Sample records for anionic gold clusters

  1. Probing the Structures and Electronic Properties of Dual-Phosphorus-Doped Gold Cluster Anions (AunP-2, n = 1–8): A Density functional Theory Investigation

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    Xu, Kang-Ming; Huang, Teng; Liu, Yi-Rong; Jiang, Shuai; Zhang, Yang; Lv, Yu-Zhou; Gai, Yan-Bo; Huang, Wei


    The geometries of gold clusters doped with two phosphorus atoms, (AunP-2, n = 1–8) were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Various two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the doped clusters were studied. The results indicate that the structures of dual-phosphorus-doped gold clusters exhibit large differences from those of pure gold clusters with small cluster sizes. In our study, as for Au6P-2, two cis–trans isomers were found. The global minimum of Au8P-2 presents a similar configuration to that of Au-20, a pyramid-shaped unit, and the potential novel optical and catalytic properties of this structure warrant further attention. The higher stability of AunP-2 clusters relative to Au-n+2 (n = 1–8) clusters was verified based on various energy parameters, and the results indicate that the phosphorus atom can improve the stabilities of the gold clusters. We then explored the evolutionary path of (n = 1–8) clusters. We found that AunP-2 clusters exhibit the 2D–3D structural transition at n = 6, which is much clearer and faster than that of pure gold clusters and single-phosphorus-doped clusters. The electronic properties of AunP-2 (n = 1–8) were then investigated. The photoelectron spectra provide additional fundamental information on the structures and molecular orbitals shed light on the evolution of AunP-2 (n = 1–8). Natural bond orbital (NBO) described the charge distribution in stabilizing structures and revealed the strong relativistic effects of the gold atoms.

  2. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

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    Waldt, Eugen [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart [Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef, E-mail: [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  3. Dendronized Anionic Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antiviral Activity. (United States)

    Peña-González, Cornelia E; García-Broncano, Pilar; Ottaviani, M Francesca; Cangiotti, Michela; Fattori, Alberto; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; González-Martín, M Luisa; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Gómez, Rafael; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Nieves, Javier; de la Mata, F Javier


    Anionic carbosilane dendrons decorated with sulfonate functions and one thiol moiety at the focal point have been used to synthesize water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through the direct reaction of dendrons, gold precursor, and reducing agent in water, and also through a place-exchange reaction. These nanoparticles have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/Vis spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurements. The interacting ability of the anionic sulfonate functions was investigated by EPR spectroscopy with copper(II) as a probe. Different structures and conformations of the AuNPs modulate the availability of sulfonate and thiol groups for complexation by copper(II). Toxicity assays of AuNPs showed that those produced through direct reaction were less toxic than those obtained by ligand exchange. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection was higher in the case of dendronized AuNPs than in dendrons.

  4. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters

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    Travis, Taylor R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying 2Σ and 2π states of C2nH (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C2H and C4H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I3. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I3 revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

  5. Gold recovery by galvanic stripping of an anionic organic extractant

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    Lacerda D.F.C.


    Full Text Available The galvanic stripping technique for metal recovery uses commercial organic extractants containing a metal to be recovered. The organic phase is placed in contact with a solid metal reducer that allows electrochemical reactions to occur. One product of these reactions is a metal layer deposited on the surface of the reducer consisting of reduced species desorbed from the organic phase. Another product is metal ions from the reducer adsorbed onto the organic phase. This work presents results for gold recovery by galvanic stripping of strong-base anionic extractants of a quaternary amine salt, ALIQUAT336®, in xylene using solid zinc as the metal reducer. The parameters studied were contact time for the organic phase containing gold and the samples of the reducing zinc metal, temperature of the system, gold concentration in the organic phase and type of stirring used in the galvanic stripping system. Experiments showed results higher than 28% of gold recovery and an adherent film of gold on the zinc surface. The Arrhenius plot for gold recovery from the organic extractant suggests a change in the rate- controlling step from mixed control to diffusion control with increasing temperature in the range of 20 to 50ºC.

  6. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of carbon aluminum hydride cluster anions (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Wang, Haopeng; Ganteför, Gerd; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H.


    Numerous previously unknown carbon aluminum hydride cluster anions were generated in the gas phase, identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and characterized by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing their electronic structure. Density functional theory calculations on the CAl5-9H- and CAl5-7H2- found that several of them possess unusually high carbon atom coordination numbers. These cluster compositions have potential as the basis for new energetic materials.

