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Sample records for anisopliae var anisopliae

  1. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10 10 , 1 x 10 8 , 1 x 10 6 and 1 x 10 4 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT 50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  4. Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Efecto de los Fungicidas sobre el Desarrollo del Hongo Entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Maribel Yáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured through the colony rate growth in agar media, and those reaching up to 50% of the check growth were considered compatible. Results indicate that the benomyl and fenhexamid fungicides were compatible with the five isolates whereas, azoxystrobin and fludioxonil were incompatible. Furthermore, benomyl and fludioxonil reduced conidia germination by 53 and 91%, and germination tube length by 18 and 37%, respectively.Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin es un hongo entomopatógeno que se utiliza para el control de diferentes insectos, uno de sus usos más frecuentes es en frutales menores, donde también se utilizan fungicidas para el control de enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomil, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione y metalaxil, en concentraciones de 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 y 100 mg L-1, sobre el crecimiento de la colonia, porcentaje de germinación de conidias y longitud de tubos germinativos de distintas cepas de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. Las cepas utilizadas fueron Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430 y Qu-M984, seleccionadas por su uso comercial para el control de diferentes insectos en frutales menores. El

  5. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

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    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author)

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose...

  8. Pathogenicity of local Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locusts and grasshoppers are the most important economical threat in the sahelian agricultural system. Principal control strategies of these pests are synthetic chemicals which are, however, harmful to the environment and human health. Metarhizium anisopliae based biopesticide Green Muscle IMI330189 has been ...

  9. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

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    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  10. Virulence and Pre-Lethal Reproductive Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae on Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Virulencia y Efectos Pre-Letales en la Reproducción de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae en Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Aldo Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, is a cosmopolitan pest that causes damage by suction of vascular juices and the production of honeydew, as well as for being a quarantine insect. Within control options, entomopathogenic fungi are a good alternative, nevertheless, more research is needed. In this research, the Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff isolate Qu-M984 was evaluated on P. viburni under laboratory conditions. Virulence was evaluated by lethal dose 50 (LD50 and lethal time 50 (LT50, for each of the four life stages of the female. The doses tested were 10(5, 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 conidia mL-1. Also fecundity, egg size, fertility, and longevity of adult females were evaluated at doses of 10(5 and 10(6 conidia mL-1, the evaluations were made every 2 d throughout the insect life time. The LD50 and LT50 obtained were variable for each life stage, although without statistical differences among life stages (P > 0.05, ranging from LD50 = 7.3 x 10(5 to 4.9 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 and LT50 = 7.74 to 9.97 d at 10(8 conidia mL-1. Significant differences (P 0.05.Chanchito blanco de la vid, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, es una plaga cosmopolita que causa daños tanto por succión de jugos vasculares como por su producción de mielecilla, así como también por ser un insecto cuarentenario. Dentro de las opciones de control, hongos entomopatógenos son una buena alternativa, sin embargo, más investigación es necesaria. En esta investigación fue evaluado Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff aislamiento Qu-M984 en P. viburni bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Fue evaluada virulencia según dosis letal 50 (LD50 y tiempo letal 50 (LT50 para cada uno de los cuatro estados de desarrollo de la hembra. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 10(5, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidias mL-1. Fecundidad, tamaño de huevos, fertilidad y longevidad de hembras adultas fueron evaluados con dosis 10(5 y 10(6 conidias mL-1, las evaluaciones fueron

  11. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal isolates from grasshoppers of the family Acrididae are suspected to be less virulent to grasshoppers of the family Pyrgomorphidae. The biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum was isolated from an acridid and is thus hypothesized to be less virulent to pyrgomorphids...

  12. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn Efeito de duas dosagens de Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum contra Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

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    Marcos Rodrigues de Faria

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.O fungo Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, isolado CG 423, foi avaliado em condições de campo como agente de controle biológico do gafanhoto gregário Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conídios formulados em uma mistura racêmica de óleo de soja e querosene foram pulverizados no campo com a utilização de um atomizador rotativo manual Ulva Plus, calibrado para aplicação de 2,9 L/ha. Bandos com ninfas de 2º estádio foram tratados com o equivalente a 5,0x10(12 ou 1,0x10(13 conídios viáveis/ha. O número de insetos em cada bando foi estimado no 1º dia após a aplicação e ao final do experimento (15 a 16 dias ap

  13. The effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on different stages of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Pereira, Romeika Hermínia de Macedo Assunção; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Freire, Fúlvio Aurélio de Morais; Kamimura, Michel Toth; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Luna-Alves Lima, Elza Aurea; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2010-03-01

    The control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) vector is often based on the application of chemical residual insecticide. However, this strategy has not been effective. The continuing search for an appropriate vector control may include the use of biological control. This study evaluates the effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml, accompanied by controls. The unhatched eggs, larvae and dead adults previously exposed to fungi were sown to reisolate the fungi and analysis of parameters of growth. The fungus was subsequently identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. M. anisopliae var. acridum reduced egg hatching by 40%. The mortality of infected larvae was significant. The longevity of infected adults was lower than that of negative controls. The effects of fungal infection on the hatching of eggs laid by infected females were also significant. With respect to fungal growth parameters post-infection, only vegetative growth was not significantly higher than that of the fungi before infection. The revalidation of the identification of the reisolated fungus was confirmed post-passage only from adult insects. In terms of larvae mortality and the fecundity of infected females, the results were significant, proving that the main vector species of VL is susceptible to infection by this entomopathogenic fungus in the adult stage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory Trials of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle® Against the Saxaul Locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae Ensayos de Laboratorio de Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green muscle® contra la Langosta de Saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae

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    Heydar Valizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The saxaul locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae is a major pest of saxaul plants in Qom province of Iran. During 2005-2006, different nymphal instars of bands of D. albidula were treated by aerial spraying of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. The gasoline formulation of M. anisopliae var. acridum isolate IMI 330189 was applied in different conidial concentrations (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 spores mL-1 that were prepared in sterile distilled gasoline. Results showed that various concentrations significantly affected the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th nymphal instars of D. albidula compared to control. In addition, there were no differences in the effects of the different concentrations in 2005, but the differences were significant in 2006. Concentration 10(10 killed 100% of tested insects 15 d after treatment. Comparing the results of the two years showed that the susceptibility of nymphs in the second year (2006 was higher than in the first year (2005. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that the fungal insecticide M. anisopliae var. acridum, diluted in gasoline, was efficacious with the nymphal instars of locust D. albidula in 2005 and 2006.La langosta del saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae, es la principal plaga de plantas de saxaul de las provincias Qom, Irán. Durante 2005-2006, diferentes instars ninfales de D. albidula se asperjaron con Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. La formulación de gasolina de M. anisopliae var. acridum aislamiento IMI 330189 se aplicó en diferentes concentraciones conidiales (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 esporas mL-1 preparadas en gasolina destilada estéril. Los resultados demostraron que varias concentraciones afectaron significativamente los nstars ninfales de D. albidula comparado con el control. Además el efecto de concentraciones no fue diferente en 2005 pero sí significativamente en

  15. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

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    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra; Ana Paula Duarte Pires; Elza Áurea de Luna Alves Lima

    2009-01-01

    The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C an...

  16. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

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    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  17. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

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    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman. In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8 conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90 were 3.8 x 10(5 and 8 x 10(7 conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03. In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10 conidia per hive were evaluated. The treatments were: a conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame inside the hive; b dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames; and c dry conidia in a dispenser path at the entrance of the hive. Furthermore, untreated hives were included as controls. After 21 days of treatment, the dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames showed 67% less bees infested by the mite than the control (p La efectividad del aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff, seleccionado previamente por su resistencia a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC, y patogenicidad sobre Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman fue evaluada en laboratorio y en ensayos de terreno. Las primeras pruebas consistieron en pulverizar concentraciones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 sobre varroas adultas. La concentración letal para matar el 50 y 90% de la población (CL50 y CL90 fueron de 3,8 x 10(5 y 8 x 10(7 conidias mL-1, respectivamente (χ² = 2,03. En otoño se evaluaron en terreno tres métodos de aplicación de una dosis de 5 x 10(10 conidias por colmena. Los tratamientos fueron: a conidias estampadas en papel filtro ubicado cada dos panales móviles al interior de la colmena; b conidias espolvoreadas sobre y entre los panales; y c dispensador de conidias ubicado en la piquera de las colmenas. Además se

  18. Sensibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelargonium sidoides, known as umckaloabo, is a plant originally from South Africa and its extract is used in popular medicine. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, an important entomopathogen used in biological control of pests, is also employed as model for the evaluation of toxicity and compatibility of different products, ...

  19. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenecity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates of Ethiopian origin on eggs and adults of the two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, effect of temperature on virulence, as well as potentials of isolates in the greenhouse condition was assessed during October 2008 ...

  20. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for the adult mosquito of Anopheles stephensi (Malarial vector). In the present experiment was carried out in the laboratory of 30-50 male and female adult mosquitoes were exposed to M. anisopliae (exposed to 1 x 106 ...

  1. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae Lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em linhagens de Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Antonio Marcos Pupin

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.Dois estágios de desenvolvimento a saber: conídio (C e micélio (M em 10 linhagens de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae e 2 M. anisopliae var. majus, foram estudados em dois diferentes meios de cultivos, minimo (MM e completo (MC. As linhagens apresentaram-se similares quanto a porcentagem de lipídios totais, porém submetidas ao teste de Tukey, as médias dos conteúdos de lipídios do conídio (C e do micélio (M cultivados em meio MM e CM respectivamente, mostraram diferença significativa ao nível de 5% , indicando assim variabilidade para a produção de lipídios totais. As linhagens 5 e 7, ambas da var. majus, não apresentam diferenças mensuráveis da variedade anisopliae. Com os ácidos graxos C18:1 e C18:2 oléico e linoléico respectivamente, as diferenças foram todas altamente significativas (p= 1% com a mais alta média de C18:1 para conídio e C18:2 para micélio.

  2. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... 1Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (Key Laboratory of ... Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, isolation, identification, Chilo venosatus, culture medium, biological control. .... with a Leica microscope and average values were compared for all.

  3. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C and 25% of humidity; 28º C and 75% of humidity, during 120 days. The results show that M. anisiopliac var. anisopliae presented the most recuperation in the treatment at 28º C and 75% of humidity (P > 0,05 in 30 days and maintained a positive conditions on soil for 120 days of experiment. The same did not happen to M. anisopliae var. acridum that, during the whole process of observation and controll the colonies recuperation avoiding its persistence on soil, during the 120 days of experiment.

  4. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... S. Kamala Kannan*, K. Murugan, A. Naresh Kumar, N. Ramasubramanian and P. Mathiyazhagan. Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046. Tamil Nadu, India. Accepted 4 May, 2007. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is being ...

  5. The synergistic effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschikoff) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ultrastructural study showed the effect of the joint application of another acyl urea diflubenzuron (= Dimlin-) and Metarhizium anisopliae on locust cuticle. Disruption of the lamellae pattern was observed in some areas of cuticle. This is consistent with localised disruption of chitin synthesized during treatment with Dimlin.

  6. METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE DAN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA TERHADAP SERANGGA BUKAN HAMA SASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Andrographis paniculata to the natural enemies of Nephotettix virescens and non-target insect pests. This research was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Subang District, West Java in the wet season 2013/2014. The method of research used a split plot design with four replications. The main plot was IR66, Inpari 9, and Ciherang varieties. Subplot was the application of M. anisopliae, A. paniculata, and control. Observations were carried out five times started at nursery (2 weeks after seedling, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting using insect nets, double swing 10 times on each plot observations. The results show M. anisopliae and A. paniculata not adversely affect on non-target insect pests such as Chironomid and natural enemies of N. virescens namely Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Sepedon sp., damselfly, Tipulidae sp., Telenomus sp., dragonfly, and Tetrastichus sp.. Efficacy of M. anisopliae and A. paniculata as one of the control strategies that are environmentally friendly and proved not harmful to non-target insect pests.

  7. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  8. Variations in UV-B tolerance and germination speed of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia produced on insects and artificial substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L; Flint, Stephan D; Anderson, Anne J; Roberts, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-A and UV-B) is a major factor in failure of programs using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent. Studies were conducted to determine if growth conditions, viz. artificial (agar media or rice grain) or natural (infected insects) substrates for conidial production affect two traits that directly influence performance of conidia after field application: tolerance to UV-B radiation and conidial germination speed. Conidia of two isolates (ARSEF 23 and ARSEF 2575) of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae produced on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) or on fungus-killed larvae of two insect species, Galleria mellonella and Zophobas morio, were inactivated by exposure to UV-B radiation. Conidia of both isolates when produced on insect cadavers were significantly more sensitive to UV-B radiation than conidia produced on PDAY. Also, conidia from insect cadavers germinated slower than those from PDAY cultures. A comparison of conidia from artificial substrates showed that conidia produced on Czapek's and Emerson's YpSs agar media or rice grains had higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and germinated faster than conidia raised on PDA and PDAY. Accordingly, the growth substrate and nutritional environment in which conidia are produced influences M. anisopliae conidial UV-B tolerance and speed of germination; and manipulation of these variables could be used to obtain conidia with increased tolerance to UV-B radiation and shorter germination times.

  9. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  10. Interaction Between Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) and the Insecticides Used for Controlling House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Poultry Farm of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Jaal, Zairi

    2017-11-07

    The potential of integrating the mycoinsecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.), into house fly control programs is tremendous. However, the interaction between the fungus and insecticide, when applied at poultry farms, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the interaction between M. anisopliae and two selected insecticides, cyromazine and ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypemethrin), with three objectives: to assess the compatibility of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by measuring fungal vegetative growth and conidia production in the presence of insecticides; to evaluate the effect of M. anisopliae on these insecticides by analyzing insecticidal residue using ultra performance liquid chromatography; and to study the synergistic effects of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by applying sublethal concentrations of insecticides with M. anisopliae to house fly larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae was more tolerant to ChCy than to cyromazine, as M. anisopliae showed significantly more growth when grown with this insecticide. The M. anisopliae + ChCy combination resulted in significantly less chlorpyrifos residues compared to the ChCy plate, and 62-72% house fly larva mortality occurred when M. anisopliae and sublethal concentrations of ChCy were combined, implicating synergistic effects of the fungus with low concentrations of ChCy. Integrating M. anisopliae with compatible chemical at right concentration is crucial for poultry farm house fly control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  12. Human sera IgE reacts with a Metarhizium anisopliae fungal catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Metarhzium anisopliae extract can induce immune responses in a mouse model that are characteristic of human allergic asthma. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the extract proteins t...

  13. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  14. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  15. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  16. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  17. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  18. 76 FR 26194 - Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and..., the 2003 Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 Biopesticides Registration Action Document (BRAD), and the... Biopesticides Registration Action Document dated March 2011 (available as ``Supporting & Related Materials...

  19. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Jeong Jun; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-12-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.

  20. Compatibilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae com Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Claúdia Souza

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. The ecoagrossistemas several biological control agents acting simultane ously on different or the same target insect. The culture of cotton presents a rich complex of natural enemies associated with pests, among which stands out the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the fungus M. anisopliae on the biological aspects of the predator C. externa. The first study evaluated the development of C. externa when treated with the following suspensions of M. anisopliae: T1 water (control; T2- 105 conídios.mL-1 de M. anisopliae (M.a.; T3- 106 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.; T4- 107 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.;T5- 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The second assay measured the duration of the larval and pupal predator and larval mortality in each treatment. For this, C. externa eggswere individualized in Petri dishes and kept under laboratory conditions. When the larvae of C. externa hatched, whitefly nymphs were offered on leaf discs coming from cotton treated with: T1-water (control; T2 - 105 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. e T3 - 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a.. The results suggest that the fungus M. anisopliae at doses of 105 e 108 conídios.mL-1 de M.a. not interfere with the biological aspects of the predator C. externa.

  1. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Transcriptomics of the Model Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Duan, Zhibing; Hu, Xiao; Xie, Xue-Qin; Zhou, Gang; Peng, Guoxiong; Luo, Zhibing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Bing; Fang, Weiguo; Wang, Sibao; Zhong, Yi; Ma, Li-Jun; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Pei, Yan; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xia, Yuxian; Wang, Chengshu

    2011-01-01

    Metarhizium spp. are being used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides, as model systems for studying insect-fungus interactions, and as a resource of genes for biotechnology. We present a comparative analysis of the genome sequences of the broad-spectrum insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and the acridid-specific M. acridum. Whole-genome analyses indicate that the genome structures of these two species are highly syntenic and suggest that the genus Metarhizium evolved from plant endophytes or pathogens. Both M. anisopliae and M. acridum have a strikingly larger proportion of genes encoding secreted proteins than other fungi, while ∼30% of these have no functionally characterized homologs, suggesting hitherto unsuspected interactions between fungal pathogens and insects. The analysis of transposase genes provided evidence of repeat-induced point mutations occurring in M. acridum but not in M. anisopliae. With the help of pathogen-host interaction gene database, ∼16% of Metarhizium genes were identified that are similar to experimentally verified genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi, particularly plant pathogens. However, relative to M. acridum, M. anisopliae has evolved with many expanded gene families of proteases, chitinases, cytochrome P450s, polyketide synthases, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases for cuticle-degradation, detoxification, and toxin biosynthesis that may facilitate its ability to adapt to heterogenous environments. Transcriptional analysis of both fungi during early infection processes provided further insights into the genes and pathways involved in infectivity and specificity. Of particular note, M. acridum transcribed distinct G-protein coupled receptors on cuticles from locusts (the natural hosts) and cockroaches, whereas M. anisopliae transcribed the same receptor on both hosts. This study will facilitate the identification of virulence genes and the development of improved biocontrol strains

  2. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  3. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond

  4. Application of the entomogenous fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, for leafroller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) control and its effect on rice phyllosphere microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mingsheng; Peng, Guoxiong; Keyhani, Nemat O; Xia, Yuxian

    2017-09-01

    Microbial pesticides form critical components of integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Little, however, is known regarding the impacts of these organisms on the indigenous microbial community. We show that Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa421 was highly effective in controlling the rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee. In addition, M. anisopliae distribution and its effects on phyllosphere microbial diversity after application in field trials were investigated. Phylloplane specific distribution of the fungus was observed over time, with more rapid declines of M. anisopliae CFUs (colony-forming units) seen in the top leaf layer as compared to lower layers. Application of the fungus resulted in transient changes in the endogenous microbial diversity with variations seen in the bacterial observed species and Shannon index. Notable increases in both parameters were seen at 6-day post-application of M. anisopliae, although significant variation within sample replicates for bacteria and fungi were noted. Application of M. anisopliae increased the relative distribution of bacterial species implicated in plant growth promotion and organic pollutant degradation, e.g., Methylobacterium, Sphingobium, and Deinococcus. These data show minimal impact of M. anisopliae on endogenous microbial diversity with transient changes in bacterial abundance/diversity that may result in added benefits to crops.

