is enhanced. Hence, these two brane-world cosmological scenarios are distinguishable. With the dramatic change of the inflationary predictions, the inflationary scenario in the Gauss-Bonnet ...

  11. Observing the inflation potential. [in models of cosmological inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Kolb, Edward W.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Lidsey, James E.

    1993-01-01

    We show how observations of the density perturbation (scalar) spectrum and the gravitational wave (tensor) spectrum allow a reconstruction of the potential responsible for cosmological inflation. A complete functional reconstruction or a perturbative approximation about a single scale are possible; the suitability of each approach depends on the data available. Consistency equations between the scalar and tensor spectra are derived, which provide a powerful signal of inflation.

  12. Wolff algorithm and anisotropic continuous-spin models: An application to the spin-van der Waals model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'onorio de Meo, Marco; Oh, Suhk Kun

    1992-07-01

    The problem of applying Wolff's cluster algorithm to anisotropic classical spin models is resolved by modifying a part of the Wolff algorithm. To test the effectiveness of our modified algorithm, the spin-van der Waals model is investigated in detail. Our estimate of the dynamical exponent of the model is z=0.19+/-0.04.

  13. Separation of variables in anisotropic models and non-skew-symmetric elliptic r-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, Taras

    2016-11-01

    We solve a problem of separation of variables for the classical integrable hamiltonian systems possessing Lax matrices satisfying linear Poisson brackets with the non-skew-symmetric, non-dynamical elliptic so(3)⊗ so(3) -valued classical r-matrix. Using the corresponding Lax matrices, we present a general form of the "separating functions" B(u) and A(u) that generate the coordinates and the momenta of separation for the associated models. We consider several examples and perform the separation of variables for the classical anisotropic Euler's top, Steklov-Lyapunov model of the motion of anisotropic rigid body in the liquid, two-spin generalized Gaudin model and "spin" generalization of Steklov-Lyapunov model.

  14. Inflation Model (with doublet scalar field) consistent with Lambda CDM and WMAP cosmological observations

    CERN Document Server

    Amruth, B R; R., Amruth B.; Patwardhan, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    Cosmological inflation models with modifications to include recent cosmological observations has been an active area of research after WMAP 3 results, which have given us information about the composition of dark matter, normal matter and dark energy and the anisotropy at the 300,000 years horizon with high precision. We work on inflation models of Guth and Linde and modify them by introducing a doublet scalar field to give normal matter particles and their supersymmetric partners which result in normal and dark matter of our universe. We include the cosmological constant term as the vaccuum expectation value of the stress energy tensor, as the dark energy. We callibrate the parameters of our model using recent observations of density fluctuations. We develop a model which consistently fits with the recent observations.

  15. Nonparametric test of consistency between cosmological models and multiband CMB measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamousa, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to test the consistency of the cosmological models with multiband CMB data using a nonparametric approach. In our analysis we calibrate the REACT (Risk Estimation and Adaptation after Coordinate Transformation) confidence levels associated with distances in function space (confidence distances) based on the Monte Carlo simulations in order to test the consistency of an assumed cosmological model with observation. To show the applicability of our algorithm, we confront Planck 2013 temperature data with concordance model of cosmology considering two different Planck spectra combination. In order to have an accurate quantitative statistical measure to compare between the data and the theoretical expectations, we calibrate REACT confidence distances and perform a bias control using many realizations of the data. Our results in this work using Planck 2013 temperature data put the best fit $\\Lambda$CDM model at $95\\% (\\sim 2\\sigma)$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametri...

  16. Higher-dimensional cosmological model with variable gravitational constant and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; R V Deshpande; T Singh

    2004-11-01

    We have studied five-dimensional homogeneous cosmological models with variable and bulk viscosity in Lyra geometry. Exact solutions for the field equations have been obtained and physical properties of the models are discussed. It has been observed that the results of new models are well within the observational limit.

  17. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.

    1992-11-01

    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  18. Tilted Bianchi type I dust fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Keshav Sharma

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated a tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model filled with dust of perfect fluid in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition = between metric potentials. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model together with singularity in the model are also discussed.

  19. Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

  20. A Weighted Difference of Anisotropic and Isotropic Total Variation Model for Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    model or a reconstructed result. A classical regularization is the total variation (TV) proposed by Rudin -Osher-Fatemi [33]. It is widely used in image...S. J. Osher and S. Esedoglu, Decomposition of images by the anisotropic rudin -osher-fatemi model, Comm. Pure Appl. Math, 57 (2003), pp. 1609–1626...R. B. Potts, Some generalized order-disorder transformations, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc, (1952), pp. 106–109. [33] L. Rudin , S. Osher, and E

  1. On the stable discretization of strongly anisotropic phase field models with applications to crystal growth

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, John W; Nürnberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We introduce unconditionally stable finite element approximations for anisotropic Allen--Cahn and Cahn--Hilliard equations. These equations frequently feature in phase field models that appear in materials science. On introducing the novel fully practical finite element approximations we prove their stability and demonstrate their applicability with some numerical results. We dedicate this article to the memory of our colleague and friend Christof Eck (1968--2011) in recognition of his fundamental contributions to phase field models.

  2. One model of modified gravity with dynamical torsion and its cosmological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, Vasilisa

    2016-10-01

    We consider a model belonging to the class of Poincarè gauge gravities. The model is free of ghosts, tachyons and gradient instabilities about Minkowski and torsionless Einstein backgrounds of sufficiently small curvature. At zero cosmological constant, the model admits a self-accelerating solution with non-Riemannian connection. We study scalar perturbations about the self-accelerating solution and find that the number of scalar modes is the same as in Minkow ski background; moreover, in the limit of small effective cosmological constant and below the UV cutoff of the low energy effective theory, the scalar sector does not have pathologies like ghosts or rapid gradient instabilities.

  3. One model of modified gravity with dynamical torsion and its cosmological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforova Vasilisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model belonging to the class of Poincarè gauge gravities. The model is free of ghosts, tachyons and gradient instabilities about Minkowski and torsionless Einstein backgrounds of sufficiently small curvature. At zero cosmological constant, the model admits a self-accelerating solution with non-Riemannian connection. We study scalar perturbations about the self-accelerating solution and find that the number of scalar modes is the same as in Minkow ski background; moreover, in the limit of small effective cosmological constant and below the UV cutoff of the low energy effective theory, the scalar sector does not have pathologies like ghosts or rapid gradient instabilities.

  4. Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A. Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy) and L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Manti, S. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-02-21

    We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.

  5. Classical and quantum Big Brake cosmology for scalar field and tachyonic models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenshchik, A

    2013-01-01

    We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field . It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.