  7. Chirality in thiolate-protected gold clusters. (United States)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Bürgi, Thomas


    Over recent years, research on thiolate-protected gold clusters Au(m)(SR)n has gained significant interest. Milestones were the successful determination of a series of crystal structures (Au102(SR)44, Au25(SR)18, Au38(SR)24, Au36(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20). For Au102(SR)44, Au38(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20, intrinsic chirality was found. Strong Cotton effects (circular dichroism, CD) of gold clusters protected by chiral ligands have been reported a long time ago, indicating the transfer of chiral information from the ligand into the cluster core. Our lab has done extensive studies on chiral thiolate-protected gold clusters, including those protected with chiral ligands. We demonstrated that vibrational circular dichroism can serve as a useful tool for the determination of conformation of the ligand on the surface of the cluster. The first reports on crystal structures of Au102(SR)44 and Au38(SR)24 revealed the intrinsic chirality of these clusters. Their chirality mainly arises from the arrangement of the ligands on the surface of the cluster cores. As achiral ligands are used to stabilize the clusters, racemic mixtures are obtained. However, the separation of the enantiomers by HPLC was demonstrated which enabled the measurement of their CD spectra. Thermally induced inversion allows determination of the activation parameters for their racemization. The inversion demonstrates that the gold-thiolate interface is anything but fixed; in contrast, it is rather flexible. This result is of fundamental interest and needs to be considered in future applications. A second line of our research is the selective introduction of chiral, bidentate ligands into the ligand layer of intrinsically chiral gold clusters. The ligand exchange reaction is highly diastereoselective. The bidentate ligand connects two of the protecting units on the cluster surface and thus effectively stabilizes the cluster against thermally induced inversion. A minor (but significant) influence of chiral ligands to

  8. Site-Specific Biomolecule Labeling with Gold Clusters


    Ackerson, Christopher J.; Powell, Richard D.; Hainfeld, James F.


    Site-specific labeling of biomolecules in vitro with gold clusters can enhance the information content of electron cryomicroscopy experiments. This chapter provides a practical overview of well-established techniques for forming biomolecule/gold cluster conjugates. Three bioconjugation chemistries are covered: Linker-mediated bioconjugation, direct gold–biomolecule bonding, and coordination-mediated bonding of nickel(II) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-derivatized gold clusters to polyhistidine (...

  9. Cationic gold staining of glomerular anionic sites in archived tissue, reprocessed from paraffin wax into LR gold resin. (United States)

    Goode, N P; Shires, M; Aparicio, S R; Davison, A M


    Glomerular capillary wall anionic sites have been demonstrated by cationic gold staining of archived renal biopsy tissue (up to 10 years old), obtained from six patients, originally embedded in paraffin wax, and subsequently reprocessed into LR gold resin. The staining patterns at pH 2.5 and pH 7.0, demonstrating different glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic constituents, were compared in three patients from whom tissue directly processed into LR gold and reprocessed tissue was available. Ultrastructural preservation was poorer and shrinkage artefact greater in paraformaldehyde-lysine periodate (PLP) as opposed to formol saline-fixed reprocessed tissue. However, GBM anionic site expression was well preserved, or even enhanced (lamina rara externa, pH 7.0) in reprocessed tissue, using either fixative. Although it may not be possible to compare subtle changes in anionic site distribution in variously fixed and processed tissues, due to these artefacts, the technique enables retrospective study of charge status in archived material from disease groups in which there are distinct anionic site aberrations.


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    Although intensely colored, even the largest colloidal gold particles are not, on their own, sufficiently colored for routine use as a light microscopy stain: only with very abundant antigens or with specialized illumination methods can bound gold be seen. Colloidal gold probes were developed primarily as markers for electron microscopy, for which their very high electron density and selectivity for narrow size distributions when prepared in different ways rendered them highly suited. The widespread use of gold labeling for light microscopy was made possible by the introduction of autometallographic enhancement methods. In these processes, the bound gold particles are exposed to a solution containing metal ions and a reducing agent; they catalyze the reduction of the ions, resulting in the deposition of additional metal selectively onto the particles. On the molecular level, the gold particles are enlarged up to 30-100 nm in diameter; on the macroscale level, this results in the formation of a dark stain in regions containing bound gold particles, greatly increasing visibility and contrast. The applications of colloidal gold have been described elsewhere in this chapter, we will focus on the use of covalently linked cluster complexes of gold and other metals. A gold cluster complex is a discrete molecular coordination compound comprising a central core, or ''cluster'' of electron-dense metal atoms, ligated by a shell of small organic molecules (ligands), which are linked to the metal atoms on the surface of the core. This structure gives clusters several important advantages as labels. The capping of the metal surface by ligands prevents non-specific binding to cell and tissue components, which can occur with colloidal gold. Cluster compounds are more stable and may be used under a wider range of conditions. Unlike colloidal gold, clusters do not require additional macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin or polyethylene glycol for

  11. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol. (United States)

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim


    3,5-Dinitrobenzoate and picrate are light absorbing anions pertinent to indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions in buffered methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs). Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and morpholine have been used as buffering bases, which eliminated baseline steps, and minimized the baseline noise. In methanolic BGEs, mobilities of boron cluster anions depend on both ionic constituents of the BGE buffer. This dependence can be explained by ion pair interaction of detected anions with BGE cations, which are not bonded into ion pairs with the BGE anions. The former ion pair interaction decreases sensitivity of the indirect photometric detection.

  12. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters (United States)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi


    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.

