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Sample records for anisopliae var anisopliae

  1. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10 10 , 1 x 10 8 , 1 x 10 6 and 1 x 10 4 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT 50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

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    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  4. Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Efecto de los Fungicidas sobre el Desarrollo del Hongo Entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Maribel Yáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured through the colony rate growth in agar media, and those reaching up to 50% of the check growth were considered compatible. Results indicate that the benomyl and fenhexamid fungicides were compatible with the five isolates whereas, azoxystrobin and fludioxonil were incompatible. Furthermore, benomyl and fludioxonil reduced conidia germination by 53 and 91%, and germination tube length by 18 and 37%, respectively.Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin es un hongo entomopatógeno que se utiliza para el control de diferentes insectos, uno de sus usos más frecuentes es en frutales menores, donde también se utilizan fungicidas para el control de enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomil, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione y metalaxil, en concentraciones de 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 y 100 mg L-1, sobre el crecimiento de la colonia, porcentaje de germinación de conidias y longitud de tubos germinativos de distintas cepas de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. Las cepas utilizadas fueron Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430 y Qu-M984, seleccionadas por su uso comercial para el control de diferentes insectos en frutales menores. El

  5. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

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    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author)

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

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    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose...

  8. Pathogenicity of local Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locusts and grasshoppers are the most important economical threat in the sahelian agricultural system. Principal control strategies of these pests are synthetic chemicals which are, however, harmful to the environment and human health. Metarhizium anisopliae based biopesticide Green Muscle IMI330189 has been ...

  9. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

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    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  10. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal isolates from grasshoppers of the family Acrididae are suspected to be less virulent to grasshoppers of the family Pyrgomorphidae. The biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum was isolated from an acridid and is thus hypothesized to be less virulent to pyrgomorphids. Th...

  11. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

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    Faria Marcos Rodrigues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.

  12. The effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on different stages of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

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    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Pereira, Romeika Hermínia de Macedo Assunção; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Freire, Fúlvio Aurélio de Morais; Kamimura, Michel Toth; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Luna-Alves Lima, Elza Aurea; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2010-03-01

    The control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) vector is often based on the application of chemical residual insecticide. However, this strategy has not been effective. The continuing search for an appropriate vector control may include the use of biological control. This study evaluates the effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml, accompanied by controls. The unhatched eggs, larvae and dead adults previously exposed to fungi were sown to reisolate the fungi and analysis of parameters of growth. The fungus was subsequently identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. M. anisopliae var. acridum reduced egg hatching by 40%. The mortality of infected larvae was significant. The longevity of infected adults was lower than that of negative controls. The effects of fungal infection on the hatching of eggs laid by infected females were also significant. With respect to fungal growth parameters post-infection, only vegetative growth was not significantly higher than that of the fungi before infection. The revalidation of the identification of the reisolated fungus was confirmed post-passage only from adult insects. In terms of larvae mortality and the fecundity of infected females, the results were significant, proving that the main vector species of VL is susceptible to infection by this entomopathogenic fungus in the adult stage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory Trials of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle® Against the Saxaul Locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae Ensayos de Laboratorio de Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green muscle® contra la Langosta de Saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae

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    Heydar Valizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The saxaul locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae is a major pest of saxaul plants in Qom province of Iran. During 2005-2006, different nymphal instars of bands of D. albidula were treated by aerial spraying of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. The gasoline formulation of M. anisopliae var. acridum isolate IMI 330189 was applied in different conidial concentrations (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 spores mL-1 that were prepared in sterile distilled gasoline. Results showed that various concentrations significantly affected the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th nymphal instars of D. albidula compared to control. In addition, there were no differences in the effects of the different concentrations in 2005, but the differences were significant in 2006. Concentration 10(10 killed 100% of tested insects 15 d after treatment. Comparing the results of the two years showed that the susceptibility of nymphs in the second year (2006 was higher than in the first year (2005. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that the fungal insecticide M. anisopliae var. acridum, diluted in gasoline, was efficacious with the nymphal instars of locust D. albidula in 2005 and 2006.La langosta del saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae, es la principal plaga de plantas de saxaul de las provincias Qom, Irán. Durante 2005-2006, diferentes instars ninfales de D. albidula se asperjaron con Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. La formulación de gasolina de M. anisopliae var. acridum aislamiento IMI 330189 se aplicó en diferentes concentraciones conidiales (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 esporas mL-1 preparadas en gasolina destilada estéril. Los resultados demostraron que varias concentraciones afectaron significativamente los nstars ninfales de D. albidula comparado con el control. Además el efecto de concentraciones no fue diferente en 2005 pero sí significativamente en

  14. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

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    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra; Ana Paula Duarte Pires; Elza Áurea de Luna Alves Lima

    2009-01-01

    The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C an...

  15. Biolistic co-transformation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strain CG423 with green fluorescent protein and resistance to glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, P W; Aragão, F J; Frazão, H; Magalhães, B P; Valadares-Inglis, M C

    2000-10-15

    Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (syn. M. flavoviride) is recognized as a highly specific and virulent mycopathogen of locusts and grasshoppers and is currently being developed as a biological control agent for this group of insects in Brazil. Intact conidia of M. anisopliae var. acridum strain CG423 were transformed using microparticle bombardment. Plasmids used were: (1) pBARKS1 carrying the bar gene of Streptomyces hygroscopicus fused to the Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter, encoding resistance to glufosinate ammonium (or phosphinothricin) and modified by addition of the telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(18) of Fusarium oxysporum and 2.pEGFP/gpd/tel carrying a red-shifted variant gene for Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (EGFP) which we have fused to the A. nidulans gpd promoter and trpC terminator. Highly fluorescent co-transformants were selected on solid minimal medium containing 100 microg ml(-1) glufosinate ammonium using an inverted microscope with 450-490 nm excitation/510 nm emission filter set. Southern blot analysis of co-transformants revealed varying multiple chromosomal integrations of both bar and egfp genes at both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. Transformants retained pathogenicity in bioassays against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides and showed unaltered lack of pathogenicity against larvae of the non-target insect Anticarsia gemmatalis. One co-transformant from four tested, however, showed a significant, but non-dose-dependent, elevation in virulence against Tenebrio molitor.

  16. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

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    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  17. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

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    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman. In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8 conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90 were 3.8 x 10(5 and 8 x 10(7 conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03. In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10 conidia per hive were evaluated. The treatments were: a conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame inside the hive; b dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames; and c dry conidia in a dispenser path at the entrance of the hive. Furthermore, untreated hives were included as controls. After 21 days of treatment, the dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames showed 67% less bees infested by the mite than the control (p La efectividad del aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff, seleccionado previamente por su resistencia a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC, y patogenicidad sobre Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman fue evaluada en laboratorio y en ensayos de terreno. Las primeras pruebas consistieron en pulverizar concentraciones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 sobre varroas adultas. La concentración letal para matar el 50 y 90% de la población (CL50 y CL90 fueron de 3,8 x 10(5 y 8 x 10(7 conidias mL-1, respectivamente (χ² = 2,03. En otoño se evaluaron en terreno tres métodos de aplicación de una dosis de 5 x 10(10 conidias por colmena. Los tratamientos fueron: a conidias estampadas en papel filtro ubicado cada dos panales móviles al interior de la colmena; b conidias espolvoreadas sobre y entre los panales; y c dispensador de conidias ubicado en la piquera de las colmenas. Además se

  18. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionThe goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  19. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for the adult mosquito of Anopheles stephensi (Malarial vector). In the present experiment was carried out in the laboratory of 30-50 male and female adult mosquitoes were exposed to M. anisopliae (exposed to 1 x 106 ...

  20. Differential pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and the control of the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata

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    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin isolates in controlling the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae, nine isolates obtained from a single geographical region were studied. 'Confirmed cumulative' and 'corrected cumulative' spittlebug mortality rates were measured for each of the isolates. Based on the confirmed mortality curve, the isolates URM5946, URM5951 and URM6033 were considered to be potentially the most effective in a biological control program for M. fimbriolata.

  1. effect of dry conidia formulations of metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In preliminary studies,. S. zeamais adults sprayed with M. anisopliae ... Initial cultures were stored at 4°C and sub- culturing was made for ... Significant differences between treatment means were compared at .... conidia attachment. Journal of ...

  2. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agar culture media: potato dextrose agar medium (PDA), potato dextrose with 1% (w/v) peptone agar medium (PPDA), and oatmeal agar medium (OMA). 16 different isolates were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) based on ...

  3. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... 1Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (Key Laboratory of ... Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, isolation, identification, Chilo venosatus, culture medium, biological control. .... with a Leica microscope and average values were compared for all.

  4. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

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    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C and 25% of humidity; 28º C and 75% of humidity, during 120 days. The results show that M. anisiopliac var. anisopliae presented the most recuperation in the treatment at 28º C and 75% of humidity (P > 0,05 in 30 days and maintained a positive conditions on soil for 120 days of experiment. The same did not happen to M. anisopliae var. acridum that, during the whole process of observation and controll the colonies recuperation avoiding its persistence on soil, during the 120 days of experiment.

  5. Cecropins from Plutella xylostella and Their Interaction with Metarhizium anisopliae.

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    Lina Ouyang

    Full Text Available Cecropins are the most potent induced peptides to resist invading microorganisms. In the present study, two full length cDNA encoding cecropin2 (Px-cec2 and cecropin3 (Px-cec3 were obtained from P. xylostella by integrated analysis of genome and transcriptome data. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the high levels of transcripts of Px-cecs (Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3 in epidermis, fat body and hemocytes after 24, 30 and 36 h induction of Metarhizium anisopliae, respectively. Silencing of Spätzle and Dorsal separately caused the low expression of cecropins in the fat body, epidermis and hemocytes, and made the P.xylostella larvae more susceptible to M. anisopliae. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that the purified recombinant cecropins, i.e., Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3, exerted a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against fungi, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Especially, Px-cecs showed higher activity against M. anisopliae than another selected fungi isolates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that cecropins exerted the vital morphological alterations to the spores of M. anisopliae. Based on our results, cecropins played an imperative role in resisting infection of M. anisopliae, which will provide the foundation of biological control of insect pests by using cecorpins as a target in the future.

  6. METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE DAN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA TERHADAP SERANGGA BUKAN HAMA SASARAN

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    Dini Yuliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Andrographis paniculata to the natural enemies of Nephotettix virescens and non-target insect pests. This research was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Subang District, West Java in the wet season 2013/2014. The method of research used a split plot design with four replications. The main plot was IR66, Inpari 9, and Ciherang varieties. Subplot was the application of M. anisopliae, A. paniculata, and control. Observations were carried out five times started at nursery (2 weeks after seedling, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting using insect nets, double swing 10 times on each plot observations. The results show M. anisopliae and A. paniculata not adversely affect on non-target insect pests such as Chironomid and natural enemies of N. virescens namely Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Sepedon sp., damselfly, Tipulidae sp., Telenomus sp., dragonfly, and Tetrastichus sp.. Efficacy of M. anisopliae and A. paniculata as one of the control strategies that are environmentally friendly and proved not harmful to non-target insect pests.

  7. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

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    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  8. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

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    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  9. [Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and neem oil to control the Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, José M; Marques, Edmilson J; de Oliveira, José V

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest.

  10. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto R ). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  11. Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka; Thomas, George V

    2006-10-01

    During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) per 10 g of substrate was tested in laboratory on Eudrilus sp. kept with O. rhinoceros grubs and on Eudrilus sp. alone for the pathogenic capability of the fungus on the pest and its possible toxicity towards the vermin. The efficacy of the entomopathogen was also tested in the field in vermicomposting tanks. In laboratory bioassay, 100% mycosis of O. rhinoceros grubs could be obtained while the entomopathogen had no toxic effect on the earthworms. There was a positive change in the number and weight of the earthworms on treatment with M. anisopliae. In the field, application of M. anisopliae reduced O. rhinoceros grubs in the vermicomposting tanks upto an extent of 72%. In conclusion, M. anisopliae could effectively control O. rhinoceros in vermicomposting sites and was non-hazardous to the vermicomposting process as well as the Eudrilus sp.

  12. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) and permethrin to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Benjamin, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.

  13. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  14. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  15. Pengendalian Diaphorina citri (Vektor Penyakit CVPD dengan Metarrhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardi Raharjo

    2000-07-01

    and after insect infestation. The first phase of the research phase has been conducted in Temanggung, Completely Randomize Design (CRD factorial with three time replication. Factor I: sterile water without fructose, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^10 conidia/ml: without fructose, sterile water + fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml + fructose (fungi application before insect infestation and W1 (fungi application after insect infestation. Research phase II was carried out with the best treatment combination compare with control treatment in Temanggung and Bantul. The results of experiment showed that the initial die of D. citri caused by M. anisopliae infection are on 4-6 days after application. The application of M. anisopliae at concentration 10^10 conidia/ml without fructose, applied after insect infestation was most effective. The application after insect infestation was more effective compare with application before insect infestation especially on 4 days after application, but on 35th days after application there was no significant difference. Fructose has no effect to mortality of D. citri.