  5. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  6. Aranciocystis muskarensis n. gen., n. sp., a neogregarine pathogen of the Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekircan, Çağrı; Cüce, Mustafa; Baki, Hilal; Tosun, Onur

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new genus and species of neogregarine which is a pathogen of Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is described. The adult beetles of A. segetum were collected from Nevşehir, Turkey and neogregarine infection rates were determined as 18.52%. The Giemsa-stained mature oocysts are lemon-shaped and measured 9.34±0.82μm in length and 5.77±0.77μm in width. The oocyst wall surface of the mature oocysts is similar to an osage orange (tuberculate). Morphological, ultrastructural and molecular features indicate that the previously undescribed neogregarine is dissimilar to all known neogregarine taxa and represents the first record from Anisoplia segetum and is named here as Aranciocystis muskarensis n. gen., n. sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  8. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  9. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels < 25%. By contrast, the efficacies of other isolates rapidly decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 caused different infection characteristics on T. molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system

  10. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

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    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  11. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Heyer, Klaus; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4–10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  12. Protease production during growth and autolysis of submerged Metarhizium anisopliae cultures Produção de protease durante o crescimento e análise de culturas submersas de Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Gilberto U.L. Braga

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and autolysis of two strains of the entomopathogenic deuteromycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were evaluated in medium containing casein or glucose as carbon source. Parameters such as economic coefficient and degree of autolysis were determined for each strain. Protease production was determined throughout the growth and autolysis phases of the cultures on medium under conditions of protease induction (in the presence of casein as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus was shown to utilize casein as a carbon/energy source in a more efficient manner than glucose. The autolysis shown by the strains was intense under both types of growth conditions, reaching up to 62.7% of the dry mass produced and started soon after the depletion of the exogenous carbon source. The relationship between the proteolytic activities of the two strains evaluated varied significantly (a maximum of 19.78 on the 5th day and a minimum of 2.03 on the 16th day of growth during the various growth and autolysis phases, clearly showing that the difference between the growth curves and the difference in the kinetics of enzyme production may decisively affect the process of strain selection for protease production.O crescimento e a autólise de duas linhagens do deuteromiceto entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae foram avaliados em meio contendo caseína ou glicose como fonte de carbono. Foram determinados parâmetros como o coeficiente econômico e o grau de autólise apresentado pelas linhagens. A produção de protease foi determinada durante todas as fases do crescimento e da autólise das culturas, em meio indutor da produção de proteases (meio contendo caseína como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. Pôde-se verificar que o fungo foi capaz de utilizar a caseína como fonte de carbono/energia de maneira mais eficiente do que a glicose. A autólise apresentada pelas linhagens foi intensa em ambas as condi

  13. PENGARUH FORMULASI DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA VIABILITAS, BIOAKTIVITAS DAN PERSISTENSI CENDAWAN METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE TERHADAP CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA FABRICIUS

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    Nuraida .

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of formulations and storage length on the viability, bioactivity and persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae against Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius. Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is important pest on vegetables form Brassicaceae family, that required to be control. Metarhizium anisopliae entomopathogenic fungus is one potensial of the biological agent that can be used to control C. pavonana. This study aimed to investigated the effect of storage duration on viability, bioactivity and persistence of M. anisopliae after formulated to control C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with the treatment was storage duration that included 2,4,6,8 and 10 weeks that replicated three trials. The variabels to be measured were viability and bioactivity at concentrations106, 107, and108. Field experiment used T Student test with treatment was duration of M. anisopliae formulation survive and its persistence on C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment results showed that the best storage duration of formulation on Metarhizium viability was pellet frmulation at 4th week 4 after storage. While the best bioactivity was pellet formulation with concentration 107 at 10 weeks after storage. Field experiment results showed that M. anisopliae formulation could be survived and its persistence to control pests C. pavonana until 4th day after application, either pellet or powder formulation.

  14. Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks

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    Allan Felipe Marciano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marciano A.F., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Camargo M.G., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A., Quinelato S., Freitas M.C., Angelo I.C., Nogueira M.R.S. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P. [Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.] Metarhizium anisopliae: influência do pH na atividade enzimática e no controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:85-90, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the major agents causing substantial losses to livestock worldwide. In the search for alternative control strategies, both in vitro and in vivo use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promising results against this ectoparasite. During host colonization, protease production by M. anisopliae is considered one important virulence factor once it is directly related to the active penetration process carried by the fungus on the full host cuticle. Nevertheless, limitations as environmental pH may modulate the proteases production and/or activity, as well as, the fungal virulence. The current study aimed evaluate the virulence and total protease activity of M. anisopliae CG 148 sensu lato (s.l.. Fungal aqueous suspensions or 5% mineral oil formulations were used in different pH ranges (5, 7, or 9. Suspensions and formulations were prepared using a pH meter and adjusted to 108 spores mL-1. In the bioassay, four groups were formed for each pH range: the aqueous fungal suspension, the oil-based fungal formulation and their respective controls (aqueous and oil-based, totaling 12 groups. Engorged females were immersed for 3 minutes and maintained under optimal conditions for evaluation of biological parameters. Total protease activity of the artificial medium (after

  15. In vivo interactions of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae with selected opportunistic soil fungi of sugarcane ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.

  16. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  17. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

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    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  18. Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae

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    Luciane Modenez Saldivar Xavier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de isolados dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 sob condições de laboratório e em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste de Dourados, MS, durante o ano de 2003. Foram avaliados dez isolados de M. anisopliae e onze de B. bassiana, em laboratório, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições (10 adultos e 5 ninfas/parcela. A patogenicidade de M. anisopliae (Ma69 também foi testada em ninfas e adultos, separadamente, em laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os níveis de mortalidade do percevejo foram maiores com os isolados de M. anisopliae que variaram de 73,3% a 94,7% contra 10,7% a 78,7% para os de B. bassiana. Em casa de vegetação, a porcentagem de mortalidade do percevejo causada pelo fungo Ma69 foi de 57,3% e não foi constatada diferença por este isolado quanto à mortalidade de ninfas e adultos, em laboratório. Todavia, em casa de vegetação, os níveis de mortalidade foram significativamente maiores (pPathogenicity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin to stinkbug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot. The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69 was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stinkbug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%. In greenhouse, stinkbug mortality due to the M. anisopliae

  19. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  20. Susceptibility of adults of the cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapovaloff, M. E.; Alves, L. F. A.; Fanti, A. L.; Alzogaray, R. A.; López Lastra, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants ( Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana , two of M. anisopliae , and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT 50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6‒81.8% mortality, and their LT 50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate. PMID:25368071

  1. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae reduces blood feeding and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent against adult African malaria vectors. In addition to causing significant mortality, this pathogen is known to cause reductions in feeding and fecundity in a range of insects. In the present study we

  2. Effects of the temperature and storage on formulations with Mycelia of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorok

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    Edmilson J. Marques

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with preparation of experimental formulations with mycelia of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The formulations were prepared with sodium alginate and pre-gelatinized corn-starch. They were kept at 25, 30 and 35±1ºC. Pre-gelatinized corn starch was more suitable that the sodium alginate for the preparations of formulations with mycelia of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae.Este estudo visou a elaboração de formulações experimentais com micélios de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Os experimentos foram desenmvolvidos no laboratório de Patologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, em Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil. As formulações foram preparadas com alginato de sódio e amido de milho pregelatinizado e submetidas às temperaturas de 25,30 e 35ºC 1ºC. O amido de milho pregelatinizado foi mais adequado que o alginato de sódio para elaboração de formulações com micélios de B. bassiana e M. anisopliae.

  3. Bioreactor and substrate selection for solid-state cultivation of the malaria mosquito control agent Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, van F.R.; Haemers, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Rinzema, A.

    2011-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae spores are a promising alternative to chemical insecticides against malaria mosquitoes. In-house application resulting in infection of mosquitoes with the fungus can strongly contribute to reducing malaria transmission. For such application, fungal spores need to be produced

  4. Diatomaceous earth and oil enhance effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Christian; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Rocha, Luiz F N

    2012-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for integrated control of peridomestic triatomine bugs. However, the high susceptibility of these vectors to fungal infection at elevated ambient humidities decreases in the comparatively dry conditions that often prevail in their microhabitats. A formulation adapted to this target pest that induces high and quick mortality can help to overcome these drawbacks. In the present study diatomaceous earth, which is used against pests of stored grains or as an additive to mycoinsecticides, delayed but did not reduce in vitro germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia after >24h agitation without affecting viability, and did not hamper the survival of Triatoma infestans nymphs exposed to treated surfaces. The settling behavior of nymphs on a treated surface in choice tests depended on the concentration of diatomaceous earth and ambient light level. Conidia formulated with diatomaceous earth and a vegetable oil synergized the insecticidal effect of the fungus in nymphs, and quickly killed all treated insects, even at 75% relative humidity (LT(90) 8.3 days) where unformulated conidia caused only 25% mortality after a 25 days exposure. The improved performance of a combined oil and desiccant dust formulation of this Metarhizium isolate raises the likelihood for its successful mycoinsecticidal use for triatomine control and, apparently, against other domestic insect pests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Metarhizium anisopliae Chitinase Genes for Genotyping and Virulence Characterization

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    Saliou Niassy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulence is the primary factor used for selection of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF for development as biopesticides. To understand the genetic mechanisms underlying differences in virulence of fungal isolates on various arthropod pests, we compared the chitinase genes, chi2 and chi4, of 8 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae. The clustering of the isolates showed various groups depending on their virulence. However, the analysis of their chitinase DNA sequences chi2 and chi4 did not reveal major divergences. Although their protein translates have been implicated in fungal virulence, the predicted protein structure of chi2 was identical for all isolates. Despite the critical role of chitin digestion in fungal infection, we conclude that chi2 and chi4 genes cannot serve as molecular markers to characterize observed variations in virulence among M. anisopliae isolates as previously suggested. Nevertheless, processes controlling the efficient upregulation of chitinase expression might be responsible for different virulence characteristics. Further studies using comparative “in vitro” chitin digestion techniques would be more appropriate to compare the quality and the quantity of chitinase production between fungal isolates.

  6. Sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) avoids its host plant when a virulent Metarhizium anisopliae isolate is present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotaona, Ronnie; Wilson, Bree A L; Ash, Gavin J; Holloway, Joanne; Stevens, Mark M

    2017-09-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae has a wide range of coleopteran hosts, including weevils. Some susceptible insects are known to modify their behavior to prevent infection, typically detecting virulent strains by olfaction, and avoiding physical contact with sources of infection. Laboratory olfactometer assays were conducted on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius to test the hypothesis that insects would avoid a more virulent strain of M. anisopliae when presented with a strain of low virulence or an untreated control. When adult weevils were allowed to choose between paired test arenas containing sweetpotato roots and M. anisopliae isolates on agar cores, weevils avoided arenas with the highly virulent isolate QS155, showing a preference for either roots with uninoculated agar cores or cores with the low virulence isolate QS002-3. When roots or whole sweetpotato plants were inoculated with M. anisopliae, the preferences of weevils remained broadly similar; weevils were repelled by the highly virulent isolate QS155 when tested against either QS002-3 or uninoculated roots and plants, however weevils were not repelled by the low virulence isolate QS002-3 tested against uninoculated controls. When single-sex groups of weevils were tested separately in the olfactometer using uninoculated whole plants and plants treated with isolate QS155, males and females responded similarly and statistically identical preferences were found for the untreated plants. When weevils were released singly at different times of the day the response time for males was significantly shorter in the afternoon compared to the morning. Males were always significantly faster to respond to olfactory stimuli than females. Understanding factors that may lead to avoidance of virulent M. anisopliae strains by C. formicarius will be an essential part of developing an 'attract-and-infect' strategy for the management of C. formicarius. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea for control of Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Aountala, Maria M; Kontodimas, Demetrius C

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea were tested against the stored-grain pest Sitophilus oryzae. The fungi were isolated from the soil (from three locations in Attica, Greece: B. bassiana from Tatoion, M. anisopliae from Marathon, and I. fumosorosea from Aghios Stefanos) using larvae of Galleria mellonella as bait. Suspensions of 2.11 × 10(7) and 2.11 × 10(8), 1.77 × 10(7) and 1.77 × 10(8), and 1.81 × 10(7) and 1.81 × 10(8) conidia per ml of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, and I. fumosorosea, respectively, were applied by three treatments: (i) sprayed on food and set in petri dishes with adults of S. oryzae, (ii) sprayed on adults of S. oryzae and set in petri dishes without food, and (iii) sprayed on adults of S. oryzae and set in petri dishes with food. The observed mortality of S. oryzae adults during the overall exposure period for the lowest, as well as for the highest, concentrations of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, and I. fumosorosea ranged from 0 to 100%. Concentration was, in most of the cases tested, a critical parameter that determined the "speed of kill" of the exposed insect species for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. Conversely, concentration was not that critical for I. fumosorosea, and survival was high in some of the combinations tested, even after 14 days of exposure. Both in the highest and the lowest concentrations of fungi, the mortality of S. oryzae adults was higher when the fungi were applied on adults than when they were applied on food. Higher mortality was observed when food was absent than when food was present, in most of the cases tested. The high efficacy levels recorded in the current study indicate that the tested fungi could be effective biocontrol agents against S. oryzae.

  8. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  9. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.B.; Alves, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  10. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  11. Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. isolates to control Alabama argillacea (Huebner caterpillars Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. para o controle de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo César Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in herbaceous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch cropping, with constant occurrence in all cotton-growing states of Brazil. In this study Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates were screened and evaluated for pathogenicity against Alabama argillaceae. Initially, a screening of ten isolates of each fungus in a concentracion of 10(8 conidia mL-1, was carried out on 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea. Further studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of six and seven isolates of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana, respectively, against 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea and using the concentrations of 10(6, 10(7, 10(8, and 10(9 conidia mL-1. The experiments were carried out in Recife, PE, Brazil, at 27 ± 2ºC, RH 70 ± 5% and a photophase of 12 hours. Mortalities caused by M. anisopliae isolate at the different concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 91.2%, the highest mortality percentage being found for the isolate 1189 at 10(9 conidia mL-1. The isolate 645 of B. bassiana caused the highest mortality at the highest concentration, followed by isolates 634, 604, and IPA 198. The lowest lethal time for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, was achieved by the isolates 483 (4.1 days and 1189 (2.0 days, respectively. The isolates 1189, 1022 e 866 of M. anisopliae and 483, IPA198 and 604 of B. bassiana, at 10(8 e 10(9 conidia mL-1 are promissing for use the integrated control of A. argillacea larvae, but M. anisopliae seems more effective.O curuquerê-do-algodoeiro (Alabama argillacea é considerado uma das principais pragas do algodoeiro herbáceio no Brasil, com ocorrência comum em vários estágios de crescimento da cultura. Este trabalho avaliou a patogenicidade e selecionou isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana, para lagartas do curuquer

  12. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of Xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Ng'habi, Kija R; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Katakweba, Abdul A; Lyimo, Issa N

    2012-09-19

    Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria have shown great promise as arthropod vector control tools. These agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea vectors of plague. A 3-h exposure to the fungi coated paper at a concentration of 2 × 108 conidia m-2 infected >90% of flea larvae cadavers in the treatment groups. The infection reduced the survival of larvae that had been exposed to fungus relative to controls. The daily risk of dying was four- and over three-fold greater in larvae exposed to M. anisopliae (HR = 4, pfungi can successfully infect and kill larvae of X. brasiliensis with a pooled median survival time (MST±SE) of 2 ± 0.31 days post-exposure. These findings justify further research to investigate the bio-control potential of entomopathogenic fungi against fleas.

  14. Estimates of genetic parameters related to chitinase production by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto U.L. Braga

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitinolytic activity and dry mass production were determined in culture filtrates from 17 Metarhizium anisopliae strains grown in liquid medium containing chitin as the only carbon source. The objectives were to estimate parameters such as genetic variance among strains, heritability and expected gain from selection, as well as correlations between tested traits. Wide genotypic variability was observed among strains in chitinolytic activity, permitting the exploitation of this property in selection. The high heritability suggests that progress can be made through phenotypic selection. The genotypic correlation coefficient between dry mass production and chitinolytic activity detected in the filtrates was negative (= - 0.588. One of the isolates was also investigated for variation in the two traits as a function of culture growth time. The results showed an increase in enzyme activity up to the 8th (and last day of the experiment and a decrease in dry mass from the 4th day on.Foi determinada a atividade quitinolítica apresentada pelos filtrados de culturas de 17 genótipos de Metarhizium anisopliae crescidos em meio líquido, tendo quitina como única fonte de carbono. O objetivo foi a estimativa de parâmetros como a variância genética, a herdabilidade e o ganho esperado na seleção. Uma grande variabilidade genotípica foi verificada na atividade quitinolítica, permitindo sua exploração no melhoramento. Os altos coeficientes de herdabilidade permitem esperar um grande progresso na seleção fenotípica. Para uma das linhagens foi também determinada a variação na atividade enzimática, em função do tempo de crescimento das culturas. Os resultados mostraram um aumento na atividade enzimática até o oitavo dia da avaliação.

  15. Fungo Metarhizium anisopliae e o controle de Frankliniella occidentalis em alface hidropônico

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    Lopes Rogério Biaggioni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande provoca grandes prejuízos em cultivos comerciais de alface, através do dano direto, durante a alimentação no tecido vegetal, e pela transmissão de virose. O desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de controle da praga em cultivos protegidos vem se tornando necessária em função dos problemas acarretados pelo uso constante de inseticidas químicos. Foi avaliada a eficiência de pulverizações do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (isolado 1104 nas concentrações 5x10(6 e 1x10(8 conídios ml-1, visando o controle da praga em cultivos de alface hidropônico. A eficiência de controle do fungo nas duas concentrações chegou a 60%, seis dias após a primeira pulverização. Nas parcelas que não receberam o tratamento com o patógeno, observou-se um aumento populacional de 46,5%. Contudo, o número de adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas foi semelhante para áreas tratadas e não tratadas, devido à alta mobilidade da praga na cultura. Constatou-se também um número crescente de adultos mortos com estruturas do patógeno, nas parcelas pulverizadas com o fungo. A ausência de toxicidade e de período de carência dos fungos entomopatogênicos torna estes microrganismos importantes na substituição de alguns inseticidas químicos na cultura do alface. Estudos mais detalhados sobre a utilização de M. anisopliae em cultivos protegidos são necessários para aplicações em grande escala.

  16. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  17. Distribution of chitinases in the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and effect of N-acetylglucosamine in protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Staats, Charley Christian; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning

    2004-02-01

    For a long time, fungi have been characterized by their ability to secrete enzymes, mostly hydrolytic in function, and thus are defined as extracellular degraders. Chitin and chitinolytic enzymes are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Particularly, chitinases are used in agriculture to control plant pathogens. Metarhizium anisopliae produces an extracellular chitinase when grown on a medium containing chitin, indicating that synthesis is subject to induction by the substrate. Various sugar combinations were investigated for induction and repression of chitinase. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) shows a special dual regulation on chitinase production. M. anisopliae has at least two distinct, cell-bound, chitinolytic enzymes when cultured with GlcNAc as one of the carbon sources, and we suggest that this carbohydrate has an important role in protein secretion.

  18. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  19. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  20. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  1. Variations in UV-B tolerance and germination speed of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia produced on insects and artificial substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Drauzio E. N.; Braga, Gilberto U. L.; Flint, Stephan D.; Anderson, Anne J.; Roberts, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-A and UV-B) is a major factor in failure of programs using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent. Studies were conducted to determine if growth conditions, viz. artificial (agar media or rice grain) or natural (infected insects) substrates for conidial production affect two traits that directly influence performance of conidia after field application: tolerance to UV-B radiation and conidial germination speed. Conidia...

