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Sample records for anisometropia

  1. Natural history of infantile anisometropia.

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    Abrahamsson, M.; Sjöstrand, J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: In a previous study longitudinal changes of anisometropia were investigated. It was shown that anisometropia arises and vanishes during the emmetropisation process and that the associated risk for amblyopia is low. The aim of this study was to follow acuity and refraction longitudinally in children with marked anisometropia at 1 year of age. METHODS: Refractive errors and visual acuity were estimated every sixth month for a selected group of 20 children with marked anisometro...

  2. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

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    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  3. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

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    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  4. Refração e seus componentes em anisometropia Refraction and its components in anisometropia

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    David Tayah

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em anisométropes comparar os valores médios individuais dos componentes oculares de ambos os olhos, correlacionar as diferenças dos componentes com as diferenças de refração; e identificar o menor número de fatores que contenham o mesmo grau de informações expressas no conjunto de variáveis que influenciam a diferença refrativa. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal analítico em população de 77 anisométropes de 2 D ou mais, atendida no ambulatório de Oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário da Faculdade de Medicina Nilton Lins, Manaus. RESULTADOS: Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultrassônica A-scan. A análise dos dados foi feita por meio dos seguintes modelos estatísticos: análise univariada, multivariada, de regressão múltipla e fatorial. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferenças significativas na comparação dos valores médios individuais dos componentes oculares entre os olhos. Houve correlação negativa média entre a diferença refrativa e a diferença de comprimento axial (r= -0,64 (pPURPOSE: To compare the individual means of ocular components of both eyes in patients with anisometropia; to correlate the differences of the components with refractive differences; and to identify the smallest number of factors that contain the same level of information expressed in the set of variables that influence refractive difference. METHODS: An analytical transversal study was carried out in 77 patients with anisometropia of two or more dioptres seen at the Ophthalmologic Clinic, University Hospital, Nilton Lins Medical School, Manaus. RESULTS: All participants were submitted to ophthalmologic examination which included objective and subjective cycloplegic refractometry, keratometry and ultrasound biometry. Data analysis comprised the following statistical models: univariate, multivariate, multiple and factorial regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS

  5. LASIK em pacientes adultos com alta anisometropia: relato de casos LASIK for high anisometropia in adults: case report

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da técnica laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK na redução de anisometropia em adultos, para os quais os tratamentos convencionais não tiveram sucesso. MÉTODOS: Série de casos de três olhos de três pacientes adultos, dois do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade entre 28 e 49 anos (média de 38,3 anos, os quais foram submetidos à técnica de LASIK. Dois pacientes foram acompanhados por dezoito meses e um por seis meses após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Comparando a acuidade visual corrigida do pré-operatório com a acuidade visual não corrigida do pós-operatório, um olho ganhou duas linhas de visão, um olho manteve-se igual e um olho perdeu uma linha de visão. Todos os olhos se mantiveram sem ametropia esférica, e o astigmatismo não excedeu -0,75 D no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica LASIK mostrou-se eficaz na correção de alta anisometropia em adultos, melhorando a acuidade visual e as queixas astenopéicas, e diminuindo a anisometropia.PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK technique in the reduction of anisometropy in adults, for whom conventional treatment was not successful. METHODS: A sequence of cases of three eyes of three adult patients, two females and one male, age ranging from 28 and 49 years (average 38.3 years, who underwent LASIK. Two patients were followed up for eighteen months and one for six months. RESULTS: Comparing the corrected visual acuity before surgery with the non-corrected visual acuity after surgery, one eye gained two lines of vision, one eye remained the same and one eye lost one line of vision. All eyes remained without spheric refraction, and astigmatism did not exceed - 0.75 D after surgery. There has been an improvement in the symptoms of asthenopia in the three patients. CONCLUSION: The LASIK technique proved to be efficient in the correction of anisometropy in adults, improving visual accuity and asthenopia

  6. 远、近视性屈光参差视功能对比研究%Comparative study of myopic and hyperopic anisometropia on binocular vision

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    罗俊; 漆争艳; 何容; 王平; 唐璟; 向剑波; 杨俊芳

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of both myopic and hyperopic anisometropia on binocular vision. METHODS: Totally 238 patients with corrected anisometropia and 30 normal children were tested with both stereogram and synoptophore for their near stereoacuity and binocular vision. The correlation of anisometropia and binocular vision was studied statistically. RESULTS:The number of normal near stereoacuity and distance fusion range of myopic anisometropia was significantly higher than that of hyperopic anisometropia. A few of hyperopic anisometropia had normal stereopsis. Most of low anisometropia group had sub -normal stereopsis, while high, severe anisometropia group without stereopsis.Most of myopic anisometropia group had normal stereopsis or sub-normal stereopsis. CONCLUSION:The hyperopic anisometropia produces a more profound effect. Relationship between anisometropia and stereopsis are analyzed according to nature.%目的:对比分析远、近视性屈光参差对患者双眼视功能的影响。  方法:对238例屈光矫正后的屈光参差者和30例正常者进行近立体视和同视机三级视功能检查,并记录其结果。  结果:近视性屈光参差远、近立体视及融合功能正常者的例数高于远视性屈光参差者。远视性屈光参差组有正常立体视者少,低度屈光参差组以亚正常立体视者为主,而高、重度屈光参差组多无立体视;近视性屈光参差组多有正常立体视或亚正常立体视。  结论:近视性屈光参差的双眼视功能总体优于远视性屈光参差,但屈光参差与立体视的关系应按性质分别进行分析。

  7. Assessment of a modification of Brückner′s test as a screening modality for anisometropia and strabismus

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    Abadan Khan Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current amblyopia screening methods are not cost effective. Aim : To evaluate the diagnostic capability of a modified Brückner test (MBT for amblyopiogenic risk factors. Materials and Methods : We applied the MBT using the streak retinoscope to identify anisometropia and strabismus by noting an inter-ocular difference in movement and glow, from children who failed 6/9 Snellen on community vision screening, followed by comprehensive eye examination. Statisitics : Data were analyzed by 2 Χ 2 tables for diagnostic test parameters (95% CI. Results : From 7998 children vision-screened, 392 failed 6/9 VA and were referred. Since 34 failed to reach the centers, and 15 were excluded due to poor/ no glow, data from 343 was analyzed. The prevalence of anisometropia of 0.5D was 17%, of 1D was 11% and of strabismus 5%. For the MBT the accuracy was ≥ 90% (95%CI 89% to 97% over the three outcomes. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV and +LR for anisometropia of 0.5D were: 0.57 (0.48, 0.64, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98, 0.92 (0.90, 0.93 and 18 (9.7, 35; for 1D: 0.74(0.60, 0.82, 0.95 (0.94, 0.97, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98 and 16 (9.3, 28; and for strabismus: 0.5 (0.32, 0.66, 0.98 (0.97, 0.98, 0.97 (0.96, 0.98 and 20 (9.1, 42. Conclusion : Our data suggests that the MBT is highly accurate and useful for ruling in anisometropia and strabismus in children who fail 6/9 Snellen. The MBT needs further validation, both by different care givers and on differing populations. It offers an affordable, portable, and clinically useful tool to detect anisometropia and strabismus. We suggest that performing an MBT prior to uniocular retinosocpy should be a routine practice.

  8. The amblyopic eye in subjects with anisometropia show increased saccadic latency in the delayed saccade task

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    Maciej ePerdziak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term amblyopia is used to describe reduced visual function in one eye (or both eyes, though not so often which cannot be fully improved by refractive correction and explained by the organic cause observed during regular eye examination. This developmental disorder of spatial vision affects about 2-5% of the population and is associated with abnormal visual experience (e.g. anisometropia, strabismus during infancy or early childhood. Several studies have shown prolongation of saccadic latency time in amblyopic eye. In our opinion, study of saccadic latency in the context of central vision deficits assessment, should be based on central retina stimulation. For this reason, we proposed saccade delayed task. It requires inhibitory processing for maintaining fixation on the central target until it disappears – what constitutes the GO signal for saccade. The experiment consisted of 100 trials for each eye and was performed under two viewing conditions: monocular amblyopic / non-dominant eye and monocular dominant eye. We examined saccadic latency in 16 subjects (mean age 30±11 years with anisometropic amblyopia (two subjects had also microtropia and in 17 control subjects (mean age 28±8 years. Participants were instructed to look at central (fixation target and when it disappears, to make the saccade toward the periphery (10 deg as fast as possible, either left or the right target. The study results have proved the significant difference in saccadic latency between the amblyopic (mean 262±48 ms and dominant (mean 237±45 ms eye, in anisometropic group. In the control group, the saccadic latency for dominant (mean 226±32ms and non-dominant (mean 230±29 ms eye was not significantly different.By the use of LATER (Linear Approach to the Threshold with Ergodic Rate decision model we interpret our findings as a decrease in accumulation of visual information acquired by means of central (affected retina in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia.

  9. Beyond photography: Evaluation of the consumer digital camera to identify strabismus and anisometropia by analyzing the Bruckner′s reflex

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    Sadat A. O. Bani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia screening is often either costly or laborious. We evaluated the Canon Powershot TX1 (CPTX1 digital camera as an efficient screener for amblyogenic risk factors (ARF. We included 138 subjects: 84-amblyopes and 54-normal. With the red-eye-reduction feature off, we obtained Bruckner reflex photographs of different sized crescents which suggested anisometropia, while asymmetrical brightness indicated strabismus; symmetry implied normalcy. Eight sets of randomly arranged 138 photographs were made. After training, 8 personnel, marked each as normal or abnormal. Of the 84 amblyopes, 42 were strabismus alone (SA, 36 had anisometropia alone (AA while six were mixed amblyopes (MA. Overall mean sensitivity for amblyopes was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89 and specificity 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93. Sub-group analyses on SA, AA and MA returned sensitivities of 0.86, 0.89 and 0.69, while specificities were 0.85 for all three. Overall Cohen′s Kappa was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62-0.71. The CPTX1 appears to be a feasible option to screen for ARF, although results need to be validated on appropriate age groups.

  10. Corneal refractive surgery and phakic intraocular lens for treatment of amblyopia caused by high myopia or anisometropia in children

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    Tian Chunyu; Peng Xiujun; Fan Zhengjun; Yin Zhengqin

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review of literature was performed to compare various visual function parameters including the final visual acuity outcome and/or adverse events between corneal refractive surgery (CLRS) and phakic intraocular lens implantation (p-IOLi) in the treatment of refractive amblyopic children.Data sources Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed,EMBASE,and Controlled Trials Register databases for publications from 1991 to 2013.Study selection There were 25 articles,including 597 patients and 682 eyes,was included in CLRS group.Among them,21 articles reported the use of CLRS in the treatment of myopic anisometropia for 318 patients (13 photorefractive keratectomy or laser epithelial keratomileusis and eight laser in situ keratomileusis).And 11 articles had the results of CLRS in treating hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia children.Eleven articles reported the effect of p-IOLi for treating high myopia or anisometropic amblyopia,including 61 patients (75 eyes).Age,pre-and postoperation best-corrected vision acuity (BCVA),and spherical equivalent (SE) were compared in CLRS and p-IOLi groups.Results The average age of CLRS group and p-IOLi group has no statistically significant difference.The SE in CLRS group for myopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (-10.13±2.73) diopters (D) and for hyperopic anisometropia amblyopia patients was (5.58±1.28) D.In p-IOLi group the SE was (-14.01±1.93) D.BCVA was improved significantly in both groups,and even better in p-IOLi group.Refractive errors were corrected in both groups,but there was no clinically significant difference in final SE between each group.More than one-half of the children had improved binocular fusion and stereopsis function in both groups.Conclusions Both CLRS group and p-IOLi group showed their advantage in treating refractive amblyopia in children.In comparing p-IOLi with CLRS for treatment of refractive amblyopia,no statistically significant difference in final BCVA was observed.