  16. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  17. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  18. Human sera IgE reacts with a Metarhizium anisopliae fungal catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Metarhzium anisopliae extract can induce immune responses in a mouse model that are characteristic of human allergic asthma. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the extract proteins t...

  19. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  20. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  1. Secretome Analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae Under Submerged Conditions Using Bombyx mori Chrysalis to Induce Expression of Virulence-Related Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Rosa, José Cesar; Jorge, João Atílio; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-02-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used to control insect pests. This species is specialized for the secretion of an enzymatic complex consisting of proteases, lipases, and chitinases related to pathogenicity and virulence. In this context, the secretomes of strains IBCB 167 and IBCB 384 of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, grown under submerged fermentation in the presence of chrysalis as an inducer, were analyzed. Analysis of two-dimensional gels showed qualitative and quantitative differences between secreted proteins in both isolates. Around 102 protein spots were analyzed, and 76 % of the corresponding proteins identified by mass spectrometry were grouped into different classes (hydrolases, oxidases, reductases, isomerases, kinases, WSC domains, and hypothetical proteins). Thirty-three per cent of all the proteins analyzed were found to be common in both strains. Several virulence-related proteins were identified as proteases and mannosidases. Endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase expression was observed to be 10.14-fold higher for strain IBCB 384 than for strain IBCB 167, which may be an important contributor to the high virulence of IBCB 384 in Diatraea ssaccharalis. These results are important for elucidation of the host-pathogen relationship and the differences in virulence observed between the two strains.

  2. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  3. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of two subspecies of Metarhizium anisopliae reveals a plethora of secreted proteins with potential activity in insect hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimoser, Florian M; Screen, Steven; Bagga, Savita; Hu, Gang; St Leger, Raymond J

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries for Metarhizium anisopliae, the causative agent of green muscardine disease, were developed from the broad host-range pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae sf. anisopliae and the specific grasshopper pathogen, M. anisopliae sf. acridum. Approximately 1,700 5' end sequences from each subspecies were generated from cDNA libraries representing fungi grown under conditions that maximize secretion of cuticle-degrading enzymes. Both subspecies had ESTs for virtually all pathogenicity-related genes cloned to date from M. anisopliae, but many novel genes encoding potential virulence factors were also tagged. Enzymes with potential targets in the insect host included proteases, chitinases, phospholipases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and enzymes producing toxic secondary metabolites. A diverse array of proteases composed 36 % of all M. anisopliae sf. anisopliae ESTs. Eighty percent of the ESTs that could be clustered into functional groups had significant matches (Ehistory of this clade.

  4. Parameiosis in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (METSH.) Sorokin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagagli, E.; Valadares, M.C.C.; Azevedo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the parasexual cycle, especially in relation to diploid instability, have been described in several fungal species. The process has been designated parameiosis; it is characterized by the emergence, from heterokaryons, of haploid and diploid recombinants, as well as the typical diploids normally recovered in a parasexual cycle. In the present work the occurrence of a similar process in Metarhizium anisopliae has been investigated. Conidia from heterokaryons formed between well-marked mutant strains, when plated onto appropriate selective media, resulted in the recovery of at least three main groups of colonies. The first group consisted of very unstable diploids or hyperhaploids; these, on plating of their conidia, produced several types of recombinant haploids. The second group consisted of already stable haploid recombinants formed by the breakdown of diploid heterozygous nuclei before conidial formation; and a third group, heterokaryotic colonies, which segregate only parental types. Parameiosis has been found in several Deuteromycetes and may play an important role in increasing genetic variability in these fungi. (author)

  5. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  6. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J.; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10 9 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  7. [Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrich, Michele; Alves, Luis F A; Haas, Jucelaine; Da Silva, Everton R L; Daros, Alaxsandra; Pietrowski, Vanda; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 x 10(9) conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used.

  8. Susceptibility of Seven Termite Species (Isoptera) to the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvenc , Thomas; Su , Nan-Yao; Robert , Alain

    2009-01-01

    Seven termite species (Isoptera) from five families were tested for disease susceptibility against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using a standard protocol: Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Termopsidae), Hodotermes mossambicus (Hodotermitidae), Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), Reticulitermes flavipes and Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Rhinotermitidae), and Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Termitidae). Our results showed a large diversity i...

  9. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  10. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were...

  11. Keragaman Genetik Metarhizium anisopliae dan Virulensinya pada Larva Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros

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    Aisyah Surya Bintang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the important pests of coconut tree. One of eco-friendly control applied for this pest is by using entomopathogenic fungiMetarhizium anisopliae. There is not much information about the variability and virulence of M. anisopliae toward O. rhinoceros. M. anisopliae isolates obtained from Biological Control Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada were cultured on PDA medium.M. anisopliae isolates was isolated from O. rhinoceros larvae (MaOr, Lepidiota stigma larvae (MaLs, Brontispa longissima beetle (MaBl.O. rhinoceros beetles were obtained from Kulon Progo, DIY. This study used molecular test, and virulence test toward 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae by using dipping method. Molecular test by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, showed that MaOr was located at different group (out group with MaLs and MaBr. On the density 107 conidium/ml MaOr and MaLs were more virulent than MaBl towards 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae. INTISARI Kumbang badak (Oryctes rhinoceros merupakan salah satu hama penting pada tanaman kelapa. Salah satu upaya pengendalian yang ramah lingkungan adalah dengan menggunakan jamur entomopatogen, yakni Metarhizium anisopliae. Belum banyak diketahui mengenai keragaman dan juga virulensi dari M. anisopliae terhadap O. rhinoceros. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaman genetik M. anisopliae dan virulensinya pada larva kumbang badak. Isolat yang digunakan berasal dari Laboratorium Pengendalian Hayati, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada dalam bentuk kultur murni pada medium PDA. Isolat yang gunakan diisolasi dari larvaOryctes rhinoceros (MaOr, larva Lepidiota stigma (MaLs, dan kumbang Brontispa longissima (MaBl. Serangga yang diuji berasal dari daerah Kulon Progo, DIY. Pengujian secara molekuler dengan analisis sekuensing dan filogenetik, menunjukkan bahwa isolat MaOr terletak pada grup yang berbeda dengan MaLs dan Ma

  12. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Transcriptomics of the Model Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum

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    Shang, Yanfang; Duan, Zhibing; Hu, Xiao; Xie, Xue-Qin; Zhou, Gang; Peng, Guoxiong; Luo, Zhibing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Bing; Fang, Weiguo; Wang, Sibao; Zhong, Yi; Ma, Li-Jun; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Pei, Yan; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xia, Yuxian; Wang, Chengshu

    2011-01-01

    Metarhizium spp. are being used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides, as model systems for studying insect-fungus interactions, and as a resource of genes for biotechnology. We present a comparative analysis of the genome sequences of the broad-spectrum insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and the acridid-specific M. acridum. Whole-genome analyses indicate that the genome structures of these two species are highly syntenic and suggest that the genus Metarhizium evolved from plant endophytes or pathogens. Both M. anisopliae and M. acridum have a strikingly larger proportion of genes encoding secreted proteins than other fungi, while ∼30% of these have no functionally characterized homologs, suggesting hitherto unsuspected interactions between fungal pathogens and insects. The analysis of transposase genes provided evidence of repeat-induced point mutations occurring in M. acridum but not in M. anisopliae. With the help of pathogen-host interaction gene database, ∼16% of Metarhizium genes were identified that are similar to experimentally verified genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi, particularly plant pathogens. However, relative to M. acridum, M. anisopliae has evolved with many expanded gene families of proteases, chitinases, cytochrome P450s, polyketide synthases, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases for cuticle-degradation, detoxification, and toxin biosynthesis that may facilitate its ability to adapt to heterogenous environments. Transcriptional analysis of both fungi during early infection processes provided further insights into the genes and pathways involved in infectivity and specificity. Of particular note, M. acridum transcribed distinct G-protein coupled receptors on cuticles from locusts (the natural hosts) and cockroaches, whereas M. anisopliae transcribed the same receptor on both hosts. This study will facilitate the identification of virulence genes and the development of improved biocontrol strains

  13. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  14. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae); Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: luciane_modenez@ibest.com.br; Avila, Crebio Jose [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: crebio@cpao.embrapa.br

    2006-12-15

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  15. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar; Avila, Crebio Jose

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis.

  18. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  19. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. Results M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. Conclusions MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress. PMID:24383424

  20. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress.

  1. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  2. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  3. Different strategies to kill the host presented by Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Fernández-Bravo, María; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Studies conducted over the last decades have shown the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the biocontrol of some insect pests. Entomopathogenic fungi infect their host through the cuticle, so they do not need to be ingested to be effective. These fungi also secrete secondary metabolites and proteins that are toxic to insect pests. In this context, we analyzed the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) strains IBCB 384 and IBCB 425 and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. strains E 1764 and E 3158 against Galleria mellonella (Linn.) larvae, during pre-invasion and post-invasion phases. The results showed M. anisopliae, especially strain IBCB 384, was most virulent in the pre-invasion phase against G. mellonella, whereas B. bassiana, especially strain E 1764, was most virulent in the post-invasion phase. During in vivo development and in the production of toxic serum, B. bassiana E 3158 was the most virulent. Different fungal growth (or toxin) strategies were observed for studied strains. Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 425 prioritizes the growth strategy, whereas strain IBCB 384 and B. bassiana strains E 1764 and E 3158 have a toxic strategy. All strains have pathogenicity against G. mellonella, indicating their possible use for biocontrol.

  4. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Melinda; Gómez-Jiménez, María I.; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.; Kramer, Matthew; Parsa, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stem cuttings using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of cassava roots by both entomopathogens, though neither was found in the leaves or stems of the treated cassava plants. Both fungal entomopathogens were detected more often in the proximal end of the root than in the distal end. Colonization levels of B. bassiana were higher when plants were sampled at 7–9 days post-inoculation (84%) compared to 47–49 days post-inoculation (40%). In contrast, the colonization levels of M. anisopliae remained constant from 7–9 days post-inoculation (80%) to 47–49 days post-inoculation (80%), which suggests M. anisopliae is better able to persist in the soil, or as an endophyte in cassava roots over time. Differences in colonization success and plant growth were found among the fungal entomopathogen treatments. PMID:27103778

  5. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  6. Pengujian Toksisitas Akut Oral Dan Dermal pada Biolarvasida Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap Tikus Putih Spraque Dawley

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    Deni Zulfiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute oral and dermal toxicity test against white rats was conducted to determine the toxicity and side effects of bio-larvacide (Metarhizium anisopliae crude extract on humans. In the oral test used a maximum dose 5000 mg/kg and dermal testing used a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. Dose treatment and control tested to 5 Spraque Dawley male rats. The results showed that oral treatment with a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. In the dermal treatment with a dose of 2000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. Based on these results LD50 acute oral M. anisopliae biolarvacide above 5000 mg/kg and the acute dermal is above 2000 mg/kg. It was therefore concluded that the formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae biolarvasida classified as not hazardous when used in accordance with the recommendation of the class I (WHO, 2003.

  7. Protease production during growth and autolysis of submerged Metarhizium anisopliae cultures Produção de protease durante o crescimento e análise de culturas submersas de Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto U.L. Braga

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and autolysis of two strains of the entomopathogenic deuteromycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were evaluated in medium containing casein or glucose as carbon source. Parameters such as economic coefficient and degree of autolysis were determined for each strain. Protease production was determined throughout the growth and autolysis phases of the cultures on medium under conditions of protease induction (in the presence of casein as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus was shown to utilize casein as a carbon/energy source in a more efficient manner than glucose. The autolysis shown by the strains was intense under both types of growth conditions, reaching up to 62.7% of the dry mass produced and started soon after the depletion of the exogenous carbon source. The relationship between the proteolytic activities of the two strains evaluated varied significantly (a maximum of 19.78 on the 5th day and a minimum of 2.03 on the 16th day of growth during the various growth and autolysis phases, clearly showing that the difference between the growth curves and the difference in the kinetics of enzyme production may decisively affect the process of strain selection for protease production.O crescimento e a autólise de duas linhagens do deuteromiceto entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae foram avaliados em meio contendo caseína ou glicose como fonte de carbono. Foram determinados parâmetros como o coeficiente econômico e o grau de autólise apresentado pelas linhagens. A produção de protease foi determinada durante todas as fases do crescimento e da autólise das culturas, em meio indutor da produção de proteases (meio contendo caseína como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. Pôde-se verificar que o fungo foi capaz de utilizar a caseína como fonte de carbono/energia de maneira mais eficiente do que a glicose. A autólise apresentada pelas linhagens foi intensa em ambas as condi

  8. PENGARUH FORMULASI DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA VIABILITAS, BIOAKTIVITAS DAN PERSISTENSI CENDAWAN METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE TERHADAP CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA FABRICIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraida .

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of formulations and storage length on the viability, bioactivity and persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae against Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius. Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is important pest on vegetables form Brassicaceae family, that required to be control. Metarhizium anisopliae entomopathogenic fungus is one potensial of the biological agent that can be used to control C. pavonana. This study aimed to investigated the effect of storage duration on viability, bioactivity and persistence of M. anisopliae after formulated to control C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with the treatment was storage duration that included 2,4,6,8 and 10 weeks that replicated three trials. The variabels to be measured were viability and bioactivity at concentrations106, 107, and108. Field experiment used T Student test with treatment was duration of M. anisopliae formulation survive and its persistence on C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment results showed that the best storage duration of formulation on Metarhizium viability was pellet frmulation at 4th week 4 after storage. While the best bioactivity was pellet formulation with concentration 107 at 10 weeks after storage. Field experiment results showed that M. anisopliae formulation could be survived and its persistence to control pests C. pavonana until 4th day after application, either pellet or powder formulation.

  9. Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Felipe Marciano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marciano A.F., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Camargo M.G., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A., Quinelato S., Freitas M.C., Angelo I.C., Nogueira M.R.S. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P. [Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.] Metarhizium anisopliae: influência do pH na atividade enzimática e no controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:85-90, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the major agents causing substantial losses to livestock worldwide. In the search for alternative control strategies, both in vitro and in vivo use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promising results against this ectoparasite. During host colonization, protease production by M. anisopliae is considered one important virulence factor once it is directly related to the active penetration process carried by the fungus on the full host cuticle. Nevertheless, limitations as environmental pH may modulate the proteases production and/or activity, as well as, the fungal virulence. The current study aimed evaluate the virulence and total protease activity of M. anisopliae CG 148 sensu lato (s.l.. Fungal aqueous suspensions or 5% mineral oil formulations were used in different pH ranges (5, 7, or 9. Suspensions and formulations were prepared using a pH meter and adjusted to 108 spores mL-1. In the bioassay, four groups were formed for each pH range: the aqueous fungal suspension, the oil-based fungal formulation and their respective controls (aqueous and oil-based, totaling 12 groups. Engorged females were immersed for 3 minutes and maintained under optimal conditions for evaluation of biological parameters. Total protease activity of the artificial medium (after

  10. In vivo interactions of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae with selected opportunistic soil fungi of sugarcane ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.

  11. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

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    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  12. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  13. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

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    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  14. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  15. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae reduces blood feeding and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent against adult African malaria vectors. In addition to causing significant mortality, this pathogen is known to cause reductions in feeding and fecundity in a range of insects. In the present study we

  16. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE AND ITS PARASITOID DIADEGMA SEMICLAUSUM (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE

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    Rosma Hasibuan, Nilly Christalia, F.X. Susilo1, and Nur Yasin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential Impact of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and Its Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae.  Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the Metarhizium anisopliae against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid, Diadegma  semiclausum. A completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of conidial suspension: 5 x 104, 3.5 x 105, 2.5 x 106, 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml and control was used.  The results indicated that the mortality of P. xylostella larvae were significantly induced by the fungal treatments.  A significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence of P. xylostella was also detected in all treatments when compared with that in the control. The fungus might also result in a male-biased sex ratio of the surviving P. xylostella. When applied at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml, M.  anisopliae might significantly reduce the survival of the parasitoid, D. semiclausum. Thus, despite its potential as a biological control agent against P. xylostella, the entomomogenous fungus M. anisopliae was also detrimental to the larvae parasitoid D. semiclausum.

  17. Autodissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae amongst adults of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae s.s.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Background - The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for adult African malaria vectors. In the laboratory, work was carried out to assess whether horizontal transmission of the pathogen can take place during copulation, as this would enhance the

  18. Exposure of bed bugs to metarhizium anisopliae, and the effect of defensive secretions on fungal growth in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs Cimex lectularius were treated with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae by topical, spray, and contact exposure. One week post-exposure, inconsistent mortalities were observed, averaging 30% across all treatment groups and replicates. Microscopic examination of top...

  19. Diatomaceous earth and oil enhance effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Christian; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Rocha, Luiz F N

    2012-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for integrated control of peridomestic triatomine bugs. However, the high susceptibility of these vectors to fungal infection at elevated ambient humidities decreases in the comparatively dry conditions that often prevail in their microhabitats. A formulation adapted to this target pest that induces high and quick mortality can help to overcome these drawbacks. In the present study diatomaceous earth, which is used against pests of stored grains or as an additive to mycoinsecticides, delayed but did not reduce in vitro germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia after >24h agitation without affecting viability, and did not hamper the survival of Triatoma infestans nymphs exposed to treated surfaces. The settling behavior of nymphs on a treated surface in choice tests depended on the concentration of diatomaceous earth and ambient light level. Conidia formulated with diatomaceous earth and a vegetable oil synergized the insecticidal effect of the fungus in nymphs, and quickly killed all treated insects, even at 75% relative humidity (LT(90) 8.3 days) where unformulated conidia caused only 25% mortality after a 25 days exposure. The improved performance of a combined oil and desiccant dust formulation of this Metarhizium isolate raises the likelihood for its successful mycoinsecticidal use for triatomine control and, apparently, against other domestic insect pests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae in the Rainy Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Dyah Rini; Widiyaningrum, Priyantini; Haryuni; Slamet, Muji; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN. The experiment used 72 containers that were placed in the garden with coconut palm shade. Five kilograms of organic soil that was mixed with biological control agents (MET, EPN and MET+EPN) and ten O. rhinoceros larvae 3rd instar were put in each other container. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Every larvae mortality was observed once a week and observations are for 8 weeks. The result showed that the larval mortality due to MET treatment occurred on 2nd-7th week. Meanwhile, the larval mortality due to EPN treatment took place on 2nd-8th weeks and the larval mortality due to MET+EPN treatment occurred on 1st-5th weeks. The combination of MET and EPN was simultaneously effective to control O. rhinoceros larvae than separate use of MET or EPN. Result of this study showed that using two agents of biocontrol was more effective, so that it can be beneficial for controlling O. rhinoceros larvae in the field.

  1. Use of Metarhizium anisopliae Chitinase Genes for Genotyping and Virulence Characterization

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    Saliou Niassy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulence is the primary factor used for selection of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF for development as biopesticides. To understand the genetic mechanisms underlying differences in virulence of fungal isolates on various arthropod pests, we compared the chitinase genes, chi2 and chi4, of 8 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae. The clustering of the isolates showed various groups depending on their virulence. However, the analysis of their chitinase DNA sequences chi2 and chi4 did not reveal major divergences. Although their protein translates have been implicated in fungal virulence, the predicted protein structure of chi2 was identical for all isolates. Despite the critical role of chitin digestion in fungal infection, we conclude that chi2 and chi4 genes cannot serve as molecular markers to characterize observed variations in virulence among M. anisopliae isolates as previously suggested. Nevertheless, processes controlling the efficient upregulation of chitinase expression might be responsible for different virulence characteristics. Further studies using comparative “in vitro” chitin digestion techniques would be more appropriate to compare the quality and the quantity of chitinase production between fungal isolates.

  2. Tekanan Metarhizium anisopliae dan Feromon terhadap Populasi dan Tingkat Kerusakan oleh Oryctes rhinoceros

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    Wtjaksono Witjaksono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the most serious pests in coconut palm tree. Biological control for controlling the pest is done by applying fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae on its breeding sites to infect the larvae. Recent development for controlling Oryctes beetle was including the use of pheromone trap baited with ethyl-4-methyl octanoic which attract both male and female of the Oryctes beetle. This research was aimed to determine the effect of combination of both entomopathogen and pheromone application on the population dynamics of rhinoceros beetle, and the intensity of leaf damage on coconut tree. For this purpose, a research was conducted in local farmer coconut tree in the Bojong Village, Panjatan District, Kulon Progo from June 2009−January 2010. Observation including leaf damage intensity before and after application, the number of adult beetle trapped by pheromone, and the number infected larvae in the breeding site. The result showed that there were significant differences among all treatments in term of intensity of leaf damage, the number of trapped adult beetle, and the number of larvae at the breeding site. Leaf damage on control, pheromone application, and combined treatment were: 4.73%; 1.08% and 0.65%. The number of trapped Rhinoceros beetle by ferotrap was 101; in combined treatment was 52. The number of M. anisopliae infected grub were 265 out of 281 total observed grub.   INTISARI Kerusakan tanaman kelapa akibat serangan Oryctes rhinoceros terjadi mulai pada tanaman muda. Mengingat besarnya kerugian yang ditimbulkan, maka perlu diupayakan cara pengendalian yang efisien, efektif dan aman bagi sumber daya alam dan lingkungan. Salah satu cara pengendalian secara hayati adalah dengan menggunakan cendawan patogenik Metarhizium anisopliae. Selain menggunakan cendawan, upaya terkini dalam mengendalikan kumbang badak adalah dengan menggunakan perangkap berferomon. Feromon dengan bahan aktif Etil-4-metil oktanoat dapat

  3. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. The Impact of Culture Age, Aeration, and Agitation on the Production of Microsclerotia of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Using 100-Liter Fermentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsclerotia are desiccation-tolerant, compact hyphal aggregates produced by numerous fungi as overwintering structures. We recently discovered that the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae produced microsclerotia during liquid culture fermentation. When air-dried microsclerotial granu...

  5. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.B.; Alves, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  6. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  7. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  8. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  9. Pathogencity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

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    A. Gabarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed observing Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on Agrotis ipsilon larvae. SEM of A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appearing. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliae as declared by SEM showed a dense network together and cause the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is allowed tool to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  10. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  11. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

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    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  12. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

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    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  13. Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium anisopliae asal Tanah Lebak dan Pasang Surut Sumatera Selatan untuk Agens Hayati Scirpophaga incertulas

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    Rosdah Thalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogeicity of Beauveria bassiana and  Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates from Fresh Swamp and  Tidal Lowland, South Sumatra for Scirpophaga incertulas Biological Agents.  The objectives of the research weret o explore and to determine the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic  fungi againts the larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas, and to measure conidial viability and density of the fungi.  The method for fungi exploration used larvae of Tenebrio molitor baiting submerged in the soil.  The soil was taken from fresh swampand tidal lowland rice in South  Sumatra.  From the exploration study, we found two species of entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Mortality of S. incertulas larvae that had been treated topically with fungal conidia (1x106 conidia ml-1 varied among the isolates. The highest mortality (98.33% caused by BPlus isolate of B. Bassiana and the lowest by MtmIn  isolate of M. anisopliae (57.50% and BTmTr  isolate of B. bassiana (57.50%.  The fungal colonies grew fast from the second day up to the fourth day after incubation but the growth became slow after the fifth day.  The highest conidial density was resulted by   BPcMs of B. bassiana isolate (63.33x106 conidia ml-1 but  this density was not significantly different from that of the BPlus  of B. bassiana isolate (63.11x106 conidia ml-1.  The lowest conidial density found in BTmTr of B. bassiana isolate (20.97x106 conidia ml-1 .   The isolate B. bassiana was more effective than M. anisopliae againt the larvae of S.incertulas.

  14. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

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    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R.; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P.; Samuels, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  15. EFFICACY THE MIXTURE OF TWO STRAINS OF Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes TO CONTROL Rhipicephalus microplus ON NATURAL INFESTATION OF CATTLE

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    Roger Ivan Rodriguez-Vivas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae on the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in cattle infested naturally in the Mexican tropics. The study was carried out on a ranch in the Mexican tropics. Base on the number of adult and immature (larvae and nymphs R. microplus ticks 20 steers were assigned into two groups of 10 cattle. Animals in the treated group (average of 73.4 y 27.5 adult and immature ticks respectively were sprayed with a mixture of Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae at a concentration of 1x108 conidios/ml. The other group remained as untreated control (average of 77.7 y 24.7 adult and immature ticks respectively and treated with water+Tween 80. Each group received 4 applications every 14 days. Adult and immature stages of ticks were recorded on days 0, 3, 5, 7 and 14 post-treatment. From the first application treatment to the end of the experiment, animals in the treated group had lower counts (P < 0.05 of adult (30.9-87% and immature (35.8-72% ticks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of repeated treatment with the strains Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae can be used as an alternative to control natural infestation of R. microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics.

  16. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  17. Production of Conidia by the Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Using Solid-State Fermentation.

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    Loera-Corral, Octavio; Porcayo-Loza, Javier; Montesinos-Matias, Roberto; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the production of conidia by Metarhizium anisopliae using solid-state fermentation. Before production of conidia, procedures for strains conservation, reactivation, and propagation are essential in order to provide genetic stability of the strains. The strain is conserved in freeze-dried vials and then reactivated through insect inoculation. Rice is used as a substrate for the conidia production in two different bioreactors: plastic bags and tubular bioreactor. The CO2 production in the tubular bioreactors is measured with a respirometer; this system allows calculating indirect growth parameters as lag time (tlag) (25-35 h), maximum rate of CO2 production (rCO2 max) (0.5-0.7 mg/gdm h), specific rate of CO2 production (μ) (0.10-0.15 1/h), and final CO2 production (CO2) (100-120 mg/gdm). Conidial yield per gram of dry substrate (gdm) should be above 1 × 10(9) conidia/gdm after 10 days of incubation. Germination and viability of conidia obtained after 10 days of incubation should be above 80 % and 75 %, respectively. Bioassays using of Tenebrio molitor as a host insect should yield a final mortality above 80 %.