  6. Classical and Quantum Big Brake Cosmology for Scalar Field and Tachyonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchik, Alexander; Manti, Serena

    2015-01-01

    We study a relation between the cosmological singularities in classical and quantum theory, comparing the classical and quantum dynamics in some models possessing the Big Brake singularity - the model based on a scalar field and two models based on a tachyon-pseudo-tachyon field. It is shown that the effect of quantum avoidance is absent for the soft singularities of the Big Brake type while it is present for the Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. Thus, there is some kind of a classical - quantum correspondence, because soft singularities are traversable in classical cosmology, while the strong Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities are not traversable.

  7. Propagator with Positive Cosmological Constant in the 3D Euclidian Quantum Gravity Toy Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bunting, William

    2014-01-01

    We study the propagator on a single tetrahedron in a three dimensional toy model of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is included in the model via q-deformation of the spatial symmetry algebra, that is, we use the Tuarev-Viro amplitude. The expected repulsive effect of dark energy is recovered in numerical and analytic calculations of the propagator at large scales comparable to the infrared cutoff. However, due to the simplicity of the model we do not obtain the exact Newton limit of the propagator. This is a first step toward the similar calculation in the full 3+1 dimensional theory with larger numbers of simplicies.

  8. A rock physics model for analysis of anisotropic parameters in a shale reservoir in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Keran; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shuangquan; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    A rock physics model is a very effective tool to describe the anisotropy and mechanical properties of rock from a seismology perspective. Compared to a conventional reservoir, modelling a shale reservoir requires us to face two main challenges in modelling: the existence of organic matter and strong anisotropy. We construct an anisotropic rock physics workflow for a typical shale reservoir in Southwest China, in which the organic matter is treated separately from other minerals by using a combination of anisotropic self-consistent approximation and the differential effective medium method. The standard deviation of the distribution function is used to model the degree of lamination of clay and kerogen. A double scan workflow is introduced to invert the probability of pore aspect ratio and lamination simultaneously, which can give us a better understanding of the shale formation. The anisotropic properties of target formation have been analysed based on the proposed model. Inverted Thomsen parameters, especially the sign of delta, are analysed in terms of the physical properties of rock physics modelling.

  9. Bianchi type-I magnetized cosmological models for the Einstein-Boltzmann equation with the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo, E-mail: raoulayissi@yahoo.fr; Noutchegueme, Norbert, E-mail: nnoutch@yahoo.fr [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2015-01-15

    Global solutions regular for the Einstein-Boltzmann equation on a magnetized Bianchi type-I cosmological model with the cosmological constant are investigated. We suppose that the metric is locally rotationally symmetric. The Einstein-Boltzmann equation has been already considered by some authors. But, in general Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat [Ann. Henri Poincaré XVIII(3), 263 (1973); Commun. Math. Phys. 33, 83 (1973)], they proved only the local existence, and in the case of the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation. Mucha [Global existence of solutions of the Einstein-Boltzmann equation in the spatially homogeneous case. Evolution equation, existence, regularity and singularities (Banach Center Publications, Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Science, 2000), Vol. 52] obtained a global existence result, for the relativistic Boltzmann equation coupled with the Einstein equations and using the Yosida operator, but confusing unfortunately with the nonrelativistic case. Noutchegueme and Dongho [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 2979 (2006)] and Noutchegueme, Dongho, and Takou [Gen. Relativ. Gravitation 37, 2047 (2005)], have obtained a global solution in time, but still using the Yosida operator and considering only the uncharged case. Noutchegueme and Ayissi [Adv. Stud. Theor. Phys. 4, 855 (2010)] also proved a global existence of solutions to the Maxwell-Boltzmann system using the characteristic method. In this paper, we obtain using a method totally different from those used in the works of Noutchegueme and Dongho [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 2979 (2006)], Noutchegueme, Dongho, and Takou [Gen. Relativ. Gravitation 37, 2047 (2005)], Noutchegueme and Ayissi [Adv. Stud. Theor. Phys. 4, 855 (2010)], and Mucha [Global existence of solutions of the Einstein-Boltzmann equation in the spatially homogeneous case. Evolution equation, existence, regularity and singularities (Banach Center Publications, Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Science, 2000), Vol. 52] the

  10. Testing anthropic reasoning for the cosmological constant with a realistic galaxy formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The anthropic principle is one of the possible explanations for the cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$) problem. In previous studies, a dark halo mass threshold comparable with our Galaxy must be assumed in galaxy formation to get a reasonably large probability of finding the observed small value, $P(<$$\\Lambda_{\\rm obs})$, though stars are found in much smaller galaxies as well. Here we examine the anthropic argument by using a semi-analytic model of cosmological galaxy formation, which can reproduce many observations such as galaxy luminosity functions. We calculate the probability distribution of $\\Lambda$ by running the model code for a wide range of $\\Lambda$, while other cosmological parameters and model parameters for baryonic processes of galaxy formation are kept constant. Assuming that the prior probability distribution is flat per unit $\\Lambda$, and that the number of observers is proportional to stellar mass, we find $P(<$$\\Lambda_{\\rm obs}) = 6.7 \\%$ without introducing any galaxy mass thres...

  11. Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, Tomislav

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.

  12. Urban flood modeling using shallow water equations with depth-dependent anisotropic porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ilhan; Zhao, Jiaheng; Liang, Dongfang; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The shallow water model with anisotropic porosity conceptually takes into account the unresolved subgrid-scale features, e.g. microtopography or buildings. This enables computationally efficient simulations that can be run on coarser grids, whereas reasonable accuracy is maintained via the introduction of porosity. This article presents a novel numerical model for the depth-averaged equations with anisotropic porosity. The porosity is calculated using the probability mass function of the subgrid-scale features in each cell and updated in each time step. The model is tested in a one-dimensional theoretical benchmark before being evaluated against measurements and high-resolution predictions in three case studies: a dam-break over a triangular bottom sill, a dam-break through an idealized city and a rainfall-runoff event in an idealized urban catchment. The physical processes could be approximated relatively well with the anisotropic porosity shallow water model. The computational resolution influences the porosities calculated at the cell edges and therefore has a large influence on the quality of the solution. The computational time decreased significantly, on average three orders of magnitude, in comparison to the classical high-resolution shallow water model simulation.