  11. 近视性屈光参差LASIK前后立体视觉的评价%Clinical investigation on the stereopsis of myopic anisometropia patients treated with laser in situ keratomileusis

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    吴章友; 潘红飙; 万川

    2008-01-01

    目的 用多种方法测准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术,矫治近视性屈光参差患者术前及术后远、近立体视觉,从视觉最高级形式的角度评价LASIK矫正近视性屈光参差患者的临床应用价值.方法 对112例近视性屈光参差患者,手术前和LASIK手术3个月后,采用颜氏随机点立体视觉检查图检查近立体视锐度、交叉视差、非交叉视差,Titmus立体视觉检查图、金贵昌双眼立体视觉检查图检查近立体视觉,同视机随机点立体图片检查远立体视觉.结果 LASIK术后3个月,91.9%患者裸眼远视力达到或超过术前最佳矫正视力.3种方法检查术后远、近立体视锐度均明显增进.立体视觉的增进显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LASIK手术能重建、改善和促进立体视觉功能,有效地矫治屈光参差,手术安全、治疗效果肯定.%Objective With several methods, pre-and post-operative far and near stereopsis were tested in patients with myopic anisometropia undergone laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). So clinical effects of this treatment were evaluated at the highest level of vision function. Method 112 myopic anisometropia patients were enrolled in the research before the operation and 3 months after anisometropia were abolished by LASIK. Near stereopsis, crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity were measured by Yan's random-dot stereograms. Near stereopsis was also measured by Titmus stereograms and Jinguichang random-dot stereograms. Far stereopsis was measured by synoptophore. Results 3 months after LASIK, UCVAs of 91.9% patients were the same as or better than those of preoperative. Far and near stereopsis were improved obviously measured by all three methods. There is significant difference in the improvement of stercopsis. Conclusion With the treatment of myopic anisometropia by LASIK,most patients got much improvement in far and near stereopsis. LASIK could rebuild,improve and promote the stereopsis, and treat

  12. The Effect of Orthokeratology Lens for the Correction of Juvenile Myopia Anisometropia on Binocular Vision%角膜塑形镜矫正青少年近视性屈光参差对双眼视觉的影响

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    纪冬梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨角膜塑形镜矫正青少年近视性屈光参差对双眼视觉的影响。方法对在我院接受角膜塑形治疗的32例(50只眼)近视性屈光参差患者的临床资料进行回顾分析,比较患者治疗前后裸眼视力屈光参差度以及屈光度等的变化。结果治疗1年后裸眼视力达到或超过治疗前最佳矫正视力1.0以上45只眼,占90.0%。治疗前后患者屈光参差度分别为(3.12±1.21)D和(0.35±0.37)D,治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后近视加深速度与治疗前比较有所减缓。结论青少年近视性屈光参差患者接受角膜塑形治疗可有效改善患者双眼视觉功能。%Objective To investigate the influence of orthokeratology lens in correction of juvenile myopia anisometropia on binocular vision.Methods In our hospital accepted clinical data of orthokeratology treatment of 32 cases(50 eyes)with myopia refractive anisometropia patients who were retrospectively analyzed,compared before and after treatment in patients with naked eye visual acuity of anisometropia and refraction changes.ResultsAfter 1 years of treatment,the visual acuity reached or exceeded 45 of the best corrected visual acuity before treatment 1 years later,the proportion was 90.0%. Before and after treatment in patients with anisometropia were(3.12±1.21)D and(0.35±0.37)D,there were significant differences before and after the treatment(P<0.05). After the treatment,the rate of myopia deepening was somewhat slower than before treatment.Conclusion Juvenile myopia anisometropia patients undergoing orthokeratology therapy can effectively improve the patients with binocular visual function.

  13. 角膜塑形镜矫正青少年近视性屈光参差对双眼视觉的影响%Research on binocular vision after wearing orthoker-atology lens in adolescent myopic anisometropia

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    张春侠; 李自芳; 陈梅珠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the binocular vision after wearing orthokeratology lens in adolescent myopic anisometropia.Methods Twenty-three patients of retrospective cases with binocular myopic anisometropia more than 2.50 diopters received orthokeratology lens.All patients were followed 12-50 months,to observe the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),best-spectacles corrected visual acuity (BSCVA),refraction,binocular vision before and after wearing orthokeratology lens.Results The uncorrected visual acuity was improved significantly,the BCVA of 31 eyes (86.0%) reached or more than BSCVA.In the degree of anisometropia,there was a significant difference between before treatment (3.08±l.42)D and post-treatment (0.36±0.40)D.The myopia degree increased (0.22±0.38)D in high degree myopic eye after one year treatment,(0.16±0.30)D in low degree myopic eye.The short distance stereopsis vision after wearing orthokeratology lens was significantly higher than that before treatment (x2=27.22,P <0.01).And it was also significantly higher than that before treatment with corrected glasses (x2=15.51,P <0.01).Conclusions Orthokeratology lens can improve the UCVA,control the development of myopia and resume the binocular vision for adolescent myopic anisometropia.%目的 探讨角膜塑形镜矫正青少年近视性屈光参差对双眼视觉的影响及临床价值.方法 回顾性临床分析研究.对2009年10月至2013年4月在南京军区福州总医院接受角膜塑形镜治疗,资料完整的23例(36只眼)屈光参差患者,持续戴镜12~50个月进行随访,观察治疗前及配戴角膜塑形镜裸眼视力(UCVA)、最佳矫正视力(BSCVA),屈光度数变化及双眼视觉.结果 配戴角膜塑形镜1年时裸眼视力(UCVA)达到或超过治疗前最佳矫正视力(BSCVA)的百分比为:86% (31/36).治疗前双眼屈光参差度数为(3.08±1.42)D,配戴角膜塑形镜为(0.36±0.40)D,较治疗前明显降低.配戴角膜塑形镜近视加深度数1

  14. Clinal effects of LASIK on binocular vision in myopic anisometropia%近视性屈光参差患者LASIK术后双眼视功能评估

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    杨亮; 胡琦; 康杨; 黄磊; 王珂萌

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察近视性屈光参差患者接受准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术( LASIK)后双眼视功能的变化,探讨LASIK手术矫治近视性屈光参差对三级视功能的影响,从双眼视觉的变化评价其临床应用价值.设计前瞻性病例系列.研究对象36例(72眼)行LASIK手术的近视性屈光参差患者(双眼屈光参差≥2.50 D).方法 对36例行LASIK手术的近视性屈光参差患者分别于手术前和手术后3个月进行裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力、屈光状态和同视机双眼视功能的检测,并对双眼视功能的变化进行随访研究.主要指标手术前后裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力、屈光度、同时视、融合功能、远立体视和近立体视.结果 术前72眼的裸跟视力在0.01-0.2之间,术后3个月时均达到1.0.双跟屈光参差由术前的(5.01±1.96)D( 2.50~9.00 D),降低到术后3个月的( 0.28±0.22 )D(0.00~0.75 D).手术前后的屈光参差度的改变,差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).26例屈光参差量≥2.50 D且≤6.00 D的高度屈光参差者术前戴框架眼镜下近立体视正常的12例,术后3个月增至22例,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);16例屈光参差量>6.0D的重度屈光参差者手术前后均没有正常近立体视.术前戴框架眼镜下三级视功能(同时视、融合功能、远立体视)正常的分别为33例、18例、13例,LASIK术后3个月三级视功能正常的分别为34例、33例、23例,手术后获得融合功能和远立体视者较术前明显增加(P均<0.05).结论 LASIK矫治近视性屈光参差,不仅可提高患者裸眼视力,而且可通过减小患者双眼间的屈光差异,增加双眼物像的融合,改善立体视功能.%Objective To analyze the clinical effects on binocular vision after LASIK for myopic anisomelropia, and evaluate its clinical value in the view of vision quality. Design Prospective case series. Participants 36 cases (72 eyes) with myopic anisometropia who received

  15. 近视性高度屈光参差眼屈光参数和角膜生物学参数的研究%Research of refractive index and corneal biological parameter in high myopic anisometropia eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱琴; 方海珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of refractive index and corneal biological parameter in high myopic anisometropia.Methods Twenty three subjects who suffered anisometropia (spherical equivalent ≥6.00 D) were selected.For each subject,corneal hysteresis (CH) was measured by ORA (Ocular Response Analyzer),central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by OCT,average keratometer value (mean K) and ocular axial length (AL) were measured by Zeiss IOL-Master,the results were tested by paired t-test and multiple linear regression.Result The differences of mean K,CCT for two eyes were not significant (P >0.05).Mean AL was (28.34± 1.10) mm (SD) in high myopic eyes compared with (24.53± 0.70) mm in the fellow eye,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.0001).The mean hysteresis in high myopic eyes and the fellow eyes was (10.00± 1.61)mmHg and (10.96± 1.38) mmHg,respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P <0.0001).The relationship between CH and AL and CCT was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusions Under the same gene and environment,the corneal hysteresis value is significantly lower in high myopia,which has no thinner cornea.It may be due to the change in cornea microstructure as a result of axial abnormal elongation.%目的 分析和研究近视性的高度屈光参差眼屈光参数及角膜生物学参数的差异性.方法 对23名近视性的高度屈光参差患者(双眼等效球镜SE差≥6.00D),用眼反应分析仪(Ocular Response Analyzer,ORA)测量角膜滞后性(Corneal Hyteresis,CH),用改进的光学相干断层扫描仪(OCT-3)测量中央角膜厚度(CCT),用IOL-Master测量角膜曲率(mean K)及眼轴长度(AL).统计处理采用配对t检验和多元线性回归分析.结果 近视程度高度眼平均AL(28.34±1.10)mm,低度眼平均AL( 24.53±0.70)mm,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).双眼角膜平均曲率K差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).双眼CCT差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).

  16. The Therapeutic Effect of Bangerter Amblyopia Depressed Membrane for the Treatment of Anisometropia of Mild and Moderate Amblyopia%Bangerter弱视压抑膜在轻中度屈光参差中的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋英

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较Bangerter弱视压抑膜及传统眼罩遮盖治疗轻、中度屈光参差的疗效.方法:收集2012年1月 -2013年1月就诊于大同市第五人民医院的轻、中度的单眼屈光参差性弱视患儿60例(60眼).恰当的屈光矫正后 ,随机分为2组:Ⅰ组为压抑膜+弱视仪器训练 ,Ⅱ组为传统的遮盖+弱视仪器训练.于开始治疗后的3个月、6个月、12个月进行随访.结果:3个月随访时 ,Ⅰ组与Ⅱ组的有效率无统计学意义(χ2 =0 .11 ,P>0 .05 );6个月随访时 ,Ⅰ组的有效率明显高于Ⅱ组 ,差别有统计学意义(χ2 =4 .29 ,P0 .11);followed up 6 months later ,the effectiveness of group Ⅰ was obviously higher than that of group Ⅱ , the difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 4 .29 ,P< 0 .05);followed up 12 months later ,the effectiveness of group Ⅰ was obviously higher than that of group Ⅱ ,the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =4 .32 ,P<0 .05) , the compliance of two groups of patients had obvious difference (χ2 =6 .67 ,P<0 .05) ,and the amblyopia cure rate of group Ⅰ was higher than that of group Ⅱ (χ2 =5 .45 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion:(1)Long-term effect of depressed mem-brane treatment of amblyopia is superior to the traditional cover .(2)Amblyopia depressed membrane is helpful to im-prove patients'compliance .(3)With mild-to-moderate anisometropia amblyopia ,amblyopia depressed membrane treat-ment is a safe and effective method .

  17. LASIK矫治远视屈光参差性弱视儿童及青少年的临床疗效研究%Long-term clinical curative effect of the LASIK surgery on hyperopic anisometropia amblyopic children and adolescent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月磊; 郭秀瑾; 刘超敏; 李向品

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term clinical curative effect and the improvement of the binocular visual function after hyperopic anisometropia amblyopic children and adolescent LASIK surgery.Methods Retrospective study of 75 cases with the anisometropia amblyopia received excimer laser treatment of hyperopic LASIK surgery in the center of second hospital,Hebei medical university from May 2008 to June 2013.They were divided to the group of children and adolescents according to the age,the condition of the aye after surgery,observation index,follow-up observation analysis,and compared with preoperative.Results The postoperative visual acuity of naked eye,the postoperative best corrected visual acuity,postoperative equivalent ball lens,postoperative binocular anisometropia of 75 cases were observed and compared with the preoperative,and the difference had statistical significance (P <0.05).All postoperative complications were not seen at all stages such as corneal opacity,and no open hole at the time of the last follow-up eyesight drops,best corrected vision,stereo vision preoperative obviously improved.There was no significant difference between the posterior surface height and the preoperative.Conclusions The farsightedness anisometropia amblyopic children and adolescents LASIK refractive surgery has good safety,efficacy,predictability and stability,and can effectively improve the patient's stereo vision.%目的 探讨准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LASIK)矫治远视屈光参差性弱视儿童及青少年的临床疗效及双眼视功能的改善情况.方法 回顾性系列病例临床研究.对2008年5月至2013年6月在河北医科大学第二医院准分子激光治疗中心,接受LASIK手术的远视屈光参差性弱视儿童及青少年75例,按年龄分为儿童组和青少年组,分别对其术后眼部情况、观察指标、随访情况进行观察,并与术前进行对比.结果 两组中所有患者术后视力、等效球镜、双眼屈

  18. The effect of LASIK in anisometropia on strabismus%LASIK手术治疗屈光参差对斜视的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西西

    2003-01-01

    目的:探索LASIK手术治疗屈光参差后对斜视的影响.方法:用美国VISX准分子激光为25例屈光参差患者行手术治疗.结果:术后有2例外斜患者较术前斜视度数减少5△,1例患者术后增加7..结论:LASIK治疗屈光参差后对斜视无显著影响.

  19. Retinal optical coherence tomography study on children with anisometropia monocular amblyopia%屈光参差性弱视儿童视网膜光学相干断层成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初翠英; 代春华; 宋修芬; 纪芳; 蒋广伟; 姜善好

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用视网膜光学相干断层成像方法(OCT)研究屈光参差性弱视儿童视网膜神经纤维层(RNFL)和黄斑中心凹厚度,探讨弱视的发病机制。方法对屈光参差性单眼弱视儿童38例进行OCT检查,据弱视眼屈光状态分为远视散光弱视组18例,单纯远视弱视组20例,对侧健眼为正常对照组。分析比较三组视盘周围RNFL厚度和黄斑中心凹厚度的差异。结果远视散光弱视组、单纯远视弱视组和正常对照组视盘周围RNFL厚度分别为115.77±13.42μm、111.34±10.30μm 和103.05±11.10μm,黄斑中心凹厚度分别为198.86±28.30μm、191.98±27.81μm,181.18±29.06μm。两弱视组分别与正常对照组、两弱视组组间比较视盘周围RNFL厚度及黄斑中心凹厚度,差异均有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论屈光参差性弱视其弱视眼视盘周围RNFL厚度及黄斑中心凹厚度较对侧正常眼增厚,且远视散光弱视眼厚于单纯远视弱视眼。%Objective To assess retinal nerve fiber layer and the fovea in children with anisometropic am-blyopia by optical coherence tomography(OCT). Methods OCT was performed on 38 children with anisometropic am-blyopia. 18 children were astigmatic amblyopia and 20 children were hypermetropic amblyopia. The thickness of peri-papillary region retinal nerve fiber layer and the fovea were recorded and analyzed among amblyopia eyes and normal eyes. Results The thickness of mean peripapillary region RNFL and fovea were 115.77±13.42μm, 111.34±10.30μm, 103.05±11.10μm and 198.86±28.30μm, 191.98±27.81μm, 181.18±29.06μm respectively in the astigmatic amblyopia, hypermetropic amblyopia and normal eyes. The RNFL and fovea thickness in amblyopic eyes were thicker than those in normal eyes, and the RNFL and fovea thickness in astigmatic amblyopia were thicker than that in hypermetropic amblyopia, P < 0.05. Conclusions The thickness of RNFL and fovea in anisometropic amblyopia eyes were thicker than those in normal eyes. The thickness of RNFL and fovea in astigmatic amblyopia were thicker than those in hy-permetropic amblyopia.