  18. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

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    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  19. evaluation of native fungal isolates of metrahizium anisopliae var

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    damage to honey bees (Desalegn Begna, 2001;. Desalegn Begna and Amsalu Bezabeh, 2001). Damage to honey bees is the result of the direct impacts of GWM larvae and the indirect effects inflicted by adult wax moths. The damage by larvae is manifested in such a way that they eat and destroy beeswax combs, form ...

  20. Efficacite du melange aqueux de metarhizium anisopliae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le traitement le plus efficace en termes d'impact sur la densité de population du criquet était le mélange (P < 0,01). Notre étude indique que le mélange des deux insecticides permet une diminution importante des densités de population de sauteriaux et qu'il est possible d'utiliser des formulations aqueuses contenant des ...

  1. CONTROLE ASSOCIADO DE Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE COM Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana E IMIDACLOPRID ASSOCIATED CONTROL OF Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE WITH Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana AND IMIDACLOPRID

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    Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar em condições de campo a eficiência do controle associado de colônias de Cornitermes cumulans utilizando imidacloprid juntamente com fungos entomopatogênicos (Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana. Foram realizados experimentos de campo para determinar quais as concentrações mínimas de conídios e de imidacloprid que quando aplicadas em associação controlaram os ninhos de cupins, mas quando aplicadas em separado não foram eficientes. Isto ocorreu quando 500 mg de conídios do patógeno (M. anisopliae ou B. bassiana foram misturados a 1,9 mg do produto comercial Gaucho 70 PM (imidacloprid e 6 gramas do inerte calcene. Foi possível diminuir a concentração de conídios em até 4 vezes e a do inseticida imidacloprid em até 157 vezes em relação às concentrações usualmente recomendadas. Estas concentrações possibilitaram elevados níveis de controle dos ninhos grandes (>80%, com uma diminuição considerável no custo do controle. Além disso, é importante considerar os benefícios ecológicos advindos deste controle associado pela diminuição na quantidade de inseticida a ser utilizada. Deste modo, esta estratégia deve ser explorada como uma alternativa importante na eliminação das colônias grandes de C. cumulans.The objective of this study was to investigate, under field conditions, the control efficiency against nests of Cornitermes cumulans using imidacoprid associated with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the minimal conidia and imidacloprid concentration jointly applied, necessary to control termite nest, but when applied separately was not efficient. This occurred when 500 mg of conidia of the pathogen (M. anisopliae or B. bassiana were mixed with 1.9 mg of imidacloprid (Gaucho 70 PM and 6 g of the inert calcene. It was possible to reduce the conidial concentration 4 times and the

  2. Survival and mutant production induced by mutagenic agents in Metarhizium anisopliae Sobrevivência e obtenção de mutantes induzidos por agentes mutagênicos em Metarhizium anisopliae

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    V. Kava - Cordeiro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, was submitted to three mutagenic agents: gamma radiation, ultraviolet light and nitrous acid. Survival curves were obtained and mutants were selected using different mutagenic doses which gave 1 to 5% survival. Morphological and auxotrophic mutants were isolated. Morphological mutants were grouped in a class with yellow conidia and other with pale vinaceous conidia as opposed to the green wild type conidia. Auxotrophic mutants had requirements for vitamin and aminoacid biosynthesis. More than 58% of the total auxotrophk mutants required proline/aipnine. Gamma radiation showed to be the most efficient mutagenic agent giving 0.2% of auxotrophk mutants followed by ultraviolet light (0.12% and nitrous acid (0.06%.The conidial colour and auxotrophk mutants isolated until now from M. anisopliae were reviewed.Uma linhagem selvagem do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae foi submetida à ação de três agentes mutagênicos: radiação gama, luz ultravioleta e ácido nitroso. Curvas de sobrevivência foram obtidas para cada mutagênicos utilizado e mutantes foram selecionados a partir de doses dos mutagênicos que proporcionassem de 1 a 5% de sobrevivência. Mutantes morfológicos para a coloração de conídios e mutantes auxotróficos foram isolados. Mutantes para coloração de conidios foram agrupados em duas classes, uma com conídios amarelos e outra com conídios vinho pálido. Os mutantes auxotróficos obtidos foram deficientes para aminoácidos e vitaminas e mais de 58% deles eram auxotróficos para prolina/argmina. Radiação gama foi o mutagênico mais eficiente com uma porcentagem de obtenção de mulantes auxotróficos de aproximadamente 0,2%, seguido pela luz ultravioleta (0.12% e pelo ácido nitroso (0.06%.Os mulantes morfológicos e auxotróficos obtidos até o momento em Metarhizium anisopliae foram revistos.

  3. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae; Caracterizacao dos hemocitos de operarios de Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) e avaliacao hemocitaria apos parasitismo por Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal], e-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: auritermes@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Luiz C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA); Lima, Elza A.L.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Micologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  4. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C.; Lima, Elza A.L.A.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  5. Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Misbah; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Din, Naima; Hussain, Shahbaz; Saeed, Nadia; Shakeel, Qaiser; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    The stored grain insects cause great damage to grains under storage conditions. Synthetic insecticides and fumigants are considered as key measures to control these stored grain insect pests. However, the major issue with these chemicals is grain contamination with chemical residues and development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Biological control is considered as a potential alternative to chemical control especially with the use of pathogens, alone or in combination with selective insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate the synergism of Metarhizium anisopliae with diatomaceous earth (DE) and thiamethoxam against four insect pests on the stored wheat grains. In the first bioassay, the M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 and 1.4 × 10 6 conidia/ml alone and in integration with two concentrations (250 and 500 ppm) of tested DE. The tested fungus when combined with DE and thiamethoxam possessed synergistic impact as compared to their individual efficacy. Adult mortality increased with respect to increased exposure interval and doses. In the second bioassay, M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 conidia/ml individually and in combination with three concentrations (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppm) of thiamethoxam. Results concluded that M. anisopliae integrated with DE and thiamethoxam provides more effective control of stored grain insect pests.

  6. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

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    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  8. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

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    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  9. Bioassay assessment of metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes against Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae Avaliação do bioensaio de Metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes contra Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae

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    Wolney Dalla Pria Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC is an economically important, destructive disease in Brazil and is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooter insects. In this study, the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the sharpshooter Oncometopia facialis was studied by bioassay conditions. In the bioassay, insects were sprayed with a suspension containing 5 X 10(7 conidia mL-1. Adults captured in the field were treated in groups of 10 in a total of 11 replications per treatment. Significant differences between the natural mortality and the mortality of insects treated with the fungus were observed 6 days after inoculations (PA Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC é uma doença economicamente importante e destrutiva no Brasil e é causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida por insetos vetores tal como Oncometopia facialis. Nesse estudo, a eficácia do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o inseto vetor O. facialis foi estudada em condições de bioensaio. Nesse bioensaio, insetos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de 5 X 10(7 conídio mL-1. Insetos-adultos capturados no campo foram tratados em grupos de 10, em um total de 11 replicatas por tratamento. Diferenças significativas entre a mortalidade natural e a mortalidade dos insetos tratados com o fungo foram observadas em 6 dias após a inoculação (P<0.05. Estas diferenças significativas aumentaram antes do décimo dia após o tratamento. O fungo causou uma mortalidade de 87,1%, com uma LT50 variando entre 5 e 6 dias. A LC50 foi de 1,2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1, variando de 7,7 X 10(5 a 2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1. Estes resultados mostraram que o vetor O. facialis foi susceptível a ação entomopatogênica de M. anisopliae em condições controladas durante o bioensaio.

  10. Efficacy Test of Mutant Metarrhizium anisopliae by Gamma Radiation to Control Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeerapong, Lawan; Piadang, Nattayana; Jantasang, Kittisak; Kamontip, Rukprasong

    2006-09-01

    Increasing the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) DOAE variety to control rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) by gamma radiation was found that among 20 varieties got from the fungus irradiated with 20 doses of gamma radiation, MAI-20 irradiated with 1.6, 8 and 10 kGy of gamma ray was the most suitable far control rhinoceros larvae as follow reason : the dominant characterize of MAI -20 is the spore with black color, It can grow wi trh the diameter of 1.8 centimeter on PDA agar within 10 days and full growth on surface of maize seed at 1.5 kilogram with in 15 days. The effectiveness of MAI-20 to control 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros beetle was 80 percent mortality within 10 days while the original variety (DOAE variety) with the dominant characterization of green color spore, 1 centimeter diameter growth on PDA agar within 10 days and full growth on surface of maize seed 1.5 kilogram within 15 days. This variety caused 60 percent mortality to 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros within 7 days. It could conclude that from laboratory experiment, MAI-20 is the most effective and suitable variety to control rhinoceros beetle even though the mortality time was longer than the original variety because the larvae of the insect does not caused the damage to coconut. The efficiency for controlling rhinoceros beetle at field trial by using irradiated MAI-20 comparing to the original variety and control (with out fungus) by adding each 1,2 kilogram of the MAI-20 and original variety growth on surface of maize seed on each manure pile size 1x1x0.5 meter. After 7 days of both varieties of Metarhizium application, the number of dead larvae caused by the fungus and the number of healthy larvae in each manure pile was collected and counted. It was found that after continuous survey 4 time (7 day per 1 time ) the percent mortality of rhinoceros larvae caused by the 2 fungus varieties were as follow : 1 kilogram of original varieties had an average of 55.5 percent larva

  11. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  12. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  13. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  14. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  15. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  16. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti for dengue virus type 2 is reduced with co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L; Adeleke, Monsuru A; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, is the major dengue vector and a worldwide public health threat combated basically by chemical insecticides. In this study, the vectorial competence of Ae. aegypti co-infected with a mildly virulent Metarhizium anisopliae and fed with blood infected with the DENV-2 virus, was examined. The study encompassed three bioassays (B). In B1 the median lethal time (LT50) of Ae. aegypti exposed to M. anisopliae was determined in four treatments: co-infected (CI), single-fungus infection (SF), single-virus infection (SV) and control (C). In B2, the mortality and viral infection rate in midgut and in head were registered in fifty females of CI and in SV. In B3, the same treatments as in B1 but with females separated individually were tested to evaluate the effect on fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length. Survival in CI and SF females was 70% shorter than the one of those in SV and control. Overall viral infection rate in CI and SV were 76 and 84% but the mortality at day six post-infection was 78% (54% infected) and 6% respectively. Survivors with virus in head at day seven post-infection were 12 and 64% in both CI and SV mosquitoes. Fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length were reduced in 52 and 40% in CI compared to the ones in control. Fungus-induced mortality for the CI group was 78%. Of the survivors, 12% (6/50) could potentially transmit DENV-2, as opposed to 64% (32/50) of the SV group, meaning a 5-fold reduction in the number of infective mosquitoes. This is the first report on a fungus that reduces the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti infected with the DENV-2 virus.

  18. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  19. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author) [pt

  20. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium Anisopliae Isolates on Varroa Destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Khodadad Pirali-kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  1. Persistence of Brazilian isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. robertsii in strawberry crop soil after soil drench application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago; Mayerhofer, Johanna; Enkerli, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Establishment, persistence and local dispersal of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (ESALQ1037) and M. robertsii (ESALQ1426) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) were investigated in the soil and rhizosphere following soil drench application in strawberries between 2012 and 2013 at a single...... sequence repeat analysis. Both applied fungal isolates were frequently recovered from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of the treated plots, suggesting that they were able to establish and disperse within the soil. Persistence within the soil and strawberry rhizosphere for both fungal isolates...

  2. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential expression of the pr1A gene in Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum across different culture conditions and during pathogenesis

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    Mariele Porto Carneiro Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Metarhizium have several subtilisin-like proteases that are involved in pathogenesis and these have been used to investigate genes that are differentially expressed in response to different growth conditions. The identification and characterization of these proteases can provide insight into how the fungus is capable of infecting a wide variety of insects and adapt to different substrates. In addition, the pr1A gene has been used for the genetic improvement of strains used in pest control. In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to assess the relative expression levels of the pr1A gene in M. anisopliae and M. acridum during growth in different culture conditions and during infection of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. We also carried out a pathogenicity test to assess the virulence of both species against D. saccharalis and correlated the results with the pattern of pr1A gene expression. This analysis revealed that, in both species, the pr1A gene was differentially expressed under the growth conditions studied and during the pathogenic process. M. anisopliae showed higher expression of pr1A in all conditions examined, when compared to M. acridum. Furthermore, M. anisopliae showed a greater potential to control D. saccharalis. Taken together, our results suggest that these species have developed different strategies to adapt to different growing conditions.

  4. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  5. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible

  6. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  7. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

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    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  8. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol production from chitosan by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

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    Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Naranjo Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Abihssira García, Isabel Sofía; Zavala-Gonzalez, Ernesto A; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and virtually unexplored as raw material for bioethanol production. In this paper, we investigate chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin which is the main component of shellfish waste, as substrate for bioethanol production by fungi. Fungal parasites of invertebrates such as the nematophagous Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc) or the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) are biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nematodes (eg. Meloidogyne spp.) or insect pests such as the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). These fungi degrade chitin-rich barriers for host penetration. We have therefore tested the chitin/chitosanolytic capabilities of Pc, Bb and Ma for generating reducing sugars using chitosan as only nutrient. Among the microorganisms used in this study, Pc is the best chitosan degrader, even under anaerobic conditions. These fungi have alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) encoding genes in their genomes. We have therefore analyzed their ethanol production under anaerobic conditions using chitosan as raw material. P. chlamydosporia is the largest ethanol producer from chitosan. Our studies are a starting point to develop chitin-chitosan based biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming.