  13. A theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandhya Rai; N V Suresh Kumar; Harjinder Singh


    Interaction of proline with gold cluster was studied using density functional theory (DFT). Two types of mixed basis sets UB3LYP/6-311++G ∪ LANL2MB and UB3LYP/6-311++G ∪ LANL2DZ were used for optimization of complex structures. Proline interacts with gold cluster either through one anchor bond, N–Au or an anchor bond O–Au associated with a non-conventional O–H…Au hydrogen bond. Among these interactions, higher tendency for interaction is seen with Au cluster through amide terminal. Natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) is used to substantiate the results.

  14. Fluorescent Thiol-Derivatized Gold Clusters Embedded in Polymers

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    G. Carotenuto


    Full Text Available Owing to aurophilic interactions, linear and/or planar Au(I-thiolate molecules spontaneously aggregate, leading to molecular gold clusters passivated by a thiolate monolayer coating. Differently from the thiolate precursors, such cluster compounds show very intensive visible fluorescence characteristics that can be tuned by alloying the gold clusters with silver atoms or by conjugating the electronic structure of the metallic core with unsaturated electronic structures in the organic ligand through the sulphur atom. Here, the photoluminescence features of some examples of these systems are shortly described.

  15. Spectroelectrochemical study of the adsorption of acetate anions at gold single crystal and thin-film electrodes

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    Berna, Antonio; Delgado, Jose Manuel; Orts, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Rodes, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail:; Feliu, Juan Miguel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    Acetate adsorption at gold electrodes is studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ infrared spectroscopy. External reflection measurements, performed with gold single crystal electrodes, are combined with Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy experiments under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS) carried out with sputtered gold thin-film electrodes. Theoretical harmonic IR frequencies of acetate species adsorbed with different geometries on Au clusters with (1 1 1), (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations have been obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ, 6-31 + G* calculations. The theoretical and experimental results confirm that, irrespective of the surface crystallographic orientation, bonding of acetate to the surface involves the two oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. DFT calculations reveal also that the total charge of the metal cluster-acetate supermolecule has small effect on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed acetate species. Both the external and the internal reflection measurements show the co-adsorption of acetate and perchlorate anions. Step-scan measurements carried out with the gold thin-film electrodes have allowed the monitoring of the time-dependent behaviour of perchlorate, acetate and water bands in potential step experiments. Acetate adsorption under those conditions is shown to involve perchlorate desorption and to follow a Langmuir-type kinetics. The step-scan spectra also show the rise and decay of transient water structures with parallel time-dependent shifts of the background intensity in the infrared spectra.

  16. Impact of Specifically Adsorbing Anions on the Electroless Growth of Gold Nanotubes


    Falk Muench; Cornelia Neetzel; Stefan Lauterbach; Hans-Joachim Kleebe; Wolfgang Ensinger


    Electroless metal deposition on nanochannel-containing templates is a versatile route towards metal nanotubes and nanowires if the plating reaction can be sufficiently controlled. In this study, disulfitoaurate-formaldehyde-based gold plating baths were modified by the addition of halides, pseudohalides, and EDTA. The introduction of specifically adsorbing anions strongly affected the heterogeneously autocatalyzed plating reaction and allowed the regulation of the reaction rate and the produc...

  17. Impact of Specifically Adsorbing Anions on the Electroless Growth of Gold Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Muench


    Full Text Available Electroless metal deposition on nanochannel-containing templates is a versatile route towards metal nanotubes and nanowires if the plating reaction can be sufficiently controlled. In this study, disulfitoaurate-formaldehyde-based gold plating baths were modified by the addition of halides, pseudohalides, and EDTA. The introduction of specifically adsorbing anions strongly affected the heterogeneously autocatalyzed plating reaction and allowed the regulation of the reaction rate and the product morphology. The new plating baths showed enhanced stability and allowed the synthesis of homogeneous nanotubes of high aspect ratios (>150 in 30 μm thick ion track-etched polymer templates. Depending on the reaction conditions, solid and porous structures consisting of gold nanoparticles of differing size and shape were accessible. The presented strategy offers adapted gold thin films, nanotubes, and nanowires for applications in catalysis or sensing.

  18. Communication: Solute Anisotropy Effects in Hydrated Anion and Neutral Clusters

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    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Valiev, Marat; Wang, Xue B.


    Specific ion effects in solvation processes are often rationalized in terms of spherically symmetric models involving an ion’s size, charge, and polarizability. The effects of permanent charge anisotropy, related to the polyatomic nature of complex solutes, are expected to play a role in solvation but the extent of their importance remains unexplored. In this work we provide compelling experimental and theoretical evidence that the anisotropic nature of complex polyoxyanion solutes can have a critical influence on the solvation process. Combined photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling results show that the electron binding energy (EBE) of IO3-(H2O)n (n = 0 - 12) clusters is characterized by an anomalous drop at n = 10. Such behavior is unprecedented for rigid solute molecules, and is related to the anisotropy of the neutral iodate radical that displays a strong selectivity to solvent configurations generated by the charged anion complex. These results highlight the significance of solute anisotropy and its potential impact on ion specificity and selectivity in aqueous environments.