  20. 用卡洞法和Worth四点法检测优势眼与屈光参差的相关性%Comparison dominant eye and anisometropia by Worth 4 dot test and hole-in-the-card test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关念; 胡志广

    2014-01-01

    ATM: To investigate the relationship between the oculus dominans and the eye with higher diopter among myopes, and to study the difference between the Worth 4 dot test and hole-in-the-card test. METHODS: Totally 125 cases were divided into two groups as physiogenic anisometropic group and pathological anisomitropic group according to the degree of binoculus anisometropy. Worth 4 dot test and hole-in-the-card test were used to distinguish oculus dominans respectively based on medical optometry. RESULTS: In physiogenic anisometropic group, the oculus dominans and the eye with higher diopter among myopes had significant relationship by hole-in-the-card test (Z = -4. 057, P0. 05); distinguish the oculus dominans had no statistically significant difference between the Worth 4 dot test and hole-in-the-card test (n=125, P>0. 05). CONCLUSION:The oculus dominans is determined by gene or formed during juvenile period, then myopia anisometropic may affect the choice of that. The Worth 4 dot test has some reference significance for observing oculus dominans.%目的:研究优势眼眼别与其两眼中近视性屈光程度较大眼的眼别关系,并分别研究Worth四点法测量优势眼与卡洞法测量优势眼的相关性。  方法:选取125例受试者,按照双眼屈光参差的程度分为生理性屈光参差组与病理性屈光参差组。在医学验光基础上分别运用Worth四点法及卡洞法判别双眼中优势眼的眼别。  结果:(1)生理性屈光参差组(卡洞法)优势眼眼别与双眼中近视性屈光程度较大眼眼别显著相关( Z=-4.057,P0.05)。(2)Worth四点法和卡洞法测得的优势眼眼别差异无显著性(n=125, P>0.05)。  结论:优势眼由基因决定或幼年时期形成并持续维持,而近视性屈光参差可能影响优势眼的选择。优势眼的测量中Worth四点法具有一定的参考意义。

  1. Clinical Course and Response to Therapy in Different Types of Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat Duman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to compare the demographic features, visual acuities before and after treatment, amblyopia and strabismus degrees and binocular visual functions in cases with anisometropic, strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Material and Method: The study included 50 anisometropic, 50 strabismic and 50 anisometropic and strabismic cases that were followed up with the diagnosis of amblyopia, in our clinic, between January 2007 - September 2010. Amblyopia criteria was defined as the best corrected visual acuity of ≤0.8 and at least 2 lines difference between the visual acuities of two eyes. Anisometropia was defined as ≥1D difference in the spherical and cylindrical value between two eyes. Results: The groups were statistically similar in means of age and sex distribution. Visual acuities in amblyopic eyes before and after treatment were also statistically similar. There were no significant difference between 3 groups in means of compliance to occlusion therapy. In anisometropic cases, anisometropic spherical values were found to have position correlation with amblyopia degree. In hypermetropic and myopic cases, a strong correlation was shown between anisometropia and amblyopia, especially in hypermetropic cases, amblyopia degree increased as the anisometropia increased. In all strabismus cases, a positive correlation between strabismus and amblyopia degrees was shown even though it was statistically insignificant. In strabismic cases, esotropia was significantly higher than exotropia. In anisometropia group, stereopsis and fusion was found to be preserved better in comparison to the strabismic cases. It was concluded that deviation had a more profound effect on binocular function loss than anisometropia. Discussion: We recommend to follow the hypermetropic anisometropic cases and especially cases with high degree strabismus and esotropia more closely. And also we emphasize that strabismus affects binocular function loss more than

  2. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None ...

  3. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Amir Pirouzian1,3, Kenneth C Ip2, Henry S O’Halloran31The Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAPurpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>-8 D) myopic anisometropia in childre...

  4. Treatment of amblyopia in the adult: insights from a new rodent model of visual perceptual learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce eBonaccorsi; Nicoletta eBerardi; Alessandro eSale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1-5% of the total world population. Amblyopia usually derives from conditions of early functional imbalance between the two eyes, owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, and results in a pronounced reduction of visual acuity and severe deficits in contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. It is widely accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity...

  5. Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2015-01-01

    Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.

  6. Crianças usuárias de lente de contato nos serviços público e privado: análise comparativa Pediatric contact lens users in public and private services: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo Toscano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar as indicações, tipo, complicações do uso de lentes de contato e acuidade visual em crianças de serviços de Oftalmologia público e privado. MÉTODOS: Os dados dos prontuários de 59 crianças usuárias de lentes de contato em serviço privado (Hospital de Olhos de Pernambuco - Grupo 1, e 43 no serviço público (Fundação Altino Ventura - Grupo 2, foram analisados. A coleta de dados incluiu características sociodemográficas, idade da primeira consulta, indicação do uso da lente, tipo de lente, complicações e acuidade visual. RESULTADOS: As mais comuns indicações do uso de lente de contato no grupo 1 foram: ametropia (55,9%, anisometropia (18,6% e esotropia (16,9%. Neste grupo o leucoma e phthisis não estavam presentes. No grupo 2, as indicações mais comuns foram: anisometropia (23,2%, ametropia e leucoma (18,6% cada, e phthisis (16,3%. A esotropia não apareceu no grupo 2. O tipo de lente de contato mais prescrita foi a gelatinosa de uso permanente (não descartável no grupo 1 (45,8% e no grupo 2 (32,6%. A complicação mais encontrada no grupo 1 foi desconforto (33,3% e no grupo 2 perda da lente (60%. CONCLUSÕES: A indicação de ametropia predominou nos pacientes privados e as anisometropias nos públicos. O tipo de lente de contato mais prescrita nos dois grupos foi a gelatinosa de uso permanente. A complicação mais frequente no grupo 1 foi desconforto e no grupo 2 perda da lente. A acuidade visual na maioria dos pacientes manteve-se.PURPOSE: To analyze the indications, type and complications of contact lens use and visual acuity in children, in ophthalmological, public and private, services. METHODS: The information from the medical records of 59 contact lens users at a private service (Hospital de Olhos de Pernambuco - Recife - PE- Brazil - group 1, and 43 at public service (Fundação Altino Ventura - Recife - PE - Brazil - group 2, was analyzed. The collected data included: demographic information

  7. Três anos pós-LASIK em crianças anisométropes de 8 a 15 anos de idade Three years after LASIK in anisometropic children from 8 to 15 years old

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    Belquiz R. Amaral Nassaralla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a segurança, eficácia, previsibilidade e estabilidade da técnica "laser in situ keratomileusis" (LASIK, três anos após a cirurgia, para a correção de alta anisometropia em crianças, para as quais os tratamentos convencionais não obtiveram êxito. MÉTODOS: Nove olhos de nove pacientes, três meninos e 6 meninas, com idade média de 11,5 anos (variando de 8 a 15 anos, foram submetidos à técnica LASIK utilizando-se o excimer laser Chiron Technolas 217. O tempo mínimo de seguimento foi de 36 meses. RESULTADOS: Três anos após o LASIK, a acuidade visual sem correção (AVSC melhorou pelo menos 5 linhas em todos os olhos; cinco olhos (55,5% apresentavam AVSC de 20/50 ou melhor. Seis olhos (66,6%, apresentavam acuidade visual com correção (AVCC de 20/50 ou melhor e cinco olhos (55,5% ganharam pelo menos 1 linha na AVCC. Devido a ambliopia, nenhum olho apresentou AVSC de 20/20 ou melhor. A média do equivalente esférico pré-operatório foi reduzida de -7,66 (± 3,75 D para -1,02 (± 1,26 D e a do astigmatismo, de -3,11 (± 2,09 D para -0,75 (± 0,25 D. A maior anisometropia encontrada foi de 1,5 D. CONCLUSÕES: Após três anos de seguimento, a técnica LASIK parece ser opção segura e eficaz na correção de alta anisometropia em crianças entre 8 e 15 anos de idade, para os quais os tratamentos convencionais não obtiveram êxito. A progressão do erro refracional relacionada à idade não impediu o uso da correção visual adequada.PURPOSE: To determine the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK, three years after surgery, to correct high myopia or high myopic astigmatism in children with high anisometropia in whom conventional treatments had failed. METHODS: Nine eyes of 9 patients, 3 boys and 6 girls with a mean age of 11.5 years (range, 8 to 15 years underwent LASIK using the Chiron Technolas 217 excimer laser. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. RESULTS: Three

  8. Associação entre hiperopia e outros erros refrativos e visuais em crianças

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    Merry Elizabeth Goedert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a associação da hipermetropia com ambliopia, estrabismo, anisometropia e astigmatismo. Métodos: A hiperopia foi classificada em Grupo 1: maior ou igual a +5.00D; Grupo 2: maior que +3.25D e menor que +5.00D, com diferença de equivalente esférico maior ou igual a 0.50D; Grupo 3: maior que +3.25D e menor que +5.00D, com diferença de equivalente esférico menor que 0.50D e Grupo 4: com equivalente esférico maior e igual a +2.00D. O Grupo controle pertencente ao equivalente esférico menor que +2.00D. Resultados: A presença de hipermetropia maior e igual a SE+2.00D foi significativamente associada à maior proporção de crianças com ambliopia (27,2 vs. 14,8%, OR = 2,150, p<0,001 e estrabismo (70,8 vs. 39,3%, OR = 3,758, p<0,0001. A presença de hipermetropia também foi significativamente associada à maior proporção de anisometropia nos grupos com hipermetropia maior e igual a SE+2.00 (29,1 vs. 9,9%, OR = 3,708, p<0,0001 e astigmatismo (24 vs. 9,9%, OR = 2,859 p<0,0001. Conclusão: A presença e magnitude da hipermetropia entre crianças foram associadas à maior proporção de erros refrativos e visuais, como estrabismo, ambliopia, astigmatismo e anisometropia.

  9. Eleven-year Experience with Radial Keratotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Momose

    1994-01-01

    1 900 consecutive eyes that underwent radial keratotomy by the senior author were evaluated retrospectively. 3 months after surgery, minimum reduction in mean spherical equivalent of 0. 67D was achieved with 1 incision and maximum 7. 250 with 24 incisions. Unconnected visual acuity of 20/40 or better was obtained in 99. 4% of eyes with low myopia, 64. 2% with moderate myopia and 32. 4% with high myopia. For anisometropia, bilateral RK reduced refractive error from -12. 12D to -5. 22D in more myopic eyes...

  10. Reabilitação visual com lentes de contato após trauma ocular Visual rehabilitation with contact lenses after ocular trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo Lui Netto; Aline Cristina Fioravanti Lui; Giovana Arlene Fioravanti Lui

    2008-01-01

    Trauma ocular é causa importante de baixa de acuidade visual em todos os países do mundo. A integridade do bulbo ocular é primordial para recuperação visual nesses pacientes. Acidentes domésticos, automobilísticos, esportivos, além de queimaduras químicas e térmicas são as principais causas de trauma em nosso meio. O uso de lentes de contato é indicado para a reabilitação visual em casos de astigmatismos regulares ou irregulares de córnea, anisometropias, afacias, opacidades paracentrais supe...

  11. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Kessel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery on two different dates. The quality of evidence was rated as low to very low. None of the studies reported the prevalence of postoperative anisometropia. In conclusion, we cannot provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of ISBCS due to the lack of high quality evidence. Therefore, the decision to perform ISBCS should be taken after careful discussion between the surgeon and the patient.