  11. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae. Revisión

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    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso irracional ha propiciado la aparición de garrapatas resistentes a las principales familias de ixodicidas, siendo necesario desarrollar alternativas de control no químico. Una de estas alternativas es el uso de hongos entomopatógenos, entre los que se encuentra Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae el cual ha demostrado ser eficiente, tanto en estudios in vitro como in vivo, para el control de las diferentes fases evolutivas de R. microplus, causa disminución en la tasa de oviposición, incrementa el período de incubación y de eclosión, además produce la muerte de larvas y garrapatas adultas con porcentajes de eficiencia de hasta el 100 %. Diferentes estudios demuestran que M. anisopliae representa una alternativa no química sustentable para el control de garrapatas. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar información actualizada sobre el uso de diferentes cepas de M. anisopliae en el control de la garrapata R.microplus.

  12. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  13. População de Metarhizium anisopliae em diferentes tipos e graus de compactação do solo Metarhizium anisopliae population in differents soil types and compactness degrees

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    Lourenço Maurício Lanza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou investigar a influência do tipo e compactação do solo na sobrevivência do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae. A sobrevivência do fungo foi determinada em quatro tipos de solos: Latossolo Vermelho textura argilosa, Latossolo Vermelho textura média, Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo textura arenosa média e Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo textura areno-argilosa, com maior teor de matéria orgânica. Para determinar o efeito da compactação na sobrevivência do fungo usaram-se os três primeiros tipos de solos nas densidades de 1,12, 1,32, 1,50g cm-3; 1,22, 1,44, 1,65g cm-3; 1,30, 1,50, 1,70g cm-3, respectivamente. Por meio da contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC em placas de Petri, fizeram-se avaliações da sobrevivência do fungo, após zero, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 e 120 dias de incubação a 27 ± 1ºC. Houve influência significativa do tipo de solo e do grau de compactação na sobrevivência do fungo, obtendo-se maior quantidade de UFC no solo textura areno-argilosa. Entre os demais solos, a maior sobrevivência ocorreu no solo textura arenosa e a menor no solo textura argilosa. O efeito da compactação foi significativo para o tipo de solo, exceto no solo textura arenosa. Independentemente do tipo de solo, a maior sobrevivência foi observada nos valores médios de densidade. A compactação teve maior impacto no solo textura média, onde ocorreu queda mais acentuada na quantidade de UFC em todas as densidades.The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different soil types and compactness on Metarhizium anisopliae survival. The fungus survivorship was determined in four soil types: Red Latosol with clay texture, Red Latosol with medium texture, Red Yellow Podzolic with medium sand texture and Red Yellow Podzolic with sand-clay texture, with higher amount of organic material. To determine the effect of compactness on fungus survival the first three soil types were used with the following densities

  14. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium Anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca Domestica

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    M Sharififard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spino­sad against housefly.Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µg (A.I. per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combina­tion of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 µg (AI per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treat­ments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interac­tion was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treat­ments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spino­sad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.

  15. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

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    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  16. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  17. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  18. Effect of natural pesticides and plant extracts on biological parameters of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SorokEfeito de defensivos agrícolas naturais e extratos vegetais sobre parâmetros biológicos de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

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    Luis Francisco Angeli Alves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect and compatibility of vegetal and Pycnoporus sanguineus basidiocarps extracts and alternative products on biological parameters of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus. Extracts (solution in water 10% and natural products (AR = average field recommendation; 0.5 AR and 2.0 AR are applied on PDA culture media surface previously inoculated with fungi conidia. The effect of the treatment on conidia germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis was compared. Most alternative products were compatible to the fungus, and only Bordeaux mixture AR and 2.0 AR were moderately toxic to M. anisopliae. Although some significativally negative effect there were observed on conidial viability (reduction of 50 to 80% by alcoholic extracts, all extracts were compatible. This point to the necessity to be careful with application, avoiding mixtures or subsequent use of products less than 48 hours after fungi application. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade e os efeitos dos defensivos agrícolas naturais, extratos vegetais e basidiocarpos de Pycnoporus sanguineus, em diferentes concentrações, sobre o fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae. Os extratos e os basidiocarpos foram utilizados na concentração de 10%. Os defensivos agrícolas foram utilizados na concentração rotulada (CR, a metade (0,5CR e o dobro da mesma (2CR. Em todos os tratamentos foram realizadas pulverizações sobre o fungo inoculado previamente em meio de cultura (BDA. Foram avaliados germinação, Unidade Formadora de Colônia, crescimento vegetativo e produtividade dos conídios. Em relação aos defensivos agrícolas, somente o Calda Sulfocálcica na concentração recomendada e no dobro da mesma não se mostrou compatível, sendo considerada moderadamente tóxica para o fungo M. anisopliae. Apesar de os extratos terem apresentado efeito significativo principalmente sobre a viabilidade (redução de 50 a 80% por

  19. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae em lavoura de arroz irrigado Efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae on rice stem bug Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae control in flooded rice field

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    José Francisco da Silva Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, é altamente prejudicial à cultura do arroz no Brasil, principalmente em sistemas de cultivo irrigados por inundação. O efeito de duas formas de aplicação, conídios em suspensão e veiculados em grãos de arroz autoclavado, da cepa (CP 172 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., no controle do percevejo, foi avaliado em três experimentos conduzidos em 1991, 1993 e 1994, em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado. Em 1991, tanto a pulverização de conídios como a distribuição manual grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico em dosagem equivalente a 7,2 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, sobre o solo e entre os colmos de arroz, onde os percevejos estavam alojados, reduziram significativamente a população natural do inseto com eficiência de controle de 52,6% e 61,8%, respectivamente. Ainda em 1991, estudo sobre o estabelecimento e persistência da cepa no solo do arrozal, com base na contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, indicou que o fungo manteve-se viável na entressafra, até 216 dias após a aplicação, época da implantação de novos arrozais. O número de UFC foi maior nas parcelas tratadas com os grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico. O crescimento linear do número de UFC, no solo nas parcelas testemunhas, evidenciou disseminação do fungo para partes anteriormente não tratadas do arrozal. Resultados significativos de controle com a aplicação da suspensão de conídios e dos grãos de arroz com o fungo, na dose de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, também foram obtidos em 1993, com 51,8% e 48,2% de eficiência, respectivamente. Em 1994, a aplicaç��o da suspensão de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1 resultou em 39,5% de controle do inseto. O índice de confirmação de infeção, contudo, foi baixo, nos dois anos, atingindo, no máximo, 20%, em 1993. O baixo número de insetos com micose, em comparação ao índice de mortalidade

  20. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a forma de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH. (SOROKIN, 1883] em carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806, assim como as lesões infringidas nos tecidos internos do ácaro. A forma de aderência e penetração do fungo foi estudada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a ação do fungo nos tecidos internos avaliada em secções histológicas convencionais. Para observação destes eventos, realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus contendo 12 fêmeas ingurgitadas cada. Para tal, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas durante 3 minutos, sob agitação manual, em suspensão com concentração 108 conídios/mL. No caso dos grupos controle o banho foi realizado apenas no veículo da suspensão. Os carrapatos foram processados para histopatologia e microscopia eletrônica em diversos tempos após a infecção, a saber: 1 e 18h, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e onze dias. Observou-se que a maior parte dos conídios germinou em até 18h após a inoculação e que o fungo penetrou no ácaro através do tegumento 48h após a infecção. Após a penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo do hospedeiro promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Dentre as lesões nos tecidos internos do ácaro, ressalta-se o rompimento da parede intestinal e vazamento do conteúdo para a hemocele. A morte do hospedeiro ocorreu entre 96 e 120h pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver do ácaro iniciou-se em torno de 120 a 144h pós-infecção. Espera-se, com este trabalho, contribuir para o desenvolvimento e viabilização de técnicas de controle biológico dos carrapatos por fungos como alternativa ao uso de acaricidas.The objective of this work was to verify the penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH

  1. Secondary metabolite gene clusters in the entomopathogen fungus Metarhizium anisopliae: genome identification and patterns of expression in a cuticle infection model

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    Nicolau Sbaraini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The described species from the Metarhizium genus are cosmopolitan fungi that infect arthropod hosts. Interestingly, while some species infect a wide range of hosts (host-generalists, other species infect only a few arthropods (host-specialists. This singular evolutionary trait permits unique comparisons to determine how pathogens and virulence determinants emerge. Among the several virulence determinants that have been described, secondary metabolites (SMs are suggested to play essential roles during fungal infection. Despite progress in the study of pathogen-host relationships, the majority of genes related to SM production in Metarhizium spp. are uncharacterized, and little is known about their genomic organization, expression and regulation. To better understand how infection conditions may affect SM production in Metarhizium anisopliae, we have performed a deep survey and description of SM biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs in M. anisopliae, analyzed RNA-seq data from fungi grown on cattle-tick cuticles, evaluated the differential expression of BGCs, and assessed conservation among the Metarhizium genus. Furthermore, our analysis extended to the construction of a phylogeny for the following three BGCs: a tropolone/citrinin-related compound (MaPKS1, a pseurotin-related compound (MaNRPS-PKS2, and a putative helvolic acid (MaTERP1. Results Among 73 BGCs identified in M. anisopliae, 20 % were up-regulated during initial tick cuticle infection and presumably possess virulence-related roles. These up-regulated BGCs include known clusters, such as destruxin, NG39x and ferricrocin, together with putative helvolic acid and, pseurotin and tropolone/citrinin-related compound clusters as well as uncharacterized clusters. Furthermore, several previously characterized and putative BGCs were silent or down-regulated in initial infection conditions, indicating minor participation over the course of infection. Interestingly, several up

  2. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Adriano R; Silva, Carlos P; Butt, Tariq M; Samuels, Richard I

    2014-04-25

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12-17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18-23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of M. anisopliae significantly increased the

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DA VIRULENCIA DE BLASTOSPOROS DE Metarhizium anisopliae NO CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE CAMPO DO MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti

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    Aline Teixeira Carolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente no Brasil, o mosquito Aedes aegypti é transmissor das arboviroses dengue, chikungunya e Zika. Não existe tratamento específico para estas doenças. A redução da população do vetor ainda é o método mais eficaz para reduzir a taxa dessas arboviroses. O presente estudo comparou a virulência de conídios e blastosporos de Metarhizium anisopliae contra larvas do mosquito A. aegypti provenientes de coletas no campo. Blastosporos foram mais virulentos para larvas, sendo observada mortalidade total das larvas em apenas 48 horas. Larvas infectadas com conídios apresentaram 100% de mortalidade no quinto dia pós-infecção. O presente estudo mostra que blastosporos apresentam grande potencial para controle de larvas de A. aegypti no campo.

  4. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

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    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  5. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI was added to fungal suspensions. Results A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 109 conidia mL-1. Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. Conclusions This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides

  6. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Cátia O; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-01-25

    Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI) was added to fungal suspensions. A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)). Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides, resulting in higher mortality following relatively short

  7. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae Ocorrência de tripes em uva Niagara e seu controle com os inseticidas thiacloprid e methiocarb associados com Metarhizium anisopliae

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    ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI LOPES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.Os tripes são mencionados como importantes pragas da cultura da uva de mesa em diversos países da Europa e Estados Unidos. Em área de cultivo da uva Niagara localizada na região de Limeira-SP verificou-se a ocorrência de danos provocados por Frankliniella occidentalis. Essa praga foi observada, principalmente, durante a fase de florescimento, alimentando-se de pólen e

  8. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  9. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  10. Comparative genomics using microarrays reveals divergence and loss of virulence-associated genes in host-specific strains of the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Leclerque, Andreas; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J

    2009-06-01

    Many strains of Metarhizium anisopliae have broad host ranges, but others are specialists and adapted to particular hosts. Patterns of gene duplication, divergence, and deletion in three generalist and three specialist strains were investigated by heterologous hybridization of genomic DNA to genes from the generalist strain Ma2575. As expected, major life processes are highly conserved, presumably due to purifying selection. However, up to 7% of Ma2575 genes were highly divergent or absent in specialist strains. Many of these sequences are conserved in other fungal species, suggesting that there has been rapid evolution and loss in specialist Metarhizium genomes. Some poorly hybridizing genes in specialists were functionally coordinated, indicative of reductive evolution. These included several involved in toxin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism in root exudates, suggesting that specialists are losing genes required to live in alternative hosts or as saprophytes. Several components of mobile genetic elements were also highly divergent or lost in specialists. Exceptionally, the genome of the specialist cricket pathogen Ma443 contained extra insertion elements that might play a role in generating evolutionary novelty. This study throws light on the abundance of orphans in genomes, as 15% of orphan sequences were found to be rapidly evolving in the Ma2575 lineage.

