WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisopliae var anisopliae

  1. Virulence and Pre-Lethal Reproductive Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae on Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Virulencia y Efectos Pre-Letales en la Reproducción de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae en Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Pereira; Pedro Casals; Ana María Salazar; Marcos Gerding

    2011-01-01

    Obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), is a cosmopolitan pest that causes damage by suction of vascular juices and the production of honeydew, as well as for being a quarantine insect. Within control options, entomopathogenic fungi are a good alternative, nevertheless, more research is needed. In this research, the Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) isolate Qu-M984 was evaluated on P. viburni under laboratory conditions. Virulence was evaluated by lethal dose 50...

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 1010, 1 x 108, 1 x 106 and 1 x 104 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycete Isolates and their Effects on Subterranean Termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pik-Kheng Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae is a common termite pest found in oil palm plantation planted on peat. Currently, the control methods focus on using insecticides that lead to high cost and adverse effect to the environment. Approach: Biological control like the use of entomopathogens provides an alternative control method for termite infestation problem. However, several factors need to be investigated in order to obtain a virulent strain with potential to be developed into a biopesticide. Results: Three local isolates (MG, LR2 and TA of Metarhizium anisopliae were obtained and identified as M. anisopliae var. anisopliae using molecular techniques. Growth performance of isolates on four basal media namely, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, Potato Dextrose Agar with 1% yeast extract (PDAY, Sabaroud Dextrose Agar (SDA and Sabaroud Dextrose Agar with 1% yeast extract (SDAY was assessed. The pathogenicity of each isolate was tested against subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus at three concentrations of 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 conidia mL-1. Infections of the isolates were examined using electron microscopy technique. The growth performance of each isolate differed significantly. Among all basal media, only SDAY was able to produce high growth performance and thick conidia mats with all isolates. The most pathogenic isolate was LR2, which caused 100% mortality at 1×107 conidia mL-1 within 3 days post-inoculation. Conclusion/Recommendations: All three isolates were pathogenic against C. curvignathus as they were able to germinate and penetrate into the termite cuticle within 15 hours post-inoculation. The three local isolates of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae have potential to be developed as biopesticides to control termites, C. curvignathus in oil palm plantations.

  5. Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Efecto de los Fungicidas sobre el Desarrollo del Hongo Entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Yáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured through the colony rate growth in agar media, and those reaching up to 50% of the check growth were considered compatible. Results indicate that the benomyl and fenhexamid fungicides were compatible with the five isolates whereas, azoxystrobin and fludioxonil were incompatible. Furthermore, benomyl and fludioxonil reduced conidia germination by 53 and 91%, and germination tube length by 18 and 37%, respectively.Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin es un hongo entomopatógeno que se utiliza para el control de diferentes insectos, uno de sus usos más frecuentes es en frutales menores, donde también se utilizan fungicidas para el control de enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomil, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione y metalaxil, en concentraciones de 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 y 100 mg L-1, sobre el crecimiento de la colonia, porcentaje de germinación de conidias y longitud de tubos germinativos de distintas cepas de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. Las cepas utilizadas fueron Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430 y Qu-M984, seleccionadas por su uso comercial para el control de diferentes insectos en frutales menores. El

  6. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thiamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage termites in sugarcane. PMID:21584407

  7. Computed tomography of granulomatous pneumonia with oxalosis in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) associated with Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie H; Conley, Kenneth; Berry, Clifford; Farina, Lisa; Sigler, Lynne; Wellehan, James F X; Roehrl, Michael H A; Heard, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    An 18-yr-old, male, albino, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was evaluated for decreased appetite and abnormal buoyancy. Computed tomography (CT) of the coelomic cavity showed multifocal mineral and soft tissue attenuating pulmonary masses consistent with pulmonary fungal granulomas. Additionally, multifocal areas of generalized, severe emphysema and pulmonary and pleural thickening were identified. The alligator was euthanized and necropsy revealed severe fungal pneumonia associated with oxalosis. Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae was cultured from lung tissue and exhibited oxalate crystal formation in vitro. Crystals were identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate by X-ray powder defractometry. Fungal identification was based on morphology, including tissue sporulation, and DNA sequence analysis. This organism is typically thought of as an entomopathogen. Clinical signs of fungal pneumonia in nonavian reptiles are often inapparent until the disease is at an advanced stage, making antemortem diagnosis challenging. This case demonstrates the value of CT for pulmonary assessment and diagnosis of fungal pneumonia in the American alligator. Fungal infection with associated oxalosis should not be presumed to be aspergillosis. PMID:22204066

  8. Virulence and Pre-Lethal Reproductive Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae on Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Virulencia y Efectos Pre-Letales en la Reproducción de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae en Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, is a cosmopolitan pest that causes damage by suction of vascular juices and the production of honeydew, as well as for being a quarantine insect. Within control options, entomopathogenic fungi are a good alternative, nevertheless, more research is needed. In this research, the Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff isolate Qu-M984 was evaluated on P. viburni under laboratory conditions. Virulence was evaluated by lethal dose 50 (LD50 and lethal time 50 (LT50, for each of the four life stages of the female. The doses tested were 10(5, 10(6, 10(7 and 10(8 conidia mL-1. Also fecundity, egg size, fertility, and longevity of adult females were evaluated at doses of 10(5 and 10(6 conidia mL-1, the evaluations were made every 2 d throughout the insect life time. The LD50 and LT50 obtained were variable for each life stage, although without statistical differences among life stages (P > 0.05, ranging from LD50 = 7.3 x 10(5 to 4.9 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 and LT50 = 7.74 to 9.97 d at 10(8 conidia mL-1. Significant differences (P 0.05.Chanchito blanco de la vid, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, es una plaga cosmopolita que causa daños tanto por succión de jugos vasculares como por su producción de mielecilla, así como también por ser un insecto cuarentenario. Dentro de las opciones de control, hongos entomopatógenos son una buena alternativa, sin embargo, más investigación es necesaria. En esta investigación fue evaluado Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff aislamiento Qu-M984 en P. viburni bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Fue evaluada virulencia según dosis letal 50 (LD50 y tiempo letal 50 (LT50 para cada uno de los cuatro estados de desarrollo de la hembra. Las dosis evaluadas fueron 10(5, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidias mL-1. Fecundidad, tamaño de huevos, fertilidad y longevidad de hembras adultas fueron evaluados con dosis 10(5 y 10(6 conidias mL-1, las evaluaciones fueron

  9. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.;

    2006-01-01

    susceptibility of two non-target pyrgomorphids, Pyrgomorpha cognata and Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus, to M. anisopliae was tested in the field. Results show that P. cognata under field conditions is as susceptible to infection by M. anisopliae as acridids, whereas P. b. hieroglyphicus is less susceptible...

  10. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez.; Marcos Gerding; Andrés France; Ricardo Ceballos

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC) and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman). In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8) conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90) were 3.8 x ...

  11. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman. In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8 conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90 were 3.8 x 10(5 and 8 x 10(7 conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03. In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10 conidia per hive were evaluated. The treatments were: a conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame inside the hive; b dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames; and c dry conidia in a dispenser path at the entrance of the hive. Furthermore, untreated hives were included as controls. After 21 days of treatment, the dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames showed 67% less bees infested by the mite than the control (p La efectividad del aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff, seleccionado previamente por su resistencia a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC, y patogenicidad sobre Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman fue evaluada en laboratorio y en ensayos de terreno. Las primeras pruebas consistieron en pulverizar concentraciones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 sobre varroas adultas. La concentración letal para matar el 50 y 90% de la población (CL50 y CL90 fueron de 3,8 x 10(5 y 8 x 10(7 conidias mL-1, respectivamente (χ² = 2,03. En otoño se evaluaron en terreno tres métodos de aplicación de una dosis de 5 x 10(10 conidias por colmena. Los tratamientos fueron: a conidias estampadas en papel filtro ubicado cada dos panales móviles al interior de la colmena; b conidias espolvoreadas sobre y entre los panales; y c dispensador de conidias ubicado en la piquera de las colmenas. Además se

  12. 金龟子绿僵菌诱发UV-B抗性导致分生孢子产孢和孢子逆境耐受性的转化%Inducing UV-B tolerance of Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae conidia results in a trade-off between conidial production and conidial stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    德罗奇欧· 兰格尔; Donald W Roberts

    2007-01-01

    The conidial tolerance of Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae isolate ARSEF 2575 to UV-B irradiation is greatly influenced by growth-environment alterations. In this review, we report high variability in conidial UV-B tolerance in response to altered culture conditions.Conidia produced on insect cadavers[Zophobas morio(Coleoptera) or Galleria mellonella(Lepidoptera)] had low tolerance to UV-B radiation; and conidia produced on potato dextrose agar supplemented with yeast extract (PDAY) had medium UV-B tolerance; whereas conidia produced on a minimal medium without any carbon source (MM), on MM with a non-preferred carbon source such as lactose (=MML), on PDAY plus 1 M NaCl or KCl, or PDBY with high alkalinity had the highest UV-B tolerances. All of the above conditions that induced high UV-B tolerance, however, also greatly reduced conidial production. Comparisons between stress tolerance and conidial production, particularly with conidia produced under osmotic and nutritive stress, point out that the benefits of producing very tolerant conidia have the enormous cost of low conidial production. Growth under visible light also greatly improved conidial UV-B tolerance, but light did not negatively influence conidial production. Therefore, culture on rich media under light is proposed as the most promising approach to producing conidia with improved UV-B tolerance for biological control of pest insects in agriculture.

  13. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  14. Production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in liquid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was the development of a liquid culture method for producing stable, infective propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for control of soil-dwelling insect pests. Three strains of M. anisopliae, F52, TM109, and MA1200, were evaluated using aerated, liq...

  15. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  16. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  17. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  18. Trehalose and trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria infected with Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA ZHAO; ZHONG-KANG WANG; YOU-PING YIN; YAN-LING LI; ZHEN-LUN LI; GUO-XIONG PENG; YU-XIAN XIA

    2007-01-01

    Topical application of the Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum specialist strain CQMa102 to the locust Locusta migratoria man ilensis results in changes of the concentrations of trehalose and glucose in the haemolymph. Micrographs of the locust haemolymph shows Metarhizium anisopliae can effectivly penetrate the external skeleton of locust and after 2 days infection, the hyphae body will appear in the haemolymph of infected insects. The time in decrease of trehalose concentration coincided with that in increase of trehalose-hydrolysing enzyme activity in the haemolymph of the fungus-infected insects. Overlay gel analysis indicated there was considerably more trehalose-hydrolysing activity in the haemolymph of locusts infected by fungus than in controls. A comparable isoform was identified in in vitro culture of the fungus, suggesting a fungal origin for the in vivo enzyme. Haemolymph trehalose decreased significantly during mycosis of locusts by M. anisopliae. All these results suggested that this fungus may take advantage of competing nutrient utilization against the insect by its trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme secretion. It may provide fundamental knowledge for fungal pathogenesis.

  19. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  20. Virulencia de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre picudo del nopal Metarnasius spinolae

    OpenAIRE

    Orduño Cruz, Nuvia

    2012-01-01

    El picudo del nopal (Metamasius spinolae), es uno de los principales factores limitantes de la producción comercial de nopal en Tlalnepantla Morelos. El control de plagas se basa en insecticidas y el uso de nuevas alternativas como los hongos entomopatógenos ha sido poco estudiada. Con el objeto de seleccionar aislamientos de las especies B. bassiana y M. anisopliae para el control del picudo del nopal se evaluaron seis aislamientos de B. bassiana y dos de M. anisopliae en...

  1. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus fruitfly (Diptera : Tephritidae Eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae a estágios imaturos de Anastrepha fraterculus a mosca das frutas (Diptera : Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henry Rodrigues Destéfano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales strain E9, isolated from the pasture spittlebug Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, against larvae, prepupae and pupae stage and emergent adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruitfly. The bioassay was carried out simulating field conditions, on autoclaved (AS and non-autoclaved (NAS soil from typical citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil. Various concentrations of conidia were incorporated into the soil the mortality, calculated based on the percentage of adult emergence, was 86% for the highest conidia concentrations: 2.52 x 10(10 for AS and 2.52 x 10(10 for NAS. The lethal concentration (LC50, expressed as conidia concentration, was 8.44 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil (S for AS and 12.23 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil for NAS.O estudo avaliou a eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales linhagem E9, isolada da cigarrinha das pastagens Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, contra larvas, prepupas, pupas e adultos emergentes de Anastreha fraterculus, a mosca Sul Americana das frutas. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos simulando condições de campo em solo autoclavado (AS e não autoclavado (NAS de pomares típicos de citros no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Várias concentrações de conídios foram incorporadas no solo. A mortalidade calculada sobre a porcentagem de adultos emergentes, foi de 86% para as concentrações mais altas de conídios: 2,52 x 10(10 para AS e 2,52 x 10(10 para NAS. A concentração letal (LC50 expressa pela concentração de conídios, foi 8,44 x 10(9 conídios/g de solo para AS e 12,2 x 10(9 conídios/g/S para NAS.

  2. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  3. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  4. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA. Metarhizium anisopli...

  5. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 109 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  6. Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis of mosquito larvae: a verdict of accidental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Tariq M; Greenfield, Bethany P J; Greig, Carolyn; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Taylor, James W D; Piasecka, Justyna; Dudley, Ed; Abdulla, Ahmed; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Penny, Mark W; Eastwood, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungal pathogen of terrestrial arthropods, kills the aquatic larvae of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. The fungus kills without adhering to the host cuticle. Ingested conidia also fail to germinate and are expelled in fecal pellets. This study investigates the mechanism by which this fungus adapted to terrestrial hosts kills aquatic mosquito larvae. Genes associated with the M. anisopliae early pathogenic response (proteinases Pr1 and Pr2, and adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2) are upregulated in the presence of larvae, but the established infection process observed in terrestrial hosts does not progress and insecticidal destruxins were not detected. Protease inhibitors reduce larval mortality indicating the importance of proteases in the host interaction. The Ae. aegypti immune response to M. anisopliae appears limited, whilst the oxidative stress response gene encoding for thiol peroxidase is upregulated. Cecropin and Hsp70 genes are downregulated as larval death occurs, and insect mortality appears to be linked to autolysis through caspase activity regulated by Hsp70 and inhibited, in infected larvae, by protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented that a traditional host-pathogen response does not occur as the species have not evolved to interact. M. anisopliae retains pre-formed pathogenic determinants which mediate host mortality, but unlike true aquatic fungal pathogens, does not recognise and colonise the larval host. PMID:24349111

  7. 76 FR 26194 - Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... when dosed at 3.63-4.42 x 10\\10\\ cfu/animal (median lethal dose (LD 50 ) > 2,000 milligrams per...) 305-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of April 8, 2009 (74 FR 15969... oral toxicity and pathogenicity study demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 was not...

  8. LIQUID BIOFORMULATION OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IS EFFECTIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF COW PEA MOSAIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarodee Boruah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid bioformulation of Metarhizium anisopliae amended with oils and adjuvants was prepared. Six oils viz., sunflower, safflower, soybean, mustard, arachnid and coconut oils at three different concentrations, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 per cent and three adjuvants viz., glycerol @ 5, 8 and 10 per cent; tween-80 @ 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 1.0 per cent and arachnid oil @ 1, 5 and 10 per cent were tested to see their effect on growth and development of M. anisopliae in the bioformulation. Liquid bioformulation of M. anisopliae amended with Glycerol (10.0% + Sunflower oil (0.5% was found significantly effective which showed 84.33 per cent and 94.93 per cent higher surface area covered and biomass production respectively than the control. Efficacy of the bioformulation was tested against cow pea aphid, Aphis craccivora in pot as well as field condition. Liquid formulation of M. anisopliae supplemented with Glycerol (10.0% + Sunflower oil (0.5% was found to be significantly effective causing aphid mortality of 80 per cent at 30 days after spraying with protection of secondary spread of cow pea mosaic disease up to 100 per cent and 96.03 per cent in pot and field condition respectively. Spraying liquid formulation of M. anisopliae amended with Glycerol (10.0% + Sunflower oil (0.5% at 15 days interval for twice proved to be the best treatment with highest yield of 24.03 t/ha with a cost benefit ratio of 1:7.95 as compared to control (11.20 t/ha.

  9. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond t

  10. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  11. Účinnost entomopatogenní houby \\kur{Metarhizium anisopliae} na vybrané druhy hostitelů

    OpenAIRE

    KONOPICKÁ, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus \\kur{Metarhizium anisopliae} is one of the most common species used in biological control against pests. The thesis is analyzing effectiveness of original strains and continuously passaged strains of \\kur{M. anisopliae} through nutrient substrates and different developmental stages mealworm \\kur{(Tenebrio molitor)}. For original and continuously passaged strains were also evaluated the growth and spore production at different temperatures cultivation. In this thesis wa...

  12. Vectorial Capacity of Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus Type 2 Is Reduced with Co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, is the major dengue vector and a worldwide public health threat combated basically by chemical insecticides. In this study, the vectorial competence of Ae. aegypti co-infected with a mildly virulent Metarhizium anisopliae and fed with blood infected with the DENV-2 virus, was examined. Methodology/Principal Findings The study encompassed three bioassays (B). In B1 the median lethal time (LT50) of Ae. aegypti exposed to M. anisopliae was determined in four treatments:...

  13. Spinosad interacts synergistically with the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae against the exotic wireworms Agriotes lineatus and Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jerry D; Kabaluk, J Todd; Goettel, Mark S; Myers, Judith H

    2007-02-01

    We determined that spinosad interacts synergistically with the biocontrol agent Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorokin to increase the mortality of two wild-collected wireworm species, Agriotes lineatus (L.), and Agriotes obscurus (L.). Bioassays were performed using a M. anisopliae isolate originally acquired from a local wireworm cadaver. M. anisopliae was applied as a soil drench at 3.3 x 10(2) and 10(4) conidia per gram sand, respectively. Soil drenches also were prepared using a commercial formulation of the actinomycete toxins spinosyn-A and spinosyn-D (common name spinosad) at sublethal doses of 1.5, 3, and 6 ppm active ingredient per gram sand. Combined treatments of spinosad and M. anisopliae were synergistic in causing mortality for all spinosad concentrations. Wireworm feeding activity was reduced after exposure to both spinosad and M. anisopliae and was found to be concentration dependent. The high mortality and reduced rate of wireworm feeding suggest that spinosad and M. anisopliae treatment combinations should be tested in the field. PMID:17370806

  14. Metarhizium anisopliae infection alters feeding and trophallactic behavior in the ant Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Lu, Li-Hua; Zalucki, M P; He, Yu-Rong

    2016-07-01

    In social insects, social behavior may be changed in a way that preventing the spread of pathogens. We infected workers of the ant Solenopsis invicta with an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and then videotaped and/or measured worker feeding and trophallactic behavior. Results showed that fungal infected S. invicta enhanced their preference for bitter alkaloid chemical quinine on 3days after inoculation, which might be self-medication of S. invicta by ingesting more alkaloid substances in response to pathogenic infection. Furthermore, infected ants devoted more time to trophallactic behavior with their nestmates on 3days post inoculation, in return receiving more food. Increased interactions between exposed ants and their naive nestmates suggest the existence of social immunity in S. invicta. Overall, our study indicates that S. invicta may use behavioral defenses such as self-medication and social immunity in response to a M. anisopliae infection. PMID:27234423

  15. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis. PMID:27071674

  16. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  17. Efficacy of enthomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Mendoza, J E; Martínez-Aguirre, M R; García-Vidal, L; Izquierdo, J; Bielza, P

    2014-02-01

    The tomato borer Tuta absoluta Meyrick is a serious tomato pest that has lately undergone a rapid expansion, causing severe crop losses. An integrated management is required to control this insect, within which biological control is now beginning to play a key role. In this regard, the effectiveness of a liquid formulation based on strains of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (4.46 x 10(9) viable conidia per milliliter), applied together with irrigation water, has been evaluated by laboratory tests on different populations of T. absoluta. A bioassay method has been developed to test the efficacy of the product. The technique chosen has been validated and the different studied populations have been typified according to their susceptibility, determining the baseline susceptibility of the pest to the fungus. The results revealed a complete efficacy of M. anisopliae against pupae of T. absoluta at the recommended label rate (5.58 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter) for the populations assayed. Moreover, a notably lower dose was also sufficiently effective to control the tomato borer populations because values of LC90 lower than 3 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter were obtained unfailingly. The most sensitive populations were those collected in Almeria and Nijar, Spain, with LC50 values of 0.21 and 0.22 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1), respectively. The average value obtained for LC50 was 0.34 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1) and 2 x 10(9) for LC90. These results show the potential of M. anisopliae to control pupae of the tomato borer in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24665693

  18. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  19. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  20. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosa Tavassoli; Seyed Hassan Pourseyed; Abdulghaffar Ownagh; Iraj Bernousi; Karim Mardani

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biologica...

  1. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca2+ disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control. PMID:27328936

  2. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2010-09-01

    Field efficacy of an emulsifiable concentrate formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 for the control of Ixodes scapularis nymphs was evaluated at residential sites in northwestern Connecticut in 2007. Two spray applications with two rates, 3.2 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) spores/cm2, were made: the first on 8-9 May, 2-3 wk before nymphal activity, and the second on 29 June or 2 July when ticks were active. There was no significant difference in nymphal abundance between the three treatment groups (P = 0.490) after the first application, indicating that preseason or early applications are not effective, despite a bioasaay with yellow mealworms that showed spores in the treated areas was infective for at least 1 mo postapplication. By contrast, there was a significant difference in the number of nymphs collected between the treatments and control 3 wk (F = 16.928, df = 2, P anisopliae. The application of M. anisopliae strain F52 could provide another tool for the integrated approach to managing ticks in the residential landscape. PMID:20939382

  3. Mmc, a gene involved in microcycle conidiation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cao, Yueqing; Xia, Yuxian

    2010-10-01

    Microcycle conidiation is a survival mechanism for some fungi encountering unfavorable conditions, in which asexual spores germinate secondary spores directly without formation of mycelium. Here, we isolated a microcycle conidiation associated gene, Mmc, from Metarhizium anisopliae and obtained its full length of cDNA and DNA sequence. To clarify its roles in conidiation, we constructed an Mmc RNA interference (RNAi) vector with dual promoter system to knockdown Mmc transcript level, and then analyzed RNAi mutant phenotypes. On microcycle conidiation medium, the RNAi mutant performed normal conidiation instead of microcycle conidiation with significantly reduced growth speed and conidia yield of 5.29-fold and 3.18-fold lower, respectively, than that of the wild-type. Meanwhile, on normal conidiation medium, no significant difference was found in conidiation speed and total yield between the wild-type and RNAi mutant. These data demonstrated that the Mmc gene regulated microcycle conidiation but did not affect normal conidiation. In addition, results of heat treatment, UV-B radiation and bioassays of RNAi mutant indicated that Mmc was also involved in heat resistance but irrelevant to UV-B tolerance and virulence of M. anisopliae. This study helped understanding the regulation of sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae. PMID:20546749

  4. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Treated insects placed with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  5. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  6. Production of microsclerotia of the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and their potential for use as a biocontrol agent for soil-inhabiting insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsclerotia (MS), overwintering structures produced by many plant pathogenic fungi, have not been described for Metarhizium anisopliae. Three strains of M. anisopliae – F52, TM109, and MA1200 – formed MS in shake flask cultures using media with varying carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitroge...