  13. Bianchi type-I, -VII{sub 0} and -V cosmological models of Weyssenhoff fluid with magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H. Q.; Shen, L. M.; Sun, N. J.; Ji, G. F. [Shangai Univ., Shangai (China). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    It is derived the system of field equations for a Weyssenhoff fluid including magnetic interaction among the spinning particles prevailing in spatially homogenous, but anisotropic cosmological models of Bianchi types I, VII{sub 0} and V based on the Einstein-Cartan theory. In this work are analyzed the field equations in three different equations of states specified by p=1/3 {rho}, p={rho} and p=0. It has obtained singular and non-singular solutions for Bianchi modes of types I and VII{sub 0} under the state p={rho} but have found that the non-singular solutions are unphysical. During the radiation epoch (p=1/3 {rho}) and the matter epoch (p=0), the analytical solutions found are non-singular for all the stated three Bianchi models, provided that the combined energy arising from matter spin and magnetic interaction among particles overcomes the anisotropy energy in the Universe. It has deduced that the minimum particle numbers for radiation and matter epochs are, respectively, 10{sup 88} and 10{sup 108}, leading to the conclusion that it must be considered the existence of neutrinos and other creation of particles and anti-particles under torsion and strong gravitational field in the early Universe.

  14. Stable cosmological models driven by a free quantum scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, C.; Pinamonti, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Citta Univ., Roma (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' - GNFM; Fredenhagen, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-15

    In the mathematically rigorous analysis of semiclassical Einstein's equations, the renormalisation of the stress-energy tensor plays a crucial role. We address such a topic in the case of a scalar field with both arbitrary mass and coupling with gravity in the hypothesis that the underlying algebraic quantum state is of Hadamard type. Particularly, if we focus on highly symmetric solutions of the semiclassical Einstein's equations, the envisaged method displays a de Sitter type behaviour even without an a priori introduced cosmological constant. As a further novel result we shall show that these solutions turn out to be stable. (orig.)

  15. Cosmological perturbations in SFT inspired non-local scalar field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, Alexey S. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Theoretische Natuurkunde, Brussels (Belgium); Vernov, Sergey Yu. [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Theoretical High Energy Physics Division, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    We study cosmological perturbations in models with a single non-local scalar field originating from the string field theory description of the rolling tachyon dynamics. We construct the equation for the energy density perturbations of the non-local scalar field and explicitly prove that for the free field it is identical to a system of local cosmological perturbation equations in a particular model with multiple (maybe infinitely many) local free scalar fields. We also show that vector and tensor perturbations are absent in this set-up. (orig.)

  16. Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Suarez, Alejandro O.

    I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.

  17. Probing cosmology with weak lensing selected clusters II: Dark energy and f(R) gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys can be used to locate a number of clusters of galaxies with cosmic shear measurement alone. We study constraints on cosmological models using statistics of weak lensing selected galaxy clusters. We extend our previous theoretical framework to model the statistical properties of clusters in variants of cosmological models as well as in the standard LCDM model. Weak lensing selection of clusters does not rely on the conventional assumption such as the relation between luminosity and mass and/or hydrostatic equilibrium, but a number of observational effects compromise robust identification. We use a large set of realistic mock weak-lensing catalogs as well as analytic models to perform a Fisher analysis and make forecast for constraining two competing cosmological models, wCDM model and f(R) model proposed by Hu & Sawicki, with our lensing statistics. We show that weak lensing selected clusters are excellent probe of cosmology when combined with cosmic shear power...

  18. Dark Energy Model with Non-Minimal Coupling and Cosmological Constant Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菲

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a kind of dark energy models in the framework of the non-minimal coupling. With this kind of models, dark energy could cross the cosmological constant boundary, and at early time, dark energy could have "tracking" behavior.

  19. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  20. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Chul; Wi, Hun; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  1. Accelerating dark energy models with anisotropic fluid in Bianchi type-$VI_{0}$ space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Anirudh

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing evidence for the need of a geometry that resembles Bianchi morphology to explain the observed anisotropy in the WMAP data, we have discussed some features of the Bianchi type-$VI_{0}$ universes in the presence of a fluid that wields an anisotropic equation of state (EoS) parameter in general relativity. We present two accelerating dark energy (DE) models with an anisotropic fluid in Bianchi type-$VI_{0}$ space-time. To prevail the deterministic solution we choose the scale factor $a(t) = \\sqrt{t^{n}e^{t}}$, which yields a time-dependent deceleration parameter (DP), representing a class of models which generate a transition of the universe from the early decelerating phase to the recent accelerating phase. Under the suitable condition, the anisotropic models approach to isotropic scenario. The EoS for dark energy $\\omega$ is found to be time-dependent and its existing range for derived models is in good agreement with the recent observations of SNe Ia data (Knop et al. 2003), SNe Ia...

  2. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2004-01-01

    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, gamma->alpha' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of gamma->alpha' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced ...

  3. Study of an anisotropic g-ology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pu, Fu-Cho

    1997-01-01

    The one-dimensional electron gas model in the strong coupling regime is considered. It is shown that this model is Bethe ansatz solvable and the exact spectrum of the Hamiltonian is obtained. The massive spin elementary excitations are established based on the Bethe ansatz equations. The magnetization near the onset at zero temperature is calculated. It is clarified that the Luther-Emergy model does represent a universal class of the one-D electron system.

  4. Tachyon cosmology with non-vanishing minimum potential: a unified model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiquan, E-mail: hqli@ustc.edu.cn [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the tachyon condensation process in the effective theory with non-vanishing minimum potential and its implications to cosmology. It is shown that the tachyon condensation on an unstable three-brane described by this modified tachyon field theory leads to lower-dimensional branes (defects) forming within a stable three-brane. Thus, in the cosmological background, we can get well-behaved tachyon matter after tachyon inflation, (partially) avoiding difficulties encountered in the original tachyon cosmological models. This feature also implies that the tachyon inflated and reheated universe is followed by a Chaplygin gas dark matter and dark energy universe. Hence, such an unstable three-brane behaves quite like our universe, reproducing the key features of the whole evolutionary history of the universe and providing a unified description of inflaton, dark matter and dark energy in a very simple single-scalar field model.

  5. No compelling cosmological models come out of magnetic universes which are based in nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the cosmic dynamics of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes -- flat spatial sections -- which are driven by nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) Lagrangians. We pay special attention to the check of the sign of the square sound speed since, whenever the latter quantity is negative, the corresponding cosmological model is classically unstable against small perturbations of the background energy density. Besides, based on causality arguments, one has to require that the mentioned small perturbations of the background should propagate at most at the local speed of light. We also look for the occurrence of curvature singularities. Our results indicate that several cosmological models which are based in known NLED Lagrangians, either are plagued by curvature singularities of the sudden and/or big rip type, or are violently unstable against small perturbations of the cosmological background -- due to negative sign of the square sound speed -- or both. In addition, causality issues associated with su...