  11. Evaluation of alternative rice planthopper control by the combined action of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and low-rate buprofezin.

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    Jin, Shao-Feng; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Mu, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jue-Qi

    2011-01-01

    High resistance of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest. An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated. Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ma456) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg mL(-1) respectively. Fungal LC(50) after 1 week at 25 °C and 14:10 h light:dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm(-2) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate. Buprofezin (LC(50): 1647, 486 and 233 µg mL(-1) on days 2 to 4) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates. The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults. In two 40 day field trials, significant planthopper (mainly BPH) control (54-60%) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates (Ma456 and Ma576) at 1.5 × 10(13) conidia ha(-1) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30.8 g buprofezin ha(-1) into the fungal sprays. The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  13. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

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    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  14. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  15. Evaluación y validación de mezclas de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin y Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin para el control de la Broca del café en frutos infestados caídos al suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo González , Jorge Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae son entomopatógenos usados como agentes de control biológico contra la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari). La exploración de la diversidad genética de las cepas ha demostrado que el uso de mezclas puede resultar en procesos de coinfección y sinergismo que incrementan la virulencia y mortalidad sobre los insectos. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el fin de evaluar y validar en campo el efecto de las mezclas de cepas de B. bass...

  16. Development of a user-friendly delivery method for the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Adamczyk, John; Patt, Joseph; Gracia, Carlos; Cascino, John

    2010-12-01

    A user-friendly method to deliver Metarhizium spores to honey bee colonies for control of Varroa mites was developed and tested. Patty blend formulations protected the fungal spores at brood nest temperatures and served as an improved delivery system of the fungus to bee hives. Field trials conducted in 2006 in Texas using freshly harvested spores indicated that patty blend formulations of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) significantly reduced the numbers of mites per adult bee, mites in sealed brood cells, and residual mites at the end of the 47-day experimental period. Colony development in terms of adult bee populations and brood production also improved. Field trials conducted in 2007 in Florida using less virulent spores produced mixed results. Patty blends of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) were less successful in significantly reducing the number of mites per adult bee. However, hive survivorship and colony strength were improved, and the numbers of residual mites were significantly reduced at the end of the 42-day experimental period. The overall results from 2003 to 2008 field trials indicated that it was critical to have fungal spores with good germination, pathogenicity and virulence. We determined that fungal spores (1 × 10(10) viable spores per gram) with 98% germination and high pathogenicity (95% mite mortality at day 7) provided successful control of mite populations in established honey bee colonies at 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice). Overall, microbial control of Varroa mite with M. anisopliae is feasible and could be a useful component of an integrated pest management program.

  17. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Nichanun Kernasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

  19. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

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    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  20. Metodologia para produção de Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin em cultivo submerso: esporulação da biomassa, efeito da concentração de açúcar e custo do inoculant Methodology for production of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin in submerged cultivation: biomass sporulation, sugar concentration effect and inoculant cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina de Mello Pereira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se um método de cultivo e um meio de cultura para produção massal do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, com maior pureza e concentração de conídios. Este método envolveu o cultivo submerso da linhagem M-61 do entomopatógeno em meio líquido de arroz parboilizado, extrato de levedura, extrato do percevejo da soja (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, sob seis diferentes níveis de concentração de açúcar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, além do meio convencional sólido de arroz em grão. As biomassas obtidas foram separadas através de tela de nylon (63 mesh e dispostas em estufa para a esporulação. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados pelos parâmetros pesos fresco e seco do micélio, número de conídios por grama de substrato, viabilidade e patogenicidade dos conídios sobre o percevejo. Observou-se que 2.0g l-1 de açúcar em meio de cultura de extrato de N. viridula produziu o dobro do número de conídios por grama de substrato em relação à concentração de 10.0g l-1, a um custo 51 vezes inferior ao obtido no processo convencional de produção do fungo. A viabilidade não foi afetada nos diferentes meios utilizados. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas na patogenicidade em função dos meios de cultura e métodos de cultivo.A method of cultivation and a culture medium were developed aiming at the mass production of fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, with great concentration and purity of conidia. This method involved the M-61 strain of entomopathogenic fungus in liquid medium of rice, yeast extract, soybean bug extract (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, under six differents concentrations of sugar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, and the solid conventional medium of rice grains. The biomasses obtained were filtered and put in an incubator to promote sporulation. The treatments were evaluated through the parameters wet and dry-weight of micelium

  1. Análise de adesão do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae para o controle de Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho em instalações avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Araújo Cassiano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho permitiu a construção de um modelo estatístico para a adesão de conídios do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae diante de diferentes níveis de concentração e tempo, além de avaliar seu potencial para o controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus, importante praga da avicultura, causadora de danos às aves pelos ferimentos no trato digestivo e pela transmissão de várias doenças. O estudo da adesão sobre o tegumento é de grande importância, pois a adesão representa um evento complexo, sendo o primeiro do ciclo das relações patógeno-hospedeiro que ocorre após a deposição do fungo sobre o inseto e visa a preparação do local para a fase de penetração. Insetos adultos do cascudinho foram expostos a três concentrações do fungo: 1x10³, 1x10(6 e 1x10(9 conídios/mL, sendo 5, 10 e 15 minutos de exposição em cada concentração. Para verificar o potencial de controle de M. anisopliae, os insetos foram colocados para caminhar sobre uma massa de conídios crescida em meio BDA por 10 minutos, resultando num potencial de inóculo de 8,1x10(8 conídios/mL, a mortalidade foi avaliada durante 21 dias consecutivos, onde se verificou uma mortalidade de 74% em larvas após 48h, e 50% de mortalidade em adultos após 15 dias de exposição ao fungo. A análise de variância (ANOVA mostrou que existe influência e interação de ambos os efeitos: concentração e tempo.

  2. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, effect of temperature on virulence, as well as ... It has become a big challenge to maintain quality of products and compete in ... Data were collected on the number of hatched and un-hatched eggs.

  3. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  4. Characterization of Metarhizium anisopliae using amplifed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Molecular methods have revolutionized systematic entomology in the genus Metarhizium. ... Currently, there are three genera Metarhizium and nine varieties. This first genus is M.

  5. Multilocus sequence typing of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum isolates as microbial agents for locust and grasshopper control. Genbank Accession numbers FJ787311 to FJ787325

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing interest in the biological control of locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae) has led to the development of biopesticides based on naturally occurring pathogens which offers an environmentally safe alternative to chemical pesticides. However, the fungal strains which are being sought for biop...

  6. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Page 1 ... forms conidiophores or analogous structure and sporu- lates. Alternatively, many species form some type of resting stages capable of forming or releasing a type of spore. ... Mosquitoes landing on the suspension to consume glucose would thus be exposed to conidia through tarsal contact or ...

  7. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    native fungal isolates against the lesser wax moth and assessing non target effect of one isolate of. Beauveria ... worst of which is the foulbrood, an invasive ..... 1934 and at present about 700 species of fungi in .... Original from American Bee J.

  8. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes Crescimento e esporulação de Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride em meios de cultura e regimes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideney Becker Onofre

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P Fungos entomopatogênicos do genêro Metarhizium são empregados no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas por meio da dispersão de seus conídios no campo. Embora a produção de conídios em M. anisopliae esteja bem estudada, poucas pesquisas a respeito existem na espécie M. flavoviride. O presente trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de três meios de cultura, batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA, Czapek-ágar (CZP e meio completo (MC, e três regimes de luminosidade, claro contínuo, alternância com luz do dia/escuro e luz negra/escuro, sobre o crescimento miceliano e esporulação do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride. O experimento foi realizado em câmara de incubação à temperatura de 27 ± 2°C. Empregou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3°C 3 (meios de cultura e regime de luminosidade com quatro repetições. As melhores condições para o crescimento miceliano e esporulação foram conseguidas tanto no meio de cultura BDA como no MC quando combinados com o regime claro contínuo (P <= 0,05.

  9. Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William; Petersen, Klaus; Ugelvig, Line

    2004-01-01

    the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system.RESULTS:The relationship between parasite density and infection...

  10. Synergistic effect of dual imidacloprid-Metarhizium anisopliae applications against Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Ugine; Calum W. Russell; Ann E. Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently, eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the...

  11. 76 FR 26194 - Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... sensitization--guinea pig (Harmonized Guideline 870.2600; MRID No. 448447-15). An acceptable dermal... pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  12. Imbibitional damage in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When dried organisms are immersed in water, rapid imbibition may cause severe damage to plasma membranes; in unicellular organisms, such damage is usually lethal. This study investigated effects of pre-immersion moisture levels and immersion temperature on imbibitional damage in three insect pathoge...

  13. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or

  14. Recherches sur la maladie, due al Metarrhizium anisopliae chez le criquet pelerin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    Introduction
    The data from the literature concerning insect killing Deuteromycetes are discussed. Stress is laid on many fundamental problems and on gaps in the scientific observations.

    Nomenclature
    It appears from a bibliographic survey that Metarrhizium

  15. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Farenhorst, M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have

  16. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel F. V.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously

  17. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control). Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray), habitat (lawn vs. forest), and treatment (Met52 vs. control), versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  18. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae (strain F52 does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya R Fischhoff

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control. Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray, habitat (lawn vs. forest, and treatment (Met52 vs. control, versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  19. Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Njiru, B.N.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. Following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus

  20. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding mammalian health impacts of these agents has focused on toxicity and pathogenicity, with limited research regarding allergenicity and asthma development. We compared the ability of funga...

  1. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science - Vol 33, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Native Fungal Isolates of Metrahizium anisopliae Var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana against the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (L) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H. Namusana, E Seyoum, 117-124 ...

  2. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  3. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  4. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  5. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  6. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  7. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lwetoijera, D.W.; Sumaye, R.D.; Madumla, E.P.; Kavishe, D.R.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Okumu, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target

  8. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  9. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  10. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  12. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  13. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the causal agent of chafer beetle mortality in the wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of chafer beetle [Anisoplia austriaca (Herbst 1783] mortality caused by Actinomucor elegans var. elegans in wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran. For three years, dead larvae of Anisoplia austriaca were collected from wheat fields of the Kurdistan province. Similar isolates of a fast-growing fungus were recovered from all samples. The fungal isolates were identified as A. elegans var. elegans based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The identity of the species was further confirmed using sequence data of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by the inoculation of the larvae of A. austriaca and Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (as the model insect using the spore suspension of A. elegans var. elegans. The viability of sporangiospores was evaluated using a spore dilution technique on germination medium. The results on the pathogenicity (100% mortality in A. austriaca larvae and viability tests (germination: 95.45% demonstrated that A. elegans var. elegans can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent against the chafer beetle. Field experiments are still required to evaluate the capacity of A. elegans as a biological control agent.

  15. SELECCIÓN DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Y Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. Sorokin (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES) PATOGÉNICOS A GALLINA CIEGA Phyllophaga polyphylla (Bates) (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE) Y DISTRIBUCIÓN VERTICAL DE ESPORAS EN DIFERENTES TIPOS DE SUELO

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ COTA, LIZETH RAMONA

    2012-01-01

    Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa promisoria para el control de plagas agrícolas. En este estudio, se obtuvieron diversos aislamientos nativos de estos microorganismos provenientes de larvas de gallina ciega del género Phyllophaga sp., una de la plagas más importantes del cultivo de maíz en el estado de Guanajuato. En total se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos de hongos entomopatógenos, de los cuales ocho pertenecen a Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. y el resto a Meta...

  16. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  17. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  18. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  19. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  20. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  1. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  2. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  3. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  4. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  5. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  6. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  7. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  8. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  9. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  10. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  11. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  12. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  13. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  14. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  15. ESTUDO DA TOXICIDADE DO MEDICAMENTO PERINDOPRIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... is accomplished by anti-hypertensive drugs, among them, ... of perindopril on the conidia germination speed of the model fungus M. anisopliae, for detecting a possible ..... negative for tests with following parameters: bacterial.

  16. Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Lene

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite heterogeneity and within-host competition are thought to be important factors influencing the dynamics of host-parasite relationships. Yet, while there have been many theoretical investigations of how these factors may act, empirical data is more limited. We investigated the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system. Results The relationship between parasite density and infection was sigmoidal, with there being an invasion threshold for an infection to occur (an Allee effect. Although spore production was positively density-dependent, parasite fitness decreased with increasing parasite density, indicating within-host scramble competition. The dynamics differed little between the four strains tested. In mixed infections of three strains the infection-growth dynamics were unaffected by parasite heterogeneity. Conclusions The strength of within-host competition makes dispersal the best strategy for the parasite. Parasite heterogeneity may not have effected virulence or the infection dynamics either because the most virulent strain outcompeted the others, or because the interaction involved scramble competition that was impervious to parasite heterogeneity. The dynamics observed may be common for virulent parasites, such as Metarhizium, that produce aggregated transmission stages. Such parasites make useful models for investigating infection dynamics and the impact of parasite competition.