  12. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Automatic Screening of Amblyogenic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenwyk, Jonathan; Agah, Arvin; Giangiacomo, Joseph; Cibis, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop a low-cost automated video system to effectively screen children aged 6 months to 6 years for amblyogenic factors. Methods In 1994 one of the authors (G.C.) described video vision development assessment, a digitizable analog video-based system combining Brückner pupil red reflex imaging and eccentric photorefraction to screen young children for amblyogenic factors. The images were analyzed manually with this system. We automated the capture of digital video frames and pupil images and applied computer vision and artificial intelligence to analyze and interpret results. The artificial intelligence systems were evaluated by a tenfold testing method. Results The best system was the decision tree learning approach, which had an accuracy of 77%, compared to the “gold standard” specialist examination with a “refer/do not refer” decision. Criteria for referral were strabismus, including microtropia, and refractive errors and anisometropia considered to be amblyogenic. Eighty-two percent of strabismic individuals were correctly identified. High refractive errors were also correctly identified and referred 90% of the time, as well as significant anisometropia. The program was less correct in identifying more moderate refractive errors, below +5 and less than −7. Conclusions Although we are pursuing a variety of avenues to improve the accuracy of the automated analysis, the program in its present form provides acceptable cost benefits for detecting ambylogenic factors in children aged 6 months to 6 years. PMID:19277222

  13. Bilateral symmetry in vision and influence of ocular surgical procedures on binocular vision: A topical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Verma, Shwetabh

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the role of bilateral symmetry in enhancing binocular visual ability in human eyes, and further explore how efficiently bilateral symmetry is preserved in different ocular surgical procedures. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. Enantiomorphism has been reported in lower order aberrations, higher order aberrations and cone directionality. When contrast differs in the two eyes, binocular acuity is better than monocular acuity of the eye that receives higher contrast. Anisometropia has an uncommon occurrence in large populations. Anisometropia seen in infancy and childhood is transitory and of little consequence for the visual acuity. Binocular summation of contrast signals declines with age, independent of inter-ocular differences. The symmetric associations between the right and left eye could be explained by the symmetry in pupil offset and visual axis which is always nasal in both eyes. Binocular summation mitigates poor visual performance under low luminance conditions and strong inter-ocular disparity detrimentally affects binocular summation. Considerable symmetry of response exists in fellow eyes of patients undergoing myopic PRK and LASIK, however the method to determine whether or not symmetry is maintained consist of comparing individual terms in a variety of ad hoc ways both before and after the refractive surgery, ignoring the fact that retinal image quality for any individual is based on the sum of all terms. The analysis of bilateral symmetry should be related to the patients' binocular vision status. The role of aberrations in monocular and binocular vision needs further investigation.

  14. Achados oculares em crianças de zero a seis anos de idade, residentes na cidade de São Caetano do Sul, SP Ocular findings in children between 0 and 6 years of age, residing in the city of São Caetano do Sul, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Canelas Beer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de erros refrativos, estrabismo, ambliopia e anisometropia nas crianças pertencentes à população em estudo, utilizando dois métodos de rastreamento (triagem na escola e triagem durante o dia da vacinação contra a poliomielite. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 2.640 crianças, residentes da cidade de São Caetano do Sul, entre zero e seis anos de idade, divididas em duas amostras (A e B. A amostra A consistiu de 476 crianças que foram examinadas por dez oftalmologistas e onze técnicos oftálmicos, durante o Dia Nacional de Vacinação (20 de junho de 1998 contra a Poliomielite. A amostra B consistiu de 2.164 crianças que freqüentavam escolas municipais, entre quatro e seis anos de idade e foram examinadas por dois oftalmologistas durante o ano de 1998. RESULTADOS: Na amostra A, a prevalência de estrabismo foi de 3,36% e de anisometropia foi de 1,26%. O principal tipo de erro refrativo encontrado foi a hipermetropia PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of refractive errors, strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia, among children in a population, using two methods of screening (at school and at the National Polio Vaccination Day. METHODS: We examined 2,640 children, between 0 and 6 years of age. The children, residents of the city São Caetano do Sul, were divided into two groups (A and B. Group A: 476 children, with an age range of a few months to 6 years, had their eyes examined by 10 ophthalmologists and 11 ophthalmology technicians, during the National Polio Vaccination Day (June 20,1998. Group B: 2,164 children attending municipal schools (EMEIs and EMIs, between 4 and 6 years of age, who had their eyes examined by two ophthalmologists during the year of 1998. RESULTS: In group A, the prevalence of strabismus was 3.36% and that of anisometropia was 1.26%. The most common type of refractive error was hypermetropia £ 2D and 14.11% required optical prescription. In group B, the prevalence of strabismus

  15. Long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with high anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-ming; YAN Xiao-he; WANG Zheng; YANG Bin; CHEN Qi-wen; SU Jin-ai; YE Xue-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with anisometropic amblyopia are often noncompliant with traditional treatment including spectacules and contact lenses.This study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for children with high anisometropic amblyopia.Methods A retrospective analysis of 24 children with high unilateral anisometropic amblyopia,who underwent LASIK during the period between August 2000 and September 2005 in our hospital,was conducted.The mean age of these children was (7.4±1.9) years (range 5-14 years) and the mean follow-up period was (33.3±14.2) months (range 18.5-74.2 months).After LASIK,visual acuity,refraction and far or near stereoacuity were analyzed.Near stereoacuity was measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the pre-school random-dot stereogram,while far stereoacuity was measured by the synoptophore with Yan's random-dot stereogram.Results Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.06±0.05,while mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.43±0.33.Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.26±0.22,while mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.67±0.40.For patients with myopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (-8.01±2.70) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (-1.32±2.47) D.For patients with hyperopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (+7.35±1.55) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (+3.30±0.86) D.These results demonstrated that there was statistical difference in these parameters between preoperative and postoperative tests.At the last follow-up,20 patients had near stereoacuity,and the mean near stereoacuities measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the preschool random-dot stereogram were (149.00±152.93)" and (201.05±235.94)",respectively.In contrast,11 patients had far stereoacuity,and the mean far stereoacuity

  16. Exposure to sunlight reduces the risk of myopia in rhesus monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4, reared under Artificial (indoor Lighting (08:00-20:00; and NL group (n=4, exposed to Natural (outdoor Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00, and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age, monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age. During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032. Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002 and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001. All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor

  17. Effects of cortical damage on binocular depth perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly

    2016-06-19

    Stereoscopic depth perception requires considerable neural computation, including the initial correspondence of the two retinal images, comparison across the local regions of the visual field and integration with other cues to depth. The most common cause for loss of stereoscopic vision is amblyopia, in which one eye has failed to form an adequate input to the visual cortex, usually due to strabismus (deviating eye) or anisometropia. However, the significant cortical processing required to produce the percept of depth means that, even when the retinal input is intact from both eyes, brain damage or dysfunction can interfere with stereoscopic vision. In this review, I examine the evidence for impairment of binocular vision and depth perception that can result from insults to the brain, including both discrete damage, temporal lobectomy and more systemic diseases such as posterior cortical atrophy.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269597

  18. Current management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelis A Papadopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is a physiologic inevitability that causes gradual loss of accommodation during the fifth decade of life. The correction of presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. Different approaches on the cornea, the crystalline lens and the sclera are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability. There are however, a number of limitations and considerations that have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical correction for presbyopia. The quality of vision, optical and visual distortions, regression of effect, complications such as corneal ectasia and haze, anisometropia after monovision correction, impaired distance vision and the invasive nature of the currently techniques have limited the utilization of presbyopia surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of current procedures available for presbyopia correction and their limitations.

  19. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  20. Association of extensive myelinated nerve fibers and high degree myopia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Yalcın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral extensive myelination of the peripapillary nerve fibers may be associated with anisometropic myopia, strabismus, and reduced vision. Myelination of optic nerve fibers terminate at lamina cribrosa. Yet in some patients, myelination progresses into the peripapillary retinal nerve fibers and may affect the visual acuity. In this report, we described 4 patients. All patients presented extensive peripapillary myelinated nerve fibers associated with myopic anisometropia. After routine ophthalmic and orthoptic examinations, all patients underwent treatment for amblyopia through correction with spectacles, contact lenses, and the occlusion of the good eye. Corrected visual acuity improved in 1 patient, but 3 patients had no increase in visual acuity despite treatment with full cycloplegic refraction and appropriate patching. Probably because of structural abnormalies of the macula, visual results are often disappointing with appropriate correction of the refractive error and occlusion.

  1. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

    2014-05-05

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to

  2. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error

  3. O uso do "photoscreening" no estudo de fatores ambliopigênicos na população infantil The use of Photoscreening in the study of the amblyopigenics factors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Leite dos Reis

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a precisão do aparelho "MTI Photoscreener" na triagem de uma população infantil, identificando fatores ambliopigênicos como ametropias, anisometropias, estrabismos e cataratas congênitas e opacidades dos meios transparentes. Métodos: Durante o projeto "Veja Bem Brasil" os autores examinaram com uma máquina de "photoscreening" (MTI Photoscreener, 107 crianças, com idade variando entre 6 e 15 anos, comparando estes resultados com aqueles encontrados em posterior exame oftalmológico completo. Resultados: Ao final encontraram 31 (28,97% crianças com alguma patologia oftalmológica e 76 (71,02% dentro da normalidade. As análises estatísticas da precisão do aparelho revelaram os seguintes valores: sensibilidade 90,32%; especificidade, 96,05%; valores preditivos positivos e negativos de 90,32% e 96,05%, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados acima citados demonstraram a confiabilidade do teste de "Photoscreening" na triagem de pacientes em idade escolar.Purpose: To study the accuracy of the MTI Photoscreener in the screening of an infantile population, for amblyopia causing factors such as ametropias, anisometropias, strabismus, congenital cataracts and opacities of the media. Methods: During the execution of a study project "Veja Bem Brasil" ("See Well Brazil", the AA used the MTI Photoscreener to examine 107 children, with ages varying from 6 to 15 years, and compared these results with those of a following complete ophthalmic examination. Results: The end results gave us 31 (28.97% children with an ophthalmic pathology and 76 (71.02% within normal limits. Statistical analysis showed the following values: sensivitity, 90.32%; specificity, 96.05%; positive predictive values and negative predictive values of 90.32% e 96.05%, respectively. Conclusion: The above results showed the "photoscreening" test to be reliable to screen young patients of school age.

  4. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™ implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouzian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Amir Pirouzian1,3, Kenneth C Ip2, Henry S O’Halloran31The Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Rady’s Children’s Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAPurpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL in the reduction of clinically significant (>-8 D myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses.Design: Retrospective interventional case series.Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean <20/400. All patients underwent Verisyse™ phakic IOL implantation in the more myopic eye by one surgeon (AP. Pre- and post-operative visual acuity, anterior/posterior segment examination, stereoacuity, axial biometry measurements, cycloplegic refraction, and endothelial cell counts were performed in all patients whenever feasible.Results: The age of patients ranged from 5–11 years. The mean post-operative follow-up time was six months from the time of IOL insertion. Improvement in visual acuity >6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months. Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing. Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted

  5. Reabilitação visual com lentes de contato após trauma ocular Visual rehabilitation with contact lenses after ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Lui Netto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trauma ocular é causa importante de baixa de acuidade visual em todos os países do mundo. A integridade do bulbo ocular é primordial para recuperação visual nesses pacientes. Acidentes domésticos, automobilísticos, esportivos, além de queimaduras químicas e térmicas são as principais causas de trauma em nosso meio. O uso de lentes de contato é indicado para a reabilitação visual em casos de astigmatismos regulares ou irregulares de córnea, anisometropias, afacias, opacidades paracentrais superficiais ou profundas na córnea decorrentes do trauma ocular. As lentes de contato podem ser utilizadas no pós-trauma com finalidade terapêutica ou para correção visual. As lentes mais utilizadas para correção visual pós-trauma são as lentes de contato rígidas gás permeáveis, com alto coeficiente de permeabilidade. As lentes de contato gelatinosas podem ser usadas imediatamente após o trauma ocular com finalidade terapêutica e mais tardiamente para correção óptica em afacias e anisometropias traumáticas. A lente de contato é parte importante no tratamento tardio do trauma ocular, propiciando melhora significativa da acuidade visual na maioria dos casos.Ocular trauma is an important cause of visual acuity loss worldwide. Visual recovery is related to anatomical integrity. The main causes of trauma are domestic and automobilist accidents, sports practice and chemical or thermic burns. Contact lens is indicated for visual rehabilitation in cases of corneal regular and irregular astigmatisms, anisometropic and aphakic patients and in cases of deep or superficial corneal opacities that do not affect the visual axis. Contact lens can be used in the post- trauma period for therapeutic and optical purposes. Rigid gas permeable contact lens, with a high permeability index, is the most used for optical purpose. Soft contact lens can be used immediately after trauma as therapy or later for optical correction in aphakic and

  6. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia.

  7. [Excessive medical problems in the treatment of common eye diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L H

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, some typical excessive medical problems in the treatment of common eye diseases in children were listed as follows: unnecessary examinations carried out for children with little or no corresponding complaints; prescription for spectacles for physiological hyperopia or astigmatism in children; over-diagnosis, over-or nonstandard-treatment for amblyopia; strabismus surgeries performed in children with esotropia but without full optical correction of hyperopic refractive error, in children with monocular strabismus and amblyopia but without standard cover therapy, in children with intermittent exotropia but without optical correction of myopic refractive errors and myopic anisometropia, and without evaluation of their fusional control ability; exaggerated the harm of myopia and the curative effect of Orthokeratology contact lenses without considering the patient's compliance; cataract surgery performed in infants with partial opacity of the lens that has little effect on the vision. Every ophthalmologist should work based on evidence-based preferred practice pattern, professional standards and expert consensus to promote the standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of children's common eye diseases in China. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 561-564). PMID:27562274

  8. Pupillography of automated swinging flashlight test in amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Miki1, Atsuhiko Iijima2, Mineo Takagi1, Kiyoshi Yaoeda1, Tomoaki Usui1, Shigeru Hasegawa1, Haruki Abe1, Takehiko Bando21Department of Ophthalmology; 2Department of Physiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, JapanAbstract: Relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs in amblyopia have been reported, and it is widely accepted that amblyopes can have an RAPD. We investigated whether or not this could be confirmed by the use of binocular pupillography. We examined twelve patients (6 males and 6 females, aged 7–57 years with unilateral amblyopia associated with anisometropia and/or strabismus, using binocular infrared video pupillography (Newopto, Kawasaki, Japan. Eight normal subjects were also tested in the same manner. Two patients’ data had to be excluded because of poor recording quality. Only one patient with moderate anisometropic amblyopia was found to have reduced contraction amplitude in the amblyopic eye, and one patient with a borderline pupillary defect. The other amblyopes, some of whom showed even denser amblyopia, did not have a pupillary defect. This study has confirmed that only a small proportion of amblyopes have a reduced pupillary contraction amplitude in the affected eye, as established by pupillographic recordings, and even these amblyopes are not necessarily associated with dense amblyopia.Keywords: relative afferent pupillary defect, amblyopia, pupillography

  9. 儿童屈光参差行LASIK手术后实施弱视治疗的效果分析%The effect of amblyopia treatment on anisometropic children afer LASIK surgery

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    罗雄伟; 麦土兴; 全雄; 吴芸

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of amblyopia treatment on anisometropic children afer LASIK surgeries. Methods 86 cases (107 eyes) with myopic anisometropia combined with moderate to severe amblyopia were given LASIK, the amblyopia treatment were taken after LASIK, and then the change of visual acuity before and after surgeries was observed. Results The postoperative best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA) of 86 cases (107 eyes) was improved 2 to 5 lines, and 28 of them were reached to 5.0. Conclusions It is an effective method to correct anisometropic amblyopia with postoperative amblyopia treatment.%目的 评价儿童屈光参差行LASIK手术后实施弱视治疗的临床效果.方法 对86例(107/眼)近视性屈光参差并伴有中重度弱视的病例进行LASIK治疗,术后实施弱视治疗,观察术前术后弱视的变化.结果 86例(107眼)弱视眼中,均比术前最佳矫正视力提高2~5行,28眼达到5.0.结论 LASIK术后实施弱视治疗是矫正儿童屈光参差性弱视的一种有效方法.