  6. Hubble space telescope counts of elliptical galaxies constraints on cosmological models?

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Phillipps, S; Bristow, P D; Driver, Simon P; Windhorst, Rogier A; Phillipps, Steven; Bristow, Paul D

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of galaxy number counts in terms of cosmological models is fraught with difficulty due to uncertainties in the overall galaxy population (mix of morphological types, luminosity functions etc.) and in the observations (loss of low surface brightness images, image blending etc.). Many of these can be overcome if we use deep high resolution imaging of a single class of high surface brightness galaxies, whose evolution is thought to be fairly well understood. This is now possible by selecting elliptical and S0 galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope images from the Medium Deep Survey and other ultradeep WFPC2 images. In the present paper, we examine whether such data can be used to discriminate between open and closed universes, or between conventional cosmological models and those dominated by a cosmological constant. We find, based on the currently available data, that unless elliptical galaxies undergo very strong merging since z \\sim 1 (and/or very large errors exist in the morphological clas...

  7. Models of quintessence coupled to the electromagnetic field and the cosmological evolution of alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, E J; Pospelov, M E

    2004-01-01

    We study the change of the effective fine structure constant in the cosmological models of a scalar field with a non-vanishing coupling to the electromagnetic field. Combining cosmological data and terrestrial observations we place empirical constraints on the size of the possible coupling and explore a large class of models that exhibit tracking behavior. The change of the fine structure constant implied by the quasar absorption spectra together with the requirement of tracking behavior impose a lower bound of the size of this coupling. Furthermore, the transition to the quintessence regime implies a narrow window for this coupling around $10^{-5}$ in units of the inverse Planck mass. We also propose a non-minimal coupling between electromagnetism and quintessence which has the effect of leading only to changes of alpha determined from atomic physics phenomena, but leaving no observable consequences through nuclear physics effects. In doing so we are able to reconcile the claimed cosmological evidence for a ...

  8. Utilizing anisotropic Preisach-type models in the accurate simulation of magnetostriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adly, A.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Electrical Power and Machines Dept.; Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Bergqvist, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Magnetostriction models are being widely used in the development of fine positioning and active vibration damping devices. This paper presents a new approach for simulating 1-D magnetostriction using 2-D anisotropic Preisach-type models. In this approach, identification of the model takes into account measured flux density versus field and strain versus field curves for different stress values. Consequently, a more accurate magnetostriction model may be obtained. Details of the identification procedure as well as experimental testing of the proposed model are given.

  9. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A; Vorobiev, O; Walsh, S

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  10. Anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice - spin dynamics in HoMnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Avinash Singh

    2008-01-01

    The recent neutron scattering data for spin-wave dispersion in HoMnO3 are well-described by an anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice with a planar (XY) spin anisotropy. Best fit indicates that magnetic excitations in HoMnO3 correspond to the strong-coupling limit / > ∼ 15, with planar exchange energy = 42/ ≃ 2.5 meV and planar anisotropy ≃ 0.35 meV.

  11. Entanglement in Anisotropic Heisenberg Model with Non-Uniform External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Feng; CAO Jun-Peng; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study entanglement properties of the three-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model with both uniform and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Analytic expressions for the measures of entanglement at the ground state are obtained. We show that the pairwise entanglement and global entanglement of the system at the ground state clearly depend on the strength and configuration of external fields. The entanglement between some pairs can be enhanced by non-uniform external fields.

  12. Affine Coherent States in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    A brief summary of the application of coherent states in the examination of quantum dynamics of cosmological models is given. We discuss quantization maps, phase space probability distributions and semiclassical phase spaces. The implementation of coherent states based on the affine group resolves the hardest singularities, renders self-adjoint Hamiltonians without boundary conditions and provides a completely consistent semi-classical description of the involved quantum dynamics. We consider three examples: the closed Friedmann model, the anisotropic Bianchi Type I model and the deep quantum domain of the Bianchi Type IX model.

  13. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  14. The density wave in a new anisotropic continuum model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Hong-Xia; Dai Shi-Qiang; Dong Li-Yun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the new continuum traffic flow model proposed by Jiang et al is developed based on an improved car-following model,in which the speed gradient term replaces the density gradient term in the equation of motion.It overcomes the wrong-way travel which exists in many high-order continuum models.Based on the continuum version of car-following model,the condition for stable traffic flow is derived.Nonlinear analysis shows that the density fluctuation in traffic flow induces a variety of density waves.Near the onset of instability,a small disturbance could lead to solitons determined by the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation,and the soliton solution is derived.

  15. Model of anisotropic nonlinearity in self-defocusing photorefractive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, C; Fleischer, J W

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phenomenological model of anisotropy in self-defocusing photorefractive crystals. In addition to an independent term due to nonlinear susceptibility, we introduce a nonlinear, non-separable correction to the spectral diffraction operator. The model successfully describes the crossover between photovoltaic and photorefractive responses and the spatially dispersive shock wave behavior of a nonlinearly spreading Gaussian input beam. It should prove useful for characterizing internal charge dynamics in complex materials and for accurate image reconstruction through nonlinear media.

  16. Deconstructing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...

  17. Toward an anisotropic atom-atom model for the crystalline phases of the molecular S8 compound

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorino, C.; Gamba, Z.

    2000-01-01

    We analize two anisotropic atom-atom models used to describe the crystalline alpha,beta and gamma phases of S8 crystals, the most stable compound of elemental sulfur in solid phases, at ambient pressure and T

  18. Background of relic gravitons in a perfect fluid in quantum cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siffert, Beatriz B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (ICRA/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica; Bessada, Dennis [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Astrofisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We studied the evolution of tensor cosmological perturbations of quantum origin in cosmological scenarios that predict a contracting phase prior to the present expansion phase. These bouncing models constitute a very plausible alternative to the current cosmological paradigm since they may be able to solve some of the cosmological puzzles present in the standard model, such as the horizon and flatness problems, without the requirement of an initial singularity or special initial conditions. While conventional inflationary models give rise to a relic background of gravitational waves that cannot be detected with present experiments, no such prediction had been made so far using quantum bouncing models. We have obtained analytically the graviton's energy density parameter as a function of time and frequency interval - which is the physical quantity to be confronted with observations - predicted by such models with a perfect fluid equation of state. To obtain the final spectrum, we numerically solved the expression for the density parameter for the time variable. The results can then be compared with the predictions from inflationary models and with the sensitivity curves of gravitational waves current detectors, such as the Virgo and Ligo interferometers, and upcoming detectors, like the LISA space mission, to determine the possibility of detection. (author)

  19. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Anjali

    2004-09-01

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  20. Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2017-02-01

    We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyze their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potentials. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantomlike, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.