  17. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  18. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  19. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  1. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  2. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  3. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  4. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  5. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  6. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  8. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  9. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  10. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  11. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  12. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  13. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  16. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  17. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  18. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  19. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  20. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  1. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  3. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  4. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  5. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  6. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  7. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  8. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  9. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  11. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  12. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  13. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  14. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  15. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  16. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  17. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  18. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  19. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  20. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  1. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  2. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  3. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  4. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  5. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  6. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insertion of an esterase gene into a specific locust pathogen (Metarhizium acridum enables it to infect caterpillars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibao Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An enduring theme in pathogenic microbiology is poor understanding of the mechanisms of host specificity. Metarhizium is a cosmopolitan genus of invertebrate pathogens that contains generalist species with broad host ranges such as M. robertsii (formerly known as M. anisopliae var. anisopliae as well as specialists such as the acridid-specific grasshopper pathogen M. acridum. During growth on caterpillar (Manduca sexta cuticle, M. robertsii up-regulates a gene (Mest1 that is absent in M. acridum and most other fungi. Disrupting M. robertsii Mest1 reduced virulence and overexpression increased virulence to caterpillars (Galleria mellonella and M. sexta, while virulence to grasshoppers (Melanoplus femurrubrum was unaffected. When Mest1 was transferred to M. acridum under control of its native M. robertsii promoter, the transformants killed and colonized caterpillars in a similar fashion to M. robertsii. MEST1 localized exclusively to lipid droplets in M. robertsii conidia and infection structures was up-regulated during nutrient deprivation and had esterase activity against lipids with short chain fatty acids. The mobilization of stored lipids was delayed in the Mest1 disruptant mutant. Overall, our results suggest that expression of Mest1 allows rapid hydrolysis of stored lipids, and promotes germination and infection structure formation by M. robertsii during nutrient deprivation and invasion, while Mest1 expression in M. acridum broadens its host range by bypassing the regulatory signals found on natural hosts that trigger the mobilization of endogenous nutrient reserves. This study suggests that speciation in an insect pathogen could potentially be driven by host shifts resulting from changes in a single gene.

  8. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  9. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  10. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  11. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  12. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  13. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  14. Comparative genome analysis of entomopathogenic fungi reveals a complex set of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Charley Christian; Junges, Angela; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Andreis, Fábio Carrer; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Sbaraini, Nicolau; da Paixão, Rana Louise de Andrade; Broetto, Leonardo; Landell, Melissa; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Silveira, Carolina Pereira; Serrano, Thaiane Rispoli; de Oliveira, Eder Silva; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Schrank, Augusto

    2014-09-29

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins. We determined the M. anisopliae E6 genome sequence and compared this sequence to other entomopathogenic fungi genomes. A robust pipeline was generated to evaluate the predicted secretomes of M. anisopliae and 15 other filamentous fungi, leading to the identification of a core of secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis using the tick Rhipicephalus microplus cuticle as an infection model during two periods of infection (48 and 144 h) allowed the identification of several differentially expressed genes. This analysis concluded that a large proportion of the predicted secretome coding genes contained altered transcript levels in the conditions analyzed in this study. In addition, some specific secreted proteins from Metarhizium have an evolutionary history similar to orthologs found in Beauveria/Cordyceps. This similarity suggests that a set of secreted proteins has evolved to participate in entomopathogenicity. The data presented represents an important step to the characterization of the role of secreted proteins in the virulence and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae.

  15. The effect of entomopathogenic fungal culture filtrate on the immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Namara, Louise; Carolan, James C; Griffin, Christine T; Fitzpatrick, David; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively). Larvae co-injected with either M. anisopliae or B. caledonica culture filtrate and Candida albicans showed significantly increased mortality. The same was not seen for larvae injected with Beauveria bassiana filtrate. Together these results suggest that B. caledonica and M. anisopliae filtrate are modulating the insect immune system allowing a subsequent pathogen to proliferate. B. caledonica and M. anisopliae culture filtrates impact upon the larval prophenoloxidase (ProPO) cascade (e.g. ProPO activating factor 3 and proPO activating enzyme 3 were increased in abundance relative to controls), while B. bassiana treated larvae displayed higher abundances of alpha-esterase when compared to control larvae (2.4-fold greater) and larvae treated with M. anisopliae and B. caledonica. Treatment with EPF culture filtrate had a significant effect on antimicrobial peptide abundances particularly in M. anisopliae treated larvae where cecropin-D precursor, hemolin and gloverin were differentially abundant in comparison to controls. Differences in proteomic profiles for different treatments may reflect or even partially explain the differences in their immunomodulatory potential. Screening EPF for their ability to modulate the insect immune response represents a means of assessing EPF for use as biocontrol agents, particularly if the goal is to use them in combination with other control agents. Additionally EPF represent a

  16. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  17. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  19. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  20. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  1. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  2. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  3. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  4. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  5. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  6. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  7. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  8. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  9. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  10. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  12. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  14. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  15. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  16. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  17. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  18. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  19. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  1. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  2. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  3. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  4. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  5. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  6. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  7. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  8. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  9. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  10. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  11. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  12. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  13. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  14. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  15. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  16. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  17. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  18. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  19. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  20. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  1. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  2. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  3. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  4. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  5. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  6. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  7. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  8. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  9. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  11. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  12. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  13. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  15. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  16. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  17. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  18. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  19. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  1. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  2. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  3. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  4. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  5. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  6. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  7. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  8. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  9. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  11. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  12. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  13. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  14. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  16. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  17. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  18. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  19. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  20. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  1. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  2. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  3. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  4. Borisade et al (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinosa are biocontrol agents (BCA) widely reported for the management of insect pests, and they are potential components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems. Compatibility of their infective conidia with low rates of four agrochemicals; Champ-DP ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borisade, OA. Vol 23, No 2 (2015) - Articles Rearing tomato whitefly and field evaluation of modified and unmodified conidia of Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Metarhizium anisopliae and low rates of Chlorpyrifos under tropical conditions. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2072-6589. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  6. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  7. Virulence of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi infecting Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Leah S. Bauer; Ann E. Hajek

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates of four species of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Isaria farinosa, and Metarhizium anisopliae) were found to be pathogenic to adults of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. Survival times for 50% of the beetles tested (ST

  8. Toxicity of the insect growth regulator lufenuron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metarhizium anisopliae has been considered a promising alternative with low environmental impacts for the biological control of a variety of insect-pests. Another alternative is the use of biological pesticides such as insect growth regulators, including lufenuron. An assessment of the potential impact of fungicides on M.

  9. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  10. Differential endophytic colonization of sorghum plant by eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virulence of the conidia before and after endophytic growth phases were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae mortality bioassay in-vitro. All the strains of the fungi colonised the sorghum plant. The strains of I. farinosa and B. bassiana were detected in the roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was ...

  11. Regulación de la expresión de los genes correspondientes al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sepsacdf

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... The entomopathogenic fungi are subject to regulation system known as signal transduction that regulates the ..... by Aspergillus and Trichoderma spp. additionally, the M. anisopliae pr1A ... coat around the hyphal bodies that eliminate cell surface ... peptides with antibiotic, antifungal and insecticidal activity.

  12. Interacting Temperature and Water Activity Modulate Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online2PDF.com

    described as a virulence factor ((Kao et al.,. 2015) and .... HPLC profile showing signals of cyclic peptide products of crude extract from M. anisopliae at 0.96 aw). Peak h eigh ts (m. AU). Retention time .... climate change scenario, where higher.

  13. Effects of single and combined applications of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to investigate the insecticidal properties of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar for their virulence against 2nd, 4th and 6th instar larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Both fungi were either applied alone or ...

  14. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  15. Effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on plant sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.; Masinde, E.W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae shows great promise for the control of adult malaria vectors. A promising strategy for infection of mosquitoes is supplying the fungus at plant feeding sites. Methods We evaluated the survival of fungus-exposed Anopheles gambiae

  16. Metachelins, mannosylated and N-oxidized coprogen-type siderophores from Metarhizium robertsii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under iron-depleted culture conditions, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii (Bischoff, Humber, and Rehner) (= M. anisopliae) produces a complex of extracellular siderophores including novel O-glycosylated and/or N-oxidized coprogen-type compounds as well as the known fungal siderophore...

  17. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  18. Development of pilot-scale fermentation and stabilization processes for the production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneun strain F52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using 100L stirred-tank bioreactors, we evaluated the effect of fermentation parameters and drying protocols on the production and stabilization of microsclerotia (MS) of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (formerly M. anisopliae F52). Results showed that stirred-tank bioreactors can ...

  19. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12243-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Brassica oleracea, *** SEQUENCING... 188 1e-52 AB241241_1( AB241241 |pid:none) Symbiotic... protist of Reticuliterme... 198 2e-52 AB241242_1( AB241242 |pid:none) Symbiotic protist of Reticuli...3575 |pid:none) Metarhizium anisopliae RAB/GTPase ... 182 1e-49 AB241243_1( AB241243 |pid:none) Symbiotic pr

  1. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  2. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  3. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  4. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  5. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  6. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  7. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  9. Ação de fungos entomopatogênicos em larvas e adultos da mosca do figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae Action of entomopathogenic fungi on the larvae and adults of the fig fly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Michelle Svedese

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A mosca do figo, Zaprionus indianus, vem se disseminando no Brasil e causou nos últimos anos perdas de até 50% na produção de figos. Uma alternativa viável de controle desta mosca pode ser a utilização de fungos entomopatogênicos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório (27±1°C, UR 70±10% e fotoperíodo de 12h para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos estágios de larva e adulto de Z. indianus a cinco concentrações (10(8 a 10(4 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 e M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. Não houve mortalidade larval e o período de pré-pupa não sofreu alteração em relação ao grupo controle, já o estágio de pupa foi aumentado em até três dias quando se utilizou B. bassiana. A emergência de adultos diminuiu em relação ao grupo controle: 10,6% quando as larvas foram tratadas com a maior concentração de B. bassiana URM2916 e 2,0% com M. anisopliae URM4403. No bioensaio com adultos, a mortalidade máxima atingiu 98,7% com B. bassiana e 100,0% com M. anisopliae. Os menores valores da CL50 foram de 1,09x10(5 conídios mL-1 para B. bassiana URM2916 e de 1,94x10(4 conídios mL-1 para M. anisopliae URM4403. O tempo letal médio (TL50 variou de 4,5 a 6,12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que ambos os fungos são eficientes e mostram ser promissores agentes biocontroladores da mosca do figo, com destaque para M. anisopliae URM4403.The "fig fly", Zaprionus indianus, has spread by in Brazil and in recent years and has caused losses of up to 50% in the production of figs. A viable alternative to control this fly may be the use of entomopathogenic fungi such. The present study was developed in laboratory (27±1°C, RH 70±10% and 12h photoperiod, to assess the susceptibility of larval and adult stages of Z. indianus to five concentrations (10(8 to 10(4 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 and M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. There was no larval mortality and the pre-pupal period did not change compared

  10. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  11. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  12. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  13. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  14. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  16. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  17. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  18. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  19. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  20. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  2. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  4. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  5. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  6. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  7. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  8. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  9. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  10. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  11. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  12. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  13. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  14. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  15. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  17. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  20. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  1. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  2. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  3. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  4. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  5. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  6. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  7. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  8. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  9. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  10. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  11. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  12. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  13. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  14. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  15. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of SU(VAR)3-9 distribution in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Daniil A; Laktionov, Petr P; Posukh, Olga V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Koryakov, Dmitry E

    2018-03-01

    Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of tissue and developmental expression of SU(VAR)3-9-bound genes indicates that in the somatic tissues tested, as well as in the ovarian nurse cells, SU(VAR)3-9 tends to associate with transcriptionally silent genes. In contrast, in the testes, SU(VAR)3-9 shows preferential association with testis-specific genes, and its binding appears dynamic during spermatogenesis. In somatic cells, the mere presence/absence of SU(VAR)3-9 binding correlates with lower/higher expression. No such correlation is found in the male germline. Interestingly, transcription units in piRNA clusters (particularly flanks thereof) are frequently targeted by SU(VAR)3-9, and Su(var)3-9 mutation affects the expression of select piRNA species. Our analyses suggest a context-dependent role of SU(VAR)3-9. In euchromatin, SU(VAR)3-9 may serve to fine-tune the expression of individual genes, whereas in heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and piRNA clusters, it may act more broadly over large chromatin domains.

  17. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  18. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  19. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  20. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  1. The Burr X Pareto Distribution: Properties, Applications and VaR Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ç. Korkmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-parameter Pareto distribution is introduced and studied. We discuss various mathematical and statistical properties of the new model. Some estimation methods of the model parameters are performed. Moreover, the peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate Value-at-Risk (VaR by means of the proposed distribution. We compare the distribution with a few other models to show its versatility in modelling data with heavy tails. VaR estimation with the Burr X Pareto distribution is presented using time series data, and the new model could be considered as an alternative VaR model against the generalized Pareto model for financial institutions.

  2. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  3. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  4. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-02-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana , P. densata , P. tabuliformis , and P. yunnanensis , with one to seven alleles per locus. The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species.