  19. Structures of 38-atom gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters

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    Ong, Yee Pin; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)


    Bimetallic nanoclusters, such as gold-platinum nanoclusters, are nanomaterials promising wide range of applications. We perform a numerical study of 38-atom gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters, Au{sub n}Pt{sub 38−n} (0 ≤ n ≤ 38), to elucidate the geometrical structures of these clusters. The lowest-energy structures of these bimetallic nanoclusters at the semi-empirical level are obtained via a global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering multi-canonical basin hopping plus genetic algorithm (PTMBHGA), in which empirical Gupta many-body potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the constituent atoms. The structures of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters are predicted to be core-shell segregated nanoclusters. Gold atoms are observed to preferentially occupy the surface of the clusters, while platinum atoms tend to occupy the core due to the slightly smaller atomic radius of platinum as compared to gold’s. The evolution of the geometrical structure of 38-atom Au-Pt clusters displays striking similarity with that of 38-atom Au-Cu nanoalloy clusters as reported in the literature.

  20. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry

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    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia


    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well

  1. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia


    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  2. Anion Adsorption on an Au Colloid Monolayer Based Cysteamine-Modified Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Anion adsorption behavior on Au colloid surface was investigated in virture of depositing monolayers of Au colloid on the self-assembled monolayers of cysteamine on a gold electrode. Po tential-dependent anion adsorption-desorption waves via the nonfaradaic current were obtained by means of cyclic voltammetry at Au colloid-modified gold electrodes in the potential range of -200-600 mV. The adsorption sequence in the order of adsorption peak potentials(Epa) is OH->citrate3->H2PO4->Cl->SO42->ClO4->NO3-. Among them, citrate3-exhibited an en tirely irreversible adsorption. A rise in temperature can increase the rates of adsorption-desorp tion and improve the reversibility of the adsorption-desorption of CI-, SO24-, CIO4-, NO3- and H2PO4-. The adsorption peak potentials shifted more negatively for ca. 63 mV as the anion con centrations were increased by a decade factor. The change of pH from 7 to 1 slightly affected the adsorption peak potentials of Cl- and NO3-. Au colloids with a smaller size (16 nm) gave rise to a better reversibility of the adsorption-desorption process and lower adsorption currents. The ex perimental results of citrate ions adsorption on Au colloid surface show that Au colloids with a smaller size prepared by sodium citrate method exhibited a higher stability in the solution in com parison to those with larger sizes because of its higher ratio of charge/mass. In other words, the smaller gold nanoparticles are covered with citrate ions monolayer that can also be formed at larg er gold nanoparticles by means of electrochemical scan.

  3. Chemically induced magnetism in atomically precise gold clusters. (United States)

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Tarakeshwar, Pilarisetty; Mujica, Vladimiro; Kumar, Challa S S R


    Comparative theoretical and experimental investigations are reported into chemically induced magnetism in atomically-precise, ligand-stabilized gold clusters Au25 , Au38 and Au55 . The results indicate that [Au25 (PPh3 )10 (SC12 H25 )5 Cl2 ](2+) and Au38 (SC12 H25 )24 are diamagnetic, Au25 (SC2 H4 Ph)18 is paramagnetic, and Au55 (PPh3 )12 Cl6 , is ferromagnetic at room temperature. Understanding the magnetic properties resulting from quantum size effects in such atomically precise gold clusters could lead to new fundamental discoveries and applications.

  4. Ligand-protected gold clusters: the structure, synthesis and applications (United States)

    Pichugina, D. A.; Kuz'menko, N. E.; Shestakov, A. F.


    Modern concepts of the structure and properties of atomic gold clusters protected by thiolate, selenolate, phosphine and phenylacetylene ligands are analyzed. Within the framework of the superatom theory, the 'divide and protect' approach and the structure rule, the stability and composition of a cluster are determined by the structure of the cluster core, the type of ligands and the total number of valence electrons. Methods of selective synthesis of gold clusters in solution and on the surface of inorganic composites based, in particular, on the reaction of Aun with RS, RSe, PhC≡C, Hal ligands or functional groups of proteins, on stabilization of clusters in cavities of the α-, β and γ-cyclodextrin molecules (Au15 and Au25) and on anchorage to a support surface (Au25/SiO2, Au20/C, Au10/FeOx) are reviewed. Problems in this field are also discussed. Among the methods for cluster structure prediction, particular attention is given to the theoretical approaches based on the density functional theory (DFT). The structures of a number of synthesized clusters are described using the results obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations. A possible mechanism of formation of the SR(AuSR)n 'staple' units in the cluster shell is proposed. The structure and properties of bimetallic clusters MxAunLm (M=Pd, Pt, Ag, Cu) are discussed. The Pd or Pt atom is located at the centre of the cluster, whereas Ag and Cu atoms form bimetallic compounds in which the heteroatom is located on the surface of the cluster core or in the 'staple' units. The optical properties, fluorescence and luminescence of ligand-protected gold clusters originate from the quantum effects of the Au atoms in the cluster core and in the oligomeric SR(AuSR)x units in the cluster shell. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by atomic gold clusters are discussed in the context of the reaction mechanism and the nature of the active sites. The bibliography includes 345 references.