  10. Effects of different types of refractive errors on bilateral amblyopia

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    Mücella Arıkan Yorgun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Identifying effects of different types of refractiveerrors on final visual acuity and stereopsis levels inpatients with bilateral amblyopia.Materials and methods: Patients with bilateral amblyopialower than ≥1.5 D anisometropia were included. Thepatients were classified according to the level of sphericalequivalent (0-4 D and >4 D of hypermetropia, the levelof astigmatism (below and above 2D in positive cylinderand type of composed refractive error [ 4 D of hypermetropiaand 2 D of astigmatism (group III]. Initialand final binocular best corrected visual acuities (BCVAwere compared between groups.Results: The initial binocular BCVA levels were significantlylower in patients with > 4 D of hypermetropia(p=0.028, without correction after treatment (p=0.235.The initial binocular BCVA was not different betweenastigmatism groups, but final BCVA levels were significantlylower in 4-6D of astigmatism compared with 2-4D of astigmatism (p=0.001. During comparison of composedrefractive errors, only the initial binocular BCVAwas significantly lower in group I compared to group II(p=0.015. The final binocular BCVA levels were not differentbetween groups I and III (p>0.05.Conclusions: Although the initial BCVA is lower in patientswith higher levels of hypermetropia, the response ofpatients to treatment with glasses is good. The responseof patients with high levels of astigmatism seems to belimited. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 467-471Key words: Amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia, hypermetropia,refractive amblyopia, visual acuity

  11. Antimetropia in a 10-year-old boy with unilateral tilted disc syndrome

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    Makino S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinji MakinoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: Antimetropia is a condition in which one eye is myopic, while the fellow eye is hyperopic. This report describes a case of antimetropia associated with unilateral tilted disc syndrome. A 10-year-old boy presented with the complaint of diminished vision for distant objects in his right eye for several months. His uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.15 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 1.0, with -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D in the left eye. The cover test revealed right esotropia and hypertropia. Bifoveal fixation was achieved using a 14 prism diopter (PD base at 220° in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed a tilted disc with inferior staphyloma in the right eye, but no abnormal findings were observed in the left eye. In addition, the patient occasionally experienced diplopia under casual viewing conditions. A cycloplegic refraction revealed -6.00 D/-2.00 D 170° in the right eye and +1.50 D/-2.00 D 5° in the left eye. Thus, prism glasses were prescribed. While wearing the prism glasses, the patient has shown no diplopia and maintains good binocular function.Keywords: amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, staphyloma

  12. Prevenção à cegueira em crianças de 3 a 6 anos assistidas pelo programa de saúde da família (PSF do Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro Blindness prevention on 3 to 6 years old children at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão - Rio de Janeiro

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    Giancarlo Cardoso Jeveaux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho visou fazer um levantamento da prevalência de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos em crianças com idade pré-escolar em áreas assistidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família no Morro do Alemão-RJ. MÉTODOS: Crianças com idade entre 3 e 6 anos foram submetidas a exame de triagem visual. Os resultados positivos foram confirmados por exame oftalmológico realizado sob cicloplegia na própria unidade de saúde. Foram aplicados questionários semi-estruturados aos acompanhantes das crianças e aos membros de todas as equipes de saúde da unidade. RESULTADOS: De 559 crianças convocadas para triagem, 265 (47,4% compareceram e, destas, 127 (48% foram encaminhadas para exame oftalmológico completo. Tiveram o exame ocular normal 138 (52% das crianças examinadas pela triagem. Compareceram para exame especializado 81 (63,7% crianças. Destas, 9 (4,1% crianças tiveram diagnóstico de ambliopia. Quatro (1,8% por estrabismo, uma (0,46% por privação de estímulo, uma (0,46% por anisometropia e três (33,3% por erros refracionais isometrópicos. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos pela triagem seguida de exame ocular especializado executada na unidade de atenção primária à saúde (PSF do Morro do Alemão-RJ, mostraram que os exames de triagem realizados são relevantes para a detecção de ambliopia e fatores ambliopiogênicos e para a promoção da saúde ocular infantil.PURPOSE: The study objective is to determine the prevalence of amblyopia and amblyopiogenic factors in children from 3 to 6 years old at a health family program assisted community in Morro do Alemão-RJ. METHODS: A preschool children ocular evaluation cross sectional study will be submitted to an ophthalmic screening exam.The positive results were confirmed by oftalmologic examination under cicloplegia inside of the health centre. Were applied a semi-structure questionnaire to the health members of the health centre team and to all children accompanist. RESULTS

  13. Relevance of visual acuity measurement using two visual acuity charts in amblyopic children%两种视力表检测弱视患儿视力的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 肖信; 刘伟民; 洪华丽; 毛合娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价两种视力表检测不同类型弱视患儿视力结果的相关性.方法 选取不同类型弱视患儿119例(213眼),其中屈光不正性弱视40例(80眼)、屈光参差性弱视41例(58眼)、斜视性弱视38例(75眼),分别使用标准对数视力表和视觉噪声双视力表检测患儿的最佳矫正视力;使用Spearman相关分析评价两者的相关性.结果 屈光不正性弱视患儿、屈光参差性弱视患儿、斜视性弱视患几分别经标准对数视力表与视觉噪声双视力表检测,两种视力表所测得结果之间存在相关性.结论 标准对数视力表与视觉噪声双视力表在三类弱视患儿中检测结果均存在较好的线性关系,但不同弱视类型的相关性强弱存在差异:相关性在屈光参差性弱视中最高,在屈光不正性弱视中最低.%Objective To evaluate the correlation of visual acuity measured using two different types of eye chart in children with amblyopia.Methods 119 cases (213 eyes) amblyopia patients were selected,including 40 cases (80 eyes) of refractive amblyopia,41 cases (58 eyes) of anisometropia amblyopia,and 38 cases (75 eyes) of strabismus amblyopia were selected.Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were determined using standard visual chart and visual noise dual chart and the correlation between the two visual acuity result were explored using Spearman's correlation analysis.Results The visual acuity in refractive amblyopia,anisometropia amblyopia and strabismus amblyopia determined by standard visual chart was statistically correlated with that determined by visual noise dual visual acuity chart.Conclusions The visual acuity measured by standard vision chart showed satisfactory linear relationship with that measured by visual acuity chart double among three types of amblyopia,however,the strength of correlation coefficient between different types of amblyopia were different:correlation coefficient in anisometropic amblyopia was the highest,and the

  14. Asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome: response to authors

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    Gupta A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aditi Gupta, Rajiv Raman, Tarun SharmaShri Bhagwan Mahavir Department of Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, IndiaWe read with great interest the recent article by Kashima et al,1 in which the authors report a case of asymmetric severity of diabetic retinopathy in Waardenburg syndrome. We want to highlight some concerns regarding this report. Previous reports have described many systemic and local factors associated with the development of asymmetric diabetic retinopathy.2,3 These include myopia ≥5 D, anisometropia >1 D, amblyopia, unilateral elevated intraocular pressure, complete posterior vitreous detachment, unilateral carotid artery stenosis, ocular ischemic syndrome, and chorioretinal scarring.2,3 In any suspected case of asymmetric diabetic retinopathy, it is prudent to rule out the abovementioned factors first. In the present case, although the authors clearly mention the absence of internal carotid and ophthalmic artery obstruction on magnetic resonance angiography, it would have been more informative if the authors had also provided the refractive error, intraocular pressure, and posterior vitreous detachment status of both the eyes.Likewise, it would have been useful to note the arm-retina time and retinal arteriovenous filling time in both the eyes on fundus fluorescein angiography, which is usually used to diagnose ocular ischemic syndrome by monitoring extension of the retinal circulation time, including time of blood circulation from the arm to the retina and the retinal arteriovenous filling time.4,5 The mere absence of internal carotid obstruction on magnetic resonance angiography cannot rule out the presence of ocular ischemic syndrome because, rarely, ocular ischemic syndrome can also occur secondary to other causes, such as arteritis.6,7 Comparing the arm-retina time and retinal arteriovenous filling time on fundus fluorescein angiography in both the eyes would be more helpful to rule out ocular

  15. [A survey of the prevalence and causes of eye disorders in primary school children in Antananarivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzemery, A; Andriamanamihaja, R; Boisier, P

    1995-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of ocular abnormalities in children, we performed a cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling in Madagascar in Antananarivo primary schools in October 1994. Our other aim was to sensitize the sanitary authorities and the students of ophthalmology to the notion of public health ophthalmology in a country where a national blindness prevention program is being established. 1,081 children aged from 8 to 14 years (mean age 10.6 years) were examined. 51, or 4.7%, were diagnosed as having ocular abnormalities. These abnormalities were distributed as follows: 22 cases or 2% of the sample had refractive errors including 0.74% with myopia of less than 6 dioptrics, 0.18% with myopia of more than 6 dioptrics, 0.83% with hypermetropia of less than 6 dioptrics, and 0.28% with hypermetropia of more than 6 dioptrics; 15 cases or 1.4% of the sample had unilateral amblyopia including 0.9% with anisometropia, 0.37% with strabismus, and 0.09% with macular pathology; 8 cases or 0.74% of the sample had strabismus without amblyopia; and 6 cases or 0.57% of the sample had simple medical pathology. The results showed that 29 children were supposed to have an optic correction, including surgical treatment for 12 and medical treatment for 6. The same low frequencies of ocular abnormalities, mainly concerning refractive errors, were found in the literature. However, children suffering from important visual impairment do not attend school, and we cannot generalize the above results for the whole population. PMID:7640899

  16. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (Verisyse™) implantation in children for treatment of severe ansiometropia myopia and amblyopia: Six-month pilot clincial trial and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ip, Kenneth C; O’Halloran, Henry S

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to evaluate both safety and efficacy of Verisyse™ (AMO, Irvine, CA) phakic anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the reduction of clinically significant (>−8 D) myopic anisometropia in children who are noncompliant to traditional medical treatment including spectacle correction or contact lenses. Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Methods: Six anisometropic myopic pediatric patients in one practice were identified through chart-review. None of the patients were compliant with specatacle correction or contact lens wear and as a result had dense amblyopia of less than 20/400 by Snellen or Allen visual acuity (mean 6 lines was achieved in four patients (mean visual acuity of 20/70 at six months). Improvement in stereoacuity was noted in all six patients (from total mean zero seconds-arc to six-months post-operative mean of 500 seconds-arc by randot stereoacuity testing). Improvement of >2 lines of visual acuity lines was achieved in the other two patients. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity. Enhanced physical activity, coordination, and improved social interaction were noted in patients and were reported by the parents. No intra/post-operative complications were noted. Discussion: Irreversible or intractable amblyopia secondary to severe anisometropic myopia is a serious medical concern in the pediatric population. Failure of compliance with contact lens therapy consistently leads to visual loss. Anterior chamber phakic IOLs may provide a safe alternative in treatment of noncompliant anisometropic myopic patients who do not accept spectacle wear or contact lens therapy. Conclusion: To reduce or eliminate highly significant anisometropic myopia in children who are noncompliant with traditional medical treatment, phakic anterior chamber IOL implantation may be considered as an alternative modality of treatment. PMID:19668592

  17. Prevalence of refractive errors in Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria M Snchez; Claudio P Juarez; Rafael Iribarren; Santiago G Latino; Victor E Torres; Ana L Gramajo; Mara N Artal; Mara B Yadarola; Patricia R Garay; Jos D Luna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Refractive errors are among the most frequent reasons for demand of eye-care services. Publications on refractive errors prevalence in our country are few. This study has the purpose to assess the prevalence of refractive errors in an adult population of Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina. Methods: The Villa Maria Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the city of Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina from May 2008 to November 2009. Subject’s aged 40+ received a demographic interview and complete ophthalmological exam. Visual acuity was obtained with an ETDRS chart. Cycloplegic auto refraction was performed. The spherical equivalent was highly correlated between right and left eyes, so only data of right eyes are presented. Myopia and hyperopia were defined with a ±0.50 diopters (D) criterion and astigmatism >1 D. Results: This study included 646 subjects, aged 40 to 90 (mean age: 59.6±10.3 years old). Four hundred and sixty two (71.5%) were females. The mean spherical equivalent was +0.714±2.41 D (range, −22.00 to+8.25 D) and the power of the cylinder was, on average, −0.869±0.91 D (range, 0 to −6.50 D). In this sample, 61.6% subjects were hyperopic, and 13.5% were myopic. Myopia prevalence was lower in men (9.8% versus 14.9%) but this difference among genders was not statistically signiifcant. There were 141 subjects (21.8%) with anisometropia greater than 1 D, and 168 subjects (26.0%) with astigmatism greater than 1 D. Conclusions: The present study shows the prevalence of cycloplegic refractive errors in an adult population of Argentina. The prevalence of hyperopia was high, while myopia prevalence was very low.