  7. Protease production during growth and autolysis of submerged Metarhizium anisopliae cultures Produção de protease durante o crescimento e análise de culturas submersas de Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto U.L. Braga

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and autolysis of two strains of the entomopathogenic deuteromycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were evaluated in medium containing casein or glucose as carbon source. Parameters such as economic coefficient and degree of autolysis were determined for each strain. Protease production was determined throughout the growth and autolysis phases of the cultures on medium under conditions of protease induction (in the presence of casein as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus was shown to utilize casein as a carbon/energy source in a more efficient manner than glucose. The autolysis shown by the strains was intense under both types of growth conditions, reaching up to 62.7% of the dry mass produced and started soon after the depletion of the exogenous carbon source. The relationship between the proteolytic activities of the two strains evaluated varied significantly (a maximum of 19.78 on the 5th day and a minimum of 2.03 on the 16th day of growth during the various growth and autolysis phases, clearly showing that the difference between the growth curves and the difference in the kinetics of enzyme production may decisively affect the process of strain selection for protease production.O crescimento e a autólise de duas linhagens do deuteromiceto entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae foram avaliados em meio contendo caseína ou glicose como fonte de carbono. Foram determinados parâmetros como o coeficiente econômico e o grau de autólise apresentado pelas linhagens. A produção de protease foi determinada durante todas as fases do crescimento e da autólise das culturas, em meio indutor da produção de proteases (meio contendo caseína como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. Pôde-se verificar que o fungo foi capaz de utilizar a caseína como fonte de carbono/energia de maneira mais eficiente do que a glicose. A autólise apresentada pelas linhagens foi intensa em ambas as condi

  8. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Houping; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-08-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisoplae. Significant time-mortality response was found for each isolates. Isolate B. bassiana GHA killed A. planipennis adults at a faster rate compared with other isolates tested, with the lowest average time-to-death values. The LC50 values estimated under direct immersion method ranged from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.9 x 10(7), 3.5 x 10(4) to 5.3 x 10(5), and 4.1 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) conidia/ml for B. basissiana and from 3.2 x 10(6) to 1.1 x 10(7), 4.5 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(5), and 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.2 x 10(5) conidia/ml for M. anisopliae at 4, 5, and 6 d after treatment, respectively. By days 5 and 6, B. bassiana GHA outperformed all other isolates tested except ARSEF 7234, followed by ARSEF 7152, 6393, and 7180. Significant concentration-mortality response was also observed for two B. bassiana GHA formulations, BotaniGard ES and Mycotrol O, and M. anisopliae F52 when insects were treated through foliar exposure. The LC50 values ranged from 114.5 to 309.6, 18.4 to 797.3, and 345.3 to 362.0 conidia/cm2 for BotaniGard, Mycotrol, and M. anisopliae F52, respectively. Based on the results of these bioassays, the efficacy of both B. bassiana GHA formulations and M. anisopliae F52 were similar against adult A. planipennis. The potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for management of A. planipennis in North America is discussed. PMID:16937660

  9. Fungo Metarhizium anisopliae e o controle de Frankliniella occidentalis em alface hidropônico Control of Frankliniella occidentalis in hidroponic lettuce by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Biaggioni Lopes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande provoca grandes prejuízos em cultivos comerciais de alface, através do dano direto, durante a alimentação no tecido vegetal, e pela transmissão de virose. O desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de controle da praga em cultivos protegidos vem se tornando necessária em função dos problemas acarretados pelo uso constante de inseticidas químicos. Foi avaliada a eficiência de pulverizações do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (isolado 1104 nas concentrações 5x10(6 e 1x10(8 conídios ml-1, visando o controle da praga em cultivos de alface hidropônico. A eficiência de controle do fungo nas duas concentrações chegou a 60%, seis dias após a primeira pulverização. Nas parcelas que não receberam o tratamento com o patógeno, observou-se um aumento populacional de 46,5%. Contudo, o número de adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas foi semelhante para áreas tratadas e não tratadas, devido à alta mobilidade da praga na cultura. Constatou-se também um número crescente de adultos mortos com estruturas do patógeno, nas parcelas pulverizadas com o fungo. A ausência de toxicidade e de período de carência dos fungos entomopatogênicos torna estes microrganismos importantes na substituição de alguns inseticidas químicos na cultura do alface. Estudos mais detalhados sobre a utilização de M. anisopliae em cultivos protegidos são necessários para aplicações em grande escala.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis causes significant losses in areas of lettuce production, damaging leaf tissue during feeding and vectoring pathogenic viruses. The development of new strategies for the control of thrips in greenhouses is essential to reduce problems caused by the constant use of chemical insecticides. The efficiency of applications of Metarhizium anisopliae (strain 1104, at the concentrations of 5x10(6 and 1x10(8 conidia ml-1, was evaluated for the control of thrips in areas

  10. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  11. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  12. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  13. Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia mixed with soil against the eggs of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Renan Nunes; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Luz, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 conidia mixed with soil was tested against Aedes aegypti eggs. Mycelium and new conidia developed first on eggs between 4.8 and 15 days respectively after incubation of fungus-treated soils at 3.3 × 10(3) up to 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/g soil at 25°C and relative humidities close to saturation. After 15-day incubation, 53.3% of the eggs exposed to soil with 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/g showed external development of mycelium and conidia. Fungus-inoculated soils (but not untreated controls) showed some mycelial growth and sporulation apart from the eggs. Some eggs on treated soils hatched; those larvae died and eventually showed fungal development on their bodies. The cumulative relative eclosion of larvae after submersion of treated eggs in water decreased from 52.2% at 3.3 × 10(3) conidia/g to 25.3% at 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/g. These findings clearly showed that A. aegypti eggs can be infected by M. anisopliae when deposited on fungus-contaminated soil. The effectiveness of M. anisopliae against gravid females, larvae, and also eggs of A. aegypti underscored the possible usefulness of this fungus as a mycoinsecticide, whether naturally occurring or artificially applied, in the breeding sites of this mosquito. PMID:21984368

  14. [Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahiense, Thiago C; Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele da C; Perinotto, Wendell M de S; Bittencourt, Vãnia R E P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment. PMID:18373901

  15. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of application as well as reducing their sensitivity to UV radiation, high temperatures and the inevitable contact with water. This study was conducted to develop formulations that facilitate the application of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores for the control of anopheline larvae, and also improve their persistence under field conditions. Methods Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the ability of aqueous (0.1% Tween 80, dry (organic and inorganic and oil (mineral and synthetic formulations to facilitate the spread of fungal spores over the water surface and improve the efficacy of formulated spores against anopheline larvae as well as improve spore survival after application. Field bioassays were then carried out to test the efficacy of the most promising formulation under field conditions in western Kenya. Results When formulated in a synthetic oil (ShellSol T, fungal spores of both Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were easy to mix and apply to the water surface. This formulation was more effective against anopheline larvae than 0.1% Tween 80, dry powders or mineral oil formulations. ShellSol T also improved the persistence of fungal spores after application to the water. Under field conditions in Kenya, the percentage pupation of An. gambiae was significantly reduced by 39 - 50% by the ShellSol T-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana spores as compared to the effects of the application of unformulated spores. Conclusions ShellSol T is an effective carrier for fungal spores when targeting anopheline larvae under both laboratory and field conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi formulated with

  16. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  17. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Kirby, M.J.; Luz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the

  18. Field bioassay of Metarhizium anisopliae strains to control the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Allymehr, M; Pourseyed, S H; Ownag, A; Bernousi, I; Mardani, K; Ghorbanzadegan, M; Shokrpoor, S

    2011-06-10

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically deleterious ectoparasite of laying hens worldwide. To evaluate the efficacy of three strains (V245, 3247 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with potential as acaricides against D. gallinae, this investigation was carried out in a commercial caged laying poultry farm in Naghedeh, West Azarbaijan of Iran. The parasite infestation already existed in the farm. Sunflower oil suspension of all fungal strains, each in two concentrations (1×10(7) and 1×10(9) conidia/ml) were used separately as spray on hens and cages, and in the control group the cages were only sprayed with sunflower oil and sterile distilled water. For estimating the population rate of mites before and after treatment, special cardboard traps were fixed to cages during a 1-month period. The traps were placed on weeks -1, 0, 1, 2 and 3 and always removed after 1 w. The results showed that the population rates post fungal treatment with the lower concentration were not significantly different compared to the control group. However, the reduction in mite numbers induced by all three strains at the concentration of 1×10(9) conidia/ml was significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). The results revealed that under field conditions, higher concentrations of M. anisopliae will be required for controlling D. gallinae. PMID:21320753

  19. Metarhizium anisopliae as a Biological Control Agent Against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Shigidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p≤0.05 reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  20. Evaluating Toxicity of Extracted Destruxin from Metarhizium Anisopliae Against Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin produces some cyclic peptide toxins, destruxins, which exhibit a variety of insecticidal actions. Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of young citrus trees; therefore its effective and safe control is a important issue. Approach: Five isolates of M. anisopliae were inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB mediums. Destruxin was extracted by adding chloroform. Citrus leafminer was bioassayed by using the leaves containing early stages larvae and the data were recorded after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after treatment. Results: The range of mortality was between 30-65% based on the endpoint data. The minimum of three days to achieve 50% mortality was proved by probit analysis of time-mortality responses. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxins from isolates cause 17.2-48.5, 9.4-37.5 and 0-26.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Bioassay of destruxin by using citrus leafminer larvae shows its acceptable effect of destruxin. By considering biology of this species and calculated LT50s, destruxin seems to be an effectiveness component of IPM programs. The 10, 15 and 20 fold dilutions of extracted destruxin have a reduced amount of mortality, but in some cases it can balance the expensive production process of microbial agents and their efficacy.

  1. Safety and acquisition potential of Metarhizium anisopliae in entomovectoring with bumble bees, Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagghe, Guy; De Meyer, Laurens; Meeus, Ivan; Mommaerts, Veerle

    2013-02-01

    In the context of integrated pest management with biological control and reduced pesticide use, dissemination of entomopathogenic fungi with insects has the potency to protect crops and specifically their flowers against pests and diseases. But before implementation of such entomovectoring system, a measurement of risks of the microbial biocontrol agent toward the vectoring insect is crucial. The essential contributions of this project are that 1) exposure of bumble bees, Bombus terrestris (L.) to powder containing 10(7) spores of the commercial biocontrol agent Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 (Biol020) per gram, was safe; and 2) that when bumble bees had walked through this spore concentration (10(7) spores per gram) in a dispenser, their body carried 9.3 +/- 1 x 10(6) spores/bumble bee, and this was still 2.6 10(6) spores after a flight of 60 s, representing the average time to fly from the dispenser to the crop flowers. 3) In contrast, a 100-fold higher spore concentration (10(9) spores per gram powder) was highly toxic and the acquisition on the bumble bee body was only 2.5 times higher. Based on these data, future studies can start investigating the protection efficacy of this entomovector system with M. anisopliae and bumble bees without harming the vector and with a loading of the vector considered enough to obtain a good inoculation into and protection of the flowers. PMID:23448041

  2. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10³ to 10(7 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10³ conidia/ml at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05 making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  3. Isolation and efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) for the control of Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae:suspected dengue vector in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hazrat Bilal; Soaib Ali Hassan; Imtinan Akram Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (M. anisopliae) in the local environment, and evaluate its efficacy against the suspected dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Pakistan. Methods: According to the standard procedure, M. anisopliae was isolated from the dead mosquitoes which were collected from the field or dead after the collection. Bioassay was performed to determine its efficacy. Results: The results indicated that M. anisopliae had larvicidal effect with LC50 value 1.09×105 and LC90 value 1.90×1013 while it took 45.41 h to kill 50%of tested population. Conclusions: Taking long time to kill 50% population when compare with the synthetic insecticides, is the only drawback for the use of entomopathogenic fungus but these bio-pesticides are safe for the use.

  4. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.)

  5. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  6. Production of microsclerotia of the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and their potential for use as a biocontrol agent for soil-inhabiting insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark A; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2009-08-01

    Microsclerotia (MS), overwintering structures produced by many plant pathogenic fungi, have not been described for Metarhizium anisopliae. Three strains of M. anisopliae--F52, TM109, and MA1200--formed MS in shake flask cultures using media with varying carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios. Under the conditions of this study, all strains produced MS, compact hyphal aggregates that become pigmented with culture age, in addition to more typical blastospores and mycelia. While all strains formed desiccation tolerant MS, highest concentrations (2.7-2.9 x 10(8) L(-1) liquid medium) were produced in rich media with C:N ratios of 30:1 and 50:1 by strain F52. All three strains of M. anisopliae produced similar biomass concentrations when media and growth time were compared. Strain MA1200 produced higher concentrations of blastospores than the other two strains of M. anisopliae with highest blastospore concentrations (1.6 and 4.2 x 10(8) blastospores ml(-1) on days 4 and 8, respectively) in media with the highest carbon and nitrogen concentrations. Microsclerotial preparations of M. anisopliae containing diatomaceous earth survived air-drying (to anisopliae and provides a novel approach for the control of soil-dwelling insects with this entomopathogenic fungus. PMID:19358886

  7. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  8. Allergen-triggered airway hyperresponsiveness and lung pathology in mice sensitized with the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M D; Madison, S L; Sailstad, D M; Gavett, S H; Selgrade, M K

    2000-02-21

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus recently licensed for indoor control of cockroaches, a major source of allergens. While M. anisopliae has been shown to be non-infectious and non-toxic to mammals there has been only limited research on potential allergenicity. Using a mouse model, we previously demonstrated allergic immune and inflammatory responses to this agent. The present study was designed to determine whether these responses were associated with changes in pulmonary responses, lung pathology, and the cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Soluble factors from fungal components were combined in equal protein amounts to form M. anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). BALB/C mice were intratracheally (i.t.) challenged with 10 microg MACA 14 days post intraperitoneal sensitization with 25 microg fungal antigen in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Physiological and cellular changes were examined. The mice were tested for airway hyperresponsiveness before (No Chal) and after (1, 3, and 8 days post challenge (DPIT)) MACA IT challenge. Subsequently, serum, BALF and the lungs were harvested. All treatment groups concurrently demonstrated significant non-specific pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx) and increased pulmonary sensitivity to methacholine (Mch) at 1 DPIT MACA challenge. Where as both adjuvant treated and naïve mice airway responses had returned to near normal levels by 3 DPIT, mice which were previously sensitized with MACA were still hyperresponsive to Mch challenge at 3 and 8 DPIT. This hyperresponsiveness correlates with eosinophil and lymphocyte influx, which is maximal at 3 DPIT and still elevated at 8 DPIT. Interleukin (IL) 5 was elevated for all treatment groups at 1 DPIT but only the MACA sensitized mice maintained elevated levels for both 3 and 8 DPIT. Furthermore, MACA sensitized mice had a more extensive inflammatory histopathology at all examined time points with peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates, like

  9. Allergic responses to the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M D; Sailstad, D M; Selgrade, M K

    1998-10-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a microbial pesticide to control cockroaches and other insects. M. anisopliae has demonstrated neither infectivity nor toxicity in mammals. However, allergenicity has not been assessed. M. anisopliae is a prototype for other organisms released into the environment for pesticide or other beneficial applications. Hence this study is part of an effort to develop methods for screening such organisms for allergenic potential. Soluble factors from fungal components were combined in equal protein amounts to form a crude fungal antigen (MACA). Balb/c mice were intratracheally (IT) challenged with 25 micrograms fungal antigen 13 days post intraperitoneal sensitization with the fungal antigen in alhydrogel adjuvant. Additionally, mice were sensitized with adjuvant alone or chitin media in adjuvant as experimental controls. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were harvested prior to challenge and at 1 and 7 days post IT challenge (DPIT). These mice exhibited immune and pulmonary inflammatory responses to MACA characteristic of allergy. Total serum IgE for antigen-sensitized animals increased 7.6- and 14.7-fold over that for chitin media and adjuvant controls, respectively, at 7 DPIT. Less striking increases were seen at 24 DPIT and prior to challenge. BALF IL-4 was dramatically elevated only in MACA-sensitized and challenged mice and only at 1 DPIT. Additionally, there was a dose-dependent increase in BALF eosinophils from MACA-sensitized mice at both 1 and 7 DPIT. While lymphocyte counts were increased for all treatment groups at 1 DPIT, by 7 DPIT lymphocyte counts for MACA-sensitized mice only were significantly elevated compared to controls. Pulmonary inflammation, edema, and cell damage were apparent at 1 DPIT (25 micrograms MACA), as indicated by a neutrophilic influx and elevated levels of total protein and LDH, in both sensitized and control groups. These effects were significantly decreased, but not eliminated by reduction

  10. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  11. RESPUESTA DE DOS AISLAMIENTOS CHILENOS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCHNIKOFF SOROKIN A LA ADICIÓN DE UN PROTECTOR SOLAR Response of two Chilean Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin isolates to the addition of a solar sunscreen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Devotto M.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Dos aislamientos chilenos de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchsnikoff Sorokin fueron expuestos a dosis crecientes de luz ultravioleta (UV, en condiciones de laboratorio. Conidias en suspensión acuosa fueron esparcidas en placas Petri con agar y éstas fueron puestas bajo una lámpara de luz UV-C (lambda = 254 nm. Sin el protector solar, la exposición de las conidias durante 40 s redujo su germinación de 80-95% a sólo 5-2%, para QU-M221b y QU-M363, respectivamente. Usando el protector solar Blankophor P167® al 1% p/v, la germinación de las conidias, tras 40 s de exposición, se redujo desde 68-82% a 50-33% para QU-M221b y QU-M363, respectivamente. Los resultados indican que este protector solar es un potencial adjuvante para ser usado en biopesticidas basados en M. anisopliae.Two Chilean isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (QU-M363 and QU-M221b were exposed to increasing doses of ultraviolet light (UV under laboratory conditions. Conidia suspended in aqueous solution were spread on Petri dishes containing agar-agar and were placed under a UV lamp (lambda = 254 nm. Without sunscreen, exposure of conidia to UV-C light reduced germination after 40 s from 80-95% to 5-2%, for QU-M221b and QU-M363, respectively. Using the solar screen Blankophor P167® at 1% w/v, conidia germination decreased after 40 s from 68-82% to 50-33% for QU-M221b and QU-M363, respectively. Results indicate that the sunscreen Blankophor P167 is a potential adjuvant to be used in biopesticides based on M. anisopliae.

  12. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  13. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the compatibility of a new attractant contaminant device ciontaining Metarhizium anisopliae with Ceratitis capitata sterile males

    OpenAIRE

    SAN ANDRÉS AURA, VICTORIA; Ayala Mingol, Ildefonso; Abad Payá, María Del Carmen; Primo Millo, Jaime; Casteñera, P.; Moya Sanz, Mª Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of using the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, to be dispensed in a new attractant contaminant device (ACD), jointly with sterilized Ceratitis capitata males, as an integrated approach to control this major pest. The exposure of sterile Vienna 8 (V8) strain and wild type (WT) males to the contaminating part (infective dish) of the ACD showed similar susceptibility levels to the fungal strain (LT50 value of 4.52 ...

  15. Patogenitas Beberapa Cendawan Entomopatogen (Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, dan Beauveria bassiana)terhadap Aphis glycines pada Tanaman Kedelai

    OpenAIRE

    Widariyanto, Riri

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the effectiveness of entomopatogen’s fungus ( L. Lecanii, M. Anisopliae, and B. bassiana) to Aphis glycines in soybean on field. Research done at Farm of Faculty of Agriculture of University of Sumatera Utara, Medan from December 2015 until Februari 2016. The method used Randomized Block Design by seven treatment that is : P0/control (Instar 4 of Aphis glycines without treatment Entomopathogen), P1 (Instar 2 of Aphis glycines + Lecanicillium lecani...

  16. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  17. Effect of biofertilizers and neem oil on the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana (Bals.) vuill. and metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) sorok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose Edson; Neves Pedro M. O. J.; Zequi João A. C.; Martins Luís H.; Peralta Cristiane H.; Moino Jr. Alcides

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas Multibi...