  5. Ionic strength dependent vesicle adsorption and phase behavior of anionic phospholipids on a gold substrate. (United States)

    Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; Seneca, Senne; Ethirajan, Anitha; Neupane, Shova; Renner, Frank Uwe; Losada-Pérez, Patricia


    The authors report on the effect of ionic strength on the formation of supported vesicle layers of anionic phospholipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol (DMPG) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS) onto gold. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring the authors show that vesicle adsorption is mainly governed by NaCl concentration, reflecting the importance of electrostatic interactions in anionic lipids, as compared to zwitterionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. At low ionic strength, low or no adsorption is observed as a result of vesicle-vesicle electrostatic repulsion. At medium ionic strength, the negative charges of DMPG and DMPS are screened resulting in larger adsorption and a highly dissipative intact vesicle layer. In addition, DMPS exhibits a peculiar behavior at high ionic strength that depends on the temperature of the process.

  6. Path-integral molecular dynamics simulations for water anion clusters (HO)5- and (DO)5- (United States)

    Takayanagi, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Takehiro; Motegi, Haruki; Shiga, Motoyuki


    Quantum path-integral molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the (HO)5- and (DO)5- anion clusters on the basis of a semiempirical one-electron pseudopotential-polarization model. Due to larger zero-point vibrational amplitudes for H atoms than that of D atoms, hydrogen-bond lengths in the (HO)5- cluster are slightly larger than those in (DO)5-. The distribution of the vertical detachment energies for (HO)5- also show a broader feature than that for (DO)5-. The present PIMD simulations thus demonstrate the importance of nuclear quantum effects in water anion clusters.

  7. Photo-induced brightening and broadening effects of gold quantum clusters (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Ying; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Cheng-An J.


    We describe the use of UV light under different radiation time induces a variety of fluorescence wavelength of gold quantum clusters. First, we synthesize blue-emitted gold quantum clusters by dissolving the gold trichloride in pure toluene. To simplify the expression, we assume that the several featured PL peak (425, 450, 470 nm) is the signal for blue-emitted gold quantum clusters. Undergo UV irradiation can brighten and broaden the PL spectra of gold quantum clusters, which are observed by the evolutional spectra versus exposure time. After UV light exposure, the major population of gold quantum clusters @425nm decreased and turned to gold quantum clusters@450nm, followed by the growing population of gold quantum clusters@470nm clusters. Until 2 hour exposure, the spectra become broad with major peak shifted to 525 nm. The tunable spectra from blue to green attributes to the induced growth of gold quantum clusters by UV irradiation. The UV energy indeed tunes and broadens the emission covering the whole visible-spectra range. Finally, we also utilize via proper selection of organic surfactant (such as: trioctyl phosphine, TOP) can coordinate the quantum yield enhancement of blue-emitted gold quantum clusters under UV irradiation. The experiment method is easily for gold quantum clusters synthesis. Thus we expect this materials can be developed for fluorescence labeling application in the future.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of gold cluster growth during sputter deposition (United States)

    Abraham, J. W.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Bonitz, M.


    We present a molecular dynamics simulation scheme that we apply to study the time evolution of the self-organized growth process of metal cluster assemblies formed by sputter-deposited gold atoms on a planar surface. The simulation model incorporates the characteristics of the plasma-assisted deposition process and allows for an investigation over a wide range of deposition parameters. It is used to obtain data for the cluster properties which can directly be compared with recently published experimental data for gold on polystyrene [M. Schwartzkopf et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13547 (2015)]. While good agreement is found between the two, the simulations additionally provide valuable time-dependent real-space data of the surface morphology, some of whose details are hidden in the reciprocal-space scattering images that were used for the experimental analysis.

  9. Electron attachment to anionic clusters in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Franklin, E-mail: [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics (Germany); Bandelow, Steffi; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz; Vass, Albert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Institute of Physics (Germany)


    Ion traps are versatile tools for the investigation of gas-phase cluster ions, allowing, e.g., cluster-size selection and extended reaction times. Taking advantage of their particular storage capability of simultaneous trapping of electrons and clusters, Penning traps have been applied for the production of clusters with high negative charge states. Recently, linear radio-frequency quadrupole traps have been demonstrated to be another candidate to produce polyanionic clusters. Operation with rectangular, rather than harmonic, radio-frequency voltages provides field-free time slots for unhindered electron passage through the trap. Several aspects of electron-attachment techniques by means of Penning and radio-frequency traps are addressed and recent experimental results are presented.