  1. Phase transitions in the two-dimensional Anisotropic Biquadratic Heisenberg Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, A.R., E-mail: armoura@infis.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (Brazil); Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: antpires@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil); Pereira, A.R., E-mail: apereira@ufv.br [Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we study the influence of the single-ion anisotropy in the two-dimensional biquadratic Heisenberg model (ABHM) on the square lattice at zero and finite low temperatures. It is common to represent the bilinear and biquadratic terms by J{sub 1}=Jcosθ and J{sub 2}=Jsinθ, respectively, and the many phases present in the model as a function of θ are well documented. However we have adopted a constant value for the bilinear constant (J{sub 1}=1) and small values of the biquadratic term (|J{sub 2}|anisotropic constant D. For values below a critical anisotropic constant D{sub c} the energy spectrum is gapless and at low finite temperatures the order parameter correlation has an algebraic decay (quasi-long-range order). Moreover, in DD{sub c}, the excited states are gapped and there is no spin long-range order (LRO) even at zero temperature. Using Schwinger bosonic representation and Self-Consistent Harmonic Approximation (SCHA), we have studied the quantum and thermal phase transitions as a function of the bilinear and biquadratic constants. - Highlights: • We study the anisotropic biquadric bilinear Heisenberg model on a square lattice. • We show the quantum phase transition associated with the anisotropic constant. • We obtain a thermal phase transition similar to the BKT transition.

  2. Spreading and wandering of Gaussian-Schell model laser beams in an anisotropic turbulent ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqian; Zhang, Yixin; Zhu, Yun; Hu, Zhengda

    2016-09-01

    The effect of anisotropic turbulence on the spreading and wandering of Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) laser beams propagating in an ocean is studied. The long-term spreading of a GSM beam propagating through the paraxial channel of a turbulent ocean is also developed. Expressions of random wander for such laser beams are derived in an anisotropic turbulent ocean based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. We investigate the influence of parameters in a turbulent ocean on the beam wander and spreading. Our results indicate that beam spreading and random beam wandering are smaller without considering the anisotropy of turbulence in the oceanic channel. Salinity fluctuation has a greater contribution to both the beam spreading and beam wander than that of temperature fluctuations in a turbulent ocean. Our results could be helpful for designing a free-space optical wireless communication system in an oceanic environment.

  3. Does the diffusion DM-DE interaction model solve cosmological puzzles?

    CERN Document Server

    Szydlowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We study dynamics of cosmological models with diffusion effects modeling dark matter and dark energy interactions. We show the simple model with diffusion between the cosmological constant sector and dark matter, where the canonical scaling law of dark matter $(\\rho_{dm,0}a^{-3}(t))$ is modified by an additive $\\epsilon(t)=\\gamma t a^{-3}(t)$ to the form $\\rho_{dm}=\\rho_{dm,0}a^{-3}(t)+\\epsilon(t)$. We reduced this model to the autonomous dynamical system and investigate it using dynamical system methods. This system possesses a two-dimensional invariant submanifold on which the DM-DE interaction can be analyzed on the phase plane. The state variables are density parameter for matter (dark and visible) and parameter $\\delta$ characterizing the rate of growth of energy transfer between the dark sectors. A corresponding dynamical system belongs to a general class of jungle type of cosmologies represented by coupled cosmological models in a Lotka-Volterra framework. We demonstrate that the de Sitter solution is ...

  4. Qualitative Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Equations of the Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative theory of differential equations it is shown that dynamic system based on the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations with regard to Friedman Universe has a stable center corresponding to zero values of scalar potential and its derivative at infinity. Thus, the cosmological model based on single massive classical scalar field in infinite future would give a flat Universe. The carried out numerical simulation of the dynamic system corresponding to the system of Einstein - Klein - Gordon equations showed that at great times of the evolution the invariant cosmological acceleration has a microscopic oscillating character ($T\\sim 2\\pi mt$), while macroscopic value of the cosmological acceleration varies from $+1$ at inflation stage after which if decreases fast to $-1/2$ (non-relativistic stage), and then slowly tends to $-1$ (ultrarelativistic stage).

  5. Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models Ten Years of the SEENET-MTP Network

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Gaumé, Luis; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    This publication - "Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models" - is dedicated to the celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET-MTP). As a Theme Collection, rather than a Monograph or Proceedings, this volume presents a number of reports and overviews, a few research papers and a short note. However, some of them are excellent examples of a nowadays increasingly deep interplay between particle physics and cosmology. Contributions span a wide range of topics in cosmology, particle physics, but also gravity, including the interface of these fields. The presented work is of both theoretical and experimental/ observational nature. The contributions represent recent progress in their respective fields: inflation, dark matter, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, collider physics, string theory, quantum gravity, black hole physics and massive gravity.

  6. Late time behavior of cosmological perturbations in a single brane model

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K

    2004-01-01

    We present solutions for the late time evolution of cosmological tensor and scalar perturbations in a single Randall-Sundrum brane world model. Assuming that the bulk is Anti-de Sitter spacetime, the solutions for cosmological perturbations are derived by summing up mode functions in Poincar\\'e coordinate. The junction conditions imposed at the moving brane are solved numerically. The recovery of 4-dimensional Einstein gravity at late times is shown by solving the 5-dimensional perturbations throughout the infinite bulk. We also comment on several possibilities to have deviations from 4-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  7. Anisotropic q-Gaussian velocity distributions in LambdaCDM halos

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, L Beraldo e; Duarte, M; Peirani, S; Boué, G

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the velocity distribution function (VDF) of dark matter (DM) halos is required for calibrating the direct DM detection experiments and useful for recovering the mass profile from the observed distribution of tracers in projected phase space when the VDF has unknown anisotropy. Unfortunately, the VDF of halos in LambdaCDM dissipationless cosmological simulations is still poorly known. We consider the q-Gaussian (Tsallis) family of VDFs, among which the Gaussian is a special case. We extend the q-Gaussian to anisotropic VDFs by considering the isotropic set of dimensionless spherical velocity components normalized by the velocity dispersion along that component. We test our anisotropic VDF on 90 cluster-mass halos of a dissipationless cosmological simulation. While our anisotropic q-Gaussian model adequately reproduces the VDF averaged in spherical shells with radii greater than 2 virial radii, no q-Gaussian model can adequately represent the VDF in spherical shells of radius smaller than 2 vir...

  8. Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kwidzinski, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse square potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.

  9. Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kiefer, Claus; Kwidzinski, Nick

    2016-04-01

    We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse squared potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.