  2. Field Efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae-Based Attractant Contaminant Device to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Sanchis Cabanes, Juan; Primo Millo, Jaime; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly popula...

  3. Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium anisopliae asal Tanah Lebak dan Pasang Surut Sumatera Selatan untuk Agens Hayati Scirpophaga incertulas

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    Rosdah Thalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogeicity of Beauveria bassiana and  Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates from Fresh Swamp and  Tidal Lowland, South Sumatra for Scirpophaga incertulas Biological Agents.  The objectives of the research weret o explore and to determine the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic  fungi againts the larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas, and to measure conidial viability and density of the fungi.  The method for fungi exploration used larvae of Tenebrio molitor baiting submerged in the soil.  The soil was taken from fresh swampand tidal lowland rice in South  Sumatra.  From the exploration study, we found two species of entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Mortality of S. incertulas larvae that had been treated topically with fungal conidia (1x106 conidia ml-1 varied among the isolates. The highest mortality (98.33% caused by BPlus isolate of B. Bassiana and the lowest by MtmIn  isolate of M. anisopliae (57.50% and BTmTr  isolate of B. bassiana (57.50%.  The fungal colonies grew fast from the second day up to the fourth day after incubation but the growth became slow after the fifth day.  The highest conidial density was resulted by   BPcMs of B. bassiana isolate (63.33x106 conidia ml-1 but  this density was not significantly different from that of the BPlus  of B. bassiana isolate (63.11x106 conidia ml-1.  The lowest conidial density found in BTmTr of B. bassiana isolate (20.97x106 conidia ml-1 .   The isolate B. bassiana was more effective than M. anisopliae againt the larvae of S.incertulas.

  4. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOPES ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.

  5. Selection of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. for the control of the mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar

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    Barreto Rodrigo Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crants, leading to considerable field losses. In this study, ten Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and ten Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. isolates were evaluated with regard to their potential as biological control agents against adult M. tanajoa females. The total mortality percentage of M. tanajoa caused by B. bassiana ranged from 13.0 to 97.0%, with confirmed mortality rates extending from 9.0 to 91.0% and LT50 varying from 4.2 to 17.0 days. The M. anisopliae isolates showed total mortality percentages ranging from 12.0 to 45.0% with confirmed mortality rates extending from 8.0 to 45.0%, and LT50 varying from 8.6 to 19.8 days. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 3.93 × 10(6 conidia mL-1 and 7.44 × 10(8 conidia mL-1 were determined for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively. B. bassiana isolate 645 was the most efficient, being an alternative for use in biological control programs against the cassava green mite.

  6. Mecanismo de infecção do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae no carrapato Boophilus microplus em condições experimentais The penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on Boophilus microplus in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o mecanismo de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em Boophilus microplus em condições experimentais. As infecções foram realizadas utilizando amostra de M. anisopliae isolada de carrapatos. A suspensão de conídios do fungo foi preparada utilizando água destilada e espalhante adesivo Tween 80 e foi quantificada na concentração de 10(8 conídios/ml. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas nesta suspensão durante cinco minutos e, após este período, foram levadas à câmara climatizada. Três dias após a infecção, as fêmeas foram fixadas utilizando tetróxido de ósmio e glutaraldeído, posteriormente desidratadas em bateria de álcool etílico com acetona. Após a desidratação, esse material foi levado à metalização e ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, onde se observou a fixação dos conídios na cutícula das fêmeas, havendo germinação e a dilatação da extremidade do tubo germinativo em todas as amostras. Esta dilatação observada foi devido à formação do apressório, apesar de não ser possível observar esta estrutura sobre a cutícula das fêmeas ingurgitadas. O tetróxido de ósmio mostrou ser um excelente fixador para fungos, enquanto o glutaraldeído mostrou ser eficiente na fixação do artrópode. Conclui-se que a forma principal de penetração deste entomopatógeno em B. microplus é através da cutícula. Cabe aqui frisar que esta é a primeira vez que é descrito o mecanismo de penetração de M. anisopliae em carrapatos.The objective of the present communication has been to draw attention to the mode of penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae through the cuticle of Boophilus microplus under experimental conditions. Samples of M. anisopliae isolated from naturally infected ticks were used to prepare a suspension of 108 conidia/ml in a destilled water with 2% of Tween 80. The engorged females were submergged in this suspension for five

  7. Utilization of metarhizium anisopliae and vegetable extract for control of the spodoptera frugiperda and helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the corn

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    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; José Pires Dantas; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; José Pires Dantas

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of the vegetable extracts and Metarhizium anisopliae about the population and damage of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea in corn, it was evaluated when planted in two spacings. The experiment was installed in the culture of corn, in the city of Lagoa Seca/PB, in two areas of 500 m2, in the spacings 0,8 x 0,4 and 0,4 x 0,4 m, with two and one plant for hole. The basis was constituited of: 1) Water as witness; 2) Metarhizium anisopliae; 3) Extracts of Mormodica ch...

  8. Algorithm-based design of synthetic growth media stimulating virulence properties of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutwimmer, S; Wagner, S; Affenzeller, M; Burgstaller, W; Strasser, H

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic media should be designed for the production of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia with improved virulence properties. A genetic algorithm (GA), demonstrated to be suitable for the design of media for spore mass production (Hutwimmer et al. 2008), was utilized for a multi-objective medium design to improve conidia yield and three proposed virulence properties of conidia: C : N ratio, germination speed and amount of spore-bound Pr1 protease. After five iterative optimizations, 52 media were improved over Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Four media exhibited medium performances (a factor derived from the four single optimization variables) of around 0.7; cf. SDA = 0.532; media with enhanced properties were reached for each single optimization variable; Bioassays against Tenebrio larvae indicated also a slight improvement in virulence of conidia from designed media. A degenerated phenotype of the same strain did not exhibit differences in colony appearance, spore characteristics and virulence if grown on designed media. The application of a problem-oriented GA is a practical and rapid method to design media for multi-objective purposes. The applicability of a GA for multi-objective medium design was demonstrated for the cultivation of anamorphic fungi on solid media.

  9. Susceptibility of different life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mousa; Malekifard, Farnaz; Soleimanzadeh, Ali; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2012-10-01

    The use of chemicals for the control of arthropod pests can be problematic due to the potential for both environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nonchemical alternatives, such as biocontrol by entomopathogenic fungi. In the present study, three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (V245, 3247, and 4456) and one strain of Beauveria bassiana (LM 3.2) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their virulence towards three life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis. Groups of eggs, larvae, and adult ticks were treated by immersion in two different suspensions (10(5) and 10(7) conidia/ml) of each fungal strain. All treatment and control groups were observed during a 3-week period, and the hatchability of eggs and mortality percentage of larvae and adult ticks were assessed. The effect of fungal strains on egg hatchability and larva and adult mortality was significant and dose dependent compared to the control groups (P fungi potential biological control agents of O. lahorensis reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  10. Efficacite du melange aqueux de metarhizium anisopliae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le traitement le plus efficace en termes d'impact sur la densité de population du criquet était le mélange (P < 0,01). Notre étude indique que le mélange des deux insecticides permet une diminution importante des densités de population de sauteriaux et qu'il est possible d'utiliser des formulations aqueuses contenant des ...

  11. evaluation of native fungal isolates of metrahizium anisopliae var

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    inoculating Ethiopian honeybee race, Apis mellifera bandasii. The effects of these six fungal isolates ... Metarhizium and the Beauveria isolates on Apis melifera bandasii also showed no significant effects on honey bees. No significant effects ... containers with artificial diet and pieces of wax comb. The containers were then ...

  12. evaluation of native fungal isolates of metrahizium anisopliae var

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    damage to honey bees (Desalegn Begna, 2001;. Desalegn Begna and Amsalu Bezabeh, 2001). Damage to honey bees is the result of the direct impacts of GWM larvae and the indirect effects inflicted by adult wax moths. The damage by larvae is manifested in such a way that they eat and destroy beeswax combs, form ...

  13. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae; Caracterizacao dos hemocitos de operarios de Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) e avaliacao hemocitaria apos parasitismo por Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal], e-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: auritermes@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Luiz C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA); Lima, Elza A.L.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Micologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  14. Survival and mutant production induced by mutagenic agents in Metarhizium anisopliae Sobrevivência e obtenção de mutantes induzidos por agentes mutagênicos em Metarhizium anisopliae

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    V. Kava - Cordeiro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, was submitted to three mutagenic agents: gamma radiation, ultraviolet light and nitrous acid. Survival curves were obtained and mutants were selected using different mutagenic doses which gave 1 to 5% survival. Morphological and auxotrophic mutants were isolated. Morphological mutants were grouped in a class with yellow conidia and other with pale vinaceous conidia as opposed to the green wild type conidia. Auxotrophic mutants had requirements for vitamin and aminoacid biosynthesis. More than 58% of the total auxotrophk mutants required proline/aipnine. Gamma radiation showed to be the most efficient mutagenic agent giving 0.2% of auxotrophk mutants followed by ultraviolet light (0.12% and nitrous acid (0.06%.The conidial colour and auxotrophk mutants isolated until now from M. anisopliae were reviewed.Uma linhagem selvagem do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae foi submetida à ação de três agentes mutagênicos: radiação gama, luz ultravioleta e ácido nitroso. Curvas de sobrevivência foram obtidas para cada mutagênicos utilizado e mutantes foram selecionados a partir de doses dos mutagênicos que proporcionassem de 1 a 5% de sobrevivência. Mutantes morfológicos para a coloração de conídios e mutantes auxotróficos foram isolados. Mutantes para coloração de conidios foram agrupados em duas classes, uma com conídios amarelos e outra com conídios vinho pálido. Os mutantes auxotróficos obtidos foram deficientes para aminoácidos e vitaminas e mais de 58% deles eram auxotróficos para prolina/argmina. Radiação gama foi o mutagênico mais eficiente com uma porcentagem de obtenção de mulantes auxotróficos de aproximadamente 0,2%, seguido pela luz ultravioleta (0.12% e pelo ácido nitroso (0.06%.Os mulantes morfológicos e auxotróficos obtidos até o momento em Metarhizium anisopliae foram revistos.

  15. Potential of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as biological control agents against the June beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Ates, A Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain PPRI 5339 [BroadBand, an emulsifiable spore concentrate (EC) formulation] and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain F52 [Met52, both EC and granular (GR) formulations] against the larvae of Polyphylla fullo (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Larvicidal bioassays were performed in foam boxes (100 by 75 by 50 cm; length by width by height), containing moist soil medium with some humus and potato tubers as food. Although the B. bassiana product (min. 4 × 10(9) conidia/ml) was applied at 100, 150, and 200 ml/100 l water; M. anisopliae strain F52 was applied at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g/m(3) of moist soil medium for GR (9 × 10(8) cfu/g) and 75, 100, and 125 ml/100 l water for EC (5.5 × 10(9) conidia/ml) formulation. Both fungi were pathogenic to larvae of the pest; however, young larvae (1st and 2nd instars) were more susceptible to infection than older ones (3rd instar). Mortality rates of young and older larvae varied with conidial concentration of both fungi and elapsed time after application. The B. bassiana product was more effective than both of the formulations of the M. anisopliae product, causing mortalities up to 79.8 and 71.6% in young and older larvae, respectively. The highest mortality rates of young and older larvae caused by the M. anisopliae product were 74.1 and 67.6% for the GR formulation, 70.2 and 61.8% for the EC formulation, respectively. These results may suggest that both fungi have potential to be used for management of P. fullo. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated disruption of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene in the invertebrate pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae reveals a peptide spore factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous secondary metabolites have been isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, but the roles of these compounds as virulence factors in disease development are poorly understood. We targeted for disruption by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation a putative n...

  17. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus..

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  18. Larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex willd.(Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Sa

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the mosquitocidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract combined with the use of Metarizhium anisopliae spores for control of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The methanolic leaf extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24...

  19. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates on Varroa destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata.

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    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 10(6 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  20. Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Misbah; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Din, Naima; Hussain, Shahbaz; Saeed, Nadia; Shakeel, Qaiser; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    The stored grain insects cause great damage to grains under storage conditions. Synthetic insecticides and fumigants are considered as key measures to control these stored grain insect pests. However, the major issue with these chemicals is grain contamination with chemical residues and development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Biological control is considered as a potential alternative to chemical control especially with the use of pathogens, alone or in combination with selective insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate the synergism of Metarhizium anisopliae with diatomaceous earth (DE) and thiamethoxam against four insect pests on the stored wheat grains. In the first bioassay, the M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 and 1.4 × 10 6 conidia/ml alone and in integration with two concentrations (250 and 500 ppm) of tested DE. The tested fungus when combined with DE and thiamethoxam possessed synergistic impact as compared to their individual efficacy. Adult mortality increased with respect to increased exposure interval and doses. In the second bioassay, M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 conidia/ml individually and in combination with three concentrations (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppm) of thiamethoxam. Results concluded that M. anisopliae integrated with DE and thiamethoxam provides more effective control of stored grain insect pests.

  1. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  2. Field Efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae-Based Attractant-Contaminant Device to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Ayala, I; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Moya, P

    2015-08-01

    Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant-contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly populations and that the inoculation dishes (IDs) needed replacing mid-season to provide protection for the entire season. In this study, fungal treatment was even more effective than conventional chemical treatment. Population dynamics in fungus-treated fields along with the infectivity study of field-aged IDs in the laboratory found that the ACD remained effective for at least 3 mo. The results suggest M. anisopliae-based ACD can be used to control C. capitata in the field. The implications of its use, especially as a tool in an integrated pest management program, are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  4. Bioassay assessment of metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes against Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae Avaliação do bioensaio de Metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes contra Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae

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    Wolney Dalla Pria Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC is an economically important, destructive disease in Brazil and is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooter insects. In this study, the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the sharpshooter Oncometopia facialis was studied by bioassay conditions. In the bioassay, insects were sprayed with a suspension containing 5 X 10(7 conidia mL-1. Adults captured in the field were treated in groups of 10 in a total of 11 replications per treatment. Significant differences between the natural mortality and the mortality of insects treated with the fungus were observed 6 days after inoculations (PA Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC é uma doença economicamente importante e destrutiva no Brasil e é causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida por insetos vetores tal como Oncometopia facialis. Nesse estudo, a eficácia do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o inseto vetor O. facialis foi estudada em condições de bioensaio. Nesse bioensaio, insetos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de 5 X 10(7 conídio mL-1. Insetos-adultos capturados no campo foram tratados em grupos de 10, em um total de 11 replicatas por tratamento. Diferenças significativas entre a mortalidade natural e a mortalidade dos insetos tratados com o fungo foram observadas em 6 dias após a inoculação (P<0.05. Estas diferenças significativas aumentaram antes do décimo dia após o tratamento. O fungo causou uma mortalidade de 87,1%, com uma LT50 variando entre 5 e 6 dias. A LC50 foi de 1,2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1, variando de 7,7 X 10(5 a 2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1. Estes resultados mostraram que o vetor O. facialis foi susceptível a ação entomopatogênica de M. anisopliae em condições controladas durante o bioensaio.

  5. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  6. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  7. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  8. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  9. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  10. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. O USO DE SOLUÇÃO PROTETORA PREVINE PERDA DE VIABILIDADE DE BLASTOSPOROS DE Metarhizium anisopliae DURANTE A LIOFILIZAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Teixeira Carolino; Simone Azevedo Gomes; Thais Berçot Pontes Teodoro; Richard Ian Samuels

    2017-01-01

    Em cultura líquida, o fungo Metarhizium anisopliae é capaz de produzir estruturas denominadas blastosporos. Para utilização a seco, é necessária a secagem do fungo, e o método mais utilizado para tal processo é a liofilização. Entretanto, é sabido que este processo pode levar a perda de viabilidade de algumas culturas. O presente estudo investigou a possibilidade de utilização de uma solução protetora pré-liofilização para promover proteção a blastosporos de M. anisopliae. Após a liofilização...

  12. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author) [pt

  13. Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycetes, hypocreales in the control of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and its compatibility with chemical insecticides

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    FA. Anhalt

    Full Text Available Several insects are harmful to apples grown in Brazil, especially the leafroller Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, usually controlled with chemical insecticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of Metarhizium anisopliae strains in the control of the apple leafroller, by assessing their virulence to B. salubricola larvae in bioassays with suspensions of 2 x 10(5 to 2 x 10(9 conidia/mL as well as their relationship with protease expression. The most effective strain underwent a compatibility test with chemical insecticides. The M. anisopliae E6 strain showed a good performance, with up to 88% mortality and a LT50 of 1.66 days. The virulence was positively correlated with a higher enzymatic activity. The E6 strain was compatible with tebufenozide, evidencing its potential to control B. salubricola.

  14. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  15. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium Anisopliae Isolates on Varroa Destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Khodadad Pirali-kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  16. Persistence of Brazilian isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. robertsii in strawberry crop soil after soil drench application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago; Mayerhofer, Johanna; Enkerli, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Establishment, persistence and local dispersal of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (ESALQ1037) and M. robertsii (ESALQ1426) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) were investigated in the soil and rhizosphere following soil drench application in strawberries between 2012 and 2013 at a single...... sequence repeat analysis. Both applied fungal isolates were frequently recovered from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of the treated plots, suggesting that they were able to establish and disperse within the soil. Persistence within the soil and strawberry rhizosphere for both fungal isolates...

  17. Histopathology Caused by the Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, in the Adult Planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, a Maize Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, A.V.; de Remes Lenicov, A.M.M.; López Lastra, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is an important vector of maize viruses in tropical and subtropical areas. Planthoppers are biologically controlled with several species of entomopathogenic fungi that have been isolated from these insect pests of rice in Asia. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) appear to be the most useful against planthoppers because of their ease of mass production, storage, virulence, and application. In the present study, adults of P. maidis infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were observed under light and scanning electron microscopy to characterize morphologically the process of infection and the development of these fungi, prior to and after the death of the host. The hydrophobic conidia of both fungal species were able to attach to all body regions, with a preference for surfaces containing hairs. Few germinated conidia were observed on the insect's body surface at 24, 48, and 72 hr post-inoculation. On the cuticular surface of P. maidis treated with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, bacillus-like bacteria were observed. These microorganisms could be interacting with fungal conidia, playing a role of antibiosis that will not allow the fungal pathogens to germinate and penetrate. In the colonization events observed in this study, the formation and multiplication of hyphal bodies by both fungal species inside the host's body was noted. The host's whole body was invaded by hyphae between five and six days post-inoculation, and body fat was the most affected tissue. PMID:20578956

  18. Differential expression of the pr1A gene in Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum across different culture conditions and during pathogenesis

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    Mariele Porto Carneiro Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Metarhizium have several subtilisin-like proteases that are involved in pathogenesis and these have been used to investigate genes that are differentially expressed in response to different growth conditions. The identification and characterization of these proteases can provide insight into how the fungus is capable of infecting a wide variety of insects and adapt to different substrates. In addition, the pr1A gene has been used for the genetic improvement of strains used in pest control. In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to assess the relative expression levels of the pr1A gene in M. anisopliae and M. acridum during growth in different culture conditions and during infection of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. We also carried out a pathogenicity test to assess the virulence of both species against D. saccharalis and correlated the results with the pattern of pr1A gene expression. This analysis revealed that, in both species, the pr1A gene was differentially expressed under the growth conditions studied and during the pathogenic process. M. anisopliae showed higher expression of pr1A in all conditions examined, when compared to M. acridum. Furthermore, M. anisopliae showed a greater potential to control D. saccharalis. Taken together, our results suggest that these species have developed different strategies to adapt to different growing conditions.