  18. Potential of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as biological control agents against the June beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Ates, A Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain PPRI 5339 [BroadBand, an emulsifiable spore concentrate (EC) formulation] and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain F52 [Met52, both EC and granular (GR) formulations] against the larvae of Polyphylla fullo (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Larvicidal bioassays were performed in foam boxes (100 by 75 by 50 cm; length by width by height), containing moist soil medium with some humus and potato tubers as food. Although the B. bassiana product (min. 4 × 10(9) conidia/ml) was applied at 100, 150, and 200 ml/100 l water; M. anisopliae strain F52 was applied at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g/m(3) of moist soil medium for GR (9 × 10(8) cfu/g) and 75, 100, and 125 ml/100 l water for EC (5.5 × 10(9) conidia/ml) formulation. Both fungi were pathogenic to larvae of the pest; however, young larvae (1st and 2nd instars) were more susceptible to infection than older ones (3rd instar). Mortality rates of young and older larvae varied with conidial concentration of both fungi and elapsed time after application. The B. bassiana product was more effective than both of the formulations of the M. anisopliae product, causing mortalities up to 79.8 and 71.6% in young and older larvae, respectively. The highest mortality rates of young and older larvae caused by the M. anisopliae product were 74.1 and 67.6% for the GR formulation, 70.2 and 61.8% for the EC formulation, respectively. These results may suggest that both fungi have potential to be used for management of P. fullo. PMID:25881632

  19. Genomic analyses and transcriptional profiles of the glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Junges

    Full Text Available Fungal chitin metabolism involves diverse processes such as metabolically active cell wall maintenance, basic nutrition, and different aspects of virulence. Chitinases are enzymes belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18 and 19 (GH19 and are responsible for the hydrolysis of β-1,4-linkages in chitin. This linear homopolymer of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine is an essential constituent of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. Several chitinases have been directly implicated in structural, morphogenetic, autolytic and nutritional activities of fungal cells. In the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae, chitinases are also involved in virulence. Filamentous fungi genomes exhibit a higher number of chitinase-coding genes than bacteria or yeasts. The survey performed in the M. anisopliae genome has successfully identified 24 genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 18, including three previously experimentally determined chitinase-coding genes named chit1, chi2 and chi3. These putative chitinases were classified based on domain organization and phylogenetic analysis into the previously described A, B and C chitinase subgroups, and into a new subgroup D. Moreover, three GH18 proteins could be classified as putative endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases, enzymes that are associated with deglycosylation and were therefore assigned to a new subgroup E. The transcriptional profile of the GH18 genes was evaluated by qPCR with RNA extracted from eight culture conditions, representing different stages of development or different nutritional states. The transcripts from the GH18 genes were detected in at least one of the different M. anisopliae developmental stages, thus validating the proposed genes. Moreover, not all members from the same chitinase subgroup presented equal patterns of transcript expression under the eight distinct conditions studied. The determination of M. anisopliae chitinases and ENGases and a more detailed study

  20. Ultrastructure of Tuta absoluta parasitized eggs and the reproductive potential of females after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Laurici M; Marques, Edmilson J; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Alves, Luis C; Alves, E Sérgio B

    2009-02-01

    Among the microorganisms used in biological control, the muscadine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. is produced and formulated world wide aiming to control pests from several agricultural crops. This work evaluated effects of M. anisopliae isolate UFRPE-6 on the fecundity and mortality of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) females and the mechanism of infection on eggs. The infection of the females by the fungus did not affect their oviposition and fecundity; however it affected the survival with total and confirmed mortality of 54.2% and 37.14%, respectively. The eggs were treated with suspension at concentration of 10(6)conidia/mL. The analysis under scanning electron microscopy showed that conidia germination and penetration processes in the eggs of T. absoluta started within the period of 6h after the inoculation. Several hyphal bodies were observed from 12h and an intense extrusion of the mycelium covering all the external surface of the eggs 72h after inoculation. Despite its moderate activity in adults, the isolate URPE-6 of M. anisopliae showed promising in the control of T. absoluta due to its pathogenicity and virulence to eggs from this pest. PMID:18789707

  1. Distribuição volumétrica de calda contendo Metarhizium anisopliae Volumetric distribution of spray containing Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Xavier Linhares Volpe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle microbiano de Mahanarva fimbriolata é de suma importância para o manejo dessa praga em cana-de-açúcar, porém carece de melhorias quanto à tecnologia de aplicação. O trabalho teve como objetivo definir um modelo de bico de pulverização adequado para o controle de M. fimbriolata, com base no padrão de distribuição de calda aspergida e espaçamento entre bicos. Utilizaram-se os bicos TF4, TTI e AIUB11004VS e caldas a base de fungo Metarhizium anisopliae sem adjuvante e com Agral a 2% e 4%. Avaliou-se o espaçamento entre bicos baseado na construção de curvas de deposição, considerando CV máximo de 10%; ângulo de abertura e vazão dos bicos. Os maiores espaçamentos foram de 85cm em calda com 2% de adjuvante para o bico TF4, 70cm para AIUB11004VS sem adição de adjuvante e 55cm para o bico TTI, independente da calda. Em relação ao ângulo de abertura, houve apenas diferença entre os bicos testados em uma mesma calda. A vazão foi maior para a calda com 4% de adjuvante para os bicos TF4 e TTI, sendo que AIUB11004VS apresentou menores vazões em relação aos outros modelos para calda com 2% e 4% de adjuvante. Conclui-se que o modelo AIUB11004VS é uma importante ferramenta operacional, visando o controle de M. fimbriolata, por apresentar menor consumo de calda e bons resultados de distância entre bicos.The microbial control of Mahanarva fimbriolata is very important to management of this pest in sugarcane crops, however lacks improvement in spraying technology. The work aimed to evaluate a nozzle model adequate to control M. fimbriolata, based on pattern of spray distribution and the space between nozzles. TF4, TTI and AIUB11004VS nozzles containing the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae without adjuvant, with Agral 2% and 4% were used in the assay. We evaluated spacing between nozzles by constructing deposition curves considering maximum CV of 10%, spray angle and nozzle flow for different sprays. The larger nozzle

  2. Comparison of respiratory responses to Metarhizium anisopliae extract using two different sensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M D; Madison, S L; Andrews, D L; Sailstad, D M; Gavett, S H; Selgrade, M J

    2000-06-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, is a prototypic microbial pesticide licensed for indoor control of cockroaches, a major source of allergens. We have previously demonstrated allergy and asthma-like responses in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (IP) sensitized in the presence of adjuvant and intratracheally (IT) challenged with the soluble factors from M. anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) (Ward et al., 1998, 2000). This protocol has been used frequently to establish animal models of allergenicity. However, the sensitization protocol is artificial and not representative of an environmental exposure. Concern has been raised that this protocol might produce allergic responses that would not occur under normal environmental exposure conditions. The objective of this study was to compare responses in mice to MACA by two exposure protocols: (1) exclusive respiratory exposures without adjuvant (representative of environmental exposures) and (2) intraperitoneal sensitization in the presence of adjuvant followed by IT challenge (the traditional approach). The intratracheal protocol consisted of four IT exposures of 10 microg MACA in 50 microl HBSS each over a 4-week period. A vehicle control group of mice was exposed IT to HBSS. The intraperitoneal protocol consisted of IP sensitization with 25 microg MACA in 0.2 ml of 1.3% alhydrogel (aluminum hydroxide) followed 14 days later with an IT challenge (10 microg MACA/50 microl HBSS). Airway reactivity responsiveness to methacholine was assessed, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were obtained, and the lungs were fixed for histopathology at 1, 3, and 8 days following the last MACA IT challenge. Both groups exhibited immune and pulmonary responses typical of allergic asthma. In general, local responses in the lung, including inflammatory responses (eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages), BALF IgE, and functional responses to methacholine were greater in the IT sensitized group compared to the

  3. Molecular cloning, characterisation, and expression of a neutral trehalase from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuxian; Gao, Meiying; Clarkson, John; Charnley, A

    2002-06-01

    A neutral trehalase gene (NTH1) was isolated from a lambdaEMBL3 genomic library of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Sequencing of the gene revealed extensive homology with other fungal neutral trehalases. The NTH1 gene exists as a single copy in the genome. Two STREs exist in the 5'UTR of NTH1, which may mediate transcriptional activation of the NTH1 gene in response to various stresses. The NTH1 gene encodes a protein of 737 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 83.1kDa. A cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent phosphorylation consensus site and a putative calcium binding site were found in the amino-terminal domain of NTH1, consistent with a regulatory enzyme. Expression of the trehalase cDNA was achieved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Southern blot analysis of RT-PCR products indicated that the neutral trehalase gene is transcribed in vitro in cell-free haemolymph of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and in vivo in the early stage of infection. PMID:12383437

  4. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae; Caracterizacao dos hemocitos de operarios de Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) e avaliacao hemocitaria apos parasitismo por Metarhizium anisopliae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal], e-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: auritermes@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Luiz C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA); Lima, Elza A.L.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Micologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  5. RESPUESTA DE DOS AISLAMIENTOS CHILENOS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCHNIKOFF) SOROKIN A LA ADICIÓN DE UN PROTECTOR SOLAR Response of two Chilean Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin isolates to the addition of a solar sunscreen

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Devotto M.; Marcos Gerding P

    2003-01-01

    Dos aislamientos chilenos de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchsnikoff) Sorokin fueron expuestos a dosis crecientes de luz ultravioleta (UV), en condiciones de laboratorio. Conidias en suspensión acuosa fueron esparcidas en placas Petri con agar y éstas fueron puestas bajo una lámpara de luz UV-C (lambda = 254 nm). Sin el protector solar, la exposición de las conidias durante 40 s redujo su germinación de 80-95% a sólo 5-2%, para QU-M221b y QU-M363, respectivamente. Usando el protector solar Blank...

  6. Cepas monospóricas de Metarhizium anisopliae y su patogenicidad sobre Galleria mellonella en Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Magdiel Torres de la Cruz; Hipólito Cortez Madrigal; Carlos Fredy Ortiz García; Silvia Cappello García; Manuel Pérez de la Cruz

    2014-01-01

    La polilla mayor de las ceras Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) es ocasionalmente encontrada en colmenas y es la principal plaga de cera almacenada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de aislamientos monospóricos nativos de M. anisopliae sobre larvas de G. mellonella . Se utilizaron cuatro aislamientos poliespóricos nativos (MaA1, MaA2, MaA3, MaA4). De cada aislamiento se obtuvieron 10 aislamientos mo nospóricos; así, un total de 40 aislamientos monosp...

  7. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  8. Production of Microsclerotia of the Fungal Entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and Their Use as a Biocontrol Agent for Soil-Inhabiting Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae, F52, TM109, and Ma1200, were evaluated for growth and propagule formation in shake flask studies using media with varying carbon concentrations and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. Under the conditions of this study, all strains produced blastospores and microscle...

  9. African water storage pots for the delivery of the Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the Malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Farina, D.; Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Hunt, R.H.; Coetzee, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of African water storage pots for point source application of Metarhizium anisopliae against the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Clay pots were shown to be attractive resting sites for male and female An. gambiae s.s. and were not repellent after impregnat

  10. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates on Varroa destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 10(6 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  11. The production relationship of destruxins and blastospores of Metarhizium anisopliae with virulence againstPlutella xylostella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ting-yan; ZHANG Bo-wen; WENG Qun-fang; HU Qiong-bo

    2016-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliaeas an essential entomopathogenic fungushas been known to produce destruxins (a kind of cyclo-peptidic mycotoxins) and blastospores in submerged culture. Blastospores and destruxins are candidates for in-secticides, but the relations of both productions and the impact factors are unclear yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of inoculums, rotation, dissolved oxygen (DO) on the productions of blastospores and destruxins A and B (DA and DB) in submerged culture ofM. anisopliaestrain MaQ01. The results indicated that DO levels were regulated by inoculum amounts and rotation speeds, meanwhile, the productions of DA, DB and blastospores were also closely inlfuenced by those factors. Totaly, when DO value was more than 40%, the higher productions of destruxins and blastospores were achieved, by contrast, lower than 40% of DO values resulted in lower productions. The regression analysis suggested that the productions of DA, DB and blastospores were positively correlated with the DO levels. Meanwhile, the positive correlations between the productions of DA or DB and blastospores were also found. Brielfy, when the rotation is 150 r min–1 and the inoculum is 1.0×106 spore mL–1, the DA, DB and blastospores achieved the best production of 61.81 mg mL–1, 24.74 mg mL–1 and 5.73×106 spore mL–1, respectively. In addition, the pathogenicities of blastospores and conidia against Plutela xylostela were bioassayed. The higher mortalities of P. xylostela were totaly recorded in blastospore treatments than in conidia treatments, especialy in lower dosages and earlier periods. Our research wil give some new insights to production of destruxins and blastospores by using M. anisopliae.

  12. Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma viride control colonies of Atta cephalotes in field better than a chemical insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin López Arismendy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf-cutting ant Atta cephalotes is an economically important pest in agriculture. These ants use the material they cut to cultivate a fungus from which they fed. In this study, baits prepared with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae strain M-137, Trichoderma viride strain T-26, antagonist of the symbiont fungus of A. cephaloies, and a combination of both fungi were applied in order to control A. cephalotes colonies under field conditions. In addition, the insecticide activity of the baits was compared to a chemical product, Pirimifos Metil, which was applied with an air pump. The ants did not detect the fungal agents contained in the baits, and introduced then into their nests without awakening defensive behaviors. The mortality of the bait-treated nests was higher than 80% while the treatment with Pirimifos Metil was effective in only 60% of the nests. Additionally, a week after the application of these treatments, changes in the insects' behavior were observed, reflected mainly in the absence of foraging activity. In conclusion, M. anisopliae was effective in controlling A. cephalotes colonies, and superior to the chemical product Pirimifos Metil. 

  13. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marsha D W; Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B; Doerfler, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5-80 μg protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 μg)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential. PMID:21785589

  14. Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in Microcerotermes diversus Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Mossadegh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin from vector (donor to healthy Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of M. diversus, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management of M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  15. Bioassay assessment of metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes against Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae Avaliação do bioensaio de Metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes contra Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney Dalla Pria Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC is an economically important, destructive disease in Brazil and is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooter insects. In this study, the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the sharpshooter Oncometopia facialis was studied by bioassay conditions. In the bioassay, insects were sprayed with a suspension containing 5 X 10(7 conidia mL-1. Adults captured in the field were treated in groups of 10 in a total of 11 replications per treatment. Significant differences between the natural mortality and the mortality of insects treated with the fungus were observed 6 days after inoculations (PA Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC é uma doença economicamente importante e destrutiva no Brasil e é causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida por insetos vetores tal como Oncometopia facialis. Nesse estudo, a eficácia do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o inseto vetor O. facialis foi estudada em condições de bioensaio. Nesse bioensaio, insetos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de 5 X 10(7 conídio mL-1. Insetos-adultos capturados no campo foram tratados em grupos de 10, em um total de 11 replicatas por tratamento. Diferenças significativas entre a mortalidade natural e a mortalidade dos insetos tratados com o fungo foram observadas em 6 dias após a inoculação (P<0.05. Estas diferenças significativas aumentaram antes do décimo dia após o tratamento. O fungo causou uma mortalidade de 87,1%, com uma LT50 variando entre 5 e 6 dias. A LC50 foi de 1,2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1, variando de 7,7 X 10(5 a 2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1. Estes resultados mostraram que o vetor O. facialis foi susceptível a ação entomopatogênica de M. anisopliae em condições controladas durante o bioensaio.

  16. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  17. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  18. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  19. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  20. A protocol for determination of conidial viability of the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae from commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daian Guilherme Pinto; Pauli, Giuliano; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-12-01

    Techniques for directly determining conidial viability have widespread use but also have limitations for quality control assessments of formulated mycoinsecticides, especially in emulsifiable oil. This study proposes a new method based on adaptations of already established protocols that use the direct viability method to make it more economical and accurate, thus enabling its use in the evaluation of formulated products. Appropriate parameters and conditions were defined using products based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the forms of pure conidia, fungus-colonized rice, ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion. The established protocol, named ESALQ, consists of the transfer of 150 μL of a suspension containing about 0.7 and 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL onto Rodac® plates with 5 mL of potato dextrose agar culture medium + 5 mg/L of Pentabiotic® and 10 μL/L of Derosal® (Carbendazim) and subsequent counting of germinated and non-germinated conidia. For the ground fungus-colonized rice and oil dispersion formulations, prior to transferring the fungal suspension to the medium, rice should be decanted and the oil removed, respectively. This method was compared with another direct viability method and with the Colony-forming unit (CFU) and Fluorescence viability methods, comparing the accuracy obtained using the coefficient of variation (CV) of the analysis of each method. The results showed that in addition to the ease of application, the developed method has higher accuracy than the other methods (with a CV up to seven times lower than in the Standard method and up to 32 times lower than CFU). The CFU method underestimated the concentration of viable conidia in most of the tested fungal forms, and in the emulsifiable oil products, these values were 54% lower for B. bassiana and 84% lower for M. anisopliae. The adaptations and standardizations proposed in the ESALQ method showed effective improvements for routine quality assessment of

  1. Laboratory Bioassay of Iranian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales against two Species of Storage Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sakenin Chelav

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae to three Iranian Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion under laboratory conditions. For each isolates, five aqueous suspensions were prepared in a logarithmic series in Tween 80 (0.05% v/v. Results showed that adult of both species were susceptible to all isolates of M. anisopliae. For all three isolates, mortality percentage of the two species increased with increasing conidial concentration and significant difference was observed between concentrations. The corrected cumulative mortality of adult of O. surinamensis 10 days after immersion ranged from 12.38 to 85.84%, 18.6 to 62.83% and 10.63 to 77.87% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. These amounts for T. castaneum varied from 31.07 to 74.78%, 26.02 to 75.61% and 23.33 to 89.99% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. The parameters of probit analysis demonstrated non-overlap of 95% confidence limits of LC50 and LC95 and significant difference was observed among three isolates tested against each insect. The lowest and the highest LC50 and LC95 values were observed in the isolates DEMI001 for O. surinamensis (3/1×105 and 1/5×108 and IRAN 715C for T. castaneum (6.2×108 and 6.9×1014, respectively. This observation highlights the importance and need of screening for more virulent isolates against storage pests for use in the management of these pests.

  2. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author)

  3. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  4. 绿僵菌防治蛴螬的应用研究进展%Research progress in application of Metarhizium anisopliae against white grubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永浩; 龙秀珍; 曾宪儒; 韦德卫; 曾涛

    2013-01-01

    White grub is an important global underground pest, which could be effectively controlled by Metarhizium anisopliae, a crucial entomopathogenic fungus for effective insect pest control. This paper reviewed the domestic and international researches on Metarhizium anisopliae control against white grubs and the development and application status of Metarhizium anisopliae commercial formulation; at the same time, this paper also discussed the influences of temperature, humidity, ultraviolet radiation, and other environmental factors on the effects of Metarhiziutn anisopliae on white grubs control. In conclusion, this research report pointed out studies on AIDS screening, R&D mixture preparation, strain degradation mechanism, and soil antibacterial action in order to provide research focuses and directions for Metarhizium anisoplian control against white grubs.%蛴螬是重要的世界性地下害虫,绿僵菌是防治害虫的重要昆虫病原真菌,对蛴螬有良好的防治效果.文章综述了国内外对绿僵菌防治蛴螬的研究报道及商品制剂的研制和应用现状,讨论了温湿度和紫外线等环境因素对绿僵菌防治蛴螬效果的影响;指出助剂的筛选、混合制剂的研发、菌株退化机理和土壤抑菌作用的研究等是绿僵菌防治蛴螬的研究热点和方向.

  5. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium Anisopliae Isolates on Varroa Destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadad Pirali-kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  6. Differential expression of the pr1A gene in Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum across different culture conditions and during pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Porto Carneiro Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Metarhizium have several subtilisin-like proteases that are involved in pathogenesis and these have been used to investigate genes that are differentially expressed in response to different growth conditions. The identification and characterization of these proteases can provide insight into how the fungus is capable of infecting a wide variety of insects and adapt to different substrates. In addition, the pr1A gene has been used for the genetic improvement of strains used in pest control. In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to assess the relative expression levels of the pr1A gene in M. anisopliae and M. acridum during growth in different culture conditions and during infection of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. We also carried out a pathogenicity test to assess the virulence of both species against D. saccharalis and correlated the results with the pattern of pr1A gene expression. This analysis revealed that, in both species, the pr1A gene was differentially expressed under the growth conditions studied and during the pathogenic process. M. anisopliae showed higher expression of pr1A in all conditions examined, when compared to M. acridum. Furthermore, M. anisopliae showed a greater potential to control D. saccharalis. Taken together, our results suggest that these species have developed different strategies to adapt to different growing conditions.

  7. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado ao fungo Metarhizium anisopliae, agente de controle microbiano de Tibraca limbativentris Selectivity of chemical pesticides used in rice irrigated crop at fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, microbial control agent of Tibraca limbativentris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti-Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Para subsidiar a utilização de táticas de manejo integrado para o inseto-praga Tibraca limbativentris, avaliou-se a compatibilidade in vitro entre o isolado CG 891 de Metarhizium anisopliae e os agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do arroz irrigado. Os parâmetros avaliados foram crescimento vegetativo, esporulação e germinação em pré e pós-contato do fungo, com duas doses de fipronil, tiametoxam, fenitrotiona, carbofurano, pirazossulfurom-etílico, bentazona, clomazona, glifosato e quincloraque; e uma dose de triciclazol e azoxistrobina. Reduções significativas no crescimento vegetativo e esporulação de M. anisopliae foram observadas para fenitrotiona, carbofurano e azoxistrobina. Observou-se redução na germinação em pré-contato para o agrotóxico azoxistrobina. O valor percentual da germinação alterou a classificação dos agrotóxicos com relação a sua seletividade sobre o entomopatógeno. No entanto, os resultados mostram que in vitro os agrotóxicos fenitrotiona, carbofurano, glifosato e azoxistrobina são prejudiciais ao isolado CG 891 de M. anisopliae.Searching for integrated control strategies for the insect-pest Tibraca limbativentris, the in vitro compatibility between isolated CG 891 of Metarhizium anisopliae and several pesticides used in the culture of irrigated rice was evaluated. The followings parameters were studied: vegetative growth, sporulation and the germination viability in pre- and post-contact of the fungus for two concentrations of fipronil, thiametoxan, fenitrothion, carbofuran, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, bentazon, clomazone, glyfosate and quinclorac and one concentration of tricyclazole and azoxystrobin. Significant reductions in the vegetative growth and sporulation of M. anisopliae were observed for fenitrothion, carbofuran and azoxystrobin. The germination in pre-contact was affected by azoxystrobin. The percentage of germination changed the classification of pesticides in relation to its

  8. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  9. Laboratory Bioassay of Iranian Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales against two Species of Storage Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Khashaveh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available M-B 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The susceptibility of adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae to three Iranian Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion under laboratory conditions. For each isolates, five aqueous suspensions were prepared in a logarithmic series in Tween 80 (0.05% v/v. Results showed that adult of both species were susceptible to all isolates of M. anisopliae. For all three isolates, mortality percentage of the two species increased with increasing conidial concentration and significant difference was observed between concentrations. The corrected cumulative mortality of adult of O. surinamensis 10 days after immersion ranged from 12.38 to 85.84%, 18.6 to 62.83% and 10.63 to 77.87% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. These amounts for T. castaneum varied from 31.07 to 74.78%, 26.02 to 75.61% and 23.33 to 89.99% for different concentrations of DEMI001, IRAN 715C and IRAN 1018C, respectively. The parameters of probit analysis demonstrated non-overlap of 95% confidence limits of LC50 and LC95 and significant difference was observed among three isolates tested against each insect. The lowest and the highest LC50 and LC95 values were observed in the isolates DEMI001 for O. surinamensis (3/1×105 and 1/5×108 and IRAN 715C for T. castaneum (6.2×108 and 6.9×1014, respectively. This

  10. Efficacy of water- and oil-in-water-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus eggs and eclosing larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Christian; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton Kort Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were assessed against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Arachnida: Ixodidae) eggs under laboratory conditions. Clusters of 25 eggs were applied either directly with the fungal conidial formulations or set on previously fungus-treated filter paper. Treatments consisted of conidia formulated in water or an oil-in-water emulsion at final concentrations of 3.3 × 10(3), 10(4), 3.3 × 10(4), 10(5), or 3.3 × 10(5) conidia/cm(2). The development of mycelium and new conidia on egg clusters incubated at 25 °C and humidity close to saturation depended on conidial concentration, formulation, and application technique. No larvae eclosed from eggs after direct applications of conidia regardless of the formulation. The eclosion and survival of larvae from indirectly treated egg clusters depended on the type of formulation and conidial concentration applied. Oil-in-water formulations of conidia demonstrated the highest activity against eggs of R. sanguineus. PMID:26364059

  11. Different Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae Strains IMI330189 and IBC200614 on Enzymes Activities and Hemocytes of Locusta migratoria L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangchun; Jia, Miao; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lei; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Metarhizium is an important class of entomopathogenic fungi in the biocontrol of insects, but its virulence is affected by insect immunity. To clarify the mechanism in virulence of Metarhizium, we compared the immunological differences in Locusta migratoria L. when exposed to two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma). Results The virulence of Ma IMI330189 was significantly higher than that of Ma IBC200614 to locust, and IMI330189 overcame the hemocytes and began destroying the hemocytes of locust at 72 h after spray, while locust is immune to IBC200614. IMI330189 could overcome the humoral immunity of locust by inhibiting the activities of phenol oxidase (PO), esterases, multi-function oxidases (MFOs) and acetylcholinesterases in locust while increasing the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), catalase and aryl-acylamidase (AA). However IBC200614 inhibit the activities of GSTs and AA in locust and increase the activities of MFOs, PO, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and chitinase in locust. The changes of enzymes activities in period of infection showed that the time period between the 2nd and the 5th day after spray is critical in the pathogenic process. Conclusion These results found the phenomenon that Ma initiatively broke host hemocytes, revealed the correlation between the virulence of Ma and the changes of enzymes activities in host induced by Ma, and clarified the critical period in the infection of Ma. So, these results should provide guidance for the construction of efficient biocontrol Ma strains. PMID:27227835

  12. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming. PMID:17348136

  13. EFICACIA DE LA MEZCLA DE DOS CEPAS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) PARA EL CONTROL DE Rhipicephalus microplus EN INFESTACIONES NATURALES EN BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Jesús Rodríguez-Alcocer; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de Rhipicephalus microplus en ganado bovino infestado naturalmente. El estudio se realizó en una unidad de producción de ganado bovino ubicada en el trópico Mexicano. Se formaron dos grupos de 10 bovinos basado en el número de garrapatas R. microplus adultas y fases juveniles (larvas y ninfas). Los animales del grupo tratado (promedio de 73.4 y 27.5 garrapatas adultas y juveniles respectivamente...