  10. Terrestrial implications of cosmological gamma-ray burst models

    CERN Document Server

    Thorsett, S E

    1995-01-01

    The observation by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are distributed isotropically around the Earth but nonuniformly in distance has led to the widespread conclusion that GRBs are most likely to be at cosmological distances, making them the most luminous sources known in the Universe. If bursts arise from events that occur in normal galaxies, such as neutron star binary inspirals, then they will also occur in our Galaxy about every hundred thousand to million years. The gamma-ray flux at the Earth due to a Galactic GRB would far exceed that from even the largest solar flares. The absorption of this radiation in the atmosphere would substantially increase the stratospheric nitric oxide concentration through photodissociation of N_2, greatly reducing the ozone concentration for several years through NO_x catalysis, with important biospheric effects due to increased solar ultraviolet flux. A nearby GRB may also leave traces in anomalous radionuclide abundances...

  11. Models of Anisotropic Creep in Integral Wing Panel Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Oleinikov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    For a sufficiently wide range of stresses the titanic and aluminummagnesium alloys, as a rule, strained differently in the process of creep under tension and compression along a fixed direction. There are suggested constitutive relations for the description of the steady-state creep of transversely isotropic materials with different tension and compression characteristics. Experimental justification is given to the proposed constitutive equations. Modeling of forming of wing panels of the aircraft are considered.

  12. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant deceleration parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Y SHAIKH; S D KATORE

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we have studied the solutions of plane-symmetric Universe with variable $\\omega$ in the presence and the absence of magnetic field of energy density $\\rho B$. A special law of variation for Hubble’s parameterproposed by Bermann in {\\it Nuovo Cimento} B 74, 182 (1983) has been utilized to solve the field equations. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models are also discussed.

  13. Dimensionless cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Although it is possible that some fundamental physical constants could vary in time, it is important to only consider dimensionless combinations, such as the fine structure constant or the equivalent coupling constant for gravity. Once all such dimensionless numbers have been given, then we can be sure that our cosmological picture is governed by the same physical laws as that of another civilization with an entirely different set of units. An additional feature of the standard model of cosmology raises an extra complication, namely that the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. This can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. It takes some care to avoid inconsistent results for constraints on variable constants, which could be caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering in some detail the physics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination and microwave background anisotropies, being care...

  14. The Einstein-Vlasov system with cosmological constant in a surface-symmetric cosmological model local existence and continuation criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tchapnda, S B; Tchapnda, Sophonie Blaise; Noutchegueme, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    The Einstein-Vlasov system describes a self-gravitating, collisionless gas within the framework of general relativity. We investigate the initial value problem in a cosmological setting with surface symmetry and a non-zero cosmological constant and prove local existence and continuation criteria in both time directions. The continuation criterion says that as long as the maximum velocity remains bounded and the lapse function remains bounded then the solution can be continued. This applies to either time direction.

  15. Searching for Cosmological Preferred Axis using cosmographic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Recent released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. This hints a cosmological privileged axis in our anisotropic expanding universe. This paper proceeds a modified redshift in anisotropic cosmological model as $ 1+\\tilde{z}(t,\\hat{\\textbf{p}})=\\frac{a(t_{0)}}{a(t)}(1-A(\\hat{\\textbf{n}}.\\hat{\\textbf{p}}))$ (where $A$ is the magnitude of anisotropy ,$\\hat{\\textbf{n}}$ is the direction of privileged axis, and $\\hat{\\textbf{p}}$ is the direction of each SNe Ia sample to galactic coordinates) along with anisotropic parameter $\\delta=\\frac{A(\\hat{\\textbf{n}}.\\hat{\\textbf{p}})}{1+A(\\hat{\\textbf{n}}.\\hat{\\textbf{p}})}$. The luminosity distance is expanded with model-independent cosmographic parameters as a function of modified redshift $\\tilde{z}$. As the transformation matrix $M(n\\times n)$ is obtained to convert the Taylor series coefficients of isotropic luminosity distance to corresponding anisotropic parameters. These results culminate the ma...

  16. Dark energy and dust matter phases from an exact f(R)-cosmology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezioze di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Ed. N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it; Martin-Moruno, P. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rubano, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezioze di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Ed. N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-06-12

    We show that dust matter-dark energy combined phases can be achieved by the exact solution derived from a power law f(R) cosmological model. This example answers the query by which a dust-dominated decelerated phase, before dark-energy accelerated phase, is needed in order to form large scale structures.

  17. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  18. An improved cosmological model fitting of Planck data with a dark energy spike

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan-Gyung

    2015-01-01

    The $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter ($\\Lambda\\textrm{CDM}$) model is currently known as the simplest cosmology model that best describes observations with minimal number of parameters. Here we introduce a cosmology model that is preferred over the conventional $\\Lambda\\textrm{CDM}$ one by constructing dark energy as the sum of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ and the additional fluid that is designed to have an extremely short transient spike in energy density during the radiation-matter equality era and the early scaling behavior with radiation and matter densities. The density parameter of the additional fluid is defined as a Gaussian function plus a constant in logarithmic scale-factor space. Searching for the best-fit cosmological parameters in the presence of such a dark energy spike gives a far smaller chi-square value by about five times the number of additional parameters introduced and narrower constraints on matter density and Hubble constant compared with the best-fit $\\Lambda\\textrm{CDM}$ model. The...

  19. Non-linear structure formation in the `Running FLRW' cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiano, Antonio; Croton, Darren J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations describing the `Running Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker' (R-FLRW) cosmological model. This model is based on quantum field theory in a curved space-time and extends Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with a time-evolving vacuum density, Λ(z), and time-evolving gravitational Newton's coupling, G(z). In this paper, we review the model and introduce the necessary analytical treatment needed to adapt a reference N-body code. Our resulting simulations represent the first realization of the full growth history of structure in the R-FLRW cosmology into the non-linear regime, and our normalization choice makes them fully consistent with the latest cosmic microwave background data. The post-processing data products also allow, for the first time, an analysis of the properties of the halo and sub-halo populations. We explore the degeneracies of many statistical observables and discuss the steps needed to break them. Furthermore, we provide a quantitative description of the deviations of R-FLRW from ΛCDM, which could be readily exploited by future cosmological observations to test and further constrain the model.

  20. Submanifolds in space-time with unphysical extra dimensions, cosmology and warped brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N

    2008-01-01

    The explicit coordinate transformations which show the equivalence between a four-dimensional spatially flat cosmology and an appropriate submanifold in the flat five-dimensional Minkowski space-time are presented. Analogous procedure is made for the case of five-dimensional warped brane world models. Several examples are presented.