  18. Not only amblyopic but also dominant eye in subjects with strabismus show increased saccadic latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdziak, Maciej; Witkowska, Dagmara K; Gryncewicz, Wojciech; Ober, Jan K

    2016-08-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of vision usually associated with the presence of strabismus and/or anisometropia during early childhood. Subject literature has shown that both the amblyopic and fellow eyes (especially in strabismic subjects) may manifest a variety of perceptual and oculomotor deficits. Previous studies using simple saccadic responses (pro-saccades) showed an increased saccadic latency only for the amblyopic eye viewing conditions. So far, there have appeared no saccadic latency studies in strabismic amblyopia for more complex volitional saccades. In order to maximize the contribution of the central retina in the process of saccade initiation, we decided to use delayed saccadic responses in order to test the hypothesis about saccadic latency increase in both eyes in strabismic amblyopes. The results from our study have shown that saccadic latency is increased both in the dominant and amblyopic eyes. In addition, the amblyopic eye in the strabismic group showed greater increase in saccadic latency compared to an amblyopic eye in the anisometropic group from our previous study. The observed increase in saccadic reaction time for the dominant eye is novel and provides further evidence that the visual pathway associated with the dominant eye might be also impaired in strabismic amblyopia. Since an abnormal binocular input during visual system development may affect gaze stability in both eyes, we speculate that unsteady fixation accompanied with subtle perceptual deficits contribute to an increase in saccadic latency that is observed in the dominant eye. Moreover, it appears that the cortical processes related to saccade decisions are delayed both for amblyopic and fellow eyes in strabismic subjects. PMID:27559718

  19. Practitioners’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles

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    K. C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study to determine optometrists’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles. Ninety-seven optometrists completed a questionnaire pertaining to ametropia and ocular diseases among these patients. The questionnaire contained information regarding patient demographics, ocular pathology, ocular ametropia and the regulatory and public health aspects of ready-made readers.Ninety-five percent of respondents stated that they had seen patients with ready-made readers in their practice and 62% of these stated that they had found the presence of ocular pathology in these patients. The pathologies most commonly reported as seen by practitioners were dry eye (86% of practitioners, cataracts (80% and diabetic retinopathy (54%. In addition, 39% of practitioners reported seeing patients with anisometropia. The majority of practitioners (71% stated that they sold ready-made readers in their practice. Sixty-three percentof practitioners indicated that they would be prepared to offer a service whereby a reduced consultation fee and a pair of ready-made readers could be incorporated into an indigent “package”. An overwhelming 88% of the practitioners felt that the sale of ready-made readers should be more regulated and 74% of practitioners felt that the Professional Board for Optometry and Dispensing Opticians should be responsible for monitoring their sale. The research suggests that wearers of ready-made readers should be screened for ocular pathology, reduced visual acuity and amblyopia. Current regulations should be tightened and a public awareness education campaign should be initiated. The use of ready-made reading spectacles, in deference to an eye examination by an optometrist, appears to be largely as a result of the perceived costs of pri-vate practice combined with ignorance and apathy

  20. Intraocular lens exchange for high myopia in pseudophakic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, C L; Trivedi, R H; Wilson, M E

    2016-09-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to examine the preoperative factors and postoperative outcomes following intraocular lens (IOL) exchange for high myopia in pseudophakic children.MethodsThe medical records of all patients undergoing IOL exchange for high myopia were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsA total of 15 eyes were identified that had undergone an IOL exchange for myopic shift. Average age of cataract extraction (CE) was 5.4 months. In all, 10/15 had a unilateral cataract. IOL exchange usually occurred at an average of 6 years following cataract surgery. The average spherical equivalent (SE) of the refractive error at that time was -9.6 D. Following IOL exchange, SE was -1.3 D. A two-line reduction in best-corrected visual acuity was observed in 1/13 of our patients for whom pre- and post-exchange data were available. The average axial length (AL) of the eye undergoing the IOL exchange was 24.0 mm, average AL in the non-operative eye was 22.1 mm. On average, the operative eyes grew 4.4 mm and the non-operative eyes 3.02 mm. No adverse events were seen in the operative eyes.ConclusionYounger age at the time of CE creates a greater likelihood of AL elongation and predisposes a child to myopic shift. IOL exchange should be considered an option to reduce anisometropia and associated aniseikonia to improve visual outcomes. Successful visual rehabilitation and predictable post-exchange refractions were seen with our patients.

  1. Is Noncycloplegic Photorefraction Applicable for Screening Refractive Amblyopia Risk Factors?

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    Zhale Rajavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the accuracy of noncycloplegic photorefraction (NCP with that of cycloplegic refraction (CR for detecting refractive amblyopia risk factors (RARFs and to determine cutoff points. Methods: In this diagnostic test study, right eyes of 185 children (aged 1 to 14 years first underwent NCP using the PlusoptiX SO4 photoscreener followed by CR. Based on CR results, hyperopia (≥ +3.5 D, myopia (≥ -3 D, astigmatism (≥ 1.5 D, and anisometropia (≥ 1.5 D were set as diagnostic criteria based on AAPOS guidelines. The difference in the detection of RARFs by the two methods was the main outcome measure. Results: RARFs were present in 57 (30.8% and 52 (28.1% of cases by CR and NCP, respectively, with an 89.7% agreement. In contrast to myopia and astigmatism, mean spherical power in hyperopic eyes was significantly different based on the two methods (P < 0.001, being higher with CR (+5.96 ± 2.13 D as compared to NCP (+2.37 ± 1.36 D. Considering CR as the gold standard, specificities for NCP exceeded 93% and sensitivities were also acceptable (≥ 83% for myopia and astigmatism. Nevertheless, sensitivity of NCP for detecting hyperopia was only 45.4%. Using a cutoff point of +1.87 D, instead of +3.5 D, for hyperopia, sensitivity of NCP was increased to 81.8% with specificity of 84%. Conclusion: NCP is a relatively accurate method for detecting RARFs in myopia and astigmatism. Using an alternative cutoff point in this study, NCP may be considered an acceptable device for detecting hyperopia as well.

  2. Asynchrony Detection in Amblyopes

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    Pi-Chun Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality of visual cortex. Although amblyopes experience perceptual deficits in spatial vision tasks, they have less temporal sensitivity loss. We investigated whether their temporal synchrony sensitivity is impaired. In experiment 1, four Gaussian blobs, located at the top, bottom, left, and right of a presentation screen, were flickering in 3 Hz and one of them was flickering in out-of-phase fashion in time. Participants needed to tell which blob was different from the other three and contrast threshold of the blobs was measured to determine the synchrony detection threshold. We found the thresholds were not correlated with the contrast thresholds for detecting the flickering blobs, suggesting synchrony detection and temporal detection threshold are processed by different mechanisms. In experiment 2, synchrony thresholds were measured as participants' ability to tell if one of the four high contrast Gaussian blobs was flickering asynchronously in time. Three temporal frequencies (1, 2, and 3 Hz and two element separations (1.25 and 5 deg were compared. We found that the amblyopic group exhibited a deficit only for the 1.25 deg element separation in amblyopic eye but was normal for the other configurations compared to controlled participants. It suggests amblyopes have deficits in temporal processing but only for foveal vision. We also found the sensitivity for the non-strabismic anismetropia group is reduced for all three temporal frequencies whereas for the strabismic anisometropia group it was reduced at 3Hz only, suggesting the impairment in temporal synchrony might be different for different types of amblyopia.

  3. Investigation of the change in accommodative response after successful orthoptic therapy in amblyopes%弱视儿童视力康复后调节功能变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 吕帆; 陈洁

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查单眼远视性屈光参差性弱视患儿视觉康复过程中视力和调节功能的康复情况,研究视力恢复后调节功能是否同步恢复。方法 横断面研究。收集正常儿童50例作为对照组,远视性屈光参差性弱视(单眼弱视)治愈儿童55例作为实验组,采用SRW-5500红外自动验光仪检查这些患儿在阅读距离为20、33、50 cm时的调节反应(双眼同时注视),采用公式——调节滞后=调节需求-调节反应,来计算调节滞后量。采用独立样本t检验、配对t检验和相关性分析对数据进行处理。结果 阅读距离为20、33、50 cm时,正常组主导眼调节滞后量分别为(0.26±0.31)、(0.12±0.02)、(0.10±0.01)D;非主导眼分别为(0.27±0.30)、(0.17±0.14)、(0.12±0.01)D。弱视者健康眼这3个距离的调节滞后量分别为(0.40±0.14)、(0.29±0.09)、(0.17±0.06)D,与正常组主导眼差异无统计学意义;弱视治愈眼调节滞后量分别为(1.66±0.47)、(1.38±0.34)、(1.16±0.34)D,比相应距离弱视者健康眼大,差异有统计学意义(t=18.731、22.764、21.020,P均<0.01)。弱视治愈眼在3个阅读距离调节反应的个体标准差分别为(0.09±0.04)、(0.09±0.02)、(0.09±0.02)D,弱视者健康眼3个距离个体标准差分别为(0.04±0.01)、(0.04±0.03)、(0.04±0.00)D,小于弱视治愈眼,差异均有统计学意义(t=10.072、10.216、22.342,P均<0.01)。结论 弱视眼视力达正常后,与对侧健康眼和正常人眼比较,其调节反应滞后量较大,同时调节反应波动也相对较大,说明远视性屈光参差性弱视眼调节功能的康复滞后于视力的提高。%Objective To investigate the recovery of accommodative function in former amblyopes with monocular hyperopic anisometropia who had undergone successful orthoptic therapy.Methods In this cross-sectional study, 55 children with monocular hyperopic anisometropia who were former

  4. A comparison of the visual status of dyslexic and non-dyslexic schoolchildren in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Wajuihian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Reading difficulties constitute an impediment to the learning process and in the educational achievement of a child. Consequently, several studies examined the visual status of dyslexic children in the Caucasian populations. Such studies are lacking in the African populations.Aim: To determine the prevalence of vision defects and investigate if there is an association between dyslexia and vision in a South African population of dyslexic school children.  Methods:  This comparative study assessed the visual function of 62 children (31 dyslexic and 31 normally-reading children, mean age 13 ± 1.42 years and 11.90 ± 0.93 years respectively. The participants were matched for gender, race and socio-economic status. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used were: visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refraction (static retinos-copy, ocular alignment (cover test near point of convergence (RAF rule, accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, amplitude of accommodation (push-up method relative accommodation(trial lenses accommodation posture (monocular estimation technique and vergence reserves (prism bars. Results:   In the following, results are  provided for the dyslexic versus control:  Refractive errors: (hyperopia 6.5% vs 3%, (myopia 6.5% vs 6.5%, (astigmatism 10% vs 13%, (anisometropia 6.5% vs 6.5% (amblyopia 6.5% vs 0%, (remote NPC 33% vs 48% (esophoria at near 3%  vs 0% (exophoria at near 9.5% vs 0%, (accommodative infacility at near  54% vs 33%, lag of accommodation 39.28% vs 41,93%,  (poor positive fusional amplitude at near, 25% vs 16%. Only the binocular accommodative facility at near was significantly associated with dyslexia (p=0.027. Conclusion: The prevalence of vision defects was similar between the dyslexic and non-dyslexic participants, which suggest that an association between dyslexia and vision variables investigated, cannot be inferred.  This study provides a research perspective on the

  5. 综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的远期疗效分析%Analysis of Long-term Efficacy of Comprehensive Therapy for the Treatment of Amblyopia in Chil-dren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云; 谭星平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的远期疗效。[方法]对557例(967眼)儿童弱视进行屈光矫正,遮盖及行红闪(激光)、光刷、多光谱、视觉刺激、视觉定位、精细目力训练等综合治疗1~5年。[结果]治愈率79.42%,有效率96.59%,屈光不正性弱视疗效优于斜视性弱视和屈光参差性弱视,弱视程度越低、年龄越小、治疗时间越长效果越好。[结论]弱视治疗效果与弱视类型、弱视程度、治疗时间、治疗年龄有关,综合疗法可以提高治愈率。%[Objective] To explore the long-term efficacy of comprehensive therapy for the treatment of ambly-opia in children .[Methods] A total of 557 pediatric patents (967 eyes) with amblyopia received comprehensive therapy such as refraction correction ,cover ,red flash light(laser) ,light brush ,multi-spectrum ,visual stimula-tion ,visual positioning and fine eyesight training for 1~5 years .[Results]The therapeutic efficacy was satisfacto-ry .The curative rate was 79 .42% and effective rate was 96 .59% .The therapeutic efficacy of ametropic amblyopia was better than that of strabismus amblyopia and anisometropia amblyopia .The lower the degree of amblyopia , the smaller the age and the longer the treatment time ,the better the results .[Conclusion]The therapeutic efficacy of amblyopia is related with the type and degree of amblyopia ,treatment time and patients'age .Comprehensive therapy can improve the curative rate .