  14. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae Seleção de isolados Beauveria Bassiana e Metarhizium Anisopliae para o controle de Blissus Antillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ian Samuels

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinch bugs of the genus Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are serious pests of maize, wheat, sorghum and various grasses. This study is the first to screen isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against 4th instar and adult Blissus antillus aiming to develop a biological control program for this important pasture pest. Ten fungal isolates were initially screened and three isolates were chosen for further investigation. To determine virulence, insects were inoculated by immersion in concentrations of 5 ´ 10(8 conidia mL-1. Mortality was evaluated for 10 days. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 was the most virulent isolate to both nymphs and adults, causing 53 and 78% infection, respectively, and values for LT50 of 7.8 and 5.0 days, respectively. Germination studies were carried out to confirm viability and determine speed of germination as a pathogenicity factor. The production of conidia on the cadavers of insects infected with the three selected isolates was determined. The production of conidia on rice media was also evaluated. B. bassiana CG 24 produced the highest number of conidia on insects cadavers (14.9 ´ 10(7 conidia per insect and also on rice media (10.6 ´ 10(9 conidia per g.Percevejos do gênero Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygeidae são pragas importantes das plantações de milho, trigo e sorgo e de vários tipos de gramíneos forrageiros. Esse estudo é o primeiro a amostrar isolados de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae contra aos 4(0 instares e adultos de Blissus antillus com a finalidade de desenvolver um programa de controle biológico dessa importante praga de pastagens. Dez isolados foram inicialmente testados e três foram escolhidos para maiores investigações. Para determinar a virulência, os insetos foram inoculados por imersão em suspensões de conídios a uma concentração de 5 ´ 10(8 conídios mL-1. Mortalidade foi avaliada por 10 dias. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 foi o isolado mais virulento para as ninfas e os

  15. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  16. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  17. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation. PMID:26209932

  18. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho; Marcelo Elias Fraga; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Carlos Alberto da Rocha Rosa

    2010-01-01

    As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para...

  19. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a forma de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH. (SOROKIN, 1883] em carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806, assim como as lesões infringidas nos tecidos internos do ácaro. A forma de aderência e penetração do fungo foi estudada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a ação do fungo nos tecidos internos avaliada em secções histológicas convencionais. Para observação destes eventos, realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus contendo 12 fêmeas ingurgitadas cada. Para tal, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas durante 3 minutos, sob agitação manual, em suspensão com concentração 108 conídios/mL. No caso dos grupos controle o banho foi realizado apenas no veículo da suspensão. Os carrapatos foram processados para histopatologia e microscopia eletrônica em diversos tempos após a infecção, a saber: 1 e 18h, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e onze dias. Observou-se que a maior parte dos conídios germinou em até 18h após a inoculação e que o fungo penetrou no ácaro através do tegumento 48h após a infecção. Após a penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo do hospedeiro promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Dentre as lesões nos tecidos internos do ácaro, ressalta-se o rompimento da parede intestinal e vazamento do conteúdo para a hemocele. A morte do hospedeiro ocorreu entre 96 e 120h pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver do ácaro iniciou-se em torno de 120 a 144h pós-infecção. Espera-se, com este trabalho, contribuir para o desenvolvimento e viabilização de técnicas de controle biológico dos carrapatos por fungos como alternativa ao uso de acaricidas.The objective of this work was to verify the penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH

  20. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  1. Persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae incorporated into soilless potting media for control of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus in container-grown ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Donahue, Kelly M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae (F52), measured as infectivity against black vine weevil larvae, in a soilless potting medium at six wholesale nursery locations across the Willamette Valley, Oregon. A granule formulation (0.30 and 0.60 kg/m(3)) was incorporated into media at planting and fungal persistence determined over two growing seasons. The fungus persisted in the potting media over the duration of the experiment with 50-60% of the larvae exposed to treated media becoming infected at the end of the experiment. The percentage of infected larvae gradually declined from > or = 90% on week 3 to 40-60% by week 19. Larval infection rebounded over the fall and winter months of 2004 to 75-80% followed again by a slow decline over the course of the second growing season. PMID:17349655

  2. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI was added to fungal suspensions. Results A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 109 conidia mL-1. Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. Conclusions This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides

  3. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae Ocorrência de tripes em uva Niagara e seu controle com os inseticidas thiacloprid e methiocarb associados com Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI LOPES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.Os tripes são mencionados como importantes pragas da cultura da uva de mesa em diversos países da Europa e Estados Unidos. Em área de cultivo da uva Niagara localizada na região de Limeira-SP verificou-se a ocorrência de danos provocados por Frankliniella occidentalis. Essa praga foi observada, principalmente, durante a fase de florescimento, alimentando-se de pólen e

  4. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  5. Avaliação do potencial de controle biológico do Metarhizium anisopliae sobre Boophilus microplus em teste de estábulo Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C. Bahiense

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por meio de um teste de estábulo a capacidade de Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram realizados tratamentos em bovinos estabulados, utilizando este fungo aplicando-se suspensão conidial em banhos por aspersão. Os resultados foram obtidos pelo percentual de mortalidade de carrapatos durante 28 dias após o tratamento e pelos índices biológicos após incubação destes em câmara climatizada. Constatou-se 33% de mortalidade no período total observado, sendo o índice de produção de ovos e índice nutricional reduzidos somente em um curto período após o tratamento.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment.

  6. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  7. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  8. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  9. Field applications of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kirby C; Allan, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, CT, for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other premises for comparison with B. bassiana. A wood chip barrier was installed and maintained at six of the treated properties. In 1999, control of I. scapularis nymphs ranged from 74.5 to 83.0% on lawns without wood chips and from 88.9 to 90% on lawns with wood chip barriers. As a control check, no ticks (n = 23) collected at pretreatment or control sites died from B. bassiana, although 15 of 18 nymphs from treated lawns developed mycoses. Control of I. scapularis on the lawns in 2000 with the two B. bassiana products was lower, as follows: 38.0 and 58.7% without the barrier and 56.9 and 55.1% with the wood chip barrier. Posttreatment differences in nymphal numbers between treatments and control were significant (P = 0.005 and P = 0.039, 1999 and 2000, respectively). The bifenthrin provided 86 and 87% control each year, respectively. The application of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain F52 to 9 residential sites in Westport and Weston, CT, in 2002 provided significant (P = 0.034; P = 0.039) reductions in nymphal tick abundance with 55.6 and 84.6% fewer ticks on lawn and woodland plots, respectively. These results suggest the application of entomopathogenic fungi could provide another approach for the control of I. scapularis nymphs in residential or similar landscapes. PMID:21175060

  10. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  11. Effect of soil water content and composition on the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae against the invasive red fire ant, Solenopsis invicta%不同土壤类型和含水量下金龟子绿僵菌对红火蚁的致病力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 许益镌; 陆永跃; 曾玲

    2014-01-01

    The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a dangerous invasive ant species .A possible means of pro-tection against the ant is the entomopathogenic fungus , Metarhizium anisopliae.Environmental factors can impact the toxicity of M. anisopliae against S.invicta.[Method]This paper investigated the effect of M.anisopliae M09 on the survival of fire ants exposed to different doses and under various soil moisture conditions and composition .[Result]The survival rate of fire ant workers decreased with an increasing dosage of M.anisopliae M09;the LC50 was 0.37 g after 4 days.M.anisopliae M09 killed nearly all ants in sandy , loamy and clay soils, and had significant difference from the control .However, the treatment reduced ant numbers more effectively in sandy soil than in loamy or clay soils .The mortality of workers treated by M.anisopliae M09 at different soil moisture were signifi-cantly different (P<0.01).[Conclusion and significance]Soil composition and moisture have significant effect on M.anisopliae a-gainst the fire ant , and the soil composition and moisture should be considered when M.anisopliae is applied against the red fire ant .%【背景】红火蚁是一种危险性入侵生物,虫生真菌对其防治效果会受到外界环境因子的影响。【方法】应用致病力测定的方法研究了不同剂量金龟子绿僵菌M09对红火蚁的毒力,同时研究了含水量和土壤类型对绿僵菌毒力的影响。【结果】红火蚁的死亡率与金龟子绿僵菌的剂量呈正相关,处理4 d后LC50为0.37 g。金龟子绿僵菌在砂土、壤土和粘土中对红火蚁的致死率均与对照差异显著,其中在砂土中的毒力最强。此外,在不同含水量的土壤中,金龟子绿僵菌的致死率也不相同( P<0.01)。【结论与意义】土壤类型和土壤湿度会显著影响金龟子绿僵菌M09对红火蚁的防治效果。选择高湿和砂土类型的土壤施用金龟子绿僵菌M09可以达到较好的效果。

  12. Caracterización de prototipos de bioplaguicidas granulados a base de Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de Ancognatha scarabaeoides (Coleóptera: Nelolonthidae Characterization of granular biopesticide prototypes based on Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Ancognatha scarabaeoides (Coleóptera: Melolonthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA MARINO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La especie Ancognatha scarabaeoides es un coleóptero cuyas larvas rizófagas pueden causar daños en cultivos de fríjol, maíz, cebolla, arracacha y papa, entre otros. Ocasiona pérdidas entre el 10 y el 80% del total del cultivo. Para su control se utilizan métodos culturales y principalmente métodos químicos, mediante productos altamente tóxicos. Ante los altos costos económicos y ambientales que ocasiona el uso de estos productos, se tiene como alternativa promisoria el uso de insecticidas biológicos a base de hongos entomopatógenos tales como Metarhizium anisopliae. Dado que mediante investigaciones previas en Corpoica se seleccionó una cepa de este hongo (Mt 020 con una actividad biocontroladora del 76,6% contra A. scarabaeoides, con ésta se desarrollaron tres preformulados de presentación granular para aplicación al suelo. Por esto se tuvo como objetivo determinar sus características físicas, microbiológicas y su actividad biocontroladora. Para tal fin, la cepa se produjo masivamente y se formularon tres granulados (GR1, GR2, y GR3 diferentes entre sí en los que se variaron sus componentes y sus concentraciones. A cada granulado se le determinó el tamaño de partícula, voluminosidad, porosidad, fluidez, humedad y pH; así como la concentración en conidios.g-1 y la viabilidad expresada como UFC.g-1. Los prototipos y el principio activo se almacenaron a tres temperaturas (8, 18 y 28°C y mensualmente se evaluó la viabilidad del hongo. La actividad biocontroladora se determinó mediante bioensayos realizados en casa de malla. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se seleccionó el granulado GR1 por tener características físicas adecuadas, con valores iguales o inferiores a los límites óptimos para cada una de ellas. Presentó 0,31% de polvos finos, es decir que el granulo no es de consistencia frágil; 3,44 ml.g-1 de voluminosidad, lo que establece que no presentará problemas de manipulación; 18% de porosidad

  13. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycete) Isolates and their Effects on Subterranean Termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pik-Kheng Hoe; Choon-Fah J. Bong; Kadir Jugah; Amartalingam Rajan

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a common termite pest found in oil palm plantation planted on peat. Currently, the control methods focus on using insecticides that lead to high cost and adverse effect to the environment. Approach: Biological control like the use of entomopathogens provides an alternative control method for termite infestation problem. However, several factors need to be investigated in order to obtain a virulent strain with potential...

  14. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from natural infections of Coconut hispid beetle Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) , and preliminary studies on against this pest in Hainan island, China%海南椰心叶甲病原菌金龟子绿僵菌的分离、鉴定及其生防潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹儒林; 覃伟权; 宋妍; 张世清; H H HO; 许天委; 黄俊生

    2007-01-01

    椰心叶甲[Brontispa longissima(Gestro)]是椰子的重要害虫,近年来,该虫在海南岛发生普遍,椰子受害严重.由于椰心叶甲受到自然界中某些致病微生物的侵袭,在受害的椰子树心叶上常可发现椰心叶甲僵虫,并发现大部分僵虫表面长出了霉菌,本研究的目的在于从椰心叶甲僵虫表面的霉菌中分离出绿僵菌,并对分离菌株进行鉴定和致病性测定.从僵虫表面刮下孢子或菌丝体,置于绿僵菌选择性培养基(DOA)上培养,挑出真菌菌落,经纯化后,进行生物学特性、菌落生长速率及产孢量的测定,并从PPDA、OMA、V8A和PDA中筛选菌落生长及产孢最适培养基,同时对所分离的菌株进行对椰心叶甲的致病性测定.结果表明,所有分离菌株均鉴定为金龟子绿僵菌[Metarhizium anisopliae(Metschnikoff)],PPDA是菌落生长及产孢的最适培养基,大多数菌株对椰心叶甲有较强的致病力.选取强毒菌株MA4在田间进行防治效果的初步测定,结果表明,该菌株能显著降低椰心叶甲成虫的虫口密度.这些金龟子绿僵菌菌株是首次从海南的椰心叶甲僵虫中分离到的昆虫病原真菌,该菌对海南的椰心叶甲具有很好的生防潜能.%Coconut hispid beetles, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) have been prevalent all over Hainan Island in China, and millions of coconut palms were attacked by this pest. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify strains of entomopathogenic fungi from natural infections of B. longissima collected from coconut palms.Conidia or mycelia collected from the surface of beetle cadavers were cultured and the colonies were screened on dodine oatmeal agar medium (DOA). The colony morphology, mycelia growth rate and conidial production were further studied on various agar media: PPDA, OMA, V8A and PDA. In order to confirm whether these isolates were pathogenic to B.longissima, their virulence to the beetles were

  15. Фунгицидные свойства энтомопатогенного гриба Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    ВЕЙЕР К.Н.; РОНГ Э.; КИНГ Г.Ф.

    2014-01-01

    Выявлен потенциал энтомопатогенного гриба Metarhizium anisopliae как агента биоконтроля возбудителей болезней растений Didymella applanata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani в лабораторных условиях. В полевых условиях показана активность M. anisopliae в подавлении пурпуровой пятнистости малины и септориоза смородины. Влияние энто мопатогенного гриба на болезни растений изучали в сравнении с химическим и биологическим фунгицидами.The potential of entomopathogenic fungus ...

  16. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Sideney Becker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P <= 0,05.

  17. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  18. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae) Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez S.; Marcos Gerding P.; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7) conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bass...

  19. FIELD TRIALS ON THE MICROBIAL CONTROL OF VARROA WITH THE FUNGUS METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of chemical controls products are currently available to the beekeeping industry for varroa mite control. However, we find that beekeepers are frequently dissatisfied with the level of mite control they are able to achieve, and a biological control agent could potentially offer an entirely...

  20. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or vectors.

  1. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or vectors. A high degree of drug resistance and the absence of malaria vaccines are a major hindrance to control of the disease. In such circumstances, vector control becomes an alternative and has remained ...

  2. Imbibitional damage in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When dried organisms are immersed in water, rapid imbibition may cause severe damage to plasma membranes; in unicellular organisms, such damage is usually lethal. This study investigated effects of pre-immersion moisture levels and immersion temperature on imbibitional damage in three insect pathoge...

  3. Sequence analysis of the rDNA intergenic spacer of Metarhizium strains isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Y. Yanaka-Schäfer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the extent of genetic variability of rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS in Metarhizium sp., 34 strains (27 isolated in Brazil were sequenced and analyzed together with an additional 20 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae sequences retrieved from GenBank. Overall, the global nucleotide diversity for the region under study was of 0.090, while for the Brazilian isolates it was only 0.016. Phylogenetic analyses showed four well-supported groups (A, B, C, and D, one of which (D has not been previously identified. All but one of the Brazilian strains cluster in this novel D phylogroup, suggesting that the genetic variation found in Brazil is a subset of the worldwide M. anisopiliae var. anisopliae variation.

  4. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF THE ENTOMOPA THOGENIC FUNGAL ISOLATES OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH PESTICIDES, FUNGICIDES AND BOTANICALS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naren Babu; J. Usha; V. Padmaja

    2014-01-01

    Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliaewere tested for their compatibility with insecticides, fungicides and botanical pesticides, which are being used in the field, as a prerequisite for developing as mycopesticides and their use in IPM programmes. Three concentrations (0.1X, 0.5X and 1X) of each chemical were evaluated in the laboratory based on the recommended dose for field application by food poison technique. Variation in vegetative growth and sporulation of M. an...

  5. In vitro compatibility between three bacterial sugarbeet disease-control agents and the entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere is the primary arean for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) deployed against soil-dwelling pests, and is also the site of action of biological agents used against root pathogens. Interactions between EPF and soil microbes, much less biofungicidal agents, have been barely studied, however, ...

  6. Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Njiru, B.N.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. Following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus ag

  7. White grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) associated with Nepalese agriculture and their control with the indigenous entomopathogenic fungus "Metarhizium anisopliae" (Metsch.) Sorokin

    OpenAIRE

    Yubak Dhoj, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    White grubs became increasingly difficult pests in Nepal for the last few years. Their infestation has been reported throughout the country and magnitude of the problem has been widespread over the past years. In majority of the farming situation, control of these pests are largely abandoning because of the lack of control over their damages. In general, the management strategy depends primarily on the use of highly poisonous poor graded chemical pesticides. The use of bio-control agents in g...

  8. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding mammalian health impacts of these agents has focused on toxicity and pathogenicity, with limited research regarding allergenicity and asthma development. We compared the ability of funga...

  9. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to identifying species of insect-pathogenic fungi from the Metarhizium anisopliae complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenet...

  10. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Rodríguez; Marcos Gerding; Andrés France

    2006-01-01

    La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8) conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las compara...

  11. Selección de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Huevos de la Polilla del Tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates Selection for Egg Control of Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en laboratorio sobre la patogenicidad de 64 aislamientos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y 70 de Beauveria bassiana, en huevos de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta. La primera evaluación se realizó por aplicación directa de suspensiones de 10(7 conidias mL-1 para cada aislamiento, con el sistema de pulverización de la torre de Potter. La mortalidad y esporulación sobre huevos fueron significativamente mayores con los aislamientos M. anisopliae Qu-M558 y B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 y Qu-B928. Estos aislamientos fueron evaluados nuevamente en suspensiones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1. Los aislamientos Qu-M558 y Qu-B912, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad sobre la base del cálculo del área bajo la curva del progreso de mortalidad de huevos, 80 y 60%, respectivamente.A pathogenicity study of 64 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and 70 Beauveria bassiana isolates against tomato moth Tuta absoluta eggs, was carried out under laboratory conditions. The first evaluation was accomplished by spraying suspensions of 10(7 conidias mL-1 of each isolate directly on eggs, through a Potter tower. Mortality and conidia production on the eggs were significantly higher with the isolates M. anisopliae Qu-M558 and B. bassiana Qu-B911, Qu-B912 and Qu-B928. These isolates were newly evaluated using increasing conidia concentrations (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each of the five selected isolates. The isolates Qu-B912 and Qu-M558 produced the highest mortality percentages based on the area under mortality progress curve for each concentration, 80 and 60%, respectively.

  12. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  13. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  14. Field Applications of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) for the Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were applied to residential sites in Old Lyme, Connecticut for the control of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis in 1999 and 2000. The pyrethroid bifenthrin was applied to other homes for comparison with B....

  15. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Roger Ivan Rodríguez-Vivas; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso...

  16. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  17. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  19. Ribosomal genes of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and var. farciminosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, C N; Kappe, R; Zakikhani, S; Nolte, O; Sonntag, H G

    1998-11-01

    A total of 1704 basepairs of the 18S rDNA of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (HCD, strain CBS175.57) and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF, strain CBS478.64) were sequenced (EMBL accession no. Z75306 and no. Z75307). The 18S rDNA of HCD was 100% identical to a published sequence of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (HCC). The 18S rDNA of HCF showed one transversional point mutation at the nucleotide position 114 (ref. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hybridization confirmed that, in the 18S rDNA of two out of five strains of HCF, guanine was substituted for cytosine at the nucleotide position 114. Furthermore, identical group 1C1 introns (403 bp) were found to be inserted after position 1165 in four out of five strains of HCF, including the two strains with point mutations in the 18S rDNA, and a slightly different group 1C1 intron (408 bp) was detected in one strain of HCC without this point mutation. Intraspecific sequence variability in the highly conserved 18S rDNA because of occurrence of introns and mutations as a possible source of error in molecular diagnostics is discussed. In addition, internal transcribed spacer regions between the 18S rDNA and the 5.8S rDNA (ITS1) of three strains of HCF, and one strain each of HCC and HCD showed significant sequence variability between varieties and strains of H. capsulatum. PMID:9916456

  20. 金龟子绿僵菌分生孢子暴露在B段紫外光下毒力的降低%Exposure of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia to UV-B radiation reduces its virulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edimara A Francisco; Drauzio E N Rangel; Newton La Scala Jr; José C Barbosa; Ant(o)nia do C B Correia

    2008-01-01

    The UV-A and UV-B wavelengths of solar radiation may seriously reduce viability of Metarhizium anisopliaeconidia,a fungus used extensively in Brazil for insect pest control. The conidial tolerances to UV-A and UV-B radiation werestudied for one isolate (IBCB 425) commercially available product produced on rice grains. Aqueous or oil emulsion conidialsuspensions were irradiated for O (control), 2, or 3 h using the solar simulator filtered with diacetate filter to remove UV-Cradiation which afforded 652 mW.m-2 in the spectral range of 280~370 nm. The UV tolerance was based on conidial germi-nation (viability) and virulence to Diatraea saccharalis larvae. Conidia formulated with oil emulsion had higher survival after3 h of UV exposure, but the virulence of the eonidia previously exposed to 2 h of UV radiation were similar when oil formula-ted or not. The mortality of D. saccharalis caterpillars exposed to non-UV-irradiated conidia was greater than that of larvae ex-posed to irradiated conidia, and the LT50values were lower for the non-irradiated suspensions than for those irradiated. Thisapparent reduction in virulence was directly related reduction in viability or delay of germination of UV-irradiated conidia.

  1. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  2. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  3. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  4. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    OpenAIRE

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.; Plaza Arregui, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae), a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain) is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476). It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck) A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae) in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Pe...