  19. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado ao fungo Metarhizium anisopliae, agente de controle microbiano de Tibraca limbativentris Selectivity of chemical pesticides used in rice irrigated crop at fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, microbial control agent of Tibraca limbativentris

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    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti-Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Para subsidiar a utilização de táticas de manejo integrado para o inseto-praga Tibraca limbativentris, avaliou-se a compatibilidade in vitro entre o isolado CG 891 de Metarhizium anisopliae e os agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado. Os parâmetros avaliados foram crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e germinação em pré e pós-contato do fungo, com duas doses de fipronil, tiametoxam, fenitrotiona, carbofurano, pirazossulfurom-etílico, bentazona, clomazona, glifosato e quincloraque; e uma dose de triciclazol e azoxistrobina. Reduções significativas no crescimento vegetativo e esporulação de M. anisopliae foram observadas para fenitrotiona, carbofurano e azoxistrobina. Observou-se redução na germinação em pré-contato para o agrotóxico azoxistrobina. O valor percentual da germinação alterou a classificação dos agrotóxicos com relação a sua seletividade sobre o entomopatógeno. No entanto, os resultados mostram que in vitro os agrotóxicos fenitrotiona, carbofurano, glifosato e azoxistrobina são prejudiciais ao isolado CG 891 de M. anisopliae.Searching for integrated control strategies for the insect-pest Tibraca limbativentris, the in vitro compatibility between isolated CG 891 of Metarhizium anisopliae and several pesticides used in the culture of irrigated rice was evaluated. The followings parameters were studied: vegetative growth, sporulation and the germination viability in pre- and post-contact of the fungus for two concentrations of fipronil, thiametoxan, fenitrothion, carbofuran, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bentazon, clomazone, glyfosate and quinclorac and one concentration of tricyclazole and azoxystrobin. Significant reductions in the vegetative growth and sporulation of M. anisopliae were observed for fenitrothion, carbofuran and azoxystrobin. The germination in pre-contact was affected by azoxystrobin. The percentage of germination changed the classification of pesticides in relation to its

  20. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Annabel F V; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2010-06-16

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible to both species of fungus

  1. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  2. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de primeiro ínstar de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório = Selectivicty of Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta first instar larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ribeiro Cardoso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade dos fungos Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de Ceraeochrysa cincta, utilizando-se a aplicação por imersão e aaplicação em bases de vidro, formando filme seco (IOBC modificado. Nos dois métodos, foram aplicados os tratamentos: 1 - L. lecanii; 2 - M. anisopliae - 2.1x107 conídios viáveis mL-1; 3 - solução de Tween 80® a 0,05% como testemunha. Avaliou-se a mortalidade, duração médiado período larval, fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos. Todos os insetos mortos foram submetidos à assepsia, para confirmação da mortalidade causada pelo fungo. Em ambos os bioensaios, as mortalidades confirmadas pelos fungos foram iguais a zero. No filme seco o efeito total dos fungos sobre o predador foi classificado como pouco nocivo de acordo com as categorias propostas pelo método IOBC. L. lecanii e M. anisopliae não afetaram a viabilidade dos ovos de C. cincta, quando aplicados por imersão. Na concentração que foi estabelecida para a realização dos bioensaios, os fungos entomopatogênicos L. lecanii e M. anisopliae foram seletivos para larvas de 1o ínstar de C. cincta.This paper aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the fungi Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta. Two bioassays were developed: 1st application of dry filmproposed by the International Organization for Biological Control IOBC (modified - they were applied in glass bases, forming dry film. 2nd immersion application. In the two methods, the following treatments were applied: 1- watery suspension of L. lecanii; 2- the same for M. anisopliae (both at 2.1x107 viable conidia mL-1; and 3- Tween 80® 0.05% watery solution. The larvae mortality, the average duration of the larvae period, the females fecundity and the eggsviability were evaluated. All the dead insects were submitted to asepsis to confirm the mortality caused by the fungi. In both bioassays, the mortality

  3. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

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    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  4. Ethanol production from chitosan by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Naranjo Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Abihssira García, Isabel Sofía; Zavala-Gonzalez, Ernesto A; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and virtually unexplored as raw material for bioethanol production. In this paper, we investigate chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin which is the main component of shellfish waste, as substrate for bioethanol production by fungi. Fungal parasites of invertebrates such as the nematophagous Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc) or the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) are biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nematodes (eg. Meloidogyne spp.) or insect pests such as the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). These fungi degrade chitin-rich barriers for host penetration. We have therefore tested the chitin/chitosanolytic capabilities of Pc, Bb and Ma for generating reducing sugars using chitosan as only nutrient. Among the microorganisms used in this study, Pc is the best chitosan degrader, even under anaerobic conditions. These fungi have alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) encoding genes in their genomes. We have therefore analyzed their ethanol production under anaerobic conditions using chitosan as raw material. P. chlamydosporia is the largest ethanol producer from chitosan. Our studies are a starting point to develop chitin-chitosan based biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility of adult and larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochi, Dinalva Alves; Monteiro, Antonio Carlos; Simi, Lucas Detogni; Sampaio, Alexandre Amstalden Moraes

    2009-12-03

    The efficacy of M. anisopliae strain E9 as a biological insecticide for the adult and larval stages of H. irritans was assessed under field conditions. To assess larvicidal activity, nine heifers were randomly divided into three groups, which were maintained separated from each other. The first group ingested fungal spores encapsulated in alginate pellets. The second group ingested in natura spores that were grown on sterilized rice. In both groups, each animal received three meals a day, with each meal containing 2 x 10(10)conidia. The third group received no treatment and was used as a control. Fecal samples from manure and whole dung pats were collected from each of the three separate pastures on the day that the animals were allocated and on days 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 afterwards. The fecal samples were tested for the presence of fungal colony forming units (CFU), and the emergence of horn flies was observed in the dung pats. Significantly less (Phorn flies were found in dung pats of the group treated with encapsulated fungi (11.7) than in those from the heifers treated with conidia in natura (27.9) or from the control group (29.5). The fecal samples of the treated animals presented significantly higher numbers of M. anisopliae CFUs then those from the untreated controls. We found that on day 9 fecal samples from animals given microencapsulated conidia had significantly higher CFUs than those from animals treated with conidia in natura. To assess adulticide activity, four heifers were sprayed with a suspension of 3 x 10(10)conidial(-1) of M. anisopliae, and four control animals were sprayed with the same solution without conidial content. Four sprayings were done at five-day intervals, and all animals were photographed daily to observe the quantity of flies present. After the second spraying, we observed an average of 22.9 flies per animal; untreated heifers had an average of 43 flies per animal; thus, the treatment significantly (Pfly infestation. The results

  6. Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Njiru, Basilio N; Smallegange, Renate C; Takken, Willem; Knols, Bart GJ

    2003-01-01

    Background Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. Following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus against tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) we investigated the potency of this fungus as a biological control agent for adult malaria and filariasis vector mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, both sexes of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Culex quinquefasciatus were passively contaminated with dry conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae. Pathogenicity of this fungus for An. gambiae was further tested for varying exposure times and different doses of oil-formulated conidia. Results Comparison of Gompertz survival curves and LT50 values for treated and untreated specimens showed that, for both species, infected mosquitoes died significantly earlier (p control groups. No differences in LT50 values were found for different exposure times (24, 48 hrs or continuous exposure) of An. gambiae to dry conidia. Exposure to oil-formulated conidia (doses ranging from 1.6 × 107 to 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2) gave LT50 values of 9.69 ± 1.24 (lowest dose) to 5.89 ± 0.35 days (highest dose), with infection percentages ranging from 4.4–83.7%. Conclusion Our study marks the first to use an entomopathogenic fungus against adult Afrotropical disease vectors. Given its high pathogenicity for both adult Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes we recommend development of novel targeted indoor application methods for the control of endophagic host-seeking females. PMID:14565851

  7. Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Insecticidal Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae against Larvae of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Wheat.

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    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Rumbos, Christos I; Kontodimas, Demetrius C

    2017-01-01

    A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d. Bioassays were conducted at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C) and two r.h. levels (55 and 75%). Although complete control was not achieved in any case, the fungus provided a considerable level of insect control. Mortality of E. kuehniella larvae on wheat treated with M. anisopliae ranged between 41.1 and 93.3% after 14 d of exposure, whereas the respective mortality levels in control dishes never exceeded 28.3%. The increase of temperature resulted in most cases to higher efficacy, indicating that temperature is an important factor for the performance of the fungus. In contrast, in most cases r.h. did not significantly affect the efficacy of the fungus, at least for the humidity levels tested. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. O USO DE SOLUÇÃO PROTETORA PREVINE PERDA DE VIABILIDADE DE BLASTOSPOROS DE Metarhizium anisopliae DURANTE A LIOFILIZAÇÃO

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    Aline Teixeira Carolino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Em cultura líquida, o fungo Metarhizium anisopliae é capaz de produzir estruturas denominadas blastosporos. Para utilização a seco, é necessária a secagem do fungo, e o método mais utilizado para tal processo é a liofilização. Entretanto, é sabido que este processo pode levar a perda de viabilidade de algumas culturas. O presente estudo investigou a possibilidade de utilização de uma solução protetora pré-liofilização para promover proteção a blastosporos de M. anisopliae. Após a liofilização, através de ensaios de unidade formadora de colônia (UFC, foi evidenciado que o fungo seco na solução contendo leite em pó + trealose + glutamato de sódio foi o mais capaz de manter a viabilidade e integridade celular do fungo durante o processo de secagem, comparada as demais soluções testadas. Sendo observada médias de 180 colônias do fungo seco com a solução protetora supracitada e 1 colônia do fungo seco apenas em água estéril.

  9. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

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    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  10. Survival and immune response of the Chagas vector Meccus pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea.

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    Flores-Villegas, A Laura; Cabrera-Bravo, Margarita; Toriello, Conchita; Bucio-Torres, Martha I; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2016-03-24

    Chagas disease is a key health problem in Latin America and is caused and transmitted by Trypanosoma cruzi and triatomine bugs, respectively. Control of triatomines has largely relied on the use pyrethroids, which has proved to be ineffective in the long term. Alternatively, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been implemented to control triatomine bugs. These fungi are highly efficient as they induce a reduction in immune response on insects. Meccus pallidipennis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease in Mexico. In this work we investigated the effects of two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea, on M. pallidipennis nymphs in terms of insect survival and immune response. We had an infected and a control group for each fungal species and assessed: a) insect survival during 30 days; and, b) phenoloxidase (PO) and prophenoloxidase (proPO; two key traits in insect immune response) at 24, 48, 96 and 144 h. For survival we used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis while for immune response we used factorial, repeated-measures ANOVA for each fungal species. Animals treated with M. anisopliae died sooner than animals treated with I. fumosorosea. Infected animals showed lower PO and proPO values than sham individuals, with a clear decrease in these parameters at 24 h with no further changes after this time. Our study widens the possibility of entomopathogenic fungi being used for triatomine control. The negative effect on PO and proPO seems mediated by a down-regulation of the triatomine immune response.

  11. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

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    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  12. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  13. Ação in vitro dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok sobre ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae In vitro action of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok on ninphs and adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a mortalidade in vitro de ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense frente à ação de isolados dos fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram avaliados três isolados de M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 e dois de B. bassiana (986 e 747. As suspensões de conídios foram preparadas a partir de fungos produzidos em meio de arroz, e cada bioensaio foi constituído de quatro tratamentos nas concentrações 10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conídios/ml e um grupo-controle. A análise constou da observação do percentual de mortalidade, 15 dias após o tratamento ou após a ecdise de adultos. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à mortalidade para todos os isolados e todos os instares. Nos grupos tratados houve aumento considerável na mortalidade à medida que se aumentava a concentração de conídios na suspensão. Conclui-se que todos os isolados testados causaram mortalidade em testes in vitro sobre esses estádios evolutivos, sugerindo o controle do A. cajennense pela ação desses fungos.This work aimed at the evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense nimphs and adults to isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi. Three isolates of M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 and two of B. bassiana (986 e 747 were used. Conidia suspensions were made from fungi grown up in a rice culture medium and each test consisted of four treated groups (10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conidia/ ml plus a control group. Viability of individuals was assessed 15 days after treatment or after adult ecdisis. Significative differences were found for all treatments and for all stages studied. A large reduction in the viability of ticks was observed, and this effect increased as conidia concentration raised. Based upon the results obtained, it can be concluded that all isolates tested presented an in vitro lethality for the biological stages of A. cajennense evaluated

  14. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a forma de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH. (SOROKIN, 1883] em carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806, assim como as lesões infringidas nos tecidos internos do ácaro. A forma de aderência e penetração do fungo foi estudada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a ação do fungo nos tecidos internos avaliada em secções histológicas convencionais. Para observação destes eventos, realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus contendo 12 fêmeas ingurgitadas cada. Para tal, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas durante 3 minutos, sob agitação manual, em suspensão com concentração 108 conídios/mL. No caso dos grupos controle o banho foi realizado apenas no veículo da suspensão. Os carrapatos foram processados para histopatologia e microscopia eletrônica em diversos tempos após a infecção, a saber: 1 e 18h, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e onze dias. Observou-se que a maior parte dos conídios germinou em até 18h após a inoculação e que o fungo penetrou no ácaro através do tegumento 48h após a infecção. Após a penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo do hospedeiro promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Dentre as lesões nos tecidos internos do ácaro, ressalta-se o rompimento da parede intestinal e vazamento do conteúdo para a hemocele. A morte do hospedeiro ocorreu entre 96 e 120h pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver do ácaro iniciou-se em torno de 120 a 144h pós-infecção. Espera-se, com este trabalho, contribuir para o desenvolvimento e viabilização de técnicas de controle biológico dos carrapatos por fungos como alternativa ao uso de acaricidas.The objective of this work was to verify the penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH

  15. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

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    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA VIRULENCIA DE BLASTOSPOROS DE Metarhizium anisopliae NO CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE CAMPO DO MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti

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    Aline Teixeira Carolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente no Brasil, o mosquito Aedes aegypti é transmissor das arboviroses dengue, chikungunya e Zika. Não existe tratamento específico para estas doenças. A redução da população do vetor ainda é o método mais eficaz para reduzir a taxa dessas arboviroses. O presente estudo comparou a virulência de conídios e blastosporos de Metarhizium anisopliae contra larvas do mosquito A. aegypti provenientes de coletas no campo. Blastosporos foram mais virulentos para larvas, sendo observada mortalidade total das larvas em apenas 48 horas. Larvas infectadas com conídios apresentaram 100% de mortalidade no quinto dia pós-infecção. O presente estudo mostra que blastosporos apresentam grande potencial para controle de larvas de A. aegypti no campo.

  17. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI was added to fungal suspensions. Results A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 109 conidia mL-1. Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. Conclusions This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides

  18. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

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    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  19. Avaliação do potencial de controle biológico do Metarhizium anisopliae sobre Boophilus microplus em teste de estábulo Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials

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    Thiago C. Bahiense

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por meio de um teste de estábulo a capacidade de Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram realizados tratamentos em bovinos estabulados, utilizando este fungo aplicando-se suspensão conidial em banhos por aspersão. Os resultados foram obtidos pelo percentual de mortalidade de carrapatos durante 28 dias após o tratamento e pelos índices biológicos após incubação destes em câmara climatizada. Constatou-se 33% de mortalidade no período total observado, sendo o índice de produção de ovos e índice nutricional reduzidos somente em um curto período após o tratamento.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment.

  20. Detection of potentially valuable polymorphisms in four group I intron insertion sites at the 3'-end of the LSU rDNA genes in biocontrol isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Monte Enrique

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. In the present work, we analyzed the sequence data obtained from group I introns in the large subunit (LSU of rDNA genes with a view to determining the genetic diversity present in an autochthonous collection of twenty-six M. anisopliae isolates selected as BCAs. Results DNA fragments corresponding to the 3'-end of the nuclear LSU rDNA genes of 26 M. anisopliae isolates were amplified by PCR. The amplicon sizes ranged from 0.8 to 3.4-kb. Four intron insertion sites, according to Escherichia coli J01695 numbering, were detected- Ec1921, Ec2066, Ec2449 and Ec2563- after sequencing and analysis of the PCR products. The presence/absence of introns allowed the 26 isolates to be distributed into seven genotypes. Nine of the isolates tested showed no introns, 4 had only one, 3 two, and 10 displayed three introns. The most frequent insertion sites were Ec1921 and Ec2449. Of the 26 isolates, 11 showed insertions at Ec2563 and a 1754-bp sequence was observed in ten of them. The most-parsimonious (MP tree obtained from parsimony analysis of the introns revealed a main set containing four-groups that corresponded to the four insertion sites. Conclusion Four insertion sites of group I introns in the LSU rDNA genes allowed the establishment of seven genotypes among the twenty-six biocontrol isolates of M. anisopliae. Intron insertions at the Ec2563 site were observed for first time in this species.

  1. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  2. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  3. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwetoijera, Dickson W; Sumaye, Robert D; Madumla, Edith P; Kavishe, Deogratius R; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Russell, Tanya L; Okumu, Fredros O

    2010-03-16

    Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS), can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 x 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P HR = 2.32, P < 0.0001). We conclude that high infection rates of entomopathogenic fungi on wild malaria vectors and possibly significant disruption of malaria transmission can be achieved if the fungus is delivered using optimally located outdoor odor-baited stations.

  4. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  5. REVESTIMENTO DE PANOS COM POLÍMERO AUMENTA A EFICIÊNCIA DO FUNGO Metarhizium anisopliae NO CONTROLE DE Aedes aegypti

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    Aline Teixeira Carolino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A estratégia de aplicação do fungo sobre panos pretos é uma ferramenta eficiente no controle do mosquito A. aegypti. Para aprimorar a técnica e aumentar o número de conídios disponíveis na superfície do pano, os panos de algodão preto foram revestidos com alginato de sódio (ALG e impregnados com o fungo entomopatogênico M. anisopliae (F. O fungo foi pulverizado sobre os panos e após secos, ficaram em contato com os mosquitos por 48h. Nos ensaios de germinação, foi possível verificar que o alginato não influenciou na viabilidade do fungo. No meio de cultura SDA acrescido com alginato foi verificado germinação de 97% dos conídios e 98% no grupo controle, sem adição do polímero. Nos ensaios de sobrevivência, o tratamento ALG+F foi mais eficiente em reduzir a sobrevivência dos mosquitos sendo verificada 12% de sobrevivência e S50 de 3 dias. O tratamento Fungo+Tween apresentou menor eficiência, sendo constatado 42% de sobrevivência e S50 de 7 dias.