  10. In situ non-DLVO stabilization of surfactant-free, plasmonic gold nanoparticles: effect of Hofmeister's anions. (United States)

    Merk, Vivian; Rehbock, Christoph; Becker, Felix; Hagemann, Ulrich; Nienhaus, Hermann; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Specific ion effects ranking in the Hofmeister sequence are ubiquitous in biochemical, industrial, and atmospheric processes. In this experimental study specific ion effects inexplicable by the classical DLVO theory have been investigated at curved water-metal interfaces of gold nanoparticles synthesized by a laser ablation process in liquid in the absence of any organic stabilizers. Notably, ion-specific differences in colloidal stability occurred in the Hückel regime at extraordinarily low salinities below 50 μM, and indications of a direct influence of ion-specific effects on the nanoparticle formation process are found. UV-vis, zeta potential, and XPS measurements help to elucidate coagulation properties, electrokinetic potential, and the oxidation state of pristine gold nanoparticles. The results clearly demonstrate that stabilization of ligand-free gold nanoparticles scales proportionally with polarizability and antiproportionally with hydration of anions located at defined positions in a direct Hofmeister sequence of anions. These specific ion effects might be due to the adsorption of chaotropic anions (Br(-), SCN(-), or I(-)) at the gold/water interface, leading to repulsive interactions between the partially oxidized gold particles during the nanoparticle formation process. On the other hand, kosmotropic anions (F(-) or SO4(2-)) seem to destabilize the gold colloid, whereas Cl(-) and NO3(-) give rise to an intermediate stability. Quantification of surface charge density indicated that particle stabilization is dominated by ion adsorption and not by surface oxidation. Fundamental insights into specific ion effects on ligand-free aqueous gold nanoparticles beyond purely electrostatic interactions are of paramount importance in biomedical or catalytic applications, since colloidal stability appears to depend greatly on the type of salt rather than on the amount.

  11. More Magic Numbers in Anionic Titanium-carbon Mixed Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAU Huajin; LIU Bingchen; ZHOU Rufang; NI Guoquan


    @@ Met-Cars[1] and related transition metal-carbon clusters represent a latest breakthrough in gas phase cluster research following the discovery and macroscopic synthesis of fullerenes. Different kinds of structural growth patterns (SGPs) have been proposed to analyze the observed magic numbers of these transition metal-carbon mixed clusters, including the multicage SGP[2], the nanocrystal SGP[3], and the recent layered SGP[4]. Recording larger magic numbers will be of great help to test and distinguish between the various SGPs.

  12. Cyclic Trinuclear Gold(I) Clusters with N,N and Unusual C,C Mixed-Ligand Bridges. (United States)

    Melgarejo, Doris Y; Chiarella, Gina M; Fackler, John P


    Three crystalline trinuclear gold(I) clusters, [Au3f2y] (1), [Au3fy2] (2), and [Au3y3] (3), where f = N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)methanimidamidate and y = dimethylendiphenylphosphinate, exhibit bridges from the N,N-formamidinate and/or from the ylide anion ligand whose P-methylene groups chelate in an unusual fashion, where the chelate CPC unit is perpendicular to the trigonal plane of the metal atoms. Assemblies 1 and 2 are the first gold(I) trinuclear clusters featuring mixed-ligand bridges from different N,N and C,C donors; 3 is a previously unknown homoleptic ylide anion cyclic trinuclear assembly. Formamidinate bridges in 1 and 2 connect gold(I) atoms at aurophilic distances of 3.084(2) and 3.0543(4) Å, whereas an out-of-plane (perpendicular) P-ylide anion bite produces Au(I)-Au(I) distances of as large as 3.900(2) Å in 3. The crystal space groups for 1 and 2 are triclinic P1̅ and that for 3 is monoclinic P21/c, with Z = 2 for 1 and 2 and Z = 4 for 3. Compounds are synthesized under Schlenk conditions at -20 °C in toluene by reacting the proper ratios of the gold(I) formamidinate [Au2f2] with the phosphorus ylide [Hy] under basic conditions (KOH), followed by extraction with ether. This synthesis also produces a dinuclear cation, [Au2f(Hy)2](+), previously reported by our group. A neutral mixed-ligand dinuclear complex, [Au2fy], was not observed. Under UV light, 1 and 2 display a bright-green luminescence at room temperature and in frozen methyltetrahydrofuran solutions under liquid nitrogen, with microsecond lifetimes. All three complexes 1-3 are characterized by their X-ray crystal structures, (1)H NMR, IR, UV-visible, and luminescence spectroscopies, and elemental analysis.

  13. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis. (United States)

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F


    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated.