  5. INFLATION AND COMPETITIVENESS, A VAR MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin FRATOSTITEANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VAR modeling in inflation forecasting has been widely used, and rathersuccessful, even if there have been several critiques of its exactness oraccuracy. This paper is structured into two sections. The first oneaccomplishes a general presentation of VAR modeling in forecastinginflation, and the second is focused on the results of this econometricapproach for inflation in Romania. Even if we considered methodologiescontaining inflation measured using CPI, CORE1 and CORE2, testing willonly be performed for the CPI Inflation.

  6. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Juselius, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by TrygveHaavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame-work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time-series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres-sion results, time dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank,model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden-ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions underwhich the VAR model repres...

  7. Sesquiterpenes from Thapsia nitida var. meridionalis and Thapsia nitida var. nitida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubal, Juan J; Guerra, Francisco M; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Jorge, Zacarías D; Massanet, Guillermo M; Søhoel, Helmer; Smitt, Ulla W; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Christensen, S Brøgger; Nielsen, Charlotte; Eriksson, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Nine new eudesmanolides (1-9), two new guaianolides (12 and 13), and a new germacrane (10), along with a previously reported guaianolide (11), have been isolated from the roots of Thapsia nitida var. meridionalis. Thapsia nitida var. nitida also afforded compound 13 along with a new guaianolide (...

  8. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  9. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  10. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time...... plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  11. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  12. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  13. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Li; Yong-Ping Yang; Xi-Min Wang; Ke-Chun Liu; Si-Feng Wang; Yan-Li Zhao; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  14. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  15. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding...

  16. VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

  17. 深圳地区椰心叶甲寄主和天敌种类调查%Host plants and natural enemies for coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima, in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃

    2006-01-01

    调查结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima(Gestro)的寄主植物有26属36种,危害比较严重的寄主有椰子(Cocos nucifera L.)、大王椰子(Roystonea regia O.F.Cook)、假槟榔(Archontophoenix alexandrae(F.V.Mueller))、鱼尾葵(Caryota ochlandra Hance)、三药槟榔(Areca triandra Roxburgh ex Buchanan)、金山葵(Syagrus romanzoffiana(Chamisso)Glassman)、菲岛鱼尾葵(Caryota cumingii Loddiges ex Martius)、刺葵(Phoenix hanceana Naudin)、国王椰子(Ravenea rivularis L.)等.野外观察和采集标本鉴定结果表明,深圳地区椰心叶甲捕食性天敌有11种,主要种类为蚂蚁Formica sp.、毛蠼螋Cheatospania sp.、中华大螳螂Parattenodera sinensis Saussure;致病微生物有3种,主要是绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae var.anisopliae.

  18. Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Lene

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite heterogeneity and within-host competition are thought to be important factors influencing the dynamics of host-parasite relationships. Yet, while there have been many theoretical investigations of how these factors may act, empirical data is more limited. We investigated the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system. Results The relationship between parasite density and infection was sigmoidal, with there being an invasion threshold for an infection to occur (an Allee effect. Although spore production was positively density-dependent, parasite fitness decreased with increasing parasite density, indicating within-host scramble competition. The dynamics differed little between the four strains tested. In mixed infections of three strains the infection-growth dynamics were unaffected by parasite heterogeneity. Conclusions The strength of within-host competition makes dispersal the best strategy for the parasite. Parasite heterogeneity may not have effected virulence or the infection dynamics either because the most virulent strain outcompeted the others, or because the interaction involved scramble competition that was impervious to parasite heterogeneity. The dynamics observed may be common for virulent parasites, such as Metarhizium, that produce aggregated transmission stages. Such parasites make useful models for investigating infection dynamics and the impact of parasite competition.

  19. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  20. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    OpenAIRE

    Callot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential procedure to determine the common cointegration rank of panels of cointegrated VARs. It shows how a panel of cointegrated VARs can be transformed in a set of independent individual models. The likelihood function of the transformed panel is the sum of the likelihood functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From th...

  1. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Balu; Ion Stancu

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR). Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR) is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk me...

  2. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations...

  3. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  4. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  5. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  6. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-10-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  7. Attenuation of fungal infection in thermoregulating Locusta migratoria is accompanied by changes in hemolymph proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Robert M; Kamp, Andrena; Goettel, Mark S; Brodeur, Jacques; Bidochka, Michael J

    2002-09-01

    Hemolymph proteins in the locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides infected with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum were analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Under conditions that allowed locusts to thermoregulate, 2 proteins, ITB1 (ca. 18kDa) and ITB2 (ca. 13kDa) were induced 48h post inoculation. In contrast, under non-thermoregulating conditions, only 1 band, INTB1 (ca. 18kDa) was induced with similar molecular mass to ITB1. ITB1 and ITB2 were N-terminally sequenced but showed little homology to known proteins. The induction of hemolymphal proteins in infected, thermoregulating locusts and implication in insect immune defence are discussed. PMID:12417209

  8. Reduced-order 4D-Var: a preconditioner for the Incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Céline; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method can be applied efficiently preconditione d in an application to an oceanographic problem. The approach consists in performing a few iterations of the reduced-order 4D-Var prior to the incremental 4D-Var in the full space in order to achieve faster convergence. An application performed in the tropical Pacific Ocean, with assimilation of TAO temperature data, shows the method to be both feasible and efficient. It allows the global cost of the assimilation to be reduced by a factor of 2 without affecting the quality of the solution.

  9. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  10. 4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.

    2007-05-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  11. Alternative asymptotics for cointegration tests in large VARs

    OpenAIRE

    Onatski, Alexei; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Johansen's (1988, 1991) likelihood ratio test for cointegration rank of a Gaussian VAR depends only on the squared sample canonical correlations between current changes and past levels of a simple transformation of the data. We study the asymptotic behavior of the empirical distribution of those squared canonical correlations when the number of observations and the dimensionality of the VAR diverge to infinity simultaneously and proportionally. We find that the distribution almost surely weak...

  12. Monetary policy transmission in the EMS: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Etsuro Shioji; José García-Montalvo

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes monetary policy transmission in the European Monetary System using VAR techniques. After a discussion of several V AR identification procedures for the stance of monetary policy, this paper proposes an ¡identification scheme that is essentially consistent with the basic facts and does not have significant puzzles. The strategy is based on extracting the stance of monetary policy from the German system and using that structural shock in the VAR systems of other countries of...

  13. Immigration, Growth and Unemployment: Panel VAR Evidence from OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  14. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on ag...

  15. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  16. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  17. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  18. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component in...... their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be...... valid, the asset price needs to be included as a state variable. In parts of Chen and Zhao's analysis the price does not appear as a state variable, thus rendering those parts of their analysis invalid. Finally, we clarify the intriguing issue of the role of the residual component in equity return...

  19. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  20. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  1. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  2. POTENCIJAL JABLANA (Populus nigra var. italica) U FITOREMEDIJACIJI KADMIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Tamara; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; Cvjetko, Marina; Bukovac, Ivana; Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Bilandžić, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fitoremedijacija se smatra obećavajućom, jeftinom te estetski prihvatljivom, in situ tehnologijom za remedijaciju teških metala iz onečišćenih tala. Potencijal uporabe drveća u fitoremedijaciji tla prepoznat je zadnjih desetljeća, te je u skladu s tim u ovom radu utvrđen potencijal jablana (Populus nigra var. italica) u fitoremedijaciji kadmija. U tu svrhu ispitan je fitoekstrakcijski potencijal jablana (Populus nigra var. italica), distribucija kadmija u pojedine dijelove biljke (list, stabl...

  3. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/cesdp2013.html Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2013.12 - ISSN : 1955-611X This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the ...

  4. Forecasting macro variables with a Qual VAR business cycle turning point index

    OpenAIRE

    Dueker, Michael J.; Katrin Wesche

    2005-01-01

    One criticism of VAR forecasting is that macroeconomic variables tend not to behave as linear functions of their own past around business cycle turning points. This article investigates the methods and efficacy of forecasting with a VAR that expands the information set to include dynamic forecasts of a qualititative variable - business cycle turning points. We apply this Qual VAR model to five of the G7 economies and find that the Qual VAR improves on forecasts from standard models, both for ...

  5. Efectividad de Aislamientos de Hongos Entomopatógenos Sobre Larvas de Polilla del Tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Effectivity of Entomopathogenic Fungus Strains on Tomato Moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, es una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum L. en Chile. Estudios de laboratorio fueron realizados para evaluar la virulencia y efectividad de Qu-M558 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae y Qu-B912 de Beauveria bassiana. La primera evaluación fue realizada aplicando concentraciones de 0 a 10(8 conidia mL-1 directamente sobre larvas de tercer estadio mediante el sistema de pulverización torre Potter. Las comparaciones fueron realizadas calculando el área bajo la curva del progreso de la mortalidad a través del tiempo. No se observaron diferencias en las áreas entre aislamientos (P = 0,384. La CL50 y CL90 para Qu-B912 fue de 10(4,4 y 10(7,6 conidias mL-1, y para Qu-M558 de 10(5,4 y 10(9,1 conidias mL-1,respectivamente. Un segundo estudio fue realizado aplicando sobre hojas de tomate suspensiones de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 del aislamiento Qu-B912, a través de la torre de pulverización Potter. Larvas del tercer estadio de T. absoluta fueron alimentadas con estas hojas infectadas. Trece días después de la inoculación los porcentajes de mortalidad alcanzaron un 68% a la máxima concentración de inóculo.The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is a serious pest on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. crops in Chile. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the virulence and effectiveness of the isolates Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate Qu-M558 and Beauveria bassiana isolate Qu-B912, on third instar of T. absoluta larvae. The first evaluation was carried out spraying directly on third instar larvae, spore suspensions (0 to 10(8 conidia mL-1 of each isolate through a Potter tower. Comparisons were made by calculating the area under a mortality progress curve. Differences were not observed in the areas between isolates (P = 0.384. The LC50 and LC90 for Qu-B912 were 10(4.4 and 10(7.6 conidia mL-1, and for Qu-M558 were 10(5.4 and 10(9.1 conidia mL-1

  6. New Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Spiraea japonica var. ovalifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five new diterpenoid alkaloids, 19-O-deethylspiramine N (1), deacetylspiramine S (2), spiramidine A (3), spiramidine B (4) and deacetylspiramine F (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Spireae japonica L. f. var. ovalifolia. Their structures were charaterized mainly based on spectral analysis.

  7. A New Cyclohexene Oxide from Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, subglain B, was isolated from the stems of Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra and its structure was identified as 1S, 2R, 3S, 6R-1-benzoyloxymethylene-1,2- dihydroxy-3-benzoyloxy-6-chlorocyclohex-4-ene (1), by spectral evidences.

  8. Two New Abietane Quinones from Isodon lophanthoides var. Micranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two new abietane quinones, named micranthins A and B, weredetermined to be 7α-methoxy-14, 16-epoxy-8, 13-abietadiene-11, 12-dione (1) and 16-acetoxy-6,7-dehydroroyleanone (2) respectively, which were isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var.micranthus.

  9. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60. ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  10. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  11. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  12. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  13. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  14. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  15. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their compatibility with insecticides used in tomato crop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta. PMID:21271067

  16. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) et Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : repas de survie pour Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The English version of this preprint can be found at hal-01270314 . Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753): survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae). When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In a...

  17. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organi

  18. 高大冷杉温室Strophosoma象甲的微生物防治%Microbial control of Strophosoma spp. larvae (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Abies procera greenery plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洛蒂· 尼尔森; Susanne Vestergaard; Susanne Harding; Jφrgen Eilenberg

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the weevils Strophosoma melanogrammum and S.capitatum cause economic damage in Noble fir due to the adult stage feeding on the needles.No chemical treatments of these weevils are allowed in Denmark,so biological control is an attractive solution.We evaluated the potential for microbial control of larvae of Strophosoma spp.based on laboratory bioassays and field applications,taking effect on both target and non-target into consideration,as well as persistence of the applied fungus.In the laboratory Beauveria bassiana,Paecilomyces farinosus and Metarhizium anisopliae were able to infect and cause mycosis in Strophosoma larvae.Among the tested isolates the most virulent isolate was M.anisopliae BIPESCO 5,which resulted in 80 % mortality.In the field experiment M.anisopliae,isolate BIPESCO 5,was applied to the soil as a conidial suspension against larvae of Strophosoma spp.The effect of the fungus on the target population was monitored at a weekly basis by counts of emerging adult weevils during their activity periods.The population of Strophosoma spp.was reduced by up to 60% in treated plots compared to control plots.The non-target effects of M.anisopliae were studied by sampling insects and ticks from both treated and control plots.Seven days after treatment,two sampled insect orders (Hemiptera and Coleoptera) and ticks were found with prevalences of M.anisopliae above 50%,compared to no infection in the insects collected from control plots.Infections in coccinellids were found as long as 277 days after treatment.However,the effect on population level of non-target is still unexplored.The persistence of the fungus was documented by plating a soil suspension onto agar.We documented that conidia of M.anisopliae could persist in the greenery plantation for at least 418 days after application.

  19. Ação de alguns produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Action of some phytossanitary products for Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar em laboratório, a 26±2°C; UR 60±10% e fotofase de 12 horas, a influência do herbicida metribuzin 480 SC, do inseticida químico carbaril 480 SC, do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorokin e do óleo emulsionável de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, sobre o parasitismo, a emergência e a longevidade de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, criados em ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794. Conduziu-se o ensaio utilizando-se 100 posturas, obtidas em laboratório, nas 24 horas após a oviposição, as quais foram tratadas por imersão e oferecidas aos parasitóides. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e dez repetições. O parasitismo foi prejudicado pelo nim nas concentrações de 0,33; 0,53 e 1%, seguido pelo carbaril a 4%, metribuzim a 2,14% e M. anisopliae (IPA 159E a 0,4%. A emergência do parasitóide foi reduzida quando se utilizou o carbaril, M. anisopliae (IPA 159E e metribuzim e, a longevidade foi afetada quando se empregou metribuzim e M. anisopliae (IPA 159E com uma variação média menor que 24 horas.The objective was to evaluate, in laboratory, at 26°C, UR 60±10% and 12 hours photophase, the influence of herbicide metribuzin 480 SC, the chemical insecticide carbaryl 480 SC, the entomophatogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorokin and emulsionable neem oil, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on the parasitism, emergency and longevity of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, reared in eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794. The bioassay was conducted using one hundred postures, from laboratory rearing, in the 24 hours after oviposition, which were treated by immersion and offered to the natural enemies. The experimental design was entirely randomized with ten treatments and ten repetitions. The parasitism was harmed by neem in the concentrations (0.33, 0.53 and 1%, followed for carbaryl 4%, metribuzim 2.14% and M. anisopliae (IPA 159E 0.4%. The

  20. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  1. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  2. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izokoridi...

  3. Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio (PLR) co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co......-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...

  4. Stuburo išvaržos audinio autofluorescencijos tyrimai

    OpenAIRE

    Varanius, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Atlikta klinikinės medžiagos spektroskopinė analizė indukuojant autofluorescenciją lazerine spinduliuote. Eksperimento metu naudotas nešiojamas trečios harmonikos generatorius (355nm.). Tiriamoji medžiaga atviros stuburo išvaržos pašalinimo operacijos metu buvo imta iš skirtingų vietų: D- iš disko gilumos, P – išvarža iš po raiščio ir S – laisvas sekvestras. Viso buvo surinkta 29 bandiniai: 9 - D, 12 – P ir 8 S. Eksperimentų metų gauti rezultatai buo lyginami su histologinėmis tos pašios medž...

  5. Characters of The Rural Heritage in the Var

    OpenAIRE

    Blotto, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the architectural structures closely related to the agricultural world in the Var, with particular regard to all those accessories buildings in the service of land use. The landscape of Provence vert is composed of a mosaic of territories between them very different. Each of them has its own individuality which is determined by many factors and these include geographic configuration, culture, activities that take place there. But it can warrant recognize some recurri...

  6. Da fødsler var en naturlig ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Grit

    For bare 40 år siden fødte kvinderne på landet deres børn hjemme i sengen. Jordemødrene boede i nabolaget og kendte familierne, og således var barnefødslerne en naturlig og ganske udramatisk del af livet - dengang. Med jordemoder Rosa Thomsens stilfærdige beretning om tiden som distriktsjordemode...

  7. A 14-Variable Mixed-Frequency VAR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes recent modifications to the mixed-frequency model vector autoregression (MF-VAR) constructed by Schorfheide and Song (2012). The changes to the model are restricted solely to the set of variables included in the model; all other aspects of the model remain unchanged. Forecast evaluations are conducted to gauge the accuracy of the revised model to standard benchmarks and the original model.

  8. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  9. Studies on the fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Dermot

    1985-01-01

    During this work the fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis under industrial conditions was studied with respect to the development of a process for the production of a mosquitocidal insecticide elaborated by this organism. This was done by the development of a two-stage inoculum protocol which produced a high biomass-containing inoculum of vegetative cells which were found to be preferable to free spores for use as an inoculum source. In order to optimize the production st...

  10. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Desriani Desriani; Dwi Endah Kusumawati; Akhmad Rivai; Neneng Hasanah; Wiwit Amrinola; Lita Triratna; Ade Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms livi...

  11. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  12. Is China's Monetary Policy Effective? Evaluating the VAR Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiadan Jiang; David Kim

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with rapid economic growth and large structural changes in the economy, China's monetary authority has managed to influence the economy with its policy actions since 1983. This paper conducts a rigorous empirical test on the effect of China's monetary policy actions on its economy by properly identifying and estimating two vector autoregression (VAR) models. To identify exogenous monetary policy shocks, two identification approaches are considered in this paper: A recursive approac...

  13. Sources of German unemployment: evidence from a structural VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Linzert, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic effects of different macroeconomic shocks on unemployment in Germany. In a first step, a cointegration analysis of productivity, prices, real wages, employment, and the unemployment rate reveals two long run relationships, interpreted as a labor demand and a wage setting scheme. Secondly, a structural VAR model is identified using the restrictions suggested by a single macroeconomic model. The impulse response analysis and the forecast error variance decomposit...

  14. Application of subsynchronous damping controller to static var compensator

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Moghadam, Davoud Esmaeil; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Candela García, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new auxiliary Subsynchronous Damping Controller (SSDC) for the Static Var Compensator (SVC) to damp out subsynchronous oscillations in power system containing series compensated transmission lines. The arrival of Wide Area Measurement (WAM) technology has made it possible to measure the states of a large power system interconnected with synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). This paper presents the idea of using remote signals obtained from PMU to damp SSR. An auxi...

  15. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Mendes Medeiros; Rosana Rodrigues; Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves; Cláudia Pombo Sudré; Hérica Santos de Oliveira; Marilene Hilma dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci), to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield...

  16. Community wireless network development in Ciudad Bolívar

    OpenAIRE

    Luis F. Pedraza; Andrea Cepeda Ruiz; Dora Ballesteros

    2013-01-01

    The present paper illustrates the process of fully deploying a wireless network for the local community at Ciudad Bolívar (Bolivar wireless), an outer-city area with the highest poverty levels in Bogotá (Colombia). This paper shows implementation procedures and design stages for the nodes of the community wireless network. A mesh-based network topology and various Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications are utilized. These applications are currently being used by the local...

  17. Fiscal Policy in a Structural VAR Model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Christian; Buettner, Thiess

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fiscal policy measures on GDP and the government budget balance in a structural VAR model. In order to identify expenditure shocks we follow Blachard/Perotti (2002) and assume that government expenditure is partly predetermined in the budget. For the identification of tax policy shocks we exploit changes in tax law in Germany between 1967 and 2008. Our results support significant short term effects of fiscal expansionary policies. In the medium term, however...

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF FLICKER REDUCTION USING AN ADAPTIVE VAR COMPENSATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Jatskevich, Juri V.; Wasynczuk, Oleg

    1997-01-01

    A detailed computer model of a three-phase power network which includes inductive loads, resistance welders and an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) has been developed. The system configuration and parameters correspond to an irrdustrial customer served by a large electric utility. Welder operation produces severe cyclic flicker which leads to customer complaints. Computer studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of the AVC on the reduction of observable flicker at neighboring ...

  19. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Weiler; Karine Cristina Krycki; Divanilde Guerra; Carine Simioni; Miguel Dall’Agnol

    2015-01-01

    Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola) is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parent...

  20. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  1. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; De Vos; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y. H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plan...

  2. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  3. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  4. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  5. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P.; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A.; Padhye, A A

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. c...

  6. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using...

  7. Incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme based on Lorenz model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xidong; XU Dongfeng; XU Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional variational(4D-VAR) data assimilation method is a perfect data assimilation solution in theory, but the compu- tational issue is quite difficult in operational implementation. The incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme is set up in order to re- duce the computational cost. It is shown that the accuracy of the observations, the length of the assimilation window and the choice of the first guess have an important influence on the assimilation outcome through the contrast experiment. Compared with the standard 4D-VAR assimilation scheme, the incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme shows its advantage in the computation speed through an assimilation experiment.

  8. A Probabilistic Simulation Based VaR Computation and Sensitivity Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to compute VaR (value at risk) and perform corresponding variance based sensitivity analysis. VaR has a long history of being applied in stock price prediction and investment portfolio analysis. Traditional method, however, is mainly analytical, and has certain limitations. The VaR simulation, on the other hand, provides more realistic analysis but is very slow which affects the applications. This study proposes a new VaR computation method based on a probabil...

  9. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  10. Mujeres mayores en el cine de Almodóvar

    OpenAIRE

    Parejo, Nekane

    2016-01-01

    La frecuencia, y variedad, de personajes femeninos en el cine de Pedro Almodóvar ha dado lugar a múltiples, y en ocasiones encontradas, interpretaciones. No podía ser de otra manera si tenemos en cuenta que sus mujeres suelen ser extravagantes, excesivas y de todo tipo de condición social y sexual. Entre esa pluralidad hay también espacio para las mujeres mayores, pero nunca protagonistas principales. Estas suelen ser mujeres que proceden en su mayoría del mundo rural, lo que las hace estar d...

  11. Managing market risk with VaR (Value At Risk)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Julijana

    2013-01-01

    Market risk estimates the uncertainty of future earnings, due to the changes in market conditions. Value at Risk has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. For estimating risk, the issue is that different ways to estimate volatility can lead to very different VaR calculations. The performance of SMA with rolling windows of 100 and EWMA using 0.94 (proposed by RiskMetrics) as smoothing constant λ and rolling window of 100 days, perhaps the most widely ...

  12. Inflation gifts restrictions for structural VARs: evidence from the US

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vaona

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the link between inflation, growth and unemployment nesting a model of fair wages into one of endogenous growth of learning-by-doing. Firms protect real wages against inflation in exchange of worker's effort. In the long-run, unemployment decreases with higher inflation and real growth rates, though less so as inflation and growth increase. We then derive long-run restrictions for structural VARs for US data and we investigate the short-run behavior of inflation, real growth an...