  6. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

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    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  7. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  8. Evaluación de aislamientos nativos de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae para el control del gusano del fruto Heliothis virescens (Fabricius 1771) en el cultivo de tomate Solanum lycopersicum (Mill) en Guasave, Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaxiola Castro, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluaron en laboratorio 10 aislamientos nativos de hongos entomopatógenos, tres de M. anisopliae y siete de B. bassiana sobre larvas de segundo y tercer estadío de gusano del fruto (Heliothis virescens) provenientes de una cría axénica; los dos aislamientos más patogénicos fueron B. bassiana con clave B1 y B2, por presentar mortalidad de larvas superior a 55%. Con estos mismos aislamientos se realizó un bioensayo para determinar la DL50 y la TL50. También se evaluó ...

  9. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Nichanun Kernasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

  11. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

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    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  12. Effect of heat stress and oil formulation on conidial germination of Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. on tick cuticle and artificial medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Lucas P; Luz, Christian; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Roberts, Donald W; Arruda, Walquíria; Fernandes, Éverton K K

    2016-07-01

    The effect of heat stress (45°C) versus non-heat stress (27°C) on germination of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.s.) isolate IP 119 was examined with conidia formulated (suspended) in pure mineral oil or in water (Tween 80, 0.01%), and then applied onto the cuticle of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) engorged females or onto culture medium (PDAY). In addition, bioassays were performed to investigate the effect of conidia heated while formulated in oil, then applied to blood-engorged adult R. sanguineus females. Conidia suspended in water then exposed to 45°C, in comparison to conidia formulated in mineral oil and exposed to the same temperature, germinated less and more slowly when incubated on either PDAY medium or tick cuticle. Also, conidial germination on tick cuticle was delayed in comparison to germination on artificial culture medium; for example, germination was 13% on tick cuticle 72h after inoculation, in contrast to 61.5% on PDAY medium. Unheated (27°C) conidia suspended in either water or oil and applied to tick cuticle developed appressoria 36h after treatment; whereas only heat-stressed conidia formulated in oil developed appressoria on tick cuticle. In comparison to conidia heated in mineral oil, there was a strong negative effect of heat on germination of conidia heated in water before being applied to arthropod cuticle. Nevertheless, bioassays [based primarily on egg production (quantity) and egg hatchability] exhibited high percentages of tick control regardless of the type of conidial suspension; i.e., water- or oil-formulated conidia, and whether or not conidia were previously exposed to heat. In comparison to aqueous conidial preparations, however, conidia formulated in oil reduced egg hatchability irrespective of heat or no-heat exposure. In conclusion, mineral-oil formulation protected conidia against heat-induced delay of both germination and appressorium production when applied to the cuticle of R. sanguineus

  13. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngumbi, Philip M; Irungu, Lucy W; Ndegwa, Paul N; Maniania, Nguya K

    2011-03-01

    Biological control of sandflies using entomopathogenic fungi is a possible alternative to the expensive synthetic chemical control. It is potentially sustainable, less hazardous, and relatively inexpensive and merits further investigations. The objective of this study was to identify the most pathogenic fungal isolate(s) to sandflies in the laboratory. Isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were screened for their pathogenicity against Phlebotomus duboscqi. Adult flies were contaminated using the technique described by Migiro et al (2010). Briefly, flies were exposed to 0.1 g of dry conidia evenly spread on a cotton velvet cloth covering the inner side of a cylindrical plastic tube (95 mm long × 48 mm diam). In all 25 sandflies were transferred into the cylindrical tube and allowed to walk on the velvet for one minute, after which they were transferred from the velvet into the cages in Perplex. Insects in the control treatments were exposed to fungusfree velvet cloth before being transferred into similar cages. The treatments were maintained at 25 ± 2°C, 60-70% RH and 12L: 12D photoperiod. The experiment was replicated 5 times. The most pathogenic isolates were selected for further studies. A total of 19 isolates were screened against adult sandflies in the laboratory. Mortality in the controls was approximately 16.8 ± 1.7 %. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic to P. duboscqi. Mortality ranged between 76.8 and 100% on all the fungal isolates tested. The lethal time taken to 50% (LT50) and 90% (LT90) mortality ranged from 3.0-7.8 days and from 5.3-16.2 days, respectively. The virulent isolates, causing mortalities of 97.5-100%, were selected for further studies. The high susceptibility of sandflies to entomopathogenic fungi suggests that fungi are potential alternatives to chemical control methods. We conclude that application of entomopathogenic fungi could result in acute mortalities of sandflies and reduction

  14. UV-B radiation reduces in vitro germination of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. but does not affect virulence in fungus-treated Aedes aegypti adults and development on dead mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, M L; Pereira-Junior, R A; Rodrigues, J; López Lastra, C C; García, J J; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C

    2016-12-01

    Control of diurnal Aedes aegypti with mycoinsecticides should consider the exposure of fungus-treated adults to sunlight, and especially to UV-B radiation that might affect activity of conidia applied on the mosquito's surface. Germination of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia on SDAY medium was not affected at the lowest level of radiation with UV-B, 0·69 kJ m -2 , but was retarded and reduced at higher 2·075 and 4·15 kJ m -2 , and completely inhibited at ≥8·3 kJ m -2 . In contrast, germination of conidia applied onto fibreglass nettings and exposed from 0 to 16·6 kJ m -2 did not differ significantly among levels of irradiance exposure and the controls. There was also no significant impact of UV-B up to 16·6 kJ m -2 on the adulticidal activity of IP 46 and on the subsequent conidiogenesis on cadavers. The Quaite-weighted UV-B irradiance in the laboratory (1152 mW m -2 ) was higher than the natural sunlight irradiance observed in the city of Goiânia in Central Brazil on midday (706 mW m -2 in August to 911 mW m -2 in October 2015). UV-B does not impair the activity of IP 46 conidia applied previously to radiation on A. aegypti adults. Findings contribute to a better understanding of the effectiveness of M. anisopliae against day-active A. aegypti and its potential for biological mosquito control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Análise de adesão do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae para o controle de Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho em instalações avícolas

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    Juliano de Araújo Cassiano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho permitiu a construção de um modelo estatístico para a adesão de conídios do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae diante de diferentes níveis de concentração e tempo, além de avaliar seu potencial para o controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus, importante praga da avicultura, causadora de danos às aves pelos ferimentos no trato digestivo e pela transmissão de várias doenças. O estudo da adesão sobre o tegumento é de grande importância, pois a adesão representa um evento complexo, sendo o primeiro do ciclo das relações patógeno-hospedeiro que ocorre após a deposição do fungo sobre o inseto e visa a preparação do local para a fase de penetração. Insetos adultos do cascudinho foram expostos a três concentrações do fungo: 1x10³, 1x10(6 e 1x10(9 conídios/mL, sendo 5, 10 e 15 minutos de exposição em cada concentração. Para verificar o potencial de controle de M. anisopliae, os insetos foram colocados para caminhar sobre uma massa de conídios crescida em meio BDA por 10 minutos, resultando num potencial de inóculo de 8,1x10(8 conídios/mL, a mortalidade foi avaliada durante 21 dias consecutivos, onde se verificou uma mortalidade de 74% em larvas após 48h, e 50% de mortalidade em adultos após 15 dias de exposição ao fungo. A análise de variância (ANOVA mostrou que existe influência e interação de ambos os efeitos: concentração e tempo.

  16. Characterization of Metarhizium anisopliae using amplifed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    sugar cane spittlebug (IPA213, IPA215, IPA219 and IPA216) and the grasshopper (IPA217). It is noteworthy that these five isolates are used as biological control for growing sugar cane on an industrial scale for the Brazilian Northeast. Hence, the importance to genetically characterize these isolates of Metarhizium cannot ...

  17. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  18. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become a big challenge to maintain quality of products and compete in international market .... Application was using a small hand held sprayer until run off as described by Cote. (2001). After treatment ... 2= 40%; 3= 60%; 4= 80% and 5= 100% and data on the leaf damage was taken at 10, 15 ad 20 days after ...

  19. Multilocus sequence typing of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum isolates as microbial agents for locust and grasshopper control. Genbank Accession numbers FJ787311 to FJ787325

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing interest in the biological control of locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae) has led to the development of biopesticides based on naturally occurring pathogens which offers an environmentally safe alternative to chemical pesticides. However, the fungal strains which are being sought for biop...

  20. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes

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    Onofre Sideney Becker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P <= 0,05.

  1. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... is due to toxin production by the fungus or multiplication. *Corresponding author. E-mail: raambo_2006@yahoo.com. Fax: +91 422 2422 387, Tel. .... thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphericus (Fillinger et al., 2003). Entomopathogenic fungi are considered excellent candidates for biopesticides due to ...

  2. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    Seyoum, 2001). Spore batches with >85% germination were considered to be viable and used. Table 1. Fungal isolates used, source substrates, and country of origin. Code. Isolate. Sources. Country of origin. DLCO-AA5. Beauveria. Grasshopper. Ethiopia. DLCO-AA14. Beauveria. Grasshopper. Ethiopia. IITA 18. Beauveria.

  3. effect of dry conidia formulations of metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    5260–5266. 15. Lord, J.C. (2001). Desiccant dusts synergies the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales) on stored grain beetles. Journal of. Economic Entomology 94:367–372. 16. Mamuye Haddis and Dawit Abate (2002).

  4. Recherches sur la maladie, due al Metarrhizium anisopliae chez le criquet pelerin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    Introduction
    The data from the literature concerning insect killing Deuteromycetes are discussed. Stress is laid on many fundamental problems and on gaps in the scientific observations.

    Nomenclature
    It appears from a bibliographic survey that Metarrhizium

  5. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or

  6. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or vectors.

  7. Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Njiru, B.N.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. Following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus

  8. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control). Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray), habitat (lawn vs. forest), and treatment (Met52 vs. control), versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods. PMID:29155838

  9. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae (strain F52 does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya R Fischhoff

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control. Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray, habitat (lawn vs. forest, and treatment (Met52 vs. control, versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  10. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control). Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray), habitat (lawn vs. forest), and treatment (Met52 vs. control), versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  11. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding mammalian health impacts of these agents has focused on toxicity and pathogenicity, with limited research regarding allergenicity and asthma development. We compared the ability of funga...

  12. Genome-assisted development of nuclear intergenic sequence markers for entomopathogenic fungi of the Metarhizium anisopliae species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic fungi in the genus Metarhizium have proven useful for the biological control of economically important pests across the globe. Understanding the true diversity of this group is hampered by convergent morphologies between species. The application of molecular techniques has enabled...

  13. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Farenhorst, M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have

  14. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel F. V.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously

  15. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 33, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Native Fungal Isolates of Metrahizium anisopliae Var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana against the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (L) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H. Namusana, E Seyoum, 117-124 ...

  16. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  17. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  18. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  19. Control biológico de larvas de la mosca del establo Stomoxys calcitrans con el hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Edga; Arcila Quiceno, Victor Hernan; Serrano Novoa, Cesar Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Como consecuencia del desarrollo de resistencia al uso de acaricidas e insecticidas en el ámbito veterinario y agrícola, se ha generado gran interés en la evaluación, desarrollo y utilización de métodos alternos para el control de los parásitos externos del ganado, tomando como propuesta los hongos entomopatógenos, los cuales generan expectativas. Se han realizado trabajos de evaluación del posible efecto biocontrolador de diversas especies de hongos, éstos se han concentrado en la garrapata ...

  20. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lwetoijera, D.W.; Sumaye, R.D.; Madumla, E.P.; Kavishe, D.R.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Okumu, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target

  1. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  2. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  3. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  4. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  5. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  6. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  7. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  8. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the causal agent of chafer beetle mortality in the wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of chafer beetle [Anisoplia austriaca (Herbst 1783] mortality caused by Actinomucor elegans var. elegans in wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran. For three years, dead larvae of Anisoplia austriaca were collected from wheat fields of the Kurdistan province. Similar isolates of a fast-growing fungus were recovered from all samples. The fungal isolates were identified as A. elegans var. elegans based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The identity of the species was further confirmed using sequence data of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by the inoculation of the larvae of A. austriaca and Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (as the model insect using the spore suspension of A. elegans var. elegans. The viability of sporangiospores was evaluated using a spore dilution technique on germination medium. The results on the pathogenicity (100% mortality in A. austriaca larvae and viability tests (germination: 95.45% demonstrated that A. elegans var. elegans can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent against the chafer beetle. Field experiments are still required to evaluate the capacity of A. elegans as a biological control agent.

  10. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  11. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  12. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  13. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  14. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  15. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  16. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  17. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  18. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  19. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  20. Bolívar, educador de pueblos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hernández de Alba

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Una tarde del mes de septiembre de 1810, en la residencia de la calle Grafton, hogar del Precursor don Francisco de Miranda, el Embajador de la Capitanía General de Venezuela en Londres, Coronel don Simón Bolívar, escucha entusiasmado de labios del fogoso innovador de la pedagogía, don José Lancaster, la exposición de su nuevo sistema educativo Con esa su vivacidad característica caen sobre Bolívar las nuevas inolvidables impresiones que un día se harán palpables dentro del pensamiento educativo del gran Libertador.

  1. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  2. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  3. A comparison of yield-related traits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum DC. and Coriandrum sativum var. sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Dyulgerov, Nikolay; Dyulgerova, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation we studied how yield-related traits of large-fruited (var. sativum) and small-fruited (var. microcarpum DC.) coriander differ at the Southeastern Bulgaria climatic conditions during 2010-2012. For this purpose, 20 genotypes from var. microcarpum and 20 genotypes from var. sativum were tested using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat. Plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of umbels per ...

  4. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  5. Micropropagation of Helianthemum lippii L. var Sessiliforuim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation of Helianthemum lippii L. var Sessiliforuim (Cistaceae) an important pastoral plant of North African arid areas. ... of plants. A very high frequency of sprouting and shoot differentiation were observed in the primary cultures of nodal explants of H. lippii on MS medium, without growth regulators or with a lower ...

  6. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding...

  7. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time depend...... on theory consistent CVAR scenarios illus- trated with a monetary model for in‡ation....

  8. commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... The possibilities of using recombinant chymosin as an alternative coagulant to commercial calf rennet in the production of white pickled cheese was investigated. For this purpose, white pickled cheese produced by using commercial calf rennet, recombinant chymosin (Aspergillus niger var. awamori) and.

  9. Volatiles Of Lysimachia Paridiformis Var. Stenophylla, Lysimachia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main constituents were ethanol (13.58%), and β-ionone (8.05%). linalool and β-ionone were the main aroma constituents in L. paridiformis var. Stenophylla. Twenty-one compounds were identified in the leaves of L. fortumei, accounting for 94.72% of the total volatile fraction. The main constituents were tricosane ...

  10. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  11. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  12. (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats. var. motia) in

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2.1 Plant material and chemicals. Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, Roxb. Wats. var. motia) plants were raised from seedlings at the experimental farm of Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic. Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow, India. The samples were taken at eight day intervals, representing five develop- mental stages viz.

  13. Plant regeneration of Senecio hypochionaeus var. argaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Senecio genus includes taxa that can be used for agricultural, pharmacological, physiological and biochemical studies, on account of their different pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Senecio hypochionaeus var. argaeus is an endemic species in Turkey. Successful callus production was achieved in all the N6-.

  14. (coleoptera: curculionidae) to beauveria bassiana and metarhizium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS (MOSTCH.) (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE. Addis Teshome1 and Tadele Tefera 2, ∗. 1 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako Research Centre, PO Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2 Department ...

  15. Development of transgenic fungi that kill human malaria parasites in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Ghosh, Anil K; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Kang, Angray; St Leger, Raymond J

    2011-02-25

    Metarhizium anisopliae infects mosquitoes through the cuticle and proliferates in the hemolymph. To allow M. anisopliae to combat malaria in mosquitoes with advanced malaria infections, we produced recombinant strains expressing molecules that target sporozoites as they travel through the hemolymph to the salivary glands. Eleven days after a Plasmodium-infected blood meal, mosquitoes were treated with M. anisopliae expressing salivary gland and midgut peptide 1 (SM1), which blocks attachment of sporozoites to salivary glands; a single-chain antibody that agglutinates sporozoites; or scorpine, which is an antimicrobial toxin. These reduced sporozoite counts by 71%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. M. anisopliae expressing scorpine and an [SM1](8):scorpine fusion protein reduced sporozoite counts by 98%, suggesting that Metarhizium-mediated inhibition of Plasmodium development could be a powerful weapon for combating malaria.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  17. Temperature requirements of four entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection potential of Beauvaria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and P. fumosoroseus to G. mellonella larvae in pine litter was established. The growth of these fungi on the Czapek's Dox medium exposed to different temperature was determined.

  18. Selection of Protease Inhibitors to Prevent or Attenuate Inflammatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    temperature. elevated body temperature, pH, oxygen tension): * number of chemical factors (fatty acids. lactid acid, pepsin, lysozyme, antimicrobial ...inhibit toxic serine proteases produced by the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. The known spectrum of protease inhibitors from invertebrates includes also

  19. Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Lene

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite heterogeneity and within-host competition are thought to be important factors influencing the dynamics of host-parasite relationships. Yet, while there have been many theoretical investigations of how these factors may act, empirical data is more limited. We investigated the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system. Results The relationship between parasite density and infection was sigmoidal, with there being an invasion threshold for an infection to occur (an Allee effect. Although spore production was positively density-dependent, parasite fitness decreased with increasing parasite density, indicating within-host scramble competition. The dynamics differed little between the four strains tested. In mixed infections of three strains the infection-growth dynamics were unaffected by parasite heterogeneity. Conclusions The strength of within-host competition makes dispersal the best strategy for the parasite. Parasite heterogeneity may not have effected virulence or the infection dynamics either because the most virulent strain outcompeted the others, or because the interaction involved scramble competition that was impervious to parasite heterogeneity. The dynamics observed may be common for virulent parasites, such as Metarhizium, that produce aggregated transmission stages. Such parasites make useful models for investigating infection dynamics and the impact of parasite competition.

  20. Bolívar en Rusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Martínez Rueda

    1959-07-01

    Full Text Available A la Biblioteca Luis-Ángel Arango ha llegado una biografía de Simón Bolívar escrita por el señor Isidoro Romualdovich Labrietski con una amable dedicatoria del autor. Se trata de un folleto de 100 páginas en octavo y tiene una introducción de Pablo Neruda.