  14. Comparative hyperthermia effects of silica-gold nanoshells with different surface coverage of gold clusters on epithelial tumor cells. (United States)

    Park, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Taeksu; Bae, Saet-Byeol; Kang, Byunghoon; Huh, Yong-Min; Lee, Sang-Wha; Haam, Seungjoo


    Silica-gold nanoshell (SGNS), which is a silica core surrounded by a gold layer, was synthesized by seed-mediated coalescence of gold clusters in an electroless plating solution. SGNS variations with different surface coverage of gold clusters were prepared by adjusting the amounts of gold salts in the presence of formaldehyde-reducing agents. Fully covered SGNS (f-SGNS) with connected gold clusters exhibited stronger intensity and more redshift of plasmon bands located around 820 nm than those of partially covered SGNS (p-SGNS) with disconnected gold clusters. Upon irradiation with near-infrared light (30 W/cm(2), 700-800 nm), f-SGNS caused a larger hyperthermia effect, generating a large temperature change (ΔT =42°C), as compared to the relatively small temperature change (ΔT =24°C) caused by p-SGNS. The therapeutic antibody, Erbitux™ (ERB), was further conjugated to SGNS for specific tumor cell targeting. The f-ERB-SGNS showed excellent therapeutic efficacy based on the combined effect of both the therapeutic antibody and the full hyperthermia dose under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, SGNS with well-controlled surface morphology of gold shells may be applicable for near-infrared-induced hyperthermia therapy with tunable optical properties.

  15. The Turn Over of the Odd-even Pattern in Mass Spectra of Carbon Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Guoquan; LIU Bingchen; ZHAI Huajin


    @@ Although investigations by many authorsd on the properties of carbon cluster anions by mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy last more than a decade[1~3], a general conclusion concerning the various features of the carbon clusters generated most commonly in laser vaporization/molecular beam sources has not yet been reached. In this Letter we report that the turn-over of the odd-even patter in relative abundance in the mass spectra of carbon clusters and the "manipulation" of the pattern can be realized in a controlled way by altering the vaporizing laser intensity, the backing pressure and the conductance of carries gas.

  16. Anion-radical oxygen centers in small (AgO)n clusters: density functional theory predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Trushin, Egor V


    Anion-radical form of the oxygen centers O(-) is predicted at the DFT level for small silver oxide particles having the AgO stoichiometry. Model clusters (AgO)n appear to be ferromagnetic with appreciable spin density at the oxygen centers. In contrast to these clusters, the Ag2O model cluster have no unpaired electrons in the ground state. The increased O/Ag ratio in the oxide particles is proved to be responsible for the spin density at oxygen centers.

  17. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XX. RedGOLD Background Galaxy Cluster Detections (United States)

    Licitra, Rossella; Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Huertas-Company, Marc; Lançon, Ariane; Parroni, Carolina; Puzia, Thomas H.


    We build a background cluster candidate catalog from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) using our detection algorithm RedGOLD. The NGVS covers 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the {u}* ,g,r,i,z-bandpasses to a depth of g ˜ 25.7 mag (5σ). Part of the survey was not covered or has shallow observations in the r band. We build two cluster catalogs: one using all bandpasses, for the fields with deep r-band observations (˜20 deg2), and the other using four bandpasses ({u}* ,g,i,z) for the entire NGVS area. Based on our previous Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W1 studies, we estimate that both of our catalogs are ˜100% (˜70%) complete and ˜80% pure, at z ≤ 0.6 (z ≲ 1), for galaxy clusters with masses of M ≳ 1014 M ⊙. We show that when using four bandpasses, though the photometric redshift accuracy is lower, RedGOLD detects massive galaxy clusters up to z ˜ 1 with completeness and purity similar to the five-band case. This is achieved when taking into account the bias in the richness estimation, which is ˜40% lower at 0.5 ≤ z z X-ray clusters in the area with mass M 500 > 1.4 × 1014 M ⊙ and 0.08 z < 0.5. Because of our different cluster richness limits and the NGVS depth, our catalogs reach lower masses than the published redMaPPer cluster catalog over the area, and we recover ˜90%-100% of its detections.

  18. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gavin R., E-mail:; Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mulheran, Paul A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose St., Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)


    Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of −5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  19. Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Bell


    Full Text Available Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD. A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of −5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

  20. Cluster Analysis in Patients with GOLD 1 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gagnon

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that heterogeneity exists within the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 1 spirometric category and that different subgroups could be identified within this GOLD category.Pre-randomization study participants from two clinical trials were symptomatic/asymptomatic GOLD 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and healthy controls. A hierarchical cluster analysis used pre-randomization demographics, symptom scores, lung function, peak exercise response and daily physical activity levels to derive population subgroups.Considerable heterogeneity existed for clinical variables among patients with GOLD 1 COPD. All parameters, except forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, had considerable overlap between GOLD 1 COPD and controls. Three-clusters were identified: cluster I (18 [15%] COPD patients; 105 [85%] controls; cluster II (45 [80%] COPD patients; 11 [20%] controls; and cluster III (22 [92%] COPD patients; 2 [8%] controls. Apart from reduced diffusion capacity and lower baseline dyspnea index versus controls, cluster I COPD patients had otherwise preserved lung volumes, exercise capacity and physical activity levels. Cluster II COPD patients had a higher smoking history and greater hyperinflation versus cluster I COPD patients. Cluster III COPD patients had reduced physical activity versus controls and clusters I and II COPD patients, and lower FEV1/FVC versus clusters I and II COPD patients.The results emphasize heterogeneity within GOLD 1 COPD, supporting an individualized therapeutic approach to NCT01360788 and NCT01072396.

  1. Properties of iron sulfide, hydrosulfide, and mixed sulfide/hydrosulfide cluster anions through photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations (United States)

    Yin, Shi; Bernstein, Elliot R.