  5. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...... (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay......, using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  7. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    . In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  8. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brassica rapa var. peruviridis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brassica rapa var. peruviridis 名詞... 一般 * * * * コマツナ コマツナ コマツナ Thesaurus2015 200906099324987960 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Brassica rapa var . peruviridis

  10. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  11. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  12. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  13. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  14. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  15. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. - Highlights: • Brassica juncea var. foliosa can adapt to the stress of Th(<200 μM) under hydroponic condition. • Th was selectively distributed on cell wall, membranes and soluble fraction. • Th mainly existed in low-toxicity forms which were benefit for Th tolerance.

  16. [Investigation on Main Cultivation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Commercial Specifications Grades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-ting; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Ming-en; Duan, Hai-yan; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the main cultivation areas of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and to clarify its present cultivation status and commercial specification grades. Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus cultivated in Hunyuan and Ying County of Shanxi, Longxi, Weiyuan and Min County of Gansu and Wuchuan, Guyang and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia were investigated, including their ecological environment, cultivation history and present situation, harvesting and processing as well as commercial specification grades. The cultivation methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus changed greatly in the main cultivation areas. In Gansu and Inner Mongolia, the current major cultivation method was 2 - 3 years of seedling transplantation method, while the 3 - 5 years of seed-directly-sowed method in Inner Mongolia had been almost abandoned, and the 6 - 8 years of mountain direct seeding method was still in application in Hunyuan county of Shanxi province. On the other hand, the harvest method of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus had been gradually changed from manual harvesting in ancient times to the current mechanical harvesting although the latter method did more damage to environment of cultivation areas and the resource of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in regions Hunyuan county of Shanxi. Through investigating the processing methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in different cultivation areas, it was found that processing method varied from area to area, and no unified specifications had been formulated on processing methods in market. In addition, the current processing method was too complicated in processing the slices of prepared Astragali Radix and most were self processing by farmers themselves, creating market disorders. Moreover, the Astragali Radix products were basically without grading classification but sold as bulk cargo. It is urgent to unify the specifications and grades of Astragali Radix product, and standardize

  17. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  18. Controlling Kuka Industrial Robots : Flexible Communication Interface JOpenShowVar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Hatledal, Lars Ivar; Zhang, Houxiang; Fago, Massimiliano; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2015-01-01

    JOpenShowVar is a Java open-source cross-platform communication interface to Kuka industrial robots. This novel interface allows for read-write use of the controlled manipulator variables and data structures. JOpenShowVar, which is compatible with all the Kuka industrial robots that use KUKA Robot Controller version 4 (KR C4) and KUKA Robot Controller version 2 (KR C2), runs as a client on a remote computer connected with the Kuka controller via TCP/IP. Even though only soft real-time applica...

  19. Phenyl ethers from cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Nagakura, Naotaka; Hamada, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    Spore-derived mycobionts of the lichen Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose and their metabolites were investigated. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether was isolated from the cultures of the mycobionts of G. scripta var. serpentina, while a new phenyl ether, rikuzenol, along with two known diphenyl ethers, violaceol-I and violaceol-II, were isolated from those of G. rikuzensis. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods. Violaceol-I was chemically synthesized and interconversion between violaceol-I and violaceol-II was proven.

  20. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  1. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  2. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  3. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  4. Disruption of var2csa gene impairs placental malaria associated adhesion phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Viebig

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is one of the major causes of malaria related morbidity and mortality in newborn and mothers. The complications of pregnancy-associated malaria result mainly from massive adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA present in the placental intervillous blood spaces. Var2CSA, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family is the predominant parasite ligand mediating CSA binding. However, experimental evidence suggests that other host receptors, such as hyaluronic acid (HA and the neonatal Fc receptor, may also support placental binding. Here we used parasites in which var2csa was genetically disrupted to evaluate the contribution of these receptors to placental sequestration and to identify additional adhesion receptors that may be involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. By comparison to the wild-type parasites, the FCR3delta var2csa mutants could not be selected for HA adhesion, indicating that var2csa is not only essential for IE cytoadhesion to the placental receptor CSA, but also to HA. However, further studies using different pure sources of HA revealed that the previously observed binding results from CSA contamination in the bovine vitreous humor HA preparation. To identify CSA-independent placental interactions, FCR3delta var2csa mutant parasites were selected for adhesion to the human placental trophoblastic BeWo cell line. BeWo selected parasites revealed a multi-phenotypic adhesion population expressing multiple var genes. However, these parasites did not cytoadhere specifically to the syncytiotrophoblast lining of placental cryosections and were not recognized by sera from malaria-exposed women in a parity dependent manner, indicating that the surface molecules present on the surface of the BeWo selected population are not specifically expressed during the course of pregnancy-associated malaria. Taken

  5. Description of rainfall variability in Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, RN

    2004-01-01

    Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira (5–6th century AD) provides valuable information on the approach in ancient India towards monsoon rainfall, including its measurement and forecasting. In this context, we come across a description of the expected amount of total seasonal rainfall depending on the first rains under the 27 naks atras of Indian astronomy. This provides a rough statistical picture of what might have been the rainfall and its variability in the region around Ujjain, where Varâha-mi...

  6. On Setting Day-Ahead Equity Trading Risk Limits: VaR Prediction at Market Close or Open?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Fuertes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the information content of the ex post overnight return for one-day-ahead equity Value-at-Risk (VaR forecasting. To do so, we deploy a univariate VaR modeling approach that constructs the forecast at market open and, accordingly, exploits the available overnight close-to-open price variation. The benchmark is the bivariate VaR modeling approach proposed by Ahoniemi et al. that constructs the forecast at the market close instead and, accordingly, it models separately the daytime and overnight return processes and their covariance. For a small cap portfolio, the bivariate VaR approach affords superior predictive ability than the ex post overnight VaR approach whereas for a large cap portfolio the results are reversed. The contrast indicates that price discovery at the market open is less efficient for small capitalization, thinly traded stocks.

  7. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  8. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  9. Sub-grouping of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 var genes based on sequence analysis of coding and non-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali; Jensen, Anja T R

    2003-01-01

    and organization of the 3D7 PfEMP1 repertoire was investigated on the basis of the complete genome sequence. METHODS: Using two tree-building methods we analysed the coding and non-coding sequences of 3D7 var and rif genes as well as var genes of other parasite strains. RESULTS: var genes can be sub...

  10. Changes in var gene mRNA levels during erythrocytic development in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    , consistent with previous studies of other PfEMP1. Transcription of the pseudogene var1csa could not be detected in NF54VAR2CSA cells. CONCLUSION: The optimal sampling point for analysis of var transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR is the ring-stage, which is encouraging for the analysis of fresh...

  11. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  12. Control de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, en el fruto de piña, San Carlos, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Miranda Vindas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 6 productos para el control de Dysmicoccus brevipes en piña (Ananas comosus. El ensayo de laboratorio se realizó en el Laboratorio de Biocontroladores de la empresa BioEco Natural S.A., ubicada en Aguas Zarcas, San Carlos, mientras que los ensayos de campo se realizaron en una plantación comercial de piña, en Venecia de San Carlos. En el laboratorio se evaluó Beauveria bassiana (4,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; Metarhizium anisopliae (1,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; una mezcla de ambos hongos (0,5 g + 0,5 g.l-1 de agua destilada, de 4,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1 + 1,0 x 1010 esporas.g-1; un jabón líquido de sales potásicas, “Goyca”® (7 ml.l-1; el extracto botánico(Biorep® (mezcla de chile picante, ajo, cebolla, mostaza y gavilana (7 ml.l-1; y agua destilada como testigo. Los resultados más promisorios fueron con el extracto botánico y el jabón líqui do, los que causaron una mortalidad más rápida. Los tratamientos evaluados en la plantacióncomercial de piña, var. MD-2, fueron los mis mos, a excepción del testigo en donde se utilizó los productos utilizados de forma comercial en la finca: Diazinon® 60 EC (diazinon (0,5 ml.l-1 y Sevin® 80 WP (carbaril (1 kg.ha-1. El extrac to botánico resultó en la menor incidencia de cochinillas (X=6,4, < al testigo (X=10,8, < el Goyca® (X=13,7, < M. anisopliae (X=44,4, < B. bassiana (X=45,1, y

  13. Effect of entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Potrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of commercially used entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Four bioassays were performed: 1 pulverized entomopathogens on A. mellifera; 2 entomopathogens sprayed on a smooth surface; 3 entomopathogens sprayed on soy leaves; and 4 entomopathogens mixed with candy paste (sugar syrup. Five treatments were prepared: sterile distilled water (control, distilled water sterilized with Tween® 80 (0.01%, and the commercial entomopathogens Metarhizium anisopliae E9 (1.0 × 109 conidia mL−1, Beauveria bassiana PL63 (1.0 × 108 conidia mL−1 and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (3.0 × 108 spores mL−1. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions, with 20 workers per repetition, which were stored in a plastic box and, later, in a biological oxygen demand (B.O.D. incubator (27 ± 2 °C, RH of 60% ± 10%, 12-h photophase. The mortality of the workers was evaluated from 1 h to 240 h, and the data were analyzed using Bayesian inference. The workers killed by the ingestion of candy paste contaminated with the pathogens (products were randomly separated and selected for the removal of the midgut. Each midgut was fixed in Bouin's solution and prepared for histology. B. bassiana was verified to reduce the survival of A. mellifera workers in all bioassays. Moreover, M. anisopliae reduced the survival of A. mellifera workers directly sprayed, on a smooth surface and mixed with candy. B. thuringiensis reduced A. mellifera survival on a smooth surface and mixed with candy paste. However, its effects were lower than that observed by B. bassiana. The treatments with the biological products did not induce morphometric alterations in the midgut of A. mellifera. Keywords: Bayesian statistics, Entomopathogenic fungi, Entomopathogenic bacteria, Honeybee, Selectivity

  14. Bolívar ante la política de Cartagena en 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Forero

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available Veintinueve años contaba Simón Bolívar en los días de su llegada a Cartagena. Imaginación ardiente, ojos vivos, ademanes colmados de actividad eran los dones visibles al instante en el futuro Libertador. Traía en el alma un gran dolor.

  15. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volumetric additive reconciliation... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and...) For a facility which uses a gauge to measure the inventory of the detergent storage tank, the total...

  16. Novel adenovirus encoded virus-like particles displaying the placental malaria associated VAR2CSA antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria a...

  17. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  18. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  19. Choosing Expected Shortfall Over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe compare Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) following a Stochastic Dominance (SD) approach frequently used to order distributions in terms of welfare and in portfolio selection. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommends bank risk managers to shift the

  20. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  1. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  2. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); C. Pavlidis (Cristiana); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); P. Joly (Philippe); M. Bartsakoulia (Marina); C. Riemer (Cathy); W. Miller (Webb); G. Tzimas (Giannis); H. Wajcman (Henri); R.C. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHbVar (http://globin.bx.psu.edu/hbvar) is one of the oldest and most appreciated locus-specific databases launched in 2001 by a multi-center academic effort to provide timely information on the genomic alterations leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and

  3. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  4. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  5. PHOSPHATE NUTRITION EFFECTS ON ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; MEIJBOOM, FW; KUIPER, PJC

    The response of roots of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis to aluminium depends on the duration of exposure and the type of experiment. In a short-term study, the usual reduction of root elongation rate by Al was found. In contrast, a study for a longer period of time, 4 weeks, showed a stimulation of

  6. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  7. Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus and a key to the taxa known from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve-Raventós, F.; Villarreal, M.; Heykoop, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus, characterized by its long cystidia, broad spores and habitat in xerophytic basic pastures with communities of Thymus-Lavandula spp. is described as a new taxon from Spain. In addition, a key to 22 taxa known from Europe is given.

  8. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske hype...

  9. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  10. Clinical laboratories collaborate to resolve differences in variant interpretations submitted to ClinVar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Dolinsky, Jill S; Knight Johnson, Amy E; Pesaran, Tina; Azzariti, Danielle R; Bale, Sherri; Chao, Elizabeth C; Das, Soma; Vincent, Lisa; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-01

    Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.

  11. On the detection of effective marketing instruments and causality in VAR models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Otter, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic multivariate models become more and more popular in analyzing the behavior of competive marketing environments. Takada and Bass (1998), Dekimpe, Hanssens and Silva-Rosso (1999), and Dekimpe and Hanssens (1999) recommend to use Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models because they provide

  12. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one of the m...

  13. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which

  14. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass

  15. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  16. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... In the last few years, Beijing Forestry University (China) and the University of Natural Resources and applied Life. Sciences (Austria) have examined the suitabilities and capabilities of soil bioengineering techniques under the local condition of Beijing. One of the plant species used was Salix alba var. tristis.

  17. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. var. indica Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Huong, Hoang Thanh; Leclercq, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. vulgaris var. indica of Vietnamese origin was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Forty-six components were identified, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (24.1%) and b-cubebene (12.0%)

  19. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Khien, P.V.; Chien, Ho Trung; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Seventeen components have been identified, of which the major one was found to be linalool (91.1%)

  20. A Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) Approach to the Credit Channel for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to determine the presence and empirical significance of monetary policy and the bank lending view of the credit channel for Mauritius, which is particularly relevant at these times. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model of order three is used to examine the monetary transmission mechanism using ...