  1. Gauged WZW-type theories and the all-loop anisotropic non-Abelian Thirring model

    CERN Document Server

    Sfetsos, Konstadinos

    2014-01-01

    We study what we call the all-loop anisotropic bosonized Thirring sigma model. This interpolates between the WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the principal chiral model for a simple group. It has an invariance involving the inversion of the matrix parametrizing the coupling constants. We compute the general renormalization group flow equations which assume a remarkably simple form and derive its properties. For symmetric couplings, they consistently truncate to previous results in the literature. One of the examples we provide gives rise to a first order system of differential equations interpolating between the Lagrange and the Darboux-Halphen integrable systems.

  2. A cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime; 1, Field equations and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Puetzfeld, D

    2001-01-01

    In this first article of a series on alternative cosmological models we present an extended version of a cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime. The new model can be viewed as a generalization of a model developed earlier jointly with Tresguerres. Within this model the non-Riemannian quantities, i.e. torsion $T^{\\alpha}$ and nonmetricity $Q_{\\alpha \\beta}$, are proportional to the Weyl 1-form. The hypermomentum $\\Delta_{\\alpha \\beta}$ depends on our ansatz for the nonmetricity and vice versa. We derive the explicit form of the field equations for different cases and provide solutions for a broad class of parameters. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct models in which the non-Riemannian quantities die out with time. We show how our model fits into the more general framework of metric-affine gravity (MAG).

  3. A cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime: I. Field equations and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetzfeld, Dirk

    2002-06-01

    In this first paper of a series on alternative cosmological models we present an extended version of a cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime. The new model can be viewed as a generalization of a model developed earlier jointly with Tresguerres. Within this model the non-Riemannian quantities, i.e. torsion Tα and nonmetricity Qαβ, are proportional to the Weyl 1-form. The hypermomentum Δαβ depends on our ansatz for the nonmetricity and vice versa. We derive the explicit form of the field equations for different cases and provide solutions for a broad class of parameters. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct models in which the non-Riemannian quantities die out with time. We show how our model fits into the more general framework of metric-affine gravity (MAG).

  4. A cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime: I. Field equations and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetzfeld, Dirk [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Cologne (Germany)

    2002-06-21

    In this first paper of a series on alternative cosmological models we present an extended version of a cosmological model in Weyl-Cartan spacetime. The new model can be viewed as a generalization of a model developed earlier jointly with Tresguerres. Within this model the non-Riemannian quantities, i.e. torsion T{sup {alpha}} and nonmetricity Q{sub {alpha}}{sub {beta}}, are proportional to the Weyl 1-form. The hypermomentum {delta}{sub {alpha}}{sub {beta}} depends on our ansatz for the nonmetricity and vice versa. We derive the explicit form of the field equations for different cases and provide solutions for a broad class of parameters. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct models in which the non-Riemannian quantities die out with time. We show how our model fits into the more general framework of metric-affine gravity (MAG)

  5. BCS-Hubbard model applied to anisotropic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.S., E-mail: smillan@pampano.unacar.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Cd. del Carmen, 24180 Campeche (Mexico); Perez, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The BCS formalism applied to a Hubbard model, including correlated hoppings, is used to study d-wave superconductors. The theoretical T{sub c} vs. n relationship is compared with experimental data from BiSr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The results suggest a nontrivial correlation between the hole and the doping concentrations. Based on the BCS formalism, we study the critical temperature (T{sub c}) as a function of electron density (n) in a square lattice by means of a generalized Hubbard model, in which first ({Delta}t) and second neighbors ({Delta}t{sub 3}) correlated-hopping interactions are included in addition to the repulsive Coulomb ones. We compare the theoretical T{sub c} vs. n relationship with experimental data of cuprate superconductors BiSr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (BSCO) and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, (LSCO). The theory agrees very well with BSCO data even though the complicated association between Sr concentration (x) and hole doping (p). For the LSCO system, it is observed that in the underdoped regime, the T{sub c} vs. n behavior can be associated to different systems with small variations of t'. For the overdoped regime, a more complicated dependence n = 1 - p/2 fits better than n = 1 - p. On the other hand, it is proposed that the second neighbor hopping ratio (t'/t) should be replaced by the effective mean field hopping ratio t{sub MF}{sup '}/t{sub MF}, which can be very sensitive to small changes of t' due to the doping.

  6. Propagation of Partially Coherent Twisted Anisotropic Gaussian-Schell Model Beams in the Spatial-Frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳健; 林强

    2002-01-01

    The generalized Collins formula for partially coherent beams through axially non-symmetrical optical systems in the spatial-frequency domain is derived by means of the tensor method. Based on this formula, the tensor ABCD law in the spatial-frequency domain for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beams is derived, which governs the transformation of the twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the spatialfrequency domain. An example of an application is provided.

  7. On the Tidal Evolution of the Earth-Moon System: A Cosmological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab A. I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a cosmological model for the tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system. We have found that the expansion of the universe has immense consequences on our local systems. The model can be compared with the present observational data. The close approach problem inflicting the known tidal theory is averted in this model. We have also shown that the astronomical and geological changes of our local systems are of the order of Hubble constant.

  8. Bianchi type VI1 cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated Bianchi type VIh, II and III cosmological model with wet dark fluid in scale invariant theory of gravity, where the matter field is in the form of perfect fluid and with a time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). A non-singular model for the universe filled with disorder radiation is constructed and some physical behaviors of the model are studied for the feasible VIh (h = 1) space-time.

  9. Gravitational Baryogenesis after Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  10. Gravitational baryogenesis after anisotropic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-05-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence, it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  11. Cosmological bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2012-01-01

    A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.

  12. Anisotropic Heisenberg model on hierarchical lattices with aperiodic interactions: a renormalization-group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, N S; de Sousa, J Ricardo; Ghosh, Angsula

    2008-03-01

    Using a real-space renormalization-group approximation, we study the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model on hierarchical lattices, with interactions following aperiodic sequences. Three different sequences are considered, with relevant and irrelevant fluctuations, according to the Luck-Harris criterion. The phase diagram is discussed as a function of the anisotropy parameter Delta (such that Delta=0 and 1 correspond to the isotropic Heisenberg and Ising models, respectively). We find three different types of phase diagrams, with general characteristics: the isotropic Heisenberg plane is always an invariant one (as expected by symmetry arguments) and the critical behavior of the anisotropic Heisenberg model is governed by fixed points on the Ising-model plane. Our results for the isotropic Heisenberg model show that the relevance or irrelevance of aperiodic models, when compared to their uniform counterpart, is as predicted by the Harris-Luck criterion. A low-temperature renormalization-group procedure was applied to the classical isotropic Heisenberg model in two-dimensional hierarchical lattices: the relevance criterion is obtained, again in accordance with the Harris-Luck criterion.