  13. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  15. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  16. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  17. Forecasting the South African Economy : A DSGE-VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.; Gupta, R.; Schaling, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro-founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the theoretical VAR model. The model is estimated via the maximum likelihood technique based on quarterly data on real Gross National Product (GNP), consumption, investment and hours worked, for the South African economy, over the period of 1970:1 to 2000:4. Based on a recursive estimation using the Kalman filter algorithm, the out-of-sample forecasts from the hybrid model are then...

  18. A new jacaranone derivative from Senecio scandens var. incisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lu, Peng; Duan, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao

    2010-03-01

    A new jacaranone derivative, 2-(1,6-dihydroxy-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl) acetic acid (1), has been isolated from the whole plants of Senecio scandens var. incisus, together with three known compounds: 2'-(p-hydroxyl-cinnamoyl)-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2'-caffeoyl-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kampferol-3-rhamnoside (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with the related known compounds. Cytotoxic activities of 1 against three human tumour cell lines have been evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:20221943

  19. A Novel Saponin Hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Manabu; Sumida, Naomi; Yanai, Koji; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We isolated a soybean saponin hydrolase from Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. vasinfecta PF1225, a filamentous fungus that can degrade soybean saponin and generate soyasapogenol B. This enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of about 77 kDa and a glycoprotein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the corresponding gene (sdn1) indicated that this enzyme consisted of 612 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 65,724 Da, in close agreement with that of the apoenzyme after the removal of...

  20. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae. PMID:24956847

  1. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  2. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  3. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  4. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct interpre

  5. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  6. The monetary transmission mechanism in the Czech republic (evidence from VAR analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoštová, Kateřina; Hurník, Jaromír

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the monetary policy transmission mechanism using VAR models – the most widely used empirical methodology for analyzing the transmission mechanism in the Czech economy. Using the VAR methodology, the paper tries to evaluate the effects of an exogenous shock to monetary policy.

  7. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  8. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  9. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. PMID:21908301

  10. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  11. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    La version française de l'article est hal-01277035. International audience When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In addition, four specimens of this species were found after surviving without water or food other than radish plants (Raphanus sativus var. sativus). So it seems that M. extrad...

  12. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  13. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  14. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  15. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  16. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  17. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  18. Integrated control of sugarbeet root maggot by using resistant germplasm, an insect pathogen, and an insecticidal seed treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was carried out during the 2014 growing season to evaluate the following for SBRM management in the Red River Valley growing area: 1) a granular formulation of the fungal insect pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain MA1200; 2) an experimental SBRM-resistan...

  19. INTEGRATION OF AN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS AND CEREAL COVER CROPS FOR SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a report on two years of field trials evaluating Metarhizium anisopliae strain MA1200 with oat or rye cover crops in Pembina County, ND. Oat and rye cover crops were main treatments, sub-level treatments were three seeding rates, 0, 1.5, and 3.0 oat-bushel equivalents per acre and at-plantin...

  20. Resource competition between two fungal parasites in subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Efstathion, Caroline A.; Elliott, Monica L.; Su, Nan-Yao

    2012-11-01

    Subterranean termites live in large groups in underground nests where the pathogenic pressure of the soil environment has led to the evolution of a complex interaction among individual and social immune mechanisms in the colonies. However, groups of termites under stress can show increased susceptibility to opportunistic parasites. In this study, an isolate of Aspergillus nomius Kurtzman, Horn & Hessltine was obtained from a collapsed termite laboratory colony. We determined that it was primarily a saprophyte and, secondarily, a facultative parasite if the termite immunity is undergoing a form of stress. This was determined by stressing individuals of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki via a co-exposure to the virulent fungal parasite Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin. We also examined the dynamics of a mixed infection of A. nomius and M. anisopliae in a single termite host. The virulent parasite M. anisopliae debilitated the termite immune system, but the facultative, fast growing parasite A. nomius dominated the mixed infection process. The resource utilization strategy of A. nomius during the infection resulted in successful conidia production, while the chance for M. anisopliae to complete its life cycle was reduced. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of opportunistic parasites such as A. nomius in collapsing termite laboratory colonies is the consequence of a previous stress, not the cause of the stress.

  1. CONTROL OF WIREWORM (ELATERIDAE) IN POTATOES WITH MICROBIAL METARHIZIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical grade, liquid and granular formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae F52 were evaluated for wireworm control in small plots of potatoes at two sites in 2006. In-furrow treatments of three different formulations on day of planting: an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) diluted in water, a technica...

  2. Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocreales fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae can be negatively affected by fungicides thereby reducing their biocontrol potential. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on two commercial entomopathoge...

  3. Interactions of Metarhizium anisoplae and tree-based mulches in repellence and mycoses against Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Fuxa, James R; Richter, Arthur; Ring, Dennis

    2008-06-01

    The use of mulch in urban landscapes has increased in the United States for the past decade. Tree-based organic mulches can supply Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki with food, moisture, and shelter. The current research contributes to mulch management technology in termite control. A choice test arena was designed to determine the repellence and mortality caused by commercial mulches treated with different concentrations of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) against C. formosanus. Each of six tree-based mulches (pine bark, pine straw, bald cypress, eucalyptus, water oak, and melaleuca) was coated with six conidial concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml. The foragers of C. formosanus were repelled significantly by the fungal-treated mulch substrates; the proportion of termites on fungal-treated mulch was usually 99% of the termites were killed in test arenas containing a chamber with mulch treated with 10(7) or 10(8) conidia/ml. M. anisopliae significantly reduced mulch consumption by 34-71%. Mulch consumption by the termites was negatively correlated with fungal concentration, and the type of mulch also affected consumption. The differences in termite foraging activities, mortality, and food consumption among mulches were usually confounded by differences in fungal concentrations of M. anisopliae. The results indicate that repellence and virulence of M. anisopliae conidia should significantly reduce the suitability of these six mulches as a habitat for C. formosanus. PMID:18559182

  4. Effect of certain entomopathogenic fungi on oxidative stress and mortality of Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Abhilasha; Lone, Yaqoob; Wani, Owais; Gupta, U S

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonaii on Periplaneta americana. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii were cultured at 28±1°C on potato carrot agar and M. anisopliae was cultured at 28±1°C on potato dextrose agar for 14days. Conidial suspensions of fungi were given to cockroaches through different routes. M. anisopliae shows high virulence against adult cockroaches and mortality ranges from 38.65% to 78.36% after 48h. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonii show less virulence compared to M. anisopliae. We also investigated the effect of these three fungi on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and catalase in different tissues of the insect to gain an understanding of the different target site. The result suggested that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and level of malondialdehyde varies in different organs and through different routes of exposure. Based on mortality percentages, all tested fungi had high potentials for biocontrol agents against P. americana. Our study reveals for the first time that I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii fungal infections initiate oxidative stress in the midgut, fat body, whole body and hemolymph of cockroach thereby suggesting them to be the target organs for oxidative damage. PMID:26821655

  5. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  6. ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflorat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 吴海燕; 杜雪; 晋建新; 孙汉董

    2012-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 6fl,13ct,15fl-trihydroxy-16-ene-3a,20-epoxy-ent-kaur- 1,7-dione (1), 6-hydroxy-3a,20-epoxy-5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7,15-trione (2), 6-hydroxy-15fl-acetoxy-3a,20-epoxy-16]3,17-epoxy- 5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7-dione (3), 3ct,17-dihydroxy-15(16)-ene-ent-kaur-7-one (4), along with four known com- pounds 5--8 were isolated from the leaves oflsodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora. The structures were elucidated by ex- tensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 8 showed moderate inhibitory effects on HL-60, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines.

  7. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition. PMID:25036570

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  9. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  10. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  12. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  13. Static Var Compensator for CERN's Proton Synchrotron Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2004-01-01

    The following paper summarises the design studies for a new 85Mvar 18kV Static Var Compensator (SVC) for CERN’s Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. Currently, the PS is supplied using a rotating motor-generator set in order to decouple the pulsating load from the electrical network. A study is undertaken to investigate the replacement of this rotating machine by an SVC. The proposed solution comprises a 85Mvar Thyristor Controlled Reactor and seven harmonic filters with a total power of 75Mvar. The paper gives a detailed description of the project background, system design and control strategy. Finally, the results of the computer studies are presented, showing the expected dynamic performance of the SVC.

  14. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  15. Rare decays of the var-phi meson forbidden by the OZI rule and by G parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the investigation of rare decays of the var-phi meson into π+π-, ωπ0, and ηπ+π-, which violate the OZI rule and G parity, is a possible way of greatly clarifying the situation with regard to var-phi-ω and var-phi-ρ mixing. The role of mixing and of direct transitions is discussed in detail. The prospects are considered for investigating these decays at e+e- colliders with high luminosity close to the var-phi resonance, including var-phi factories

  16. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y;

    2006-01-01

    , using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  17. The Impact of Merger and Acquisition on Value at Risk (VaR): A Case Study of China Eastern Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Ka Wai Terence; Wan, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the impact of merger and acquisition on Value at Risk (VaR) of China Eastern Airline. The VaR is estimated for the whole sample and pre-merger periods by three methods: RiskMetrics , AR-GARCH and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV). The regression-based model reports the highest VaR followed by RiskMetrics and GEV. All models report a low VaR after the 11 June, 2009 merger, indicating a negative impact of merger and acquisition on VaR.

  18. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew; Salanti, Ali; Sama, Grace; Efundem, Canisia; Leke, Robert J I; Chen, John J; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2...

  19. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  20. Penggunaan Metode Simulasi Monte Carlo Dalam Mencari Value At Risk (Var) Pada Portofolio

    OpenAIRE

    Qadafhi, Achmad

    2012-01-01

    In Risk Management, Value at Risk (VaR) is a concept that used to measure risk. VaR can estimate the loss value that can be take by investor in the next period. In portfolio, VaR using the distribution of returns historical to find means and standard deviations as parameters. Monte Carlo simulation method use characteristics of historical data that are assumed normal distribution to generate random numbers. Based on a hypothetical scenario, the estimated risk of future price can determined. V...

  1. Structural Insight into Epitopes in the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Protein VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P; Nielsen, MA; Resende, M; Rask, Thomas Salhøj; Dahlbäck, M; Theander, T; Lund, Ole; Salanti, A

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein of...... the PfEMP1 family, is the main parasite ligand for CSA binding, and identification of protective antibody epitopes is essential for VAR2CSA vaccine development. Attempts to determine the crystallographic structures of VAR2CSA or its domains have not been successful yet. In this study, we propose 3D...

  2. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  3. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C;

    2012-01-01

    antibodies and the var transcript and PfEMP1 expression profiles of the generated parasites were investigated. The IgG reactivity by plasma from children living in malaria-endemic Tanzania was tested to parasites and recombinant VAR3 protein. Parasites from hospitalized children were isolated and the...... recognition of parasites expressing VAR3 and to the recombinant VAR3 protein after a malaria episode and the isolated parasites showed high levels of var3 transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the presented data suggest that var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected...... transcript level of var3 was investigated. RESULTS: Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children's IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased...

  4. Three new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium laxicymosum var. Pilostachyum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Qiao Hong Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Three new lycoctonine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, laxicymine 1, laxicymisine 2, and laxicyminine 3 have been isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium laxicymosum var.pilostachyum W.T.Wang.Their structures were established by spectra data.

  5. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  6. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  7. Final Critical Habitat for the Robust spineflower (Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas (in general) where final critical habitat for the robust spineflower (Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta) occurs. Critical habitat for...

  8. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  9. Final Critical Habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens) occur.

  10. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  11. Proposed Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachella (Coachella Valley milk-vetch)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where proposed critical habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachella (Coachella Valley milk-vetch) occurs.

  12. Revised designated critical habitat for Peirson's milk-vetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where designated critical habitat for Peirson's milk-vetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii) occur.

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva) occur based on the...

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  16. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  17. Myte: Var Danmark det første land, der ophævede slaveriet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?......Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?...

  18. Risikomessung mit VaR für Portfolios: Diskussion und empirischer Vergleich verschiedener Berechnungsmethoden

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmer, Ekkehart; Sperlich, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden zwei Methoden zur Ermittlung der Eigenkapitalunterlegung von Risikopositionen und die Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Verteilungsannahmen auf das Value-at-Risk (VaR) untersucht. Die empirischen Ergebnisse basieren auf zwei Beispielportfolios aus DAX-Aktien und einer Simulationsstudie. Wir zeigen, daß sich Verteilungen, die sich gut zur Beschreibung von Aktienrenditen eignen, nicht unbedingt zur Kalkulation des VaR für Portfolios verwendet werden sollten. Dieses Ergebnis...

  19. The transmission mechanism of monetary policy in Vietnam: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Van Hai; Tran Thi Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses monetary transmission mechanism in Vietnam by using a Vector Autoregression (VAR), focusing especially on how the economy dynamically responds money demand, interest rate, exchange rate, and asset price shocks. In this paper, we establish identification conditions to uncover the dynamic effects of monetary policy shocks. By using quarterly data over the period 1995-2010, a VAR model is developed to analyze various channels of monetary policy mechanism in a country with a l...

  20. The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Vietnam: A VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Van Hai; Tran Thi Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses monetary transmission mechanism in Vietnam by using a Vector Autoregression (VAR), focusing especially on how the economy dynamically responds money demand, interest rate, exchange rate, and asset price shocks. In this paper, we establish identification conditions to uncover the dynamic effects of monetary policy shocks. By using quarterly data over the period 1995-2010, a VAR model is developed to analyze various channels of monetary policy mechanism in a country with a l...

  1. VaR and Liquidity Risk.Impact on Market Behaviour and Measurement Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Erzegovesi, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Current trends in international banking supervision following the 1996 Amendment to the Basel Accord emphasise market risk control based upon internal Value-at-risk (VaR) models. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of VaR models in the light of their impact on market liquidity. After a preliminary review of basic concepts and measures regarding market risk, market friction and liquidity risk, the arguments supporting the internal models approach to supervision on market risk are dis...

  2. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske...... hyperinflationer var et betragteligt fremadskuende element i agenterne pengeefterspørgsel. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  3. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapp...

  4. Macroeconomic and credit forecasts in a small economy during crisis: A large Bayesian VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitris P. Louzis

    2014-01-01

    We examine the ability of large-scale vector autoregressions (VARs) to produce accurate macroeconomic (output and inflation) and credit (loans and lending rates) forecasts in Greece, during the latest sovereign debt crisis. We implement recently proposed Bayesian shrinkage techniques and we evaluate the information content of forty two (42) monthly macroeconomic and financial variables in a large Bayesian VAR context, using a five year out-of-sample forecasting period from 2008 to 2013. The e...

  5. Effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Thaumetopoea solitaria Frey. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) Larvae in Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    ER, Mehmet Kubilay; KARADAĞ, Serpil; MART, Cafer

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the larvae of Thaumetopoea solitaria in the search for an alternative control method with minimal undesirable side effects. Four larval stages were tested with various concentrations of the bacterium under controlled conditions by dipping pistachio saplings in relevant suspensions and feeding larvae on their leaves. The effect of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki was significantly higher on the 1st instar...

  6. Ecological-anatomical characteristic and volatility of Ranunculus arvensis var. spinosus, genus Ranunculus L. (Ranunculaceae Juss.)

    OpenAIRE

    DOCHEV, Georgi; ZHALNOV, Ivan; DOCHEVA, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis var. spinosus is a cosmopolitan species distributed in Europe, the Mediterranean, Southwest Asia, North Africa. In Bulgaria, the species grows in the damp meadows and grassy areas along roads and ditches from 0 meters above sea level to 1000 m. altitude. Ranunculus species found along the Black Sea coast, Thracian Lowland, Vitosha, Rodopi. Ranuntsulus arvensis var. spinosus is pungent and poisonous. They contain alkaloids and belong to the noxious weed meadow. Ranunculus a...

  7. Hibridação interespecífica entre Gossmum hirsutum L. var. latifolium e G. Herbaceum L. var. africanum Interespecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium and G. Herbaceum var. africanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Chiavegato

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi obtida, pelos autores, variabilidade genética para resistência da fibra do algodoeiro a partir da hibridação entre a espécie alotetraplóide cultivada Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. e a espécie diplóide selvagem G. herbaceum L. vai. africanum Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as características agronômicas e tecnológicas da fibra do híbrido são descritas e discutidas. Visando à duplicação do número de cromossomos da espécie diplóide, foram realizados nove tratamentos com o alcalóide colchicina, em solução aquosa e em adição com pasta de lanolina, com diferentes concentrações e tempo de ação para o tratamento de sementes, radicelas e gemas apicais: revelou-se mais eficiente o de gemas apicais com colchicina a 1%, em pasta de lanolina, durante 32 horas. Diversos cruzamentos das plantas duplicadas com variedades comerciais de algodoeiro levaram à obtenção de híbrido estéril. A seguir, dois retrocruzamentos foram realizados, sendo que, a partir do primeiro, a fertilidade foi restaurada. Estas plantas, com características agronômicas promissoras, possuem grande variabilidade para resistência da fibra, num nível superior ao de G. hirsutum.Genetic variability was obtained by the authors for fiber strenght in cotton, through hybridization between the cultivated alotetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. and the wild diploid species G. herbaceum L. africanum Hutch. The underlying methods and the hybrid's characteristics are reported and described. As a first step, the number of chromosomes in the diploid species was duplicated. Nine treatments with aqueous colchicina or colchicina in lanolina paste were carried out, comprising several concentrations and times of application to seeds, radicles and apical buds of the main stem. Success was obtained by treating apical buds with lanolina paste containing 1% colchicina, during 32 hours. Two hundred fourty five crosses between the

  8. Improved diagnostic medium for separation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A and D) and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C).

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Polacheck, I; Bennett, J E

    1982-01-01

    A simple new agar medium containing L-canavanine, glycine, and bromthymol blue was found to give a clearer and more accurate distinction between serotype A or D (Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans) and serotype B or C (C. neoformans var. gattii) than creatinine-dextrose-bromthymol blue or glycine-cycloheximide-phenol red media. Among 143 isolates of serotype A or D and 70 isolates of serotype B or C, the new medium correlated completely with the serotype, whereas nearly 11% of these isol...

  9. Effect of Pre-Chilling Duration and Kinetin on Germination of Capers (Capparis Spinosa Var. Spinosa And Capparis Ovata Var. Canescens) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Talip; SÖYLER, Durmuş Ali; ÖZCAN, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine theeffects of pre-chilling and kinetin treatment on germination of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata var. canescens seeds. Seeds were kept 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for pre-chilling at +4 ºC. After the prechilling, Seeds were treated with distilled water, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm doses of kinetin and 2000 ppm dose of GA3 which was used as positive control for 24 hours at 22 ºC. The research was conducted with 4 repetitionin in fitler pape...

  10. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  11. Working Alliance Inventory applied to Virtual and Augmented Reality (WAI-VAR: Psychometrics and Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiragall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR therapies (WAI-VAR. The relationship between the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage= 34.41. Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. Not changed patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than improved and recovered patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the therapeutic alliance with therapist (WAI-S and the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR (WAI-VAR, due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the therapeutic alliance with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  12. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  13. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  14. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  15. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  16. Streptomyces noursei var saccharicus: An Antibiotic Producer from Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ellaiah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During our continuous search for antibiotic producing actinomycetes, a variant of Streptomyces species was isolated from soils of Andhra Pradesh in India. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters were studied, compared to known species and identified as a new variant of Streptomyces noursei and designated as Streptomyces noursei var saccharicus. The antibiotic activity of the strain was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and yeasts. INTRODUCTION Since the isolation of actinomycin in 1940 and streptomycin in 1944 by Waksman, the actinomycetes have received tremendous attention of the scientists. Soils, composts and fodders are common sources of actinomycetes. Waksman [1] recognized a few natural substrates as ideal sources for the isolation of actinomycetes and other streptomycetes. The nature of a Streptomyces colony is an important property in characterizing a culture. Krainsky [2] used the structure, size, shape and texture of the colony as one of the major diagnostic criteria. According to Pridham and Lyons [3] and International Subcommittee [4], the best way to handle streptomycete classification nomenclature and identification is through application of the genus-species-subspecies concept. The majority of antibiotic producing actinomycetes found in these species led to growing economic importance of these organisms which resulted in the isolation and description of numerous new species. It is reported that the only genus Streptomyces, the member of Actinomycetales accounts for approximately 93% producing secondary metabolites [5]. The present communication deals with the isolation and characterization of an antibiotic producer from soils.

  17. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  18. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  19. Tissue culture studies in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) var. moneymaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol was developed for callus induction and regeneration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) var. Moneymaker. Hypocotyl and leaf disc explants of tomato were used as a starting material for callus induction. Explants were cultured on MS medium having different concentrations of hormones. Maximum callogenesis from hypocotyls was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (5 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 65.2% for hypocotyls. For leaf discs maximum callogenesis was achieved on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 81.3% for leaf discs. Calli were cultured on MS medium having concentrations of Zeatin (1 mg/l) and IAA (1 mg/l) for regeneration. They showed maximum regeneration of 69.2% from hypocotyls. Minimum regeneration of 2.8% was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). Tomato shoots were shifted to one half MS medium containing IBA (0.1 mg/l) and BAP (0.0025 mg/l) for rooting and all responded positively to rooting. (author)

  20. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low. PMID:24511710

  1. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  2. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  3. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  4. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  5. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  6. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

  7. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  8. CD36 selection of 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria results in reduced VAR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hviid Lars

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1SM is involved in the cytoadherence of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC contributing to the pathogenesis of severe disease among young children in malaria endemic areas. The PfEMP1SM are encoded by group A var genes that are composed of a more constrained range of amino acid sequences than groups B and C var genes encoding PfEMP1UM associated with uncomplicated malaria. Also, unlike var genes from groups B and C, those from group A do not have sequences consistent with CD36 binding – a major cytoadhesion phenotype of P. falciparum isolates. Methods A 3D7 PfEMP1SM sub-line (3D7SM expressing VAR4 (PFD1235w/MAL8P1.207 was selected for binding to CD36. The protein expression of this parasite line was monitored by surface staining of iRBC using VAR4-specific antibodies. The serological phenotype of the 3D7SM parasites was determined by flow cytometry using malaria semi-immune and immune plasma and transcription of the 59 var genes in 3D7 were analysed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using var-specific primers. Results A selection-induced increased adhesion of 3D7SM iRBC to CD36 resulted in a reduced var4 transcription and VAR4 surface expression. Conclusion VAR4 is not involved in CD36 adhesion. The current findings are consistent with the notion that CD36 adhesion is not associated with particular virulent parasite phenotypes, such as those believed to be exhibited by VAR4 expressing parasites.

  9. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author)

  10. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  11. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  12. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  13. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  14. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  15. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  16. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  17. Evidence for globally shared, cross-reacting polymorphic epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avril, Marion; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Gose, Severin O; Rowe, Chris; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Duffy, Patrick E; Fried, Michal; Salanti, Ali; Misher, Lynda; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2008-01-01

    Da) and extensive polymorphism may pose a challenge to vaccine development. In this study, rabbits were immunized with individual VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains expressed in Pichia pastoris or var2csa plasmid DNA and sera were screened on different CSA-binding parasite lines. Rabbit antibodies...