  1. Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, S; Maniania, N K; Subramanian, S; Gitonga, L M; Mburu, D M; Masiga, D; Ekesi, S

    2012-06-01

    Larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis are known to be refractory to fungal infection compared with the adult stage. The objective of this study was to identify promising fungal isolate(s) for the control of larval stages of F. occidentalis. Ten isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and eight of Beauveria bassiana were screened for virulence against second-instar larvae of F. occidentalis. Conidial production and genetic polymorphism were also investigated. Metarhizium anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7, ICIPE 20, ICIPE 69 and ICIPE 665 had the shortest LT(50) values of 8.0-8.9 days. ICIPE 69, ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20 had the lowest LC(50) values of 1.1 × 10(7), 2.0 × 10(7) and 3.0 × 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 produced significantly more conidia than M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20. Internally transcribed spacers sequences alignment showed differences in nucleotides composition, which can partly explain differences in virulence. These results coupled with the previous ones on virulence and field efficacy against other species of thrips make M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 a good candidate. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 can be suggested for development as fungus-based biopesticide for thrips management. © International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  3. Sesquiterpenes from Thapsia nitida var. meridionalis and Thapsia nitida var. nitida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubal, Juan J; Guerra, Francisco M; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    Nine new eudesmanolides (1-9), two new guaianolides (12 and 13), and a new germacrane (10), along with a previously reported guaianolide (11), have been isolated from the roots of Thapsia nitida var. meridionalis. Thapsia nitida var. nitida also afforded compound 13 along with a new guaianolide (14......). The structure of 13 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 11-14 have been tested as potential inhibitors of the sarco- and endoplasmic Ca2+-dependent ATPases (SERCA) pump. None of them showed significant activities....

  4. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...

  5. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  6. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  8. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  9. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) H.W.Li (Labiatae) aerial parts at flowering stage against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation.

  10. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  11. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground. Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further ...

  12. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  13. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  15. CooVar: Co-occurring variant analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara Ismael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of genomic variations (GV on protein-coding transcripts is an important step in identifying variants of functional significance. Currently available programs for variant annotation depend on external databases or annotate multiple variants affecting the same transcript independently, which limits program use to organisms available in these databases or results in potentially incorrect or incomplete annotations. Findings We have developed CooVar (Co-occurring Variant Analyzer, a database-independent program for assessing the impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar takes GVs, reference genome sequence, and protein-coding exons as input and provides annotated GVs and transcripts as output. Other than similar programs, CooVar considers the combined impact of all GVs affecting the same transcript, generating biologically more accurate annotations. CooVar is operated from the command-line and supports standard file formats VCF, GFF/GTF, and GVF, which makes it easy to integrate into existing computational pipelines. We have extensively tested CooVar on worm and human data sets and demonstrate that it generates correct annotations in only a short amount of time. Conclusions CooVar is an easy-to-use and lightweight variant annotation tool that considers the combined impact of GVs on protein-coding transcripts. CooVar is freely available at http://genome.sfu.ca/projects/coovar/.

  16. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  17. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  18. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. 80.170 Section 80.170 Protection of... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and... additized unless otherwise noted in supporting VAR records, and must be accounted for in VAR records. The...

  19. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  20. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ...

  1. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  3. Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (Linn.) Kob.: Inhibition effects on germination, seed imbibition, and α-amylase activity induction of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.

  4. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Inverter VAR control for distribution systems with renewables

    OpenAIRE

    Farivar, Masoud; Clarke, Christopher R.; Low, Steven H.; Chandy, K. Mani

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the need to cope with rapid and random fluctuations of renewable generation, we presents a model that augments the traditional Volt/VAR control through switched controllers on a slow timescale with inverter control on a fast timescale. The optimization problem is generally nonconvex and therefore hard to solve. We propose a simple convex relaxation and prove that it is exact provided over-satisfaction of load is allowed. Hence Volt/VAR control over radial networks is efficiently ...

  6. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  7. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  8. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  9. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  10. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  11. Penyerbukan Pada Rambutan (Nepheuum Lappaceum L. Var. Lappaceum)

    OpenAIRE

    UJI, TAHAN

    1987-01-01

    TAHAN UJI.1987.Pollination in Nephelium lappaceum L. var.lappaceum. Suppl.Berita Biologi. 3 : 31 - 34.Inflorescence morphology,flowering biology and insect visitors of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. var.lappaceum) were observed in Semboja, East Kalimantan.Rambutan is dioeceous plant and cross pollinated by insect.It was showed that in isolated inflorescence failed to produce fruits.Six species of bees i.e. Apisindica,Trigone itama,T. nitidiventris. T. canifronsT.irridipenis and T.atripes ar...

  12. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  13. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  14. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  15. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  16. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  17. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  18. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  19. Limonoids from the stems of Toona ciliata var. henryi (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Su, Zu-Shang; Lin, Bing-Dong; Wu, Yan; Yue, Jian-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ten limonoids, toonacilianins A-J, and two norlimonoids, toonacilianins K and L, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the stems of Toona ciliata var. henryi (Meliaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two compounds showed strong cytotoxic activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA cleavage agents from Schisandra propinqua var. sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA cleavage agents from Schisandra propinqua var. sinensis. Y Chen, L Hai, Y Liu, X Liao. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  1. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  2. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  3. Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methanolic extract in wettable powder from the leaves of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (Linn.) Kob. (JWP) was inhibitory to germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. weeds. The inhibition percentages on E. crus-galli seed germination treated with 500 to 8,000 ppm for 7 days was ...

  4. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  5. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Taxus chinensis var. mairei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qin L. P. 2012 Geographic and tissue influences on endophytic fungal communities of Taxus chinensis var. mairei in China. Curr. Microbiol. 66, 40–48. Wu Y., Li Z. H. and Wu J. J. 2009 Polymorphic microsatel- lite markers in the Melon Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Mol. Ecol. Res.

  6. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  7. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Taxus chinensis var. mairei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic evergreen conifer in China. It is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Taxus and primarily occurs south of the Yangtze river (Zhou et al. 2009). It is noteworthy that this species is considered an important source for the production of taxol, which is used in the treatment of ...

  8. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  9. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  10. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich ( Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus ), a large avian species that utilizes cellulose1. D Swart, RI Mackie, JP Hayes. Abstract. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was studied in vitro to assess the possible contribution of microbial fermentation to the energy economy of growing ostrich ...

  11. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  12. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  13. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  14. Insertion of an esterase gene into a specific locust pathogen (Metarhizium acridum enables it to infect caterpillars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibao Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An enduring theme in pathogenic microbiology is poor understanding of the mechanisms of host specificity. Metarhizium is a cosmopolitan genus of invertebrate pathogens that contains generalist species with broad host ranges such as M. robertsii (formerly known as M. anisopliae var. anisopliae as well as specialists such as the acridid-specific grasshopper pathogen M. acridum. During growth on caterpillar (Manduca sexta cuticle, M. robertsii up-regulates a gene (Mest1 that is absent in M. acridum and most other fungi. Disrupting M. robertsii Mest1 reduced virulence and overexpression increased virulence to caterpillars (Galleria mellonella and M. sexta, while virulence to grasshoppers (Melanoplus femurrubrum was unaffected. When Mest1 was transferred to M. acridum under control of its native M. robertsii promoter, the transformants killed and colonized caterpillars in a similar fashion to M. robertsii. MEST1 localized exclusively to lipid droplets in M. robertsii conidia and infection structures was up-regulated during nutrient deprivation and had esterase activity against lipids with short chain fatty acids. The mobilization of stored lipids was delayed in the Mest1 disruptant mutant. Overall, our results suggest that expression of Mest1 allows rapid hydrolysis of stored lipids, and promotes germination and infection structure formation by M. robertsii during nutrient deprivation and invasion, while Mest1 expression in M. acridum broadens its host range by bypassing the regulatory signals found on natural hosts that trigger the mobilization of endogenous nutrient reserves. This study suggests that speciation in an insect pathogen could potentially be driven by host shifts resulting from changes in a single gene.

  15. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  16. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  18. De zoetwatergetijde-dotter van de Biesbosch en de Oude Maas: Caltha palustris L. var. araneosa, var. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    In tidal freshwater swamps c.q. river banks in the Biesbosch and Oude Maas (tidal level difference ca. 2 m), 51°45’ N, 4°30’-4°35’ E, a special ecological race of Caltha palustris L. occurs, here newly described as var. araneosa. Its tall, erect, multiflorous stem is characterized by elbow-like

  19. Antagonism of entomopathogenic fungi by Bacillus spp. associated with the integument of cicadellids and delphacids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Andrea; López, Silvina; Aulicino, Mónica; de Remes-Lenicov, Ana María; Balatti, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential tools to biocontrol cicadellids and delphacids, two groups of insects that cause extensive damage to agricultural crops. However, bacteria living on the host cuticle may inhibit fungal growth. In the present work, following the molecular characterization of 10 strains of Bacillus isolated from the integument of cicadellids and delphacids, we selected isolates of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae that are resistant to the antimicrobials secreted by these bacterial strains. The antagonistic activity of the 10 bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Bacillus (i.e., B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, and B. subtilis) against 41 isolates of Bea. bassiana and 20 isolates of M. anisopliae was investigated in vitro on tryptic soy agar using the central disk test. With this approach, isolates of Bea. bassiana and M. anisopliae resistant to antagonistic bacteria were identified that can be further developed as biological control agents. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  20. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  1. The effect of entomopathogenic fungal culture filtrate on the immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Namara, Louise; Carolan, James C; Griffin, Christine T; Fitzpatrick, David; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively). Larvae co-injected with either M. anisopliae or B. caledonica culture filtrate and Candida albicans showed significantly increased mortality. The same was not seen for larvae injected with Beauveria bassiana filtrate. Together these results suggest that B. caledonica and M. anisopliae filtrate are modulating the insect immune system allowing a subsequent pathogen to proliferate. B. caledonica and M. anisopliae culture filtrates impact upon the larval prophenoloxidase (ProPO) cascade (e.g. ProPO activating factor 3 and proPO activating enzyme 3 were increased in abundance relative to controls), while B. bassiana treated larvae displayed higher abundances of alpha-esterase when compared to control larvae (2.4-fold greater) and larvae treated with M. anisopliae and B. caledonica. Treatment with EPF culture filtrate had a significant effect on antimicrobial peptide abundances particularly in M. anisopliae treated larvae where cecropin-D precursor, hemolin and gloverin were differentially abundant in comparison to controls. Differences in proteomic profiles for different treatments may reflect or even partially explain the differences in their immunomodulatory potential. Screening EPF for their ability to modulate the insect immune response represents a means of assessing EPF for use as biocontrol agents, particularly if the goal is to use them in combination with other control agents. Additionally EPF represent a

  2. Comparative genome analysis of entomopathogenic fungi reveals a complex set of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Charley Christian; Junges, Angela; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Andreis, Fábio Carrer; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Sbaraini, Nicolau; da Paixão, Rana Louise de Andrade; Broetto, Leonardo; Landell, Melissa; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Silveira, Carolina Pereira; Serrano, Thaiane Rispoli; de Oliveira, Eder Silva; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Schrank, Augusto

    2014-09-29

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins. We determined the M. anisopliae E6 genome sequence and compared this sequence to other entomopathogenic fungi genomes. A robust pipeline was generated to evaluate the predicted secretomes of M. anisopliae and 15 other filamentous fungi, leading to the identification of a core of secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis using the tick Rhipicephalus microplus cuticle as an infection model during two periods of infection (48 and 144 h) allowed the identification of several differentially expressed genes. This analysis concluded that a large proportion of the predicted secretome coding genes contained altered transcript levels in the conditions analyzed in this study. In addition, some specific secreted proteins from Metarhizium have an evolutionary history similar to orthologs found in Beauveria/Cordyceps. This similarity suggests that a set of secreted proteins has evolved to participate in entomopathogenicity. The data presented represents an important step to the characterization of the role of secreted proteins in the virulence and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae.

  3. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  4. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  5. Effects of temperature, water activity and gas atmosphere on mycelial growth of tempe fungi Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus and R. microsporus var. oligosporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus and var. oligosporus are used in the manufacture of various Asian fermented foods (tempe, black oncom, sufu). In view of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) control, mycelial growth of strains of both varieties was tested for sensitivity to fluctuations of

  6. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  7. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  8. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  9. Network-Cognizant Design of Decentralized Volt/VAR Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    This paper considers the problem of designing decentralized Volt/VAR controllers for distributed energy resources (DERs). The voltage-reactive power characteristics of individual DERs are obtained by solving a convex optimization problem, where given performance objectives (e.g., minimization of the voltage deviations from a given profile) are specified and stability constraints are enforced. The resultant Volt/VAR characteristics are network-cognizant, in the sense that they embed information on the location of the DERs and, consequently, on the effect of reactive-power adjustments on the voltages throughout the feeder. Bounds on the maximum voltage deviation incurred by the controllers are analytically established. Numerical results are reported to corroborate the technical findings.

  10. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  11. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  12. Limonoids and Diterpenoids from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liao, Shang-Gao; Zhang, Chuan-Rui; He, Xiu-Feng; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Yue, Jian-Min

    2011-09-01

    Three new limonoids (toonaciliatins N-P, 1-3)and four new pimaradiene-type diterpenoids(toonacilidins A-D, 4-7) were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Toonacilidin B(5)showed moderate inhibitory activity against H. pylori-SS1 with an MIC of 50 μg/mL. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. How Macroeconomic Imbalances Interact? Evidence from a Panel VAR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Blaise Gnimassoun; Valérie Mignon

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the interactions between three key macroeconomic imbalances, namely Global imbalances,current-account discrepancies (external imbalances), output gaps (internal imbalances), and exchange-rate misalignments. To this end, we rely on the estimation of a panel VAR model for a sample of 22 industrialized countries over the 1980-2011 period. Our findings show that macroeconomic imbalances strongly interact through a causal relationship. We evidence that if current-a...

  14. Identification of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenzig, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The following chapter describes a PCR method for the identification of the raspberry root rot pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi. Furthermore, a nested PCR suitable for the detection of the pathogen in infected raspberry roots and validated against the "Duncan bait test" (EPPO Bull 35:87-91, 2005) is explained. Protocols for different DNA extraction methods are given which can be transferred to other fungal pathogens.

  15. Methods for detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on raspberry

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivica Mirjana; Dulić-Marković Ivana; Jevtić Radivoje; Cooke Dave E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox and Duncan), a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I.), Dundee, UK. Necrotic ...

  16. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L.) HAINES

    OpenAIRE

    CHURIYAH; WAHONO SUMARYONO

    2010-01-01

    Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L.) Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr) approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. T...

  17. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  18. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  19. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  20. C18-Diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium anthriscifolium var. majus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji-Fa; Gao, Feng; Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-Li

    2017-06-01

    Five new C 18 -diterpenoid alkaloids, anthriscifoltines C-G (1-5), along with four known diterpenoid alkaloids anthriscifolcines C-F (6-9), were isolated from the extract of Delphinium anthriscifolium var. majus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS). Compounds 1-5 were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, HepG2, and H460 human cancer cell lines.

  1. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  2. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  3. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  4. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. [Chemical constituents of bark of Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Shi, Hong-Xing; Wang, Li-Jun; Guo, Rui-Xia; Ren, Tian-Kun; Wu, Yi-Bing

    2014-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents in the bark of Taxus chinensis var. mairei collected from southeast of China. Chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography, Prep-TLC, and preparative HPLC. The structures were identified on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR spectral analysis. Twelve taxane diterpenoids were isolated from the bark of Taxus chinensis var. mairei grown in southeast of China. They were identified as: taxagifine (1), decinnamoyltaxagifine (2), 19-debenzoyl-19-acetyltaxinine M(3), 9-dihydro-13-acetyl-baccatin III (4), 7, 9-dideacetylbaccatin IV (5), 1,3-dihydro-taxinine (6), taxumairol C (7), taxezopidine J (8), 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl-taxol A (9),10-deacetyltaxol (10), taxicin II (11), and 2alpha, 7beta, 10beta-triacetoxy-5alpha, 13alpha-dihydroxy-2 (3 --> 20) abeotaxa-4 (20), 11-dien-9-one (12). Compounds 1, 2, 4 - 6, 8, 9, 11 and 12 are obtained from this plant for the first time. Compound 7 is obtained from the bark of Taxus chinensis var. mairei for the first time.

  6. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  7. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  8. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  9. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  10. Var transcription profiling of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7: assignment of cytoadherent phenotypes to dominant transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunderlich Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells is mediated by var gene-encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 and host receptor preference depends in most cases on which of the 50–60 var genes per genome is expressed. Enrichment of phenotypically homogenous parasites by panning on receptor expressing cells is fundamental for the identification of the corresponding var transcript. Methods P. falciparum 3D7 parasites were panned on several transfected CHO-cell lines and their var transcripts analysed by i reverse transcription/PCR/cloning/sequencing using a universal DBLα specific oligonucleotide pair and ii by reverse transcription followed by quantitative PCR using 57 different oligonucleotide pairs. Results Each cytoadherence selected parasite line also adhered to untransfected CHO-745 cells and upregulation of the var gene PFD995/PFD1000c was consistently associated with cytoadherence to all but one CHO cell line. In addition, parasites panned on different CHO cell lines revealed candidate var genes which reproducibly associated to the respective cytoadherent phenotype. The transcription profile obtained by RT-PCR/cloning/sequencing differed significantly from that of RT-quantitative PCR. Conclusion Transfected CHO cell lines are of limited use for the creation of monophenotypic cytoadherent parasite lines. Nevertheless, 3D7 parasites can be reproducibly selected for the transcription of different determined var genes without genetic manipulation. Most importantly, var transcription analysis by RT-PCR/cloning/sequencing may lead to erroneous interpretation of var transcription profiles.

  11. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  12. Novel adenovirus encoded virus-like particles displaying the placental malaria associated VAR2CSA antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA. The VAR2CSA antigen was fused to the transmembrane (TM...... revealed a unique targeting of several epitopes in mice that had been primed with VAR2CSA HA TM-CT. Consequently, modification of VLP anchors is an important point of optimization in virus-encoded retroviral VLP-based vaccines, and adenovirus VLPs boosted by recombinant proteins offer hope of increasing...

  13. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  14. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression... thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens and the expression plasmid and...

  16. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  17. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  18. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  19. Five new schinortriterpenoids from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Ping; Hu, Kun; Liu, Miao; Li, Xing-Ren; Chen, Rong; Li, Xiao-Nian; Du, Xue; Puno, Pema-Tenzin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2018-02-15

    Five new schinortriterpenoids, propinqtrilactones A and B (1 and 2) with rare lancischiartane scaffold, and propindilactones V-X (3-5), were isolated from the stems and leaves of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by CD methods, X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical calculations. 4 was tested for its cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Halide Edib Adıvar and University Education

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Kelime

    2008-01-01

    As a writer worked at a university, Halide Edib Adıvar points out the problems of the university students and the people work there. The students studying abroad with many difficulties, can’t find an appropriate occupation related with the subject they have studied. Carefully choosing students who will be sent to abroad and their education in the light of our country’s needs is very important. In this article, Halide Edib’s ideas about financial problems of university members, students not wo...

  1. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  2. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  3. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  5. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  6. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component......, the asset price needs to be included as a state variable. In parts of Chen and Zhao's analysis the price does not appear as a state variable, thus rendering those parts of their analysis invalid. Finally, we clarify the intriguing issue of the role of the residual component in equity return decompositions...

  7. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  8. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  9. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1983-01-01

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E. 1983. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 626-632. Growth, phenology, and cold hardiness of seedlings from 74 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) from central Idaho were compared in four...

  10. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  11. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  12. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  13. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  14. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  15. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  16. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  17. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  18. Mixed meningitis: association of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var lwoffi and Streptococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, P. S.; Mohanty, S.

    1995-01-01

    We describe mixed bacterial meningitis in a young man due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var lwoffi and Streptococcus faecium. The combination of A calcoaceticus var lwoffi and S faecium as aetiology of mixed bacterial meningitis has not been previously reported. The patient recovered completely without neurologic sequelae on chloramphenicol and penicillin.