  13. A statistical model for point-based target registration error with anisotropic fiducial localizer error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Andrew D; Likholyot, Alexander; Frantz, Donald D; Peters, Terry M

    2008-03-01

    Error models associated with point-based medical image registration problems were first introduced in the late 1990s. The concepts of fiducial localizer error, fiducial registration error, and target registration error are commonly used in the literature. The model for estimating the target registration error at a position r in a coordinate frame defined by a set of fiducial markers rigidly fixed relative to one another is ubiquitous in the medical imaging literature. The model has also been extended to simulate the target registration error at the point of interest in optically tracked tools. However, the model is limited to describing the error in situations where the fiducial localizer error is assumed to have an isotropic normal distribution in R3. In this work, the model is generalized to include a fiducial localizer error that has an anisotropic normal distribution. Similar to the previous models, the root mean square statistic rms tre is provided along with an extension that provides the covariance Sigma tre. The new model is verified using a Monte Carlo simulation and a set of statistical hypothesis tests. Finally, the differences between the two assumptions, isotropic and anisotropic, are discussed within the context of their use in 1) optical tool tracking simulation and 2) image registration.

  14. General spherical anisotropic Jeans models of stellar kinematics: including proper motions and radial velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Cappellari (2008) presented a flexible and efficient method to model the stellar kinematics of anisotropic axisymmetric and spherical stellar systems. The spherical formalism could be used to model the line-of-sight velocity second moments allowing for essentially arbitrary radial variation in the anisotropy and general luminous and total density profiles. Here we generalize the spherical formalism by providing the expressions for all three components of the projected second moments, including the two proper motion components. A reference implementation is now included in the public JAM package available at http://purl.org/cappellari/software

  15. Spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    We use the SU(3) Schwinger's boson theory to study the spin transport in the frustrated anisotropic three-dimensional XY model at T=0 with single ion anisotropy. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model that presents exchange interactions J1, J2 and J ‧ . We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein regime where we have that the tz bosons are condensed i.e. = = t . Our results show a metallic spin transport for ω > 0 and a superconductor spin transport in the limit of DC conductivity.

  16. Anisotropic Beam Model for the Spectral Observations of Radio Burst Fine Structures on 1998 April 15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fine structure consisting of three almost equidistant frequency bands was observed in the high frequency part of a solar burst on 1998 April 15 by the spectrometer of Beijing Astronomical Observatory in the range 2.6-3.8 GHz. A model for this event based on beam-anisotropic instability in the solar corona is presented. Longitudinal plasma waves are excited at cyclotron resonance and then transformed into radio emission at their second harmonic. The model is in accordance with the observations if we suppose a magnetic field strength in the region of emission generation of about 200 G.

  17. Rigorous mathematical investigation of a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion-based image restoration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Barbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear diffusion based image denoising technique is introduced in this paper. The proposed PDE denoising and restoration scheme is based on a novel diffusivity function that uses an automatically detected conductance parameter. A robust mathematical treatment is also provided for our anisotropic diffusion model. We demonstrate that edge-stopping function model is properly chosen, explaining the mathematical reasons behind it. Also, we perform a rigorous mathematical investigation on of the existence and uniqueness of the solution of our nonlinear diffusion equation. This PDE-based noise removal approach outperforms most diffusion-based methods, producing considerably better smoothing results and providing a much better edge preservation.

  18. A 3D porous media liver lobule model: the importance of vascular septa and anisotropic permeability for homogeneous perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Charlotte; Vierendeels, Jan; Siggers, Jennifer H; Repetto, Rodolfo; Monbaliu, Diethard; Segers, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The hepatic blood circulation is complex, particularly at the microcirculatory level. Previously, 2D liver lobule models using porous media and a 3D model using real sinusoidal geometries have been developed. We extended these models to investigate the role of vascular septa (VS) and anisotropic permeability. The lobule was modelled as a hexagonal prism (with or without VS) and the tissue was treated as a porous medium (isotropic or anisotropic permeability). Models were solved using computational fluid dynamics. VS inclusion resulted in more spatially homogeneous perfusion. Anisotropic permeability resulted in a larger axial velocity component than isotropic permeability. A parameter study revealed that results are most sensitive to the lobule size and radial pressure drop. Our model provides insight into hepatic microhaemodynamics, and suggests that inclusion of VS in the model leads to perfusion patterns that are likely to reflect physiological reality. The model has potential for applications to unphysiological and pathological conditions.

  19. Loop quantum cosmology: Anisotropies and inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    In this dissertation we extend the improved dynamics of loop quantum cosmology from the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times to cosmological models which allow anisotropies and inhomogeneities. Specifically, we consider the cases of the homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type I, II and IX models with a massless scalar field as well as the vacuum, inhomogeneous, linearly polarized Gowdy T3 model. For each case, we derive the Hamiltonian constraint operator and study its properties. In particular, we show how in all of these models the classical big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved due to quantum gravity effects. Since the Bianchi models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz conjecture regarding the nature of generic space-like singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of the Bianchi cosmologies are likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of such singularities in quantum gravity. In addition, the results obtained here provide an important step toward the full loop quantization of cosmological space-times that allow generic inhomogeneities; this would provide falsifiable predictions that could be compared to observations.

  20. A fully cosmological model of a Monoceros-like ring

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Facundo A; Marinacci, Federico; Slater, Colin T; Grand, Robert J J; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    We study the vertical structure of a stellar disk obtained from a fully cosmological high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the formation of a Milky Way-like galaxy. At the present day, the disk's mean vertical height shows a well-defined and strong pattern, with amplitudes as large as 3 kpc in its outer regions. This pattern is the result of a satellite - host halo - disk interaction and reproduces, qualitatively, many of the observable properties of the Monoceros Ring. In particular we find disk material at the distance of Monoceros extending far above the mid plane (30$^{\\circ}$) in both hemispheres, as well as well-defined arcs of disk material at heliocentric distances $\\gtrsim 5$ kpc. The pattern was first excited $\\approx 3$ Gyr ago as an $m=1$ mode that later winds up into a leading spiral pattern. Interestingly, the main driver behind this perturbation is a low-mass low-velocity fly-by encounter. The satellite has total mass, pericentre distance and pericentric velocity of $\\sim 5\\%$ of the hos...