  18. Genetic Interactions Reveal that Specific Defects of Chloroplast Translation are Associated with the Suppression of var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiayan Liu; Mengdi Zheng; Rui Wang; Ruijuan Wang; Lijun An; Steve R. Rodermel; Fei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development.

  19. [Finding of dairy yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis in natural habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S; Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Well-known yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis, which are usually associated with dairy prod- ucts, were discovered in nature (in woodland park soil under Impatiens glandulifera Royle plants). Reliable identification of the yeasts was carried out using physiological criteria (lactose and maltose utilization) and molecular markers (nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA fragment, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization of chromosomal DNA with the LAC4 probe). Ecology of KI. lactis var. lactis is discussed. PMID:25941717

  20. Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Alzugaray; Nélida Carnevale; Rodrigo Freire; Mirian Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Título en ingles: In vitro culture of Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Resumen: Schinus fasciculata es un árbol de la ecorregión chaqueña argentina. Es una especie de bajo porte, usada como antiséptico, analgésico, antiinflamatorio y antifúngico. Estudios previos registraron baja germinación y deficiente sanidad. El objetivo fue evaluar la germinación y la re...

  1. Computation of VaR and CVaR using stochastic approximations and unconstrained importance sampling.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardou, Olivier; Frikha, Noufel; Pagès, G

    2009-01-01

    Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) are two risk measures which are widely used in the practice of risk management. This paper deals with the problem of computing both VaR and CVaR using stochastic approximation (with decreasing steps): we propose a first Robbins-Monro procedure based on Rockaffelar-Uryasev's identity for the CVaR. The convergence rate of this algorithm to its target satisfies a Gaussian Central Limit Theorem. As a second step, in order to speed up the in...

  2. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  3. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Korish, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ra...

  4. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  5. A NEW AROMATIC ESTER AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF Salvia aucheri var. canescens

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN*, N. TAN*, G. TOPÇU**,

    2015-01-01

    The roots of an endemic Salvia species, Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss.and HeIdr. have been investigated and a new aromatic ester together with two diterpenoids, a triterpenoid and a steroidal compound were isolated. The structures of the new and the known compounds were determined by spectral methods and by TLC comparision with authentic samples except for the new compound.Key words: Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss. and Heldr.; Labiatae; aromaticester; terpenoidal compounds.

  6. Two New Highly Oxygenated Spirostanol Saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling-Yu; Lu, Ting-Xiang; Qin, Xu-Jie; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Hui; He, Hong-Ping; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, named paristenosides A (1) and B (2), together with seven known compounds. Their structures were established mainly on the base of NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the two new saponins was tested. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, paristenosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. PMID:27255683

  7. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  8. Behavioral thermoregulation in the migratory locust: a therapy to overcome fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R M; Goettel, M S; Brodeur, J

    2004-01-01

    We examined under laboratory conditions the thermopreference of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, following infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and its influence on mycosis. Infected locusts raised their body temperature more frequently than healthy conspecifics through selection of high temperatures in a heat gradient. Thermoregulation did not, however, alter the frequency of feeding events nor the amount of food eaten by infected L. migratoria. A thermoregulation regime of a minimum of 4 h/day substantially increased survival of inoculated insects (by 85%). However, the therapeutic effect decreased when thermoregulation was delayed following inoculation of the pathogen. Thermoregulation reduced locust mortality but did not completely eliminate the fungus from infected hosts; the fungus grew and killed the insects when thermoregulation was interrupted. We suggest that periodic, short bouts of thermoregulation, when performed from the onset of infection and for an extended period of time, are sufficient to provide a therapeutic effect to infected hosts. Such thermoregulatory capacity of locusts may limit the potential of fungal pathogens as biological control agents under certain ecological conditions. PMID:14614620

  9. The modular structure of the floral phenotype in Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae) Estructura modular del fenotipo floral en Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GASTÓN CARVALLO; RODRIGO MEDEL

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of multivariate evolution on the floral phenotype assume that traits evolve independently one from each other, ignoring the modular structure that results from genetic correlations or developmental constraints. In this paper we describe the interdependence of nine floral traits in the herb Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae), as an attempt to characterize functional modules on which natural selection can potentially act upon. Using edge exclusion deviance analysis, we detecte...

  10. Evaluación e identificación de microorganismos patógenos de Perkinsiella saccharicida (Hom: delphacidae, en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Jorge I.

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The sugar cane POJ 2878 is susceptible both to the Fiji disease as the vector (P. saccharicida Kirkaldy and ocuppies high percentage of the total cane area cultivated in Colombia. It means a real need to develop methods of control to regulate its populations. This study has shown that Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorokin C7 isolate was the most pathogenic culture on P. saccharicida at concentrations of 1 x 108 spores/ml. Death rate produced by mycosis were taken beginning the second day for 20 consecutive days. The mortality produced by M. anisopliae C7 on different stages of P. saccharicida were: 10% for first instar, 23.3% for the second, 66.6% for the third 58.6% for the fourth, 66.6% for the fifth and 86.7% for the sixth. Furthermore, several microorganisms associated with P. saccharicida were evaluated in their pathogenicity on the most susceptible stage to M. anisopliae C7. A. Fusarium spp. isolate showed similar pathogenic results.La variedad de caña de azúcar POJ2878, susceptible tanto a la enfermedad de Fiji como al vector (P. saccharicida Kirkaldy, se siembra en grandes extensiones en el país, razón por la cual se necesita regular las poblaciones del insecto. El estudio demostró que Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorokin, cepa C7 era la más patogénica a P. saccharicida, utilizándose una concentración de 10 8 a conidias/ml. La mortalidad por micosis se registró a partir del segundo día de la inoculación y durante 20 días consecutivos. M. anisopliae C7 causó el 10% de micosis en el primer instar, 23.3% en el segundo, 66.6% en el tercero, 58.6% en el cuarto, 66.6% en el quinto y 86.7% en el sexto. Un aislamiento de Fusarium spp. mostró resultados patogénicos similares a los de M. anisopliae C7 sobre el estado de desarrollo más susceptible del insecto.

  11. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  12. Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu Liu; Qiao Hong Chen; Feng Peng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, designated as anthriscifolmines A-C (1-3), together with two known alkaloids denudatine and delgramine, were isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri. The structures of these new alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  13. Two new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from roots Aconitum hemsleyanium var. atropurpureum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new franchetine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid 3-hydroxyfranchetine 1 and a new aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid atropurpursine 2 have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanium var.atropurpureum.The structures of these new alkaloids were established on the basis of spectral data.

  14. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  15. Simón Bolívar: aproximación al pensamiento del Libertador

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2005-01-01

    Primero de una serie de artículos en los que se analizará y expondrá el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar con la finalidad de comprender mejor su mentalidad, su esencial protagonismo en los acontecimientos que originaron la independencia hispanoamericana, sus ideas y planteamientos políticos, etc.

  16. Simón Bolívar y la carta de Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2010-01-01

    La Carta de Jamaica es un documento fundamental para comprender el proceso emancipador hispanoamericano y en especial para entender el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar, su actitud ante la situación política del continente americano y sus previsiones "sobre la suerte futura de la América".

  17. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  18. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  19. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  20. A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides and a new derivation of phenolic glycoside from Paris Polyphylla var. yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Wen Yuan Gao; Tie Jun Zhang; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides 1, named parispolyside F, and a novel derivation of phenolic glycoside 2, named parispolyside G, as well as two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  1. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  2. Soft Rot on Cucumis melo var. makuwa Caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Kim, Jinwoo; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Shim, Hong-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is reported for the first time on Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino. A detailed description of this Korean specimen is given, along with its rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. On the basis of mycological characteristics and molecular data, the fungus was identified as R. oryzae Went & Prinsen Geerligs.

  3. Characterization of H2 photoproduction by a new marine green alga, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► H2 production by Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was reported. ► Significant photobiological production of H2 gas was observed upon CCCP treatment. ► H2 production was significantly improved in the present of DCMU and CCCP. ► Endogenous substrate metabolism was the main source of electrons for H2 evolution. ► The hydrogenase might belong to the [Fe]-hydrogenase class. -- Abstract: A significant improvement in H2 photoproduction was observed in the marine green alga Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis in the presence of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). The addition of 15 μM CCCP to algal cultures led to a 260-fold increase in H2 production compared with a negligible volume of H2 gas produced without CCCP. The photosystem (PS) II photochemical activity was shown to be completely inhibited in the presence of CCCP under illumination. The added herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea further resulted in a twofold increase in H2 photoproduction in the CCCP-treated cultures. These results demonstrated the absence of PSII-dependent pathway of H2 photoproduction. H2 production essentially depends on electrons donated to the hydrogenase by the endogenous substrate catabolism in CCCP-treated P. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis. An analysis of the O2-tolerance of the hydrogenase of P. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis suggested that this enzyme may belong to the class [FeFe]-hydrogenase.

  4. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation o

  5. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a num

  6. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  7. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  8. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabier, J. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Jacques.Rabier@univ-provence.fr; Laffont-Schwob, I. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Isabelle.Schwob@univ-provence.fr; Notonier, R. [Service commun de microscopie electronique, Universite de Provence, Case 76, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Roger.Notonier@univ-provence.fr; Fogliani, B. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bfoglian@univ-nc.nc; Bouraima-Madjebi, S. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bouraima@univ-nc.nc

    2008-12-15

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism.

  9. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852. Class: Phycomycetes. Order: Mucorales. Family: Mortierellaceae....

  10. Disseminated Nosocomial Fungal Infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bolignano, Giuseppe; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    We report on a rare case of disseminated nosocomial fungal infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum in a severely traumatized patient. Repeated blood and urine cultures yielded multicellular filamentous hyphal structures of varying size accompanied by budding yeast-like-cells of ellipsoidal morphology. The patient became asymptomatic after fluconazole therapy.

  11. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  12. GROWTH DYNAMICS OF Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil AND Tabebuia impetiginosa FROM PANTANAL MATO-GROSSENSE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Póvoa de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for wood within tropical natural forests and a scarcity of available data to carry out a management program. It is of great importance, therefore, that growth ring information is being enhanced. The Pantanal of Nhecolândia, sub-region of Pantanal Mato-grossense, may be viewed as one of these regions. Its natural forests are systematically cut to be used as solid wood or fuel, or replaced by cultivated pastures. Peculiar climatic and soil factors of Nhecolandia induce the formation of annual growth rings. This work aims at determining the radial increments of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa by growth ring analysis. Disks from eight trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and six of Tabebuia impetiginosa were collected, in July 1996, in Nhumirim Farm, Embrapa Pantanal, located in Nhecolandia sub-region. The trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa were 14 to 30 and 15 to 30 years old, respectively. Diameter increment varied from 5.4 to 8.0 mm/year for Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and from 4.8 to 11.6 mm/year for Tabebuia impetiginosa. The average estimated time for both species to reach a diameter of 40 cm was 55 years.

  13. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK)

    OpenAIRE

    BARBULESCU MARINELA; HAGIU ALINA; VASILICA RADU

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  14. A VAR Analysis of Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrinović, Ivan; Benazić, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the functioning of the monetary transmission mechanism in the EU. It analyses the influence of an increase in short-term interest rate on real and monetary variable e.g. industrial production of the EU members, retail prices, monetary mass and real exchange rate. Frequently used econometric technique of VAR has been used to analyse the monetary transmission mechanism.

  15. Potential of 4d-VAR for exigent forecasting of severe weather

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ross N; Nehrkorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Severe storms, tropical cyclones, and associated tornadoes, floods, lightning, and microbursts threaten life and property. Reliable, precise, and accurate alerts of these phenomena can trigger defensive actions and preparations. However, these crucial weather phenomena are difficult to forecast. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of 4d-VAR (four dimensional variational data assimilation) for exigent forecasting (XF) of severe storm precursors and to thereby characterize the probability of a worst-case scenario. 4d-VAR is designed to adjust the initial conditions (IC) of a numerical weather prediction model consistent with the uncertainty of the prior estimate of the IC while at the same time minimizing the misfit to available observations. For XF the same approach is taken but instead of fitting observations, a measure of damage or loss or an equivalent proxy is maximized or minimized. To accomplish this will require development of a specialized cost function for 4d-VAR. When 4d-VAR s...

  16. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Melissa J; Lee, Jennifer M; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions. PMID:26582918

  17. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk-aversion, the...

  18. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy. PMID:17476467

  19. Isolation of chemical constituents from rhizomes of Etlingera sphaerocephala var. grandiflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phytochemicals investigation was conducted on the rhizomes of Etlingera sphaerocephala var. grandiflora (Zingiberaceae). Steroids of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, together with a phenolic compound of paeonol were isolated using several chromatographic means. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, NMR) data analysis and by comparison of the data obtained with those of the literature. (author)

  20. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  1. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  2. Formation of trichothecenes by Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Fusarium sambucinum in potatoes.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Banna, A A; Scott, P M; Lau, P Y; Sakuma, T.; Platt, H. W.; Campbell, V

    1984-01-01

    Fusarium solani var. coeruleum can form deoxynivalenol in potato tubers and in liquid medium, although concentrations observed in the rot were highly variable; acetyldeoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in 1 to 3 tubers only (of 57). Trichothecenes were also detected in a very few (3 of 20) cultures of Fusarium sambucinum in potato tubers.

  3. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism

  4. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen;

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated in...

  5. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  6. Photobiont Relationships and Phylogenetic History of Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum and Related Dermatocarpon Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Fontaine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Dermatocarpon are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere along the edge of lakes, rivers and streams, and are subject to abiotic conditions reflecting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Little is known about the evolutionary relationships within the genus and between continents. Investigation of the photobiont(s associated with sub-aquatic and terrestrial Dermatocarpon species may reveal habitat requirements of the photobiont and the ability for fungal species to share the same photobiont species under different habitat conditions. The focus of our study was to determine the relationship between Canadian and Austrian Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum along with three additional sub-aquatic Dermatocarpon species, and to determine the species of photobionts that associate with D. luridum var. luridum. Culture experiments were performed to identify the photobionts. In addition, the question of the algal sharing potential regarding different species of Dermatocarpon was addressed. Specimens were collected from four lakes in northwestern Manitoba, Canada and three streams in Austria. Three Canadian and four Austrian thalli of D. luridum var. luridum were selected for algal culturing. The nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS rDNA gene of the fungal partner along with the algal ITS rDNA gene was sequenced to confirm the identity of the lichen/photobiont and afterwards the same data sets were used in phylogenetic analyses to assess algal sharing. The green algal photobiont was identified as Diplosphaera chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae. The phylogenetic analyses of Canadian and Austrian D. luridum var. luridum revealed that ITS sequences are identical despite the vast geographic distance. Phylogenetic placement of D. luridum var. decipiens and D. arnoldianum suggested that a re-examination of the species status might be necessary. This study concluded that additional photobiont culture experiments should be conducted

  7. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J. Carl; Dry, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  8. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Dry, Jonathan R

    2016-06-20

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  9. Var Gene promoter activation in clonal Plasmodium falciparum isolates follows a hierarchy and suggests a conserved switching program that is independent of genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderes, Corinna; Kombila, Davy; Dal-Bianco, Matthias; Dzikowski, Ron; Kremsner, Peter; Frank, Matthias

    2011-11-15

    Antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by a mutually exclusive expression mechanism that limits expression to an individual member of the multicopy var gene family. This process determines the antigenic and adhesive phenotype of the infected red blood cell. Previously, we showed that var gene switching is influenced by chromosomal position. Here, we address whether var gene transcription follows a general conserved pattern in long-term laboratory parasites and in recently culture-adapted field parasites. Activation of the var gene family was monitored in biological replicates in each parasite isolate every 3-5 generations for up to 3 months. We used transgenic parasites carrying a drug-selectable marker at a defined var locus to characterize var gene activation after the exclusive expression of the transgene. Transgenic parasites exhibited a repeatable hierarchy of var gene activation and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the transgenic var locus. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type laboratory and field parasites showed a universal bias toward transcription of UpsC var genes and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the dominant var promoter. The data suggest the existence of an intrinsic var gene transcription program that is independent of genetic background. PMID:21926380

  10. Multivariate modelling of 10-day-ahead VaR and dynamic correlation for worldwide real estate and stock indices

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Degiannakis; Apostolos Kiohos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The Basel Committee regulations require the estimation of value-at-risk (VaR) at 99 percent confidence level for a ten-trading-day-ahead forecasting horizon. The paper provides a multivariate modelling framework for multi-period VaR estimates for leptokurtic and asymmetrically distributed real estate portfolio returns. The purpose of the paper is to estimate accurate ten-day-ahead 99%VaR forecasts for real estate markets along with stock markets for seven countries across the world ...

  11. Estudio sobre la influencia de la inoculación de las rizobacterias Azospirillum brasilense y Pseudomonas fluorescens sobre el desarrollo morfológico y el contenido de aceites esenciales en las especies aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Trenado, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la influencia de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, con Pseudomonas fluorescens y la inoculación conjunta con ambas rizobacterias en las especies de plantas aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis. Se evaluará su desarrollo morfológico, atendiendo a tres parámetros: la longitud del tallo, el peso fresco y la superficie foliar. Así como el posible incremento en el c...

  12. Purification and characterization of a new Xylanase from Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea Produção, purificação e caracterização de uma nova Xilanase de Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea

    OpenAIRE

    Severino de Albuquerque Lucena-Neto; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira-Filho

    2004-01-01

    The thermophilic fungus Humicola grisea var. thermoidea secretes extracellular xylanase when grown on solid and in liquid media containing wheat bran and banana plant residue as substrates, respectively. At 55ºC, xylanase from the culture filtrate of H. grisea var. thermoidea grown on banana stalk retained 50% of its activity after 28 h of incubation. A xylanase (X2) was isolated from solid state cultures with wheat bran as the carbon source. It was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafi...

  13. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) island of Mokoli'i (Chinaman's Hat), Oahu, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) occur the based on the...

  15. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  16. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  17. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  18. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Ditlev, Sisse B; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  19. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo; Maria Daniela Silva Buonafina; Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima-Neto; Rejane Pereira Neves

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated ...

  20. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph; Voss, Till S

    2014-01-01

    Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups) sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. PMID:24937593

  1. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M B Brancucci

    Full Text Available Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum.

  2. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–16...

  3. Diversity of endophytic fungi from root of Maize var. Pulut (waxy corn local variety of south sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. The objective of this investigation was to isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from roots of maize plant var. Pulut (a local variety of south Sulawesi). Sixty three isolates of fungal endophytes were isolated from the root of maize var. Pulut. The isolates belonged to six genera, namely :Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Acremonium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Botryodiplo...

  4. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    de Moraes, Luciana V.; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Flávia A Lima; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Chris J. Janse; Gamain, Benoit; Franke-Fayard, Blandine

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (doma...

  5. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    OpenAIRE

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, ...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus discovers putative ocotillol-type ginsenosides biosynthesis genes and genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guang-hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Qing-Yan; He, Mu-Han; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Jiang, Ni-Hao; Yang, Sheng-chao

    2015-01-01

    Background P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, called “Yesanqi” in Chinese, is a new variety of P. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. Compared with other Panax plants, this species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2. Despite the pharmacological importance of ocotillol-type saponins, little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus is a suitable medicinal herb...

  7. Varíola, sua prevenção vacinal e ameaça como agente de bioterrorismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEVI GUIDO CARLOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a ameaça internacional do bioterrorismo, a varíola voltou a ganhar destaque mundial. Os autores revisam aspectos da varíola e trazem considerações atuais da utilização do agente como arma biológica. Também apresentam dados dos esforços atuais na produção e desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a doença.

  8. Study of the Geo-effectiveness of VarSITI Campaign Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the geomagnetic response during the five VarSITI campaign events, 14 July 2012, 08 October 2012, 17 March 2013, 31 May 2013 and 17 March 2015. We identify distinct features of interplanetary coronal mass ejections during the passage of these VarSITI campaign events. We analyze the hourly resolution data of geomagnetic indices along with the simultaneous and same time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters. We identify features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during the development of different phases of geomagnetic storms. We discuss our results in the light of plasma/field variations and physical mechanism(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic activity and GCR intensity.

  9. The anti-rheumatoid arthritis property of the folk medicine Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis, Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meng; Lu, Yi; Yan, Cheng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Liu, Zizhen; Xu, Guanling; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xia; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jianqiu; She, Gaimei

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese folk medicine Dianbaizhu, consisting of Gaultheria species, is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by several minority nationalities. The species and plant parts of this genus used as Dianbaizhu in clinical application are confused. In order to elucidate the species and the medicinal parts, as well as to ascertain the effective components and the probable optimal source of Dianbaizhu, the different plant parts and polarity fractions of its mainstream species, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis were investigated. The inhibition of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor produced in macrophage J774 were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of those samples. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis may be the preferred species for anti-RA effect. The underground parts of this taxon showed the best anti-inflammatory and anti-RA activities; the n-butanol and water fractions of the underground parts may be the most anti-RA active. PMID:25632482

  10. Antifungal activity of evernia prunastri, parmelia sulcata, pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the In vitro efficacy of 96% alcohol extracts of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea that were in foliose-fruticose form and Parmelia sulcata in foliose form against important plant pathogens. The growth of fungal colonies in Petri plates amended with lichen extracts at 25 degree C was measured a day before covering all surface of Petri plate in control treatment. Data were analysed according to statistic analysis test LSD at p=0.05. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of E. prunastri, P. sulcata and P. furfuracea var. furfuracea showed a significant inhibition against mycelia and spor growth of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium expansum and Rhizoctonia solani. The level of inhibition among extracts showed variation. It was concluded that secondary metabolites of lichens may be used as biological chemicals against some plant pathogens. (author)

  11. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). PMID:7617014

  12. Moniliformin produced by cultures of Fusarium moniliforme Var. subglutinans isolated from swine feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesonder, R F

    1986-09-01

    Feed samples from Iowa suspected of causing vomiting and enlarged vulva as well as mortalities of swine were examined for toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and F. moniliforme Sheldon var. subglutinans Wollenew. & Reink. accounted for 43% and 18.5%, respectively, of the total count of 4.75 X 10(5) propagules filamentous fungi per gram of swine feed, but representatives of various Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were also found. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme var. subglutinans from the feed produced 51-540 micrograms of moniliformin per g on cracked corn at 25 degrees C for six weeks. Zearalenone was not detected in these corn fermentations. Eight isolates of F. moniliforme from the feed did not produce detectable amounts of either zearalenone or monoliformin on cracked corn. Moniliformin was not detected in the feed samples. PMID:2945990

  13. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Qiushi; Li, Xiwen; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009 bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful tool to sequence and assemble chloroplast genomes. PMID:26370383

  14. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  15. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  16. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    methodology based on the cointegrated VAR model of Johansen (1996) developed at the University of Copenhagen. In the rst chapter, I consider a simple general IKE asset pricing model and show how internal consistency can be fully incorporated in IKE models in a way that both allows for internal consistency...... compatible with individual rationality and accords individuals' expectations a partly autonomous role in driving aggregate outcomes. Moreover, I show how internal consistency conditions imply that the asset price and the exogenous variables in the model are cointegrated with stochastic cointegration...... parameters during dierent subperiods. Hence, I show how internal consistency is crucial for our ability to test empirical implications of IKE models based on the cointegrated VAR model and potential extensions which allow for stochastic cointegration parameters. In the second chapter, I simulate a simple...