  19. modeling and analysis of a three-phase solid-state var compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known. Several methods of var compensation have been applied in solv- ing these problems. This paper examines the performance of a three-phase solid-state var compensator employed in the power system for ...

  20. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  1. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var . capitata * rapa L. var . pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  2. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  3. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  5. VAR2CSA expression on the surface of placenta-derived Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magistrado, Pamela; Salanti, Ali; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G

    2008-01-01

    intervillous space and parasite antigens. Both placental and chondroitin sulphate A-selected parasites have high-level transcripts of a unique var gene named var2csa. However, VAR2CSA has not been consistently found by proteomic analysis of placental parasites. Contrary to this, we found VAR2CSA expressed...... on the surface of infected erythrocytes from placenta. Importantly, this was achieved with cross-reactive antibodies against VAR2CSA.......Malaria remains a major threat, in sub-Saharan Africa primarily, and the most deadly infections are those with Plasmodium falciparum. Pregnancy-associated malaria is a clinically important complication of infection; it results from a unique interaction between proteoglycans in the placental...

  6. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  7. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  9. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  10. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  11. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  12. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  13. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  14. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  15. [Flavonoid constituents from herbs of Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunpeng; Zheng, Xiao; Chen, Haifeng; Zou, Xiuhong; Song, Zirong; Zhou, Shouran; Qiu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical studies of the the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate (Melastomataceae) have been carried out. The compounds were separated by repeated D101 macroporous adsorption resin column combined with Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and silica gel chromatgrophy. The structures were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, and by comparison of their spectral data with those reported. Eight flavonoid compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was identified as isorhamnetin (1), quercetin (2), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-(2"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), and quercetin- 3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8). All of the compounds were separated from the genus of Sarcopyramis for the first time.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  17. Limonoids from the leaves of Toona ciliata var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Qing; Wang, Cui-Fang; Li, Yan; Chen, Jian-Chao; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Twelve limonoids, toonayunnanins A-L (1-12) and eleven known compounds (13-23) were isolated from the leaves of Toona ciliata var. yunnanensis, and their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analyses, particularly 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The inhibitory effects of all the isolated compounds were evaluated on human tumor cell lines, such as HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480. Cedrelone (13) and dysobinin (18) showed significant cytotoxicity, and toonayunnanin B (2) and epoxyazadiradione (14), were found to be slightly cytotoxic against the above cell lines. Furthermore, this study provides valuable information for the chemotaxonomy of T. ciliata varieties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Hybrid Static VAR Compensator with Series Active Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Tokiwa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid static VAR compensator (SVC with a series active filter (AF. The proposed hybrid SVC consists of a series AF and SVC. The series AF, which is connected in series to phase-leading capacitors in the SVC, performs for a resistor for source-side harmonic currents. A sinusoidal source current with a unity power factor is obtained with the series AF, although the thyristor-controlled reactor generates harmonic currents. A digital computer simulation was implemented to confirm the validity and high practicability of the proposed hybrid SVC using PSIM software. The simulation results demonstrate that sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor are achieved with the proposed hybrid SVC.

  19. Consistent Inference for Predictive Regressions in Persistent VAR Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    This paper studies the properties of standard predictive regressions in model economies, characterized through persistent vector autoregressive dynamics for the state variables and the associated series of interest. In particular, we consider a setting where all, or a subset, of the variables may...... be fractionally integrated, and note that this induces a spurious regression problem. We then propose a new inference and testing procedure - the local spectrum (LCM) approach - for the joint significance of the regressors, which is robust against the variables having different integration orders. The LCM...... the implications of assuming VAR dynamics in predictive regressions for the realized return variation. Standard least squares predictive regressions indicate that popular financial and macroeconomic variables carry valuable information about return volatility. In contrast, we find no significant evidence using our...

  20. Fungal endophytes of South China blueberry (Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z-J; Shen, X-Y; Hou, C-L

    2016-12-01

    A total of 374 fungal endophyte strains were isolated from of Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum (Ericaceae), a well-known cultivated blueberry in southern China. These fungal endophytes could be categorized into 25 morphotypes according to culture characteristics and molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer region. All of these isolates belonged to Ascomycota. Jaccard's (Jc) and Sorenson's similarity indices indicated that the species communities from the fruits and branches were closer to each other than to those from leaves. The leaves appeared to host the highest fungal biodiversity, and the fruits displayed the lowest diversity. This study is the first on endophytic fungi isolated from fruits, branches and leaves of blueberry plants. The results contribute to the body of knowledge on the biocontrol of pathogens associated with blueberry and develop the improvement of plant growth. By comparing with the different fungal communities, the leaves appeared to host the highest biodiversity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  2. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  3. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw) (similar to 1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw). The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested...... spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted...

  4. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  5. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  6. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  7. Differential endophytic colonization of sorghum plant by eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virulence of the conidia before and after endophytic growth phases were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae mortality bioassay in-vitro. All the strains of the fungi colonised the sorghum plant. The strains of I. farinosa and B. bassiana were detected in the roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was ...

  8. Root environment is a key determinant of fungal entomopathogen endophytism following seed treatment in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is the most important food legume in the world. We examined the potential of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied as seed treatments for their endophytic establishment in the common bean. Endophytic colonization in sterile sand:peat average...

  9. Toxicity of the insect growth regulator lufenuron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metarhizium anisopliae has been considered a promising alternative with low environmental impacts for the biological control of a variety of insect-pests. Another alternative is the use of biological pesticides such as insect growth regulators, including lufenuron. An assessment of the potential impact of fungicides on M.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, to the Two Spotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus urticae, (Acari: Tetranychidae) at Different Temperatures and in Greenhouse Condition Abstract PDF · Vol 27, No 2 (2017) - Articles Efficacy of Ethiopian Beauveria bassiana and Metarhiziumanisopliae isolates ...

  11. Efficacy of larvividal and pupicidal properties of Acalypha alnifolia Klen ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and Metarhisium anisopilae (Metsch.) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Cuclicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the lethal effects of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Methanol extracts of A. alnifolia were most effective in this regard with LC50 values...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borisade, OA. Vol 23, No 2 (2015) - Articles Rearing tomato whitefly and field evaluation of modified and unmodified conidia of Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Metarhizium anisopliae and low rates of Chlorpyrifos under tropical conditions. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2072-6589. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  13. Explaining mycoinsecticide activity: poor performance of spray and bait formulations of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum against Mormon cricket in field cage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were threefold: (1) to evaluate B. bassiana GHA and M. anisopliae F52 for potential use against Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Haldeman); (2) to compare spray and bait formulations of each fungus against immature and adult Mormon cricket; and (3) to understand the effect of optimal a...

  14. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  15. Borisade (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was detected in the root only after 20 days. The shoot length of the sorghum plants inoculated with the strain of Beauveria, BB 315 were significantly higher than the control while none of the ... to act against insect vectors of plant diseases (Gao et al., 2010) and induce ...

  16. grasshoppers in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic injury level when applied under field conditions in a similar way as chemical pesticides. Key words/phrases: Entomopathogen, Ethiopia, gasoline, grasshopper sp., Metarhizium anisopliae. INTRODUCTION. Insect pests have been .... Species composition of target grasshoppers. The first trial site was found to be ...

  17. Evaluation of conidia production and mycelial growth in solid culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATIMAYALBERTO

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... entomopathogenic fungi in Nicaragua. Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 63:95-103. Moore E (1996). Fundamentals of the fungi. Prentice Hall, New Jersey,. USA. pp. 574. Li DP, Holdom DG (1995). Effects of nutrients on colony Formation, growth, and sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina:.

  18. Climatic factors interference with the occurrence of Beauveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes in soil, Beauveria bassiana (Bals). Vuill Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sor, Nomuraea rileyi (F). Samson and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Wize, in controlled conditions. Agronomie, 5: 73-80. Goettel MS, Inglis GD, Wraight SP (2000). In: Field manual technique.

  19. Interactions of some registered agrochemicals in Nigerian farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinosa are biocontrol agents (BCA) widely reported for the management of insect pests, and they are potential components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems. Compatibility of their infective conidia with low rates of four agrochemicals; Champ-DP ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pringle, K L. Vol 30, No 1 (2007) - Articles Biological control of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0379-2897. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Efficacy of spray applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips infesting greenhouse impatiens under variable moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy tests of three entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, and Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. strain ESC-1) were conducted against thrips infesting greenhouse crops of single impatiens under variable moisture conditions. Fungal conidia suspended in 0...

  2. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  3. Climatic factors interference with the occurrence of Beauveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of method and recommendation of laboratory and field procedures for the isolation of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi (specifically Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) is presented. Baiting technique method was used for screening of occurrence of indigenous populations of entomopathogenic ...

  4. Effect of certain entomopathogenic fungi on oxidative stress and mortality of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Abhilasha; Lone, Yaqoob; Wani, Owais; Gupta, U S

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonaii on Periplaneta americana. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii were cultured at 28±1°C on potato carrot agar and M. anisopliae was cultured at 28±1°C on potato dextrose agar for 14days. Conidial suspensions of fungi were given to cockroaches through different routes. M. anisopliae shows high virulence against adult cockroaches and mortality ranges from 38.65% to 78.36% after 48h. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonii show less virulence compared to M. anisopliae. We also investigated the effect of these three fungi on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and catalase in different tissues of the insect to gain an understanding of the different target site. The result suggested that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and level of malondialdehyde varies in different organs and through different routes of exposure. Based on mortality percentages, all tested fungi had high potentials for biocontrol agents against P. americana. Our study reveals for the first time that I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii fungal infections initiate oxidative stress in the midgut, fat body, whole body and hemolymph of cockroach thereby suggesting them to be the target organs for oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oso, A.A.. Vol 18, No 4 (2016) - Articles Interactions of some registered agrochemicals in Nigerian farming systems with entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinose. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  6. Effects of single and combined applications of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to investigate the insecticidal properties of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar for their virulence against 2nd, 4th and 6th instar larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Both fungi were either applied alone or ...

  7. Susceptibility of Sitophilus zeamais (Mostch.) (Coleoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathogenicity (virulence) of the entomopathogenic fungi was determined using LT50 and percent mortality at the conidial concentration of 1 x 108 ml-1. The most virulent isolates of M. anisopliae (PPRC-2, PPRC-14 and PPRC-51) and B. bassiana (PPRC-GG and PPRC-HH) caused 84.4% to 98.3% mortality to S.

  8. Virulence of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi infecting Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Leah S. Bauer; Ann E. Hajek

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates of four species of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Isaria farinosa, and Metarhizium anisopliae) were found to be pathogenic to adults of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. Survival times for 50% of the beetles tested (ST

  9. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falade, M.J.. Vol 18, No 4 (2016) - Articles Interactions of some registered agrochemicals in Nigerian farming systems with entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinose. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  13. Cloning of the repertoire of individual Plasmodium falciparum var genes using transformation associated recombination (TAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Gaida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member.

  14. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  16. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  17. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  19. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  20. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  1. A note on ensiling characteristics of the tropical grass Setaria sphacelata var. splendida (Stapf).

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, J.M.; Fernandes, T.H.; Ferreira, L.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ensiling characteristics of Setaria sphacelata var. splendida (S. splendida) and to identify ensilability limiting factors of this tropical grass, locally produced.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  3. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  4. Anti-angiogenic activity of the methanol extract and its fractions of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Hye-Jin; Lim, Eun-Ju; Ahn, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Yun Seon; Lee, Sanghyun; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2007-06-13

    This study aimed to elucidate anti-angiogenic activity of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica that has been widely used in folk medicine. The methanol extract (UDE) of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica concentration-dependently displayed a strong inhibition in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis. The n-butanol fraction of UDE and subsequent 30% MeOH subfraction were identified to be most responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity.

  5. Sex, ikke miljø, var i fokus i 70'ernes energisparekampagner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Danmark bryster sig af, at være blandt de første nationer, der gik op i miljøet. Men ser man på de, til tider lumre, energisparekampagner, staten iværksatte fra oliekrisen i 1973 og frem, var miljøet fraværende de første mange år. Derimod var budskabet økonomi og patriotisme....

  6. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun; Zhang, Guiming

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P.?fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides.

  7. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based ...

  8. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  9. Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    B_amyloliq – B. amyloliquefaciens ; B_NRRL - Bacillus . spp. NRRL; B_SG-1 – Bacillus spp. SG-1; B_thur – B. thuringiensis strains Al Hakam and var...Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant Henry S. Gibbons1...States of America, 11 Excet Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Background: Despite the decades-long use of Bacillus

  10. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  11. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  13. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  14. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  15. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  16. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  17. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  18. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  19. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  20. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  1. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; El-Massry, Khaled F; Marx, Friedhelm; Fadel, Hoda M

    2003-02-01

    Leaves from Eucalvptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris trees, planted in the Nile delta in Egypt, were examined for the antioxidant activity of their nonvolatile compounds. The extracts obtained by ethanol digestion and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE; CO2 with 15% ethanol) showed the most promising antioxidative activities. In order to identify the most active compounds, both extracts were subjected to a semipreparative reversed-phase HPLC separation, the main fractions were collected, tested for antioxidative activity and analysed by different chromatographical and spectroscopical methods for identification of the most relevant compounds. Gallic and ellagic acid were found to be the prevailing antioxidants in the ethanolic extract. The main two compounds of the SFE extract with antioxidative activity revealed to be flavones. To a high degree of probability they were identified as 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methyl flavone, respectively. The extracts obtained by ethanoldigestion were dried and administered to rats for toxicity evaluation (up to 3 g/kg body weight). No mortality was observed which indicates a very low lethality of the tested extract.

  3. Carbon dioxide fixation by cells of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, R C; Hartman, R E

    1970-10-01

    Fixation of NaH(14)CO(3) by a heavy cell suspension of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens was studied. Several nutrients, pyridoxal, riboflavine, adenine, uracil, and O(2) stimulated (14)CO(2) incorporation into cells only under conditions that were adequate for synthesis of cell macromolecules. Biotin increased CO(2) incorporation in the absence of extensive synthesis of macromolecules, whereas O(2) inhibited incorporation under these conditions. When (14)CO(2) fixation was occurring during synthesis of macromolecules, 71% of the (14)C was incorporated into cells and 29% occurred extracellularly. Ninety-three per cent of the cellular (14)C was in protein and 5.5% was in nucleic acid. Aspartic acid was the only amino acid in the protein fraction that was radioactive. Eighty-three per cent of the extracellular (14)C was resistant to precipitation by trichloroacetic acid. When (14)CO(2) fixation was occurring in cells that were not carrying on extensive synthesis of macromolecules, 38% of the (14)C was incorporated into cells and 59% occurred in the supernatant fluid. Sixty-nine per cent of the cellular (14)C was in protein, 21% was in low-molecular-weight compounds, and 9% was in nucleic acid. Addition of unlabeled aspartate to the medium inhibited incorporation of (14)CO(2). Based on studies of the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation, the cells fix CO(2) into a pool of intermediates which are either used for synthesis, primarily protein, or are excreted into the medium.

  4. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  5. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  7. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  8. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  9. The chondroitin sulfate A-binding site of the VAR2CSA protein involves multiple N-terminal domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M; Nielsen, Morten A

    2011-01-01

    by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been...... of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDR(PAM) and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite...

  10. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  11. Intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weiriiem ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in sheep

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    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As intoxicações por Baccharis coridifolia afetam especialmente animais de fazenda famintos ou curiosos e que não haviam tido contato prévio com a planta. B. coridifolia ocorre usualmente em terrenos secos de coxilhas no Rio Grande do Sul e estados ou países vizinhos. Uma forma indistinguível e esporádica da doença tem sido associada com a ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica que ocorre em áreas úmidas. Relata-se a intoxicação natural de quatro cordeiros após ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. A doença foi observada em uma propriedade localizada em Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. O rebanho era composto por 220 ovinos, os quais eram mantidos em área de pastagem nativa sem qualquer suplementação. Uma rápida doença clínica caracterizada por anorexia, cólica, diarréia e desidratação causou a morte de três cordeiros em um período de 8 a 24 horas, o outro foi encontrado morto. A necropsia revelou alterações significativas no rúmen, no qual havia edema de serosa e hemorragias equimóticas na submucosa. Microscopicamente, o rúmen apresentou edema de submucosa, além de edema, tumefação, vacuolização e necrose de mucosa. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado nos achados clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos.Spontaneous poisoning of livestock by Baccharis coridifolia affects mostly hungry or curious animals that have not entered in contact with the plant previously. The plant occurs usually in dried hilly soils of Rio Grande do Sul and neighboring states or countries. An indistinguishable and sporadic form of the disease has been associated with the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica, a species occurring in moist areas. This communication reports the spontaneous poisoning of four lambs after ingestion of B. megapotamica var. weirii. Clinical signs were observed in three lambs, the other was found dead. A rapid clinical disease characterized by anorexia, colic, dehydration, and diarrhea resulted in death

  12. Enfoques diferentes para medir el valor en riesgo (VaR y su comparación. Aplicaciones

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    Josefina Martínez Barbeito

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia la ponencia con una sucinta revisión de los conceptos del VAR. A continuación, se consideran y valoran de forma crítica los distintos enfoques para medir el VAR: Delta-Normal; Delta-Gamma; Simulación histórica; Simulación Monte Carlo y Contraste Estrés. Finalmente, se hace referencia a algunas aplicaciones del VAR.

  13. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

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    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  14. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

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    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  15. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

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    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

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    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  17. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

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    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  18. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

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    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3 plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

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    Wang Christian W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. Methods In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies and the var transcript and PfEMP1 expression profiles of the generated parasites were investigated. The IgG reactivity by plasma from children living in malaria-endemic Tanzania was tested to parasites and recombinant VAR3 protein. Parasites from hospitalized children were isolated and the transcript level of var3 was investigated. Results Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children´s IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased recognition of parasites expressing VAR3 and to the recombinant VAR3 protein after a malaria episode and the isolated parasites showed high levels of var3 transcripts. Conclusions Collectively, the presented data suggest that var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes in the same manner as seen for other var genes both in vitro and in vivo. Only very few children exhibit seroconversion to VAR3 following a malaria episode

  20. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

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    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  1. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

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    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  2. Indolizidine, antiinfective and antiparasitic compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Ashfaq, Mohammad K; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Manly, Susan P; Joshi, Vaishali C; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    A new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride (1) was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa. Three additional new (2-4) and one known (5) indolizidines were also isolated, and the dihydrochloride salts of 1-3 (compounds 6, 7, and 8) were prepared. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra. Compound 1 showed potent in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus (IC(50) values = 0.4 and 3.0 microg/mL, respectively) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare (IC(50) values of 0.35 and 0.9 microg/mL, respectively). The remarkable in vitro fungicidal activity of 1-4 against C. neoformans (MFCs = 0.63-1.25 microg/mL) and 2, 3, and 5 against A. fumigatus (MFCs = 0.63-2.5 microg/mL) were similar to amphotericin B, but >2-4-fold more potent than 6-8. Prosopilosidine (1) showed potent in vivo activity at 0.0625 mg/kg/day/ip for 5 days in a murine model of cryptococcosis by eliminating approximately 76% of C. neoformans infection from brain tissue compared to approximately 83% with amphotericin B at 1.5 mg/kg/day. Compounds 1 and 4 exhibited potent activity and high selectivity index (SI) values against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values of 39 and 95 ng/mL and 42 and 120 ng/mL, respectively (chloroquine, IC(50) = 17 and 140 ng/mL). Prosopilosine (1) also showed in vivo antimalarial activity, with an ED(50) value of approximately 2 mg/kg/day/ip against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice after 3 days of treatment.