  6. 儿童弱视治疗的护理研究进展%Research progress on the nursing care in the treatment of amblyopia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏炳凤

    2013-01-01

    弱视是视觉发育期内由于异常视觉经验(单眼斜视、屈光参差、高度屈光不正、以及形觉剥夺)引起的单眼或双眼最佳矫正视力低于正常年龄,是一种可预防和治疗的视力残疾.我国人口众多,如果弱视患者按检出率2.8%来计算,保守估计达4 000 万,严重影响儿童生活质量和国家人口整体素质.随着我国医学者对弱视的病因、发病机制、治疗方法有更深入的研究,弱视护理研究也有明显进展,护理工作由原来单一的疾病护理逐渐转向生理、心理、社会全方位的护理.本文就有关儿童弱视护理研究进展进行综述.%Amblyopia is monocular or binocular best-corrected visual acuity lower than that of normal age induced by abnormal visual experience (monocular strabismus, anisometropia, ametropia, and form deprivation ) in visual development period, which is a preventable and treatable visual disability. In China, amblyopia was detected in 4 millions patients conservatively (calculated by the detection rate of 2.8%), which seriously affect the quality of life of children and the overall quality of population. Along with the study on the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment of amblyopia, significant advance had been made in the nursing of amblyopia. The nursing work has shifted from the original single disease gradually to the physiological, psychological nursing, social comprehensive nursing. In this paper, research progress on the nursing of amblyopia in children is presented.

  7. Surgical Results in Cases of Sensory Strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfle Yeflim Oral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine horizontal deviation type and to evaluate the correlation between deviation type/etiology and surgical results for sensory strabismus. Patients and Methods: The reports of 29 patients operated for sensory strabismus (12 female, 17 male whose mean age was 22.17±11.52 (range: 4-57 years were evaluated retrospectively. Sixteen cases (55.2% had exotropia (XT and 13 cases (44.8% had esotropia (ET. Etiologies, ages during surgeries, and preoperative/postoperative deviation amounts were noted for the total of the patients as well as for ET and XT groups separately. The results for ET and XT groups were compared statistically using t test. The mean follow-up time was 4.27±3.5 years (range: 4 months-12 years and deviation in ±10 prism diopters (PD in the last visit was considered as success. Results: Etiologies in all cases examined were as follows: anisometropia in 13 (44.8%, trauma in 10 (34.5%, congenital cataracts in 2, and congenital glaucoma, keratoconus, choroidal coloboma, and hypoplastic optic disc in one case each. The visual acuity of the squinting eyes ranged from no light perception to 0.8 logMAR. The mean preoperative deviation was 46.24±19.29 PD, and the mean postoperative deviation decreased to 9.55±11.86 PD in the last visit. When the ET and XT groups were compared, the congenital causes were more common in the ET group (30.75% compared to the XT group (6.25%, otherwise, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of mean age, preoperative and postoperative deviation amounts and follow-up time between the two groups (p>0.05. In contrast, while the surgical success rate was found to be 75.9 % for all cases and 87.5% for the XT group, it was 61.5% for the ET group. Discussion: Despite the deep amblyopia in sensory strabismus, satisfactory surgical results are achieved; nevertheless, the success may be more limited in sensory esotropia particularly due to congenital causes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011

  8. Current progresses of experimental models of amblyopia and clinical therapeutic%弱视的实验研究及临床治疗展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少敏(综述)

    2014-01-01

    弱视是一种儿童早期由于异常的视觉经历如斜视,屈光参差,视觉剥夺等导致的皮层性视觉损害,因而,只有理解了其发病的神经机制,才可能提出有效的治疗。一般观念认为弱视只有在儿童期治疗才有效,而成人的弱视基本无法治愈,但是近年来随着对弱视发病机制的分子生物学及神经电生理的研究,尤其是对视觉皮层发育可塑性的细胞间交流及细胞内分子信号通路的认识,拓展了人们对弱视病理的知识,因而也成功地通过恢复成年期的可塑性改善了成年弱视的视力。本文介绍了视觉发育可塑性的进展,就近年在增强成年可塑性途径如改变神经兴奋性与抑制性的平衡、细胞外基质、丰富环境及表观遗传学修饰等作了介绍,以其对弱视的病理机制,尤其对成人弱视的治疗有更深入的认识。%Amblyopia is a form of cerebral visual impairment caused by abnormal visual experience ( e.g., strabismus, anisometropia, deprivation) during early childhood. It is essential to understand the neural mechanism of amblyopia in order to devise novel therapeutic strategies. Although previous concepts of amblyopia is an untreatable pathology in adults, recent data deepen our knowledge of the factors involved in the intercellular communication and intracellular signaling that mediate experience-dependent plasticity in the developing visual cortex. Successful en-hancement of adult plasticity has been achieved by altering the excitation to inhibition balance;extracellular matrices;environmental enrichment and epigenetic modification. In this review, I describe current concepts of brain plasticity and the established mechanisms of amblyopia, and their implications for novel therapeutic strategies, these may hold the best hope for success in the fight against amblyopia.

  9. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  10. Analysis relationship of eye movement parameters change and youth myopia%眼动参数变化与青年近视眼关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓丹; 范春雷; 詹立辉; 徐艳春; 徐丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析相对调节力(正,负)、水平隐斜(远,近)及调节灵活度等眼动参数与青年近视发生发展的关系.方法:在知情同意的情况下,选择大学入校新生266例,平均年龄18.8±0.8岁.根据受检者屈光状态分为五组:正视组29例,低度近视组118例,中度近视组82例,高度近视组37例,屈光参差组26例(其中屈光参差组不纳入研究对象所有受试者).在综合验光仪上测正、负相对调节力,Von Graefe法测量远、近距水平隐斜度,利用±2.00D蝴蝶镜测调节灵活度,不同组眼动参数进行统计学分析.结果:正相对调节力正视眼组均值4.87±1.47D,低、中、高度近视组正性对调节力均值分别为2.36±1.21,2.92±1.40,2.86±1.81D,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);负相对调节力正视眼组与近视眼组无统计学差异(P>0.05);调节灵活度在正视眼组与近视眼组间无统计学差异(P>0.05);远、近水平隐斜正视组与近视组之间无统计学差异(P>0.05),但低度近视组与高度近视组间有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:正相对调节明显下降引起调节储备不足形成远视性离焦可能是青年近视发病病因之一,而负相对调节力、调节灵活度及远、近水平隐斜等眼动参数与青年近视发生无关.%AIM: To study the relationship between positive and negative relative accommodation capabilities, far and near horizonal heterophoria, accommodative facility and youth myopia development.METHODS: In the case of informed consent, the 266 cases of University new students, which the average age was 18. 8 ± 0. 8 years, were selected. According to refractive state, the volunteers were divided into 5 groups: emmetropic group (n=29), low myopia group (n= 118), moderate myopia group (n = 82), high myopia group ( n = 37), anisometropia group ( n = 26). The anisometropia group was not included in the objects of study. The positive and negative relative accommodation force were measured by the

  11. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência dos fatores ambliogênicos e ambliopia na área adscrita do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF da Lapa (RJ e estimar na mesma área a sensibilidade/especificidade entre os métodos de medida da acuidade visual (tabelas ETDRS e LEA para triagem em crianças pré-escolares (três a seis anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 93 crianças entre três e seis anos da área adscrita do PSF Lapa, RJ. Todas as crianças foram submetidas a avaliação oftalmológica completa que incluiu: anamnese dirigida, ectoscopia, medida da acuidade visual com tabela de ETDRS e LEA de forma duplo cega, reflexo vermelho, teste de Titmus, refração objetiva sob cicloplegia, refração subjetiva, avaliação da motilidade ocular, biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, fundoscopia sob midríase.Os dados foram coletados na Policlínica Ronaldo Gazolla, da Universidade Estácio de Sá. RESULTADOS: A prevalência dos fatores ambliogênicos foi encontrada e distribuída em: 8,4% de estrabismo, 11,86% de anisometropia e 15,2 % de ametropia. O teste de acuidade visual ETDRS apresentou sensibilidade de 100 % e especificidade de 18% para detecção de ambliopia. O teste de acuidade visual LEA apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 30,9 % para detecção de ambliopia. CONCLUSÃO: Ambas tabelas ETDRS e LEA podem ser usadas para a triagem de ambliopia porque tiveram 100% de sensibilidade. A especificidade foi maior para a tabela LEA. Porém, ainda em nível baixo. Portanto, há necessidade da complementação com o exame oftalmológico completo para confirmar e ratificar a presença de fatores ambliogênicos em pacientes triados positivamente. A triagem visual feita pelos agentes comunitários de saúde pode identificar crianças com distúrbios visuais, referenciando para exame oftalmológico completo; em um grupo etário onde a resolução dos problemas visuais se apresenta como prioridade. O Programa de Saúde da Família pode ser

  12. Detecção de ambliopia, ametropias e fatores ambliogênicos em comunidade assistida por Programa da Saúde da Família no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Amblyopia, ametropia and amblyogenic factors detection in a community assisted by Health Family Program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Machado Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência dos fatores ambliogênicos e ambliopia na área adscrita do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF da Lapa (RJ e, estimar na mesma área a sensibilidade e especificidade entre métodos de medida de acuidade visual (tabelas ETDRS e LEA em crianças pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 93 crianças entre três a seis anos da área adscrita do PSF Lapa, RJ. Todas as crianças foram submetidas à avaliação oftalmológica completa que incluiu: anamnese dirigida, ectoscopia, medida da acuidade visual com tabela de ETDRS e LEA de forma duplo cega, reflexo vermelho, teste de Titmus, refração objetiva sob cicloplegia, refração subjetiva, avaliação da motilidade ocular, biomicroscopia do segmento anterior, fundoscopia sob midríase. Os dados foram coletados na Policlínica Ronaldo Gazolla, da Universidade Estácio de Sá. RESULTADOS: A prevalência dos fatores ambliogênicos foi encontrada e distribuída em: 8,4 % de estrabismo; 11,86% de anisometropia e 15,2% de ametropia. O teste de acuidade visual ETDRS apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 18% para detecção de ambliopia. O teste de acuidade visual LEA apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 30,9% para detecção de ambliopia. CONCLUSÃO: Ambas tabelas ETDRS e LEA podem ser usadas para a triagem de ambliopia porque tiveram 100% de sensibilidade. A especificidade foi maior para a tabela LEA. Porém ainda em nível baixo. Portanto, há necessidade da complementação com o exame oftalmológico completo para confirmar e ratificar a presença de fatores ambliogênicos em pacientes triados positivamente. A triagem visual feita pelos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde pode identificar crianças com distúrbios visuais, referenciando para exame oftalmológico completo; em um grupo etário onde a resolução dos problemas visuais se apresenta como prioridade. O Programa de Saúde da Família pode ser utilizado para avaliar o estado de

  13. More focal retinal electric diagram application in amblyopia animal model%多焦视网膜电图在弱视动物模型建立中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚月蓉; 王晗敏; 忽俊; 唐建明

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过建立不同病因幼猫弱视模型,探讨多焦视网膜电图在弱视模型建立中的应用价值及其在弱视研究中的作用。方法:3~4周龄健康幼猫22只,随机建立正常对照组,单眼形觉剥夺组,单眼斜视组及屈光参差组模型4组,16周龄时行图形视觉诱发电位鉴定造模成功,并采用多焦视网膜电图记录各组动物的P1波振幅密度值及潜伏期值。结果:各弱视眼的mERG的3D地形图中心峰明显下降,颜色较同龄正常对照组深暗,而正常对照组中心峰正常、色调偏暖。弱视眼与正常眼第一环P1波振幅密度值差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01),第二环P1波振幅密度值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),第三至第五环P1波振幅密度值无统计学差异。弱视眼与正常眼各环P1波潜伏期值均无统计学差异。3种不同病因弱视眼间第一环P1波振幅密度差异无统计学意义。结论:弱视眼中mERG波形的发生了显著改变,提示弱视眼的视网膜存在明显损害,且中央区重于周边区。mERG在弱视模型的建立及其评价中具有一定的应用价值。%Objective:To evaluate the effect and value of multifocal electroretinogram (mERG) in the creation of amblyopia cat models.Methods:Twenty two 3 to 4 week-old healthy domestic cats were included.Eighteen of them were used to establish models of monocular deprivation (6 cats)、monocular strabismus (6 cats) and anisometropia.The other four cats were used as controls.Their visions were detected by P-VEP and mERG when they were 16 weeks old, and the latency and the amplitude density value of P1 waves were recorded by mERG.Results:Compared to the normal eyes, the mERG 3D graphics in amblyopic eyes show that the center peak was lower and the hue was darker. The amplitude density value of P1 wave in the first and the second ring of amblyopic eyes were lower ( P<0.05) than normal eyes, but not in third to fifth ring

  14. 角膜塑形术对近视力及立体视觉的影响%Changes in near vision and stereopsis after orthokeratology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯妍; 司马晶; 杨浩江

    2014-01-01

    ). There was significant correlation in stereopsis and anisometropia ( Pearson coefficient r = 0. 778, P 0. 05). CONCLUSlON:Orthokeratology could lower K value in a short time and change the corneal curvature to correct myopia, to improve visual acuity and near visual acuity. lt also has an influence on improving stereopsis. There are no obviously changes in patients' central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth or intraocular pressure after the orthokeratology treatment, making it a safe and effective treatment for adolescent.