  17. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Monika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize cerpegin from root of Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii. The isolated cerepegin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antiurolithiatic activity of cerpegin was evaluated by using modified invitro model. The isolated compound cerpegin (A1 was showed maximum dissolution of both types of stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in comparison to the all extract tested. Cystone was found to be more effective.

  18. Medicinal activities of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Repon Kumer Sahaa; Srijan Acharyaa; Syed Sohidul Haque; Shovon Priyanka Royb

    2013-01-01

    This study is to investigate the medicinal value of methanolic extract of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in Bangladesh. Methods: Several biochemical assays, thin layer chormatogarphy and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compounds in this extract. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Receptor binding activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay were performed by hemagglutination assay and hemolysis assay using erythrocytes. Disk diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect of the extract. Results: Methanolic extract of the leaves showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. The extract showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. Conclusion:Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris can be an useful medicinal plant.

  19. Polianthes oaxanana y P. geminiflora var. pueblensis (Agavaceae, taxa nuevos de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abisa\\u00ED J. Garc\\u00EDa-Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran dos taxa nuevos para la ciencia: Polianthes oaxacana y P. geminiflora var. pueblensis. Polianthes oaxacana, del estado de Oaxaca, se ubica en el subgénero Bravoa; se caracteriza por sus flores tubulares, bilateralmente simétricas, con la parte distal campanulada y anteras adpresas a la porción superior del limbo del perigonio. Se compara con P. bicolor Solano & García-Mend. y P. mexicana Zucc. Polianthes geminiflora var. pueblensis del estado de Puebla, pertenece al subgénero Bravoa; se distingue de las otras variedades de P. geminiflora por sus hojas lineares con el margen papiloso a regularmente denticulado y por algunas características anatómicas

  20. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  1. Research on the synchronization of three modernizations based on VAR model%基于 VAR 模型的“三化”同步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖六亿; 高玉胭

    2015-01-01

    采用中国1978-2013年的经济数据,通过构建稳定的 VAR 模型,运用脉冲响应函数和方差分解方法对中国城镇化、工业化和经济增长三者之间的关系进行了分析。研究发现,相比工业化而言,城镇化冲击对经济增长的作用更强。同时,城镇化对经济增长具有非均匀作用,因此推动中国经济增长的动力阶段性地依赖于工业化,长期性地依赖于城镇化。%Using China's economic data from 1978 to 2013,this paper applies impulse response function and variance decom -position method to analyze the relationship among urbanization ,industrialization and economic growth based on the stable VAR model.Our reaserch shows that compared with industrialialization , urbanization has a more notable effect on the economy growth.Meanwhile, urbanization has an heterogeneous effect on economy growth ,so the impetus of promoting economy growth depend on industrialization periodically and urbanization in the long term .

  2. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  3. NEW ALIPHATIC CONSTITUENTS FROM THE RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA OLIGANTHA TRIMEN VAR. OLIGANTHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shamim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel column chromatography of the petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of the rhizomes of Curcuma oligantha Trimen var. oligantha (Zingiberaceae yielded three new phytoconstituents characterized as n-heptacosan-9-ol; n-pentatriacont-9-en-5-one; n-nonacos-11-ene along with the known compounds stigmasterol; n-octacosan-7-ol and curcumin. The structures of these phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of structural data analysis and chemical reactions.

  4. Performance of static var compensator control type thyristor controlled reactor and thyristor switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Josias M. de; Yung, Chou Shaw; Rose, Eber H.; Pantoja, Antonio L.A. [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Fouesnant, Thomas; Boissier, Luc

    1994-12-31

    This paper has the objective of presenting the philosophy of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Control as well the necessary adjustments in the project of control system to guarantee suitable performance under different operating conditions. The verification on the performance of the SVC control has been done by Transient Network Analyzer (TNA/CEPEL) studies, commissioning tests and a factory tests. The SVC is the type of Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC). (author) 3 refs., 12 figs.

  5. The exchange rate as an adjustment mechanism: a structural VAR approach to the case of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot Hodson

    2003-01-01

    Ireland’s participation in stage three of Economic and Monetary Union precludes exchange rate adjustment in response to asymmetric shocks. A Structural VAR model is used to decompose the effects of asymmetric supply, demand and nominal disturbances on macroeconomic imbalances between Ireland and the UK and on the Irish pound-sterling exchange rate. The results indicate that supply shocks account for a significant degree of the fluctuation in both variables. This lends weight to the view that ...

  6. A procedure for combining zero and sign restrictions in a VAR-identification scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Haberis, Alex; Sokol, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a procedure for implementing zero restrictions within the context of a sign restrictions identification scheme for VARs. The procedure introduces an additional step into the algorithm outlined in Fry and Pagan (2011) and Rubio-Ramirez et al (2006) for implementing sign restrictions. This extra step involves rotating a candidate identification matrix using Givens rotation matrices to introduce zero restrictions. We then check whether the elements of the candidate matr...

  7. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphae...

  8. Turkiye'de Istikrarsiz Buyumenin Var Modelleri Ile Analizi (1991.1-2004.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Recep Tari; Asst. Prof. Hilal Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    Unstable growth process has been observed in Turkish economy. This process has started 1980 and has increased after 1990. The aim of this study is to investigate resources of unstable growth. Quarterly data between 1991.1-2004.3 has been analysed. As a result of stationary review, variables have not been seen as a stationary at same degree. Thus they have been examined with VAR model. According to results of inpulse-response and variance decomposition analysis, effective variables are psbr, c...

  9. Analysis of correlations and path effects for popping expansion in popcorn ( Zea mays var. everta Sturt.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayabharathi A; C.R. Anandakumar; R.P. Gnanamalar

    2009-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis involving 35 genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.) indicated thatdegree of popping alone exhibited positive association with popping expansion. The path analysis revealed thatcob weight showed very high positive direct effect on popping expansion followed by plant height, days tomaturity and days to 50% silking. Characters namely degree of popping, lesser cob length, cob girth and 100-kernel weight could be given greater emphasis while making selecti...

  10. A Structural VAR Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption and Real Gross Domestic Product: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri Azgun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the aggregate electricity consumption, the sub-components of electricity consumption (industrial electricity consumption, residential and commercial, government offices and street illuminations) and real gross domestic product by means of a structural VAR model for the Turkish economy. The main purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of the aggregate electricity consumption innovations and the sub-components of electricity consumption innovat...

  11. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Monika; Bhandari Anil; Bhandari Aakanksha; Patel Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and character...

  12. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; Puja Bohra; S. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new the...

  13. Gastroprotective effect of leaf extracts of Basella alba var. alba against experimental gastric ulcers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; N A Khan; I. A. Chashoo; Irfat Ara

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Basella alba L. var. alba Wight, Basellaceae, were investigated for antiulcer activity on rats employing the pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models. The various gastric secretion parameters such as total acidity, free acidity, gastric acid volume, pH and histopathological parameters such as ulcer index and percent protection were comparatively examined between control, test and standard groups. The antiulcer activity of aqueous extr...

  14. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  15. Identification of Monetary Policy Shocks in Turkey: A Structural VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kilinc; Cengiz Tunc

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to identify the monetary policy shocks in Turkey during the explicit inflation targeting period starting from 2006 using a structural VAR approach. We model Turkey as a small open economy where domestic variables are affected by external factors like commodity prices and global demand but domestic variables do not affect external variables. We analyze the effects of four shocks on Turkish economy: two domestic shocks of interest rates and risk premium, and two external shocks...

  16. Water relations and gas exchange in Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, F.; R. E. Jaimez; C. García-Núñez; A. Azócar; M. E. Ramírez

    2005-01-01

    Water relations and gas exchange of Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit were evaluated. Microclimatic characteristics (air temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation), leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation rates) and leaf water potential were measured throughout the day in plants subjected to 3, 12 and 25 days without water. Pressure-volume curves were used to determine osmotic potential at turgor loss. ...

  17. THE DETERMINANTS OF STOCK MARKET INDEX: VAR APPROACH TO TURKISH STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Eşref Savaş Başçı; Süleyman Serdar Karaca

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the relationship between ISE 100 Index and a set of four macroeconomic variables using Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Variables we used in our model are Exchange, Gold, Import, Export and ISE 100 Index. ISE 100 Index is a dependent variable and the others are independent variables. In this study we used 190 observations for the sample period from January, 1996 to October, 2011. All variables have seasonal movements. After seasonal adjustments, all series have ha...

  18. Analysis of correlations and path effects for popping expansion in popcorn ( Zea mays var. everta Sturt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis involving 35 genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt. indicated thatdegree of popping alone exhibited positive association with popping expansion. The path analysis revealed thatcob weight showed very high positive direct effect on popping expansion followed by plant height, days tomaturity and days to 50% silking. Characters namely degree of popping, lesser cob length, cob girth and 100-kernel weight could be given greater emphasis while making selections for the improvement of poppingexpansion

  19. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miragall, Marta; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR ther...

  20. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  1. Influence of Pericarp, Cotyledon and Inhibitory Substances on Sharp Tooth Oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guangquan; Li, Qingmei; Liu, Yong; Hou, Longyu; Li, Guolei

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivat...

  2. Global Liquidity and Commodity Prices – A Cointegrated VAR Approach for OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Bordon, Ingo G.; Torben W. Hendricks

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the interactions between money, consumer prices and commodity prices at a global level from 1970 to 2008. Using aggregated data for major OECD countries and a cointegrating VAR framework, we are able to establish long run and short run relationships among these variables while the process is mainly driven by global liquidity. According to our empirical findings, different price elasticities in commodity and consumer goods markets can explain the recently observed overshoot...

  3. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  4. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji;

    2014-01-01

    expressing VAR2CSA on the erythrocyte surface. This protein adheres to a low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A found in placental tissue causing great harm to both mother and developing fetus. In rare cases, the localization of infected erythrocytes to the placenta can even result in the vertical transmission...... cotyledon is the only placental tissue accessible to parasites in the bloodstream, suggesting it is the primary receptor for parasite infected red blood cells....

  5. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmenta...

  6. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin; Ruvalcaba-Ruiz Domingo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was...

  7. Phoma sabdariffae's impact on roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l. var. sabdariffa) fructification parameters in Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Nicaise LEPENGUE; Yala, Jean Fabrice; Judicaël LEBAMBA; Isaac MOUARAGADJA; Daouda KONE; Bertrand M'BATCHI

    2013-01-01

    Phoma sabdariffae Sacc. (Sphaerioidaceae) is the main pathogenic fungus agent of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa), in Gabon. It does induce wet rot on every part of the infected plant's organs. This work was initiated to evaluate in greenhouse the impact of this pathogenic fungus agent on 13 roselle cultivars through the study of some morphological and biochemical parameters of the fruits. Morphological parameters evaluated have been fruit's number, weight and contamination ra...

  8. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Honfi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul (18m + 8sm y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (12m + 14sm se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  9. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Campos Florián; Deysi Bobadilla Villa; Mercedes Huamán Bermeo; Mónica Bazán Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruv...

  10. Analisis Histologi Embriogenesis Somatik Dari Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var Tenera

    OpenAIRE

    Meilvana, Tengku Nilayanda

    2014-01-01

    A study of Histological Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis from Apical Bud of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera has been conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of FMIPA USU. The experimental design was completely randomized with three levels of 2,4-D concentrations: 110; 120; 130 mg/L and three position of explants: apical, median, and basal. The statistical analysis showed that 120 mg/L of 2,4-D significantly affected the primary and embryogenic calluses initiation. Explant...

  11. Estudio farmacognóstico de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. var. stenophylla Leonard

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Sánchez Govín; Leticia Fuentes Hernández; Diosothys Chávez Figueredo; Carlos A Rodríguez Ferradá

    2003-01-01

    Es conocida la importancia que revisten los estudios encaminados a establecer las tecnologías de cultivos que permitan producir las plantas medicinales de forma sostenible. En este trabajo se establecen los indicadores de calidad necesarios para introducir el tilo, Justicia pectoralis Jacq. var. stenophylla Leonard., al mercado nacional o internacional como materia prima o medicamento herbario de reconocidas propiedades como sedante, en Cuba. Se realizaron, además, las descripciones macromorf...

  12. Structure-activity relationship study of twelve compounds from Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xianxiao; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; Gao, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

    2010-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizoma of Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens Handel-Mazzetti. Based on spectral data, the isolated compounds were identified as stigmasterol (1), β- Ecdysterone (2), Diosgenin (3), Ophiopogonin C’ (4), Diosgenin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucoside (5), Dioscin (6), Paris saponin I (7), Paris saponin II (8), Pennogenin-3-O-α-L- arabinofuranosyl (1→4)- β- D-glucoside (9), Paris saponin VI (10), Pennog...

  13. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  14. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  15. A state space approach for estimating VAR models for panel data with latent dynamic components

    OpenAIRE

    Raknerud, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The econometric literature offers various modeling approaches for analyzing micro data in combination with time series of aggregate data. This paper discusses the estimation of a VAR model that allows unobserved heterogeneity across observation unit, as well as unobserved time-specific variables. The time-latent component is assumed to consist of a persistent and a transient term. By using a Helmert-type orthogonal transformation of the variables it is demonstrated that the likel...

  16. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  17. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mao-Sen Liu; Miau-Hwa Ko; Hui-Chun Li; Shwu-Jene Tsai; Ying-Mi Lai; You-Ming Chang; Min-Tze Wu; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelim...

  18. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also prelimin...

  19. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Saccharifera) vitroculture initiation from encapsulated seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae PALCUT; Adriana PETRUS–VANCEA; Anca BACIU

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the optimal method of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera) seed sterilization to "in vitro" cultures initiation, and to found a cultivar that is suitable to growth in specific conditions of vitroculture. The study was necessary because the literature does not refer to the method of initiating vitrocultures from encapsulated beet seeds and to avoid any losses that may occur in a massive micropropagation. The most optimal method for beet encapsulated...

  20. Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens as Biofertilizer in Secondary Hardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Var. Poovan

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ramesh; V. Ramassamy

    2015-01-01

    The present study brings out the effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens in secondary hardening of tissue cultured banana var.Poovan. Two concentrations (1% & 2%) of liquid medium grown Pseudomonas fluorescens (3×109 cells/ml) were used in borewell water and the growth performance of the banana plantlets was assessed. Seven different growth parameters were studiedviz. shoot weight, height and girth, leaf length, leaf width, no. of leaves and chlorophyll content. Best results were obtained in1%Pseu...

  1. VarSifter: Visualizing and analyzing exome-scale sequence variation data on a desktop computer

    OpenAIRE

    Teer, Jamie K.; Green, Eric D.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: VarSifter is a graphical software tool for desktop computers that allows investigators of varying computational skills to easily and quickly sort, filter, and sift through sequence variation data. A variety of filters and a custom query framework allow filtering based on any combination of sample and annotation information. By simplifying visualization and analyses of exome-scale sequence variation data, this program will help bring the power and promise of massively-parallel DNA seq...

  2. Essays in Time Series Econometrics: Nonlinear, Nonstationary GMM Estimation, Credit Shock Transmission, and Global VAR Models

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters dealing with different topics in time series econometrics including generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation and vector autoregressions (VAR). These econometric models have revolutionized empirical research in macroeconomics. Previous work by Hansen and Singleton (1982) showed that the GMM method can be applied to estimate nonlinear rational expectations models in a simple way that the models need not even be solved. The seminal work of Sims ...

  3. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez; Irma G. López-Muraira; Juan F. Goméz-Leyva; Guadalupe Luna-Solano; Rosa I. Ortíz-Basurto; Isaac Andrade-González

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray dryi...

  4. Global liquidity and house prices: A VAR analysis for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Orth, Walther; Setzer, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Global monetary dynamics has been particularly strong in recent years. At the same time, house prices in many OECD countries increased sharply, significantly outpacing the relatively subdued development in consumer prices. In this paper we argue that different price elasticities on asset and consumer markets help to explain the observed relative price change between assets and consumer goods. Using a VAR analysis and aggregated data for the major OECD countries, our empirical results are supp...

  5. A vector autoregression (VAR) model of housing starts and housing price in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kin-man; 黃健文

    2012-01-01

    It is observed that there are many different models about housing price. Yet, this is relatively smaller number of studies about housing starts. This thesis is an empirical study to work out the relationship between housing starts, housing price and other economic and policy instrumental factors. To achieve this objective, a Vector Autoregression (VAR) model is built since there is inter-relationship between housing starts and housing price. By applying previous models filled with the res...

  6. Ranking of VaR and ES Models: Performance in developed and emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zikovic, Sasa; Filer, Randall

    2012-01-01

    An inherent problem with comparing and ranking competing Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected shortfall (ES) models is that they measure only a single realization of the underlying data generation process. The question is whether there is any significant statistical difference in the performance of different models. Is it only a matter of chance that in a particular market and in particular time period a certain model performs better than some other? It all comes down to a question whether someth...

  7. Steady-state priors and Bayesian variable selection in VAR forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Louzis, Dimitrios P.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes methods for estimating Bayesian vector autoregressions (VARs) with an automatic variable selection and an informative prior on the unconditional mean or steady-state of the system. We show that extant Gibbs sampling methods for Bayesian variable selection can be efficiently extended to incorporate prior beliefs on the steady-state of the economy. Empirical analysis, based on three major US macroeconomic time series, indicates that the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of ...

  8. Technology of VAr Compensators for Induction Generator Applications in Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Zobaa; K. A. Nigim; Bansal, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Many of today utility interconnected wind farms use induction generator (IG) to convert the captured wind mechanical power into electricity. Induction generator has some advantages over the synchronous generator (SG). The main advantages are its robustness and its capability to be synchronized directly to the grid. The main disadvantage, however, is its dependency on the grid for supplying its own reactive power ‘VAr’. Whether fixed or adjustable VAr systems are connected across its terminal,...

  9. Family Outcrossing Rates of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea in Seed Orchard and Natural Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Family outcrossing rates of Pinus caribaea var. caribaea populations that differed in origin and management were estimated by using isozyme markers. The family outcrossing rates were estimated by (1)fixing the probability of pollen gene frequency (p); (2) allowing pollen gene frequency to vary among families. The estimates of family outcrossing rates for all the populations varied widely among families (clones of the seed orchard), ranging from 0.39 to 2.0. The average family outcrossing rates of both m...

  10. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Ling Si; Shi-Chao Liu; Hai-Yan Hu; Ju-Zheng Jiang; Guo-Jing Yu; Xiao-Dan Ren; Guang-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT) has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction, which exhibited th...

  11. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. ( Santalaceae ) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, ne...

  12. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Putih Kecil (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum terhadap Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanny Satriyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of many antifungal drugs make it necessary to find an herbal alternative with reduced side effects. Many herbals are knwon to have an antifungal effect, including ginger with its volatile oil composition. However, the specific antifungal effect and optimal concentration of the volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. amarum against C. albicans is not yet known. This research was done to verify the antifungal effect of Zingiber officinale var. amarum volatile oil on C. albicans, to determine its optimal concentration, and to determine the relation between the volatile oil was provided by water and steam distillation of BALITTRO, Bogor. The colonies were double counted in two steps. First, the volatile oil at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78% were applied for treatment, wheras in the second step concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were used. In the disk diffusion method, the volatile oil concentrations of 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% were applied in triplicate in Petri dishes containing C. albicans by using 6 mm blank disks. Result: Mann-Whitney test showed the significant decrease of the colonies between 6.25% and 3.125% of the volatile oil concentration (α = 0.021, and also between the volatile oil concentration 6.25% and the control group (α = 0.014. The Spearman test showed a positive and strong correlation between the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum and its inhibition zone (r = 0.91. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans with an optimal concentration of 6.25%, and increasing volatile oil concentration is followed by increasing inhibition zone.

  13. The taxonomic identity of Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identity of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae is discussed based on the discovery of the specimen based on which this name was assigned. The specimen is not a variation of Eueides tales surdus Stichel, 1903, as previously stated, but is in fact a variation of H. melpomene f. pyritosa, which is a synonym of Heliconius erato amalfreda Riffarth, 1901.

  14. Bootstrapping Structural VARs: Avoiding a Potential Bias in Confidence Intervals for Impulse Response Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Kerk L.; David E. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Constructing bootstrap confidence intervals for impulse response functions (IRFs) from structural vector autoregression (SVAR) models has become standard practice in empirical macroeconomic research. The accuracy of such confidence intervals can deteriorate severely, however, if the bootstrap IRFs are biased. We document an apparently common source of bias in the estimation of the VAR error covariance matrix which can be easily reduced by a scale adjustment. This bias is generally unrecogn...

  15. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morpholog...

  16. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum ( Santalaceae ), in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. ( Santalaceae ) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, ne...

  17. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and to treat the infested pigs with the chemotherapeutic agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 numbers of pigs were suspected for Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation maintained in both organized and unorganized pig farms as well as pigs brought for slaughter to pig slaughterhouses of Meghalaya. Deep skin scrapings were collected from all these 196 numbers of pigs. The collected scrapings were digested in 10% potassium hydroxide separately and centrifuged. The sediment portions were examined under both low and high power of the microscope to find any mite. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg body weight (b.wt subcutaneously. Results: Of 196 numbers of suspected pigs, 21 (10.71% numbers of pigs were found infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis after microscopical examination of skin scrapings. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated successfully with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis is very much prevalent in pigs whether maintained in organized farms, as well as pigs maintained in unorganized way in village conditions. Pig owners should not neglect this infestation as it has economic significance. Ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously has been found to be effective to treat this infestation.

  18. Applicability of adsorbent resins for the recovery of geldanamycin from streptomyces hygroscopicus var; geldanus fermentation broths

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, John

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent resins are gaining increased application in recovery bioprocesses, thus it was decided to assess their applicability for the recovery of geldanamycin, an antibiotic produced Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus, in both a Downstream Processing (DSP) and In-Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) context. Antibiotic production was initially assessed using the conventional disk diffusion assay. This was inefficient for large sample sets, therefore a microtiter plate-based bioassay was de...

  19. Specificities of monoclonal antibodies against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber-Lukac, M; Lüthy, P; Braun, D G

    1983-01-01

    Eight hybrid cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis were grown in BALB/c mice. Ascites fluids were collected, and the antibodies were purified by antigen-affinity chromatography. The specificity of each monoclonal antibody for the toxin and protoxin was established by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the antibodies consisted of gamma 1 heavy and kappa light chains. They were reac...

  20. Estimating US fiscal and monetary interactions in a time varying VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Eddie; HAUZENBERGER, Klemens

    2013-01-01

    We contribute to the growing empirical literature on monetary and fiscal interactions by applying a sign restriction identification scheme to a structural TVP-VAR in order to disentangle and evaluate the policy shocks and policy transmissions. This in turn allows us to study the Great Recession in a consistent fashion. Four facts stand out from our findings. We observe significant differences in the endogenous responses to shocks in particular between the Volcker period and the Great Rece...