  3. Antioxidant Properties of European Cranberrybush Fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule

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    Otakar Rop

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule. This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars ´Leningradskaya otbornaya´, ´Souzga´ and ´Taezny rubiny´ of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM] were observed. The 1,1´-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2´-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r2 = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r2 = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  4. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

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    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  5. Filamentous fungi associated to Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland plantations

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    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland is a species of a great economic importance and in the conservation of soils. Nevertheless, little information exists on the microbial communities associated to its plantations, and their impact on the soil. For that reason it is necessary to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi to understand their roll and contribution to the development of this forest species and their impact in the environment. Considering these criteria the current work had as objectives to quantify, to characterize, to identify and to conserve filamentous fungi in soils cultivated with Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex. Wendland. Samples from three soils with plantations of Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland, yagruma (Cecropia peltata L. and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis L. as well as soil without any crop, used as control, were collected for the microbiological analysis. Decimal dilutions of soil were done in Rose Agar Bengal culture medium for strain isolation. The cultural and morphologic characteristics were described. The amount of filamentous fungi oscillated between 103 and 105ufc/g in Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland, similar to the previous registered in plants of yagruma, eucalyptus and in the soil without any crop. A total of 13 generous were identified: Aspergillus, Botryotrichum, Cephalosporium., Cladosporium, Cunningamella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pythium, Pyrenochaeta, Rhizoctonia, Trichocladium and Trichoderma. It was demonstrated that the communities of fungi in plantations of B. vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland are diverse. Key word: bamboo, filamentous fungi, rhizosphere

  6. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  7. Designing a VAR2CSA-based vaccine to prevent placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-12-22

    Placental malaria (PM) due to Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of maternal, fetal and infant mortality, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis and protective immunity are relatively well-understood for this condition, providing a path for vaccine development. P. falciparum parasites bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) to sequester in the placenta, and women become resistant over 1-2 pregnancies as they acquire antibodies that block adhesion to CSA. The protein VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family, mediates parasite adhesion to CSA, and is the leading target for a vaccine to prevent PM. Obstacles to PM vaccine development include the large size (∼ 350 kD), high cysteine content, and sequence variation of VAR2CSA. A number of approaches have been taken to identify the combination of VAR2CSA domains and alleles that can induce broadly active antibodies that block adhesion of heterologous parasite isolates to CSA. This review summarizes these approaches, which have examined VAR2CSA fragments for binding activity, antigenicity with naturally acquired antibodies, and immunogenicity in animals for inducing anti-adhesion or surface-reactive antibodies. Two products are expected to enter human clinical studies in the near future based on N-terminal VAR2CSA fragments that have high binding affinity for CSA, and additional proteins preferentially expressed by placental parasites are also being examined for their potential contribution to a PM vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  9. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  10. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  11. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  12. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  13. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  15. Genome-wide analysis of SU(VAR)3-9 distribution in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Daniil A; Laktionov, Petr P; Posukh, Olga V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Koryakov, Dmitry E

    2018-03-01

    Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of tissue and developmental expression of SU(VAR)3-9-bound genes indicates that in the somatic tissues tested, as well as in the ovarian nurse cells, SU(VAR)3-9 tends to associate with transcriptionally silent genes. In contrast, in the testes, SU(VAR)3-9 shows preferential association with testis-specific genes, and its binding appears dynamic during spermatogenesis. In somatic cells, the mere presence/absence of SU(VAR)3-9 binding correlates with lower/higher expression. No such correlation is found in the male germline. Interestingly, transcription units in piRNA clusters (particularly flanks thereof) are frequently targeted by SU(VAR)3-9, and Su(var)3-9 mutation affects the expression of select piRNA species. Our analyses suggest a context-dependent role of SU(VAR)3-9. In euchromatin, SU(VAR)3-9 may serve to fine-tune the expression of individual genes, whereas in heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and piRNA clusters, it may act more broadly over large chromatin domains.

  16. Armazenamento de sementes liofilizadas de bauínia-rósea (Bauhinia variegata L. var. varíegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Bergemann de Aguiar

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Bauhinia variegata L. var. variegata (bauínia-rósea, liofilizadas e não liofilizadas, foram armazenadas em ambiente natural de laboratório (condições não controladas e de geladeira (4°C, pelo período de dois anos (730 dias. Para fins de armazenamento, as sementes liofilizadas foram acondicionadas em sacos plásticos envoltos em papel alumínio e as não liofilizadas em sacos de papel para armazenamento em laboratório e em sacos plásticos para armazenamento em geladeira. As sementes armazenadas por 90 dias foram submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento precoce, a fim de ser estimado o seu potencial de armazenamento. Os testes de umidade e de germinação foram realizados antes do armazenamento e após os períodos de 30, 90 e 730 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que (a a liofilização foi um eficiente método de secagem das sementes; (b a liofilização revelou-se indiferente naconservação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes; (c até 90 dias de armazenamento, a capacidade germinativa das sementes não foi afetada pêlos ambientes de armazenamento testados; (d o envelhecimento precoce não refletiu o envelhecimento natural das sementes; (e as sementes armazenadas no laboratório não germinaram após dois anos de armazenamento; (f as sementes armazenadas na geladeira tiveram pequena redução na capacidade germinativa, embora significativa, após o período de dois anos de armazenamento.

  17. The Burr X Pareto Distribution: Properties, Applications and VaR Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ç. Korkmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-parameter Pareto distribution is introduced and studied. We discuss various mathematical and statistical properties of the new model. Some estimation methods of the model parameters are performed. Moreover, the peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate Value-at-Risk (VaR by means of the proposed distribution. We compare the distribution with a few other models to show its versatility in modelling data with heavy tails. VaR estimation with the Burr X Pareto distribution is presented using time series data, and the new model could be considered as an alternative VaR model against the generalized Pareto model for financial institutions.

  18. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  19. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  20. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity of Bakuchiol from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Won-Hee; Lee, Yeonmi; Jo, Youn Ock; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2010-08-01

    The bark of the root and stem of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has been used as a traditional Korean medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. This plant reportedly exhibits antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. A search for biologically active compounds in U. davidiana var. japonica extracts yielded bakuchiol, which we structurally identified on the basis of spectral data, including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer. In our study, bakuchiol (50 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 53.7% and 84.2%, respectively. These results suggested that bakuchiol is one of the potent anti-inflammatory components of U. davidiana var. japonica.

  1. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  2. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  3. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  4. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-02-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana , P. densata , P. tabuliformis , and P. yunnanensis , with one to seven alleles per locus. The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species.

  5. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  6. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  7. [Investigation on Main Cultivation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Commercial Specifications Grades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-ting; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Ming-en; Duan, Hai-yan; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the main cultivation areas of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and to clarify its present cultivation status and commercial specification grades. Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus cultivated in Hunyuan and Ying County of Shanxi, Longxi, Weiyuan and Min County of Gansu and Wuchuan, Guyang and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia were investigated, including their ecological environment, cultivation history and present situation, harvesting and processing as well as commercial specification grades. The cultivation methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus changed greatly in the main cultivation areas. In Gansu and Inner Mongolia, the current major cultivation method was 2 - 3 years of seedling transplantation method, while the 3 - 5 years of seed-directly-sowed method in Inner Mongolia had been almost abandoned, and the 6 - 8 years of mountain direct seeding method was still in application in Hunyuan county of Shanxi province. On the other hand, the harvest method of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus had been gradually changed from manual harvesting in ancient times to the current mechanical harvesting although the latter method did more damage to environment of cultivation areas and the resource of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in regions Hunyuan county of Shanxi. Through investigating the processing methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in different cultivation areas, it was found that processing method varied from area to area, and no unified specifications had been formulated on processing methods in market. In addition, the current processing method was too complicated in processing the slices of prepared Astragali Radix and most were self processing by farmers themselves, creating market disorders. Moreover, the Astragali Radix products were basically without grading classification but sold as bulk cargo. It is urgent to unify the specifications and grades of Astragali Radix product, and standardize

  8. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  9. Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Nielsen, Morten A; Turner, Louise

    2006-01-01

    We raised specific antisera against recombinant VAR2CSA domains produced in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. All were reactive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but only insect cell-derived constructs induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) that was reactive with native VAR2CSA on the surface...

  10. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a ch...

  11. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  12. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  13. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  14. Insight into Antigenic Diversity of VAR2CSA-DBL5 epsilon Domain from Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Placental Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnidehou, Sedami; Jessen, Leon Ivar; Gangnard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    domains. These two observations combined point to the importance of identifying VAR2CSA sequence variation, which facilitate parasitic evasion or subversion of host immune response. Highly conserved domains of VAR2CSA such as DBL5e are likely to contain conserved epitopes, and therefore do constitute...

  15. Biological control of crown gall of grapevine, rose, and tomato by nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis strain VAR03-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, A; Inoue, K; Ichinose, Y

    2008-11-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Agrobacterium vitis VAR03-1 was tested as a biological control agent for crown gall of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). When roots of grapevine, rose (Rose multiflora), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were soaked in a cell suspension of antagonists before planting in soil infested with tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens, respectively, treatment with VAR03-1 significantly reduced the number of plants with tumors and disease severity in the three plant species. The inhibitory effects of treatment with VAR03-1 and the nonpathogenic A. rhizogenes strain K84 on crown gall of rose and tomato were almost identical, and the inhibitory effect of VAR03-1 on grapevine was superior to that of K84. Moreover, VAR03-1 greatly controlled crown gall of grapevine due to tumorigenic A. vitis in the field. VAR03-1 established populations averaging 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/g of root in the rhizosphere of grapevine and persisted on roots for 2 years. VAR03-1 was bacteriocinogenic, producing a halo of inhibition against those three species of Agrobacterium. This is the first report that a nonpathogenic strain, VAR03-1, can effectively control crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens.

  16. A medium for inducing conversion of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum into its yeast-like form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fressatti

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that, under special conditions, converts from its more common mycelial form to a yeast-like form. Achieving this conversion, however, has been problematical for researchers. The present study tested conversion rates in ten Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum strains using seven culture media, four of wich were conventional and three novel. One of our novel media, MLGema, induced complete conversion, of two strains within five days of incubation at 35 degrees centigrades, and of all strains that eventually converted by the time of the second subculturing transfer, under defined experimental conditions. MLGema is also inexpensive and easy to produce.

  17. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-11-14

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement.

  18. Analisis del VaR en crisis y estabilidad: El caso de Mexico y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortez, K.A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis shows the possible effects of the risk to which the economies of Mexico and Argentina are exposed. The article studies the methodology of the VaR using the parametric model of average variance in individual in the type of change of the economies of Mexico and Argentina. The types from changes of the two economies are taken and the evolution of the VaR at time of crisis and exchange stability is analyzed. The main disadvantages of the Bar like metric are explained of measurement of risk.

  19. Simón Bolívar en la literatura histórica norteamericana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bushnell.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although historians in the United States have not in recent years paid much attention to the independence of South America, those specializing in Latin America history have inevitably written on the life and works of Simón Bolívar. However, their original research contributions to Bolivarian historiography have been few. The biographies of Bolívar by United States authors have been mainly popularizations or even works for juvenile readers. Other writings on the period, including studies of his rivals and collaborators, have only in small measure made up for the lack.

  20. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one...... is to review and evaluate the existing and recent techniques and algorithms for advanced VVC applications and identify the requirements for integrated Volt/Var control and optimization function in distribution management systems within the smart grid concepts....

  1. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun; Zhang, Guiming

    2015-03-26

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. Copyright © 2015 Gao et al.

  2. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  3. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  4. [Age structure and dynamics of Keteleeria davidiana var. chien-peii population in Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shich; Li, Jiulin; Cheng, Shize

    2002-01-01

    Type and dynamics of age structure of Keteleeria davidiana var. chien-peii population and its relationship to community succession and environment were analyzed. The results showed that the age structures were classified into four types:growing, stable, initial and middle sensecent types. The survival curves had concave, convex, disconnected and dotted shapes. Along with development and succession of community, the age structure changes from growing, stabilized, senescent to residual type. The important factors causing change to the age structure were biological features of Keteleeria davidiana var. chien-peii, development of broad-leaved tree species, geographic isolation, and human disturbance.

  5. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  6. On Setting Day-Ahead Equity Trading Risk Limits: VaR Prediction at Market Close or Open?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Fuertes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the information content of the ex post overnight return for one-day-ahead equity Value-at-Risk (VaR forecasting. To do so, we deploy a univariate VaR modeling approach that constructs the forecast at market open and, accordingly, exploits the available overnight close-to-open price variation. The benchmark is the bivariate VaR modeling approach proposed by Ahoniemi et al. that constructs the forecast at the market close instead and, accordingly, it models separately the daytime and overnight return processes and their covariance. For a small cap portfolio, the bivariate VaR approach affords superior predictive ability than the ex post overnight VaR approach whereas for a large cap portfolio the results are reversed. The contrast indicates that price discovery at the market open is less efficient for small capitalization, thinly traded stocks.

  7. A rapid knockdown effect of Penicillium citrinum for control of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketon, Monchan; Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Kaysorngup, Achirayar

    2014-02-01

    Twenty local isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were determined for control of the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus. In a laboratory experiment, a Penicillium sp. CM-010 caused 100% mortality of third-instar larvae within 2 h using a conidial suspension of 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹. Its LC₅₀ was 3 × 10⁵ conidia ml⁻¹, and the lethal time (LT₅₀) was 1.06 h. Cloning and sequencing of its internal transcribed spacer region indicated that this Penicillium species is Penicillium citrinum (100% identity in 434 bp). Mortality of the adult was highest with Aspergillus flavus CM-011 followed with Metarhizium anisopliae CKM-048 from 1 × 10⁹ conidia ml⁻¹. P. citrinum CM-010 at 1 × 10⁶ conidia ml⁻¹ killed 100% larvae within 2 h while Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis at 5 ITU ml⁻¹ required 24 h. This P. citrinum CM-010 also greatly reduced survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae in an unreplicated field test. Light and transmission electron micrographs showed that the fungal conidia were ingested by the larvae and deposited in the gut. The metabolite patulin was produced by P. citrinum CM-010 instead of citrinin.

  8. Control de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, en el fruto de piña, San Carlos, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Miranda Vindas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 6 productos para el control de Dysmicoccus brevipes en piña (Ananas comosus. El ensayo de laboratorio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Biocontroladores de la empresa BioEco Natural S.A., ubicada en Aguas Zarcas, San Carlos, mientras que los ensayos de campo se realizaron en una plantación comercial de piña, en Venecia de San Carlos. En el laboratorio se evaluó Beauveria bassiana (4,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; Metarhizium anisopliae (1,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; una mezcla de ambos hongos (0,5 g + 0,5 g.l-1 de agua destilada, de 4,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1 + 1,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; un jabón líquido de sales potásicas, “Goyca”® (7 ml.l-1; el extracto botánico(Biorep® (mezcla de chile picante, ajo, cebolla, mostaza y gavilana (7 ml.l-1; y agua destilada como testigo. Los resultados más promisorios fueron con el extracto botánico y el jabón líqui do, los que causaron una mortalidad más rápida. Los tratamientos evaluados en la plantacióncomercial de piña, var. MD-2, fueron los mis mos, a excepción del testigo en donde se utilizó los productos utilizados de forma comercial en la finca: Diazinon® 60 EC (diazinon (0,5 ml.l-1 y Sevin® 80 WP (carbaril (1 kg.ha-1. El extrac to botánico resultó en la menor incidencia de cochinillas (X=6,4, < al testigo (X=10,8, < el Goyca® (X=13,7, < M. anisopliae (X=44,4, < B. bassiana (X=45,1, y

  9. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...

  10. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  11. La salud reproductiva del varón amenazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Comentario: El interés mostrado por la comunidad cientifica por esclarecer la realidad de la salud reproductiva en Europa y en otros países occidentales, ha con-ducido a la redacción de una serie de recomendaciones, propuestas por expertes en el campo, que sirvan de orientación para politicas de financiación de la investigación. El debate sobre el deteriora de la salud reproductiva delvarón europeo ha llegado a su fin. Ya nadie duda de que tante los parámetras de medida directa como los indicadores indirectes de la fertilidad masculina manifiestan ese daño. Lo que es realmente novedoso en la propuesta es, de una parte, la vinculación entre el deteriora en salud reproductiva -incluida la caída secular en los niveles de testosterona circulante del varón-y el riesgode enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes; de otra parte, la presentación formal de una hipótesis etiológica que requiere la investigación de la exposición materno-infantil a contaminantes químicos con actividad hormonal y sugiere una actitud precautoria. Los disruptores endocrinos son componentes de cosméticos, detergentes, medicamentos y alimentes de consumo y uso diario. Mientras sesudos cientificos en toda Europa abordan este asunto tratando de fortalecer la hipótesis, ¿qué corresponde a los sanitarios y responsables de políticas de salud?, lo habituai, informarse e informar. Conocer y trasmitir de forma inteligible recomendaciones en hábites de vida y exposiciones ambien-tales que sirvan para proteger a la población general de un daño que se presume importante. Desafortunadamente las noticias sobre exposición química ambiental llegan más fácilmente a las páginas de ciencia de los diarios nacionales que a las bibliotecas de los sanitarios. El mensaje no parece llegar a los foras adecuados ni en el momente oportuno. Los auto-res del artículo insisten en que el gasto en remedios terapéuticos costosos estaría mejor empleado en orientaciones preventivas. Somos de la opini

  12. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  13. Choosing Expected Shortfall Over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe compare Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) following a Stochastic Dominance (SD) approach frequently used to order distributions in terms of welfare and in portfolio selection. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommends bank risk managers to shift the

  14. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  15. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  16. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  17. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LETKF), reduced the computa- tional cost considerably by updating the analysis at each grid point and ... Wang and Lei (2014) tested hybrid 4D EnVar in. NCEP GFS with ..... In the investigation period, a depression formed on 7th June in the ...

  18. Ageing shocks and short-run regional labour market dynamics in a spatial panel VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Schmidt, Torben Dall; Rauhut, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Using a flexible spatial panel VAR model for a small-scale labour market system, we investigate the dynamic interdependences between changes in the demographic structure and the labour market performance of a regional economy. With a particular focus on ageing shocks, we describe an increase...

  19. 4D-Var data assimilation system for a coupled physical biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 109; Issue 4. 4D-Var data assimilation system for a coupled physical biological model. J M Lellouche M ... W Eifler1. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Space Applications Institute, Marine Environment Unit, TP 690, I-21020 Ispra (VA), Italy.

  20. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... The nodules of actinorhizal plants, such as Alnus species, are perennial (Baker and Schwintzer 1990; Huss-Danell 1997). In a naturally regenerated Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica stand on the roadside in the central part of Japan, we found as well as the nodule biomass per tree, the nodule size distribution, as.