  15. Resultados do tratamento da ambliopia com levodopa combinada à oclusão Results of amblyopia treatment with levodopa associated with occlusion therapy

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    Edson Procianoy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a melhora da acuidade visual com levodopa/benzerazida combinada à oclusão parcial e seguida por oclusão total, em pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo experimental aberto, envolvendo 37 pacientes entre 7 e 40 anos de idade, com ambliopia por estrabismo ou anisometropia, durante 9 semanas. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com levodopa (0,70 mg/kg/dia e benzerazida 25% associada à oclusão de 4 horas/dia do olho dominante por 5 semanas e, nas 4 semanas seguintes foi realizada somente a oclusão total (24 h do olho dominante. A acuidade visual foi medida na tabela do ETDR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy com escala logMAR (logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução antes de iniciar o tratamento e após 1, 3, 5 e 9 semanas de tratamento. As adesões ao tratamento de oclusão e a ingesta do me-dicamento foram verificadas por meio de questionário e pela contagem das cápsulas. Os efeitos adversos foram avaliados por exame clínico e questionário. RESULTADOS: Após 9 semanas de tratamento, a acuidade visual média melhorou em logMAR de 0,58 ± 0,16 para 0,23 ± 0,16 (melhora de 4 linhas na tabela ETDR. CONCLUSÃO: Levodopa, na dose de 0,70 mg/kg/dia, é bem tolerada e associada à oclusão produz melhora significativa na acuidade visual de pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível.PURPOSE: To evaluate visual acuity improvement with levodopa/benzerazide associated with partial occlusion and followed by total occlusion therapy in patients with amblyopia considered irreversible. METHODS: A 9-week experimental open study was performed involving 37 patients, between 7 and 40 years old, with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. All patients were treated with levodopa (0.70 mg/kg/day and 25% benzerazide associated with 4-hour/day occlusion of the dominant eye for 5 weeks. In the last 4 weeks, only the total occlusion (24 h of the dominant eye was performed. Visual acuity

  16. 不同类型及不同程度弱视儿童的立体视觉损害现状分析%Analysis of Different types and varying degrees of amblyopia Situation in Childrenˊs stereoscopic visual impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爽; 尹明; 苏丽萍; 明霞; 路凤妮

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析不同类型及不同程度弱视儿童的立体视觉损害情况。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年1月初诊的不同类型弱视儿童共142例,按照弱视类型将患儿分为屈光不正性弱视78例、屈光参差性弱视39例和斜视性弱视25例三组。每组类型弱视根据不同程度分为轻度、中度和重度。采用颜少明立体视觉检查图测定三种不同类型、不同程度弱视儿童的近零视差、交叉视差和非交叉视差的发生情况。结果屈光不正性弱视组、屈光参差性弱视组与斜视性弱视组比,患儿的近零视差、交叉视差和非交叉视差存在率的差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05),斜视性弱视组的立体视觉存在率最低,屈光不正性弱视组最高。随着弱视程度的加重,立体视也随之损害加重,非交叉视差在三种类型弱视组及不同程度弱视组的存在率最低。结论儿童弱视可影响其立体视觉发育,影响程度随着屈光不正性弱视、屈光参差性弱视和斜视性弱视的顺序而加重,随着弱视程度的加重,立体视也随之损害加重。%Objective To analyze the damage the status in different types and varying degrees of amblyopia stereoscopic for children. Methods A retrospective analysis of 142 cases of newly diagnosed children amblyopia from January 2012 to January 2014 was included into this study. Yan Shao - ming was applied to evaluate children amblyopia. Results The cases of zero disparity,crossed disparity and uncrossed dispari-ty in refractive amblyopia,anisometropia and strabismus amblyopia groups had statistically significances( P ﹤ 0. 05). Three - dimensional strabis-mus amblyopia group visual was the least. The refractive amblyopia group was the highest. Three - dimensional damage increased as the severity of amblyopia. Conclusion Children with amblyopia may affect three - dimensional visual development,by the order of refractive amblyopia

  17. New progress in the treatment of amblyopia and related binocular visual impairment%弱视及弱视相关双眼视功能损害治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 付晶

    2016-01-01

    人眼在视觉发育期由于单眼斜视、未矫正的屈光参差、高度屈光不正及形觉剥夺引起的单眼或双眼最佳矫正视力低于相应年龄的视力为弱视;或双眼视力相差2行及以上,视力较低眼为弱视。弱视在视觉敏感期给予正确治疗可治愈,然而一旦错过治疗时机则会造成终生视力低下;且弱视还会影响双眼视觉功能。因此,弱视的治疗一直是眼科研究的热点问题。目前,弱视的主要方法包括屈光矫正、遮盖疗法、药物治疗、压抑疗法、手术治疗(针对形觉剥夺性弱视)、综合治疗等。近年来,双眼视功能的重建在弱视治疗评价中也逐渐受到重视。本文中笔者在回顾国内外相关文献的基础上,对弱视的治疗方法及最新进展做一综述。%The best corrected visual acuity of monocular or binocular vision in patients with amblyopia is lower than that in normal eyes .It is in visual development period ,as a result of the monocular strabismus,uncorrected anisometropia, highly refractive errors, form deprivation induced.In addition, binocular vision is a difference of 2 lines, low vision eye is amblyopia .Amblyopia in the visual sensitive period to give the correct treatment can be cured , but once missed the opportunity of treatment will cause lifelong amblyopia;and the amblyopia will affect the binocular visual function .Therefore , the treatment of amblyopia has been a hot issue in the Department of Ophthalmology .At present, the main methods of amblyopia including refractive correction , cover therapy , medicine therapy , depression therapy , surgical treatment ( for form deprivation amblyopia ), comprehensive treatment, and so on.In recent years, the reconstruction of binocular visual function has been paid more and more attention in the treatment of amblyopia .On the basis of reviewing domestic and foreign literatures , the author reviewed the treatment methods and the latest

  18. Immediate versus Delayed Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali S Malvankar-Mehta

    Full Text Available Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS, the cataract surgery that is performed in both eyes simultaneously, is gaining popularity worldwide compared to the traditional treatment paradigm: delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS, the surgery that is performed in each eye on a different day as a completely separate operation. ISBCS provides advantages to patients and patients' families in the form of fewer hospital visits. Additionally, patients enjoy rapid rehabilitation, lack of anisometropia - potentially reducing accidents and falls, and avoid suboptimal visual function in daily life. The hospital may benefit due to lower cost.To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate ISBCS and DSBCS.Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, ISI Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters and the Cochrane Library were searched.Not applicable.Literature was systematically reviewed using EPPI-Reviewer 4 gateway. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA v. 13.0. Standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were computed based on heterogeneity. Meta-analysis was done by instrument used to calculate utility score.In total, 9,133 records were retrieved from multiple databases and an additional 128 records were identified through grey literature search. Eleven articles with 3,657 subjects were included for analysis. Our meta-analysis results indicated significant improvement in post-operative utility score using TTO, EQ5D, HUI3, VF-7, and VF-14 and a non-significant improvement using Catquest questionnaire for both surgeries. For ISBCS versus DSBCS, utility-specific fixed-effect model provided an overall SMD of the utility score using the TTO method as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, EQ5D as 0.14 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.41, HUI3 as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, VF

  19. A cross-sectional survey on refractive errors in students 4-18 years old in Guanxian county,Shandong province%山东省冠县4~18岁学生屈光不正横断面研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建峰; 毕宏生; 胡媛媛; 吴慧; 孙伟; 吕太亮; 王兴荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of refractive errors among preschool children and schoolchildren in Guanxian county,Shandong province.Methods Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design,children ranging in age from 4 to 18 years were selected from kindergartens,primary schools,and junior and senior high schools in Guanxian county.All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),auto-refractometry under cycloplegia and ophthalmic examination.The prevalence rates of refractive error and its association with age and gender were analyzed by a bivariate regression model.Results Of 3 112 eligible children,cycloplegic refraction was completed on 3 111 and the visual acuity of 3 094 was successfully tested.The overall prevalence of myopia was 31.3%(95%CI:29.7%-33.0%).Myopia was associated with older children [OR:1.45 (95%CI:1.41-1.50); P<0.01],female gender [OR:1.45(95%CI:1.41-1.50); P<0.01] and children in urban areas [OR:2.54 (95%CI:2.11-3.07) ; P<0.01].The prevalence of high myopia,astigmatism and anisometropia was 1.4% (95%CI:1.0%-1.8%),32.4% (95%CI:30.8%-34.0%) and 6.2% (95%CI:5.4%-7.1%),respectively.All prevalences were associated with older children (P<0.01) but not gender (P>0.05).The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia was also associated with children in urban areas (P<0.01).The overall prevalence of hyperopia was 8.2%(95%CI:7.2%-9.2%),and the trend decreased with age [OR:0.72(95%CI:0.68-0.76); P<0.01].UCVA was 20/40 or worse in the better eye in 675(21.8%) children,and 20/200 or worse in the better eye in 85(2.7%) children.UCVA≤20/40 in one or both eyes was found in 880(28.4%) children,with undercorrected refractive error as the cause in 837(95.1%) children.Conclusion Visual impairment in students 4-18 years of age in Guanxian county was mainly attributed to

  20. Effect of myopic defocus on static visual acuity and dynamic visual acuity%近视性离焦对静态视力和动态视力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 保金华; 陈浩

    2011-01-01

    Background Researches have suggested that the defocus can induce the change of static visual acuity,but whether it produce influence on dynamic visual acuity is not clear.Objective This study was to investigate the impact of myopic defocus on static visual acuity and dynamic visual acuity and explore the essential difierence between static visual acuity and dynamic visual acuity. Methods Forty volunteers were enrolled in this trial.including 20 adults with the age of 27.4±1.64 years and 20 children with the age of 11.70+1.49 years.All the eyes of subjects received regular examined to excluded the eye disease with the best corrected vision of ≥1.0 D,astigmatism of ≤0.75 D and anisometropia <1.50 D.+1.00 D,+1.50 D,+2.00 D,+2.50 D slasses were ware respectively for the defocus on the foundation of full correction.Dynamic visual acuity was inspected by using selfmade DVA-I training software.and static visual acuity wag tested by static visual acuity chart (Precision Vision,CAT.NO.2125).This clinical trial complied with the Helsinki Declaration and obtained the approval of Ethic Committee of Wenzhou Medical College.Written informed consent was received from each individual prior to the protocol. Results The dynamic and static visual acuities were gradually decreased with the elevation of defocus (F=506.907,P=0.000).No significant differences were found between static visual acuity and dynamic visual acuity in adult or children at various defocus(P>0.05).The regression linear analysis showed that a positive correlation between static visual acuity with defoeus(R2=0.819,t=26.72,P=0.000) or dynamic visual acuity with defoeus(R2=0.826,t=27.42,P=0.000).The slope and intercept between defocus with static visual acuity were steeper than that between defocus and dynamic visual acuity (slope:F=34.18,P=0.000;intercept:F=1005.56,P=0.001). Conclusion The effect of defocus on static visual acuity is different from that of dynamic visual acuity.It could be speculated that

  1. An investigation and analysis of the amblyopia status of preschool children in the Yangpu District of Shanghai%上海市杨浦区学龄前儿童弱视调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦清; 童念庭; 王佳; 邹聪; 黄骁倩; 陈潞; 杨珺; 陈佩媛; 陈洁

    2013-01-01

    one (63.52% and 0.91%,respectively,P<0.01).In this cohort study of amblyopia,refractive error amblyopia accounted for 72.7%,anisometropic amblyopia accounted for 14.5%,strabismic amblyopia accounted for 9.1%,and deprivation amblyopia accounted for 3.6%.The incidence of amblyopia was much higher in 4-5 year olds (x2=27.52,P<0.01),but there was no difference in the incidence of amblyopia between genders (X2=0.41,P>0.05).Conclusion The main reasons for amblyopia in preschool children in the Yangpu District were refractive error,anisometropia,strabismus and deprivation amblyopia.Taking into account the importance of visual development patterns in the diagnosis of amhlyopia in children,age was considered as a factor in the diagnosis of amblyopia based on the new diagnostic criterion.This avoided a higher number of amblyopia diagnoses and excessive treatment.

  2. Visual and refractive outcomes with ReLEx® SMILE in 600 eyes%ReLEx®飞秒激光微小切口基质透镜取出术治疗近视或近视散光术后屈光情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sri Ganesh; Rishika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    .Pre and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity ( UCVA ) , CDVA, aberrations, dry eye, and contrast sensitivity during 3mo of follow -up were recorded.Data analysis was done with the help of a computer using SPSS for Windows Software ( version 17.0, SPSS, Inc., New York, USA).A paired t-test was used to test the significance of difference between quantitative variables and Yate's Chi -square test for qualitative variables.P value less than 0.05 denoted a significant relationship.•RESULTS: The study enrolled 600 eyes of 305 patients, of which 10 patients underwent SMILE in 1 eye only due to anisometropia.At 3mo, 98.83% of eyes had attained a UCVA of 20/20 or better.No patient had a loss of CDVA, and 37 eyes ( 6.17%) showed a gain in 1 line in postoperative CDVA.Postoperative induction of coma and spherical aberrations was minimal. Contrast sensitivity reduced immediate postoperatively ( P <0.001 ) but showed improvement by 3mo, especially at lower spatial frequencies (P=0.43, 0.47, 0.46)• CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the high refractive accuracy and safety of ReLEx® SMILE for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism.Increase in postoperative dryness and aberrations, both accepted drawbacks of any corneal refractive surgery were observed, while decrease in contrast sensitivity was insignificant at lower spatial frequencies.