    A new magnetic-bottle time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) apparatus is constructed in our laboratory. The PES spectra of iron sulfide, hydrosulfide, and mixed sulfide/hydrosulfide [FeSm(SH)n-; m, n = 0-3, 0 theory. The most probable structures and ground state spin multiplicity for these cluster anions are tentatively assigned by comparing their theoretical first vertical detachment energies (VDEs) with their respective experiment values. The behavior of S and (SH) as ligands in these iron sulfide, hydrosulfide, and mixed sulfide/hydrosulfide cluster anions is investigated and compared. The experimental first VDEs for Fe(SH)1-3- cluster anions are lower than those found for their respective FeS1-3- cluster anions. The experimental first VDEs for FeS1-3- clusters are observed to increase for the first two S atoms bound to Fe-; however, due to the formation of an S-S bond for the FeS3- cluster, its first VDE is found to be ˜0.41 eV lower than the first VDE for the FeS2- cluster. The first VDEs of Fe(SH)1-3- cluster anions are observed to increase with the increasing numbers of SH groups. The calculated partial charges of the Fe atom for ground state FeS1-3- and Fe(SH)1-3- clusters are apparently related to and correlated with their determined first VDEs. The higher first VDE is correlated with a higher, more positive partial charge for the Fe atom of these cluster anions. Iron sulfide/hydrosulfide mixed cluster anions are also explored in this work: the first VDE for FeS(SH)- is lower than that for FeS2-, but higher than that for Fe(SH)2-; the first VDEs for FeS2(SH)- and FeS(SH)2- are close to that for FeS3-, but higher than that for Fe(SH)3-. The first VDEs of general iron sulfide, hydrosulfide, and mixed sulfide/hydrosulfide clusters [FeSm(SH)n-; m, n = 0-3, 0 < (m + n) ≤ 3] are dependent on three properties of these anions: 1. the partial charge on the Fe atom, 2. disulfide bond formation (S-S) in the cluster, and 3. the number of hydrosulfide

  2. The minimum-energy structure of nanometer-scale gold clusters (United States)

    Patil, A. N.; Paithankar, D. Y.; Otsuka, N.; Andres, R. P.


    We report results of experiments in which gold clusters with controlled diameters ranging from 1nm to 20nm are grown in a gas aggregation reactor and are subsequently melted and slowly cooled in the gas phase. These clusters are soft landed on thin carbon films and their structure determined by means of HRTEM. All of the clusters down to the smallest whose lattice fringes could be resolved (N≈405) are single fcc crystals. MD calculations using an EAM potential for gold predict that the fcc motif seen in these experiments may indeed be the minimum-energy structure for gold clusters containing more than a few hundred atoms.

  3. Comparative hyperthermia effects of silica–gold nanoshells with different surface coverage of gold clusters on epithelial tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park SE


    Full Text Available Sang-Eun Park,1,* Jaewon Lee,2,* Taeksu Lee,2 Saet-Byeol Bae,1 Byunghoon Kang,2 Yong-Min Huh,3 Sang-Wha Lee,1 Seungjoo Haam,2 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silica–gold nanoshell (SGNS, which is a silica core surrounded by a gold layer, was synthesized by seed-mediated coalescence of gold clusters in an electroless plating solution. SGNS variations with different surface coverage of gold clusters were prepared by adjusting the amounts of gold salts in the presence of formaldehyde-reducing agents. Fully covered SGNS (f-SGNS with connected gold clusters exhibited stronger intensity and more redshift of plasmon bands located around 820 nm than those of partially covered SGNS (p-SGNS with disconnected gold clusters. Upon irradiation with near-infrared light (30 W/cm2, 700–800 nm, f-SGNS caused a larger hyperthermia effect, generating a large temperature change (ΔT =42°C, as compared to the relatively small temperature change (ΔT =24°C caused by p-SGNS. The therapeutic antibody, Erbitux™ (ERB, was further conjugated to SGNS for specific tumor cell targeting. The f-ERB-SGNS showed excellent therapeutic efficacy based on the combined effect of both the therapeutic antibody and the full hyperthermia dose under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, SGNS with well-controlled surface morphology of gold shells may be applicable for near-infrared-induced hyperthermia therapy with tunable optical properties. Keywords: gold nanoshell, plasmon resonance, Erbitux, human epithelial cancer, hyperthermia

  4. Separation of gold, palladium and platinum in chromite by anion exchange chromatography for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Yeong Jae; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A study has been carried out on the separation of gold, iridium, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and platinum in chromite samples and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The dissolution condition of the minerals by fusion with sodium peroxide was optimized and chromatographic elution behavior of the rare metals was investigated by anion exchange chromatography. Spectral interference of chromium, a matrix of the minerals, was investigated on determination of gold. Chromium interfered on determination of gold at the concentration of 500 mg/L and higher. Gold plus trace amounts of iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium, which must be preconcentrated before ICP-AES was separated by anion exchange chromatography after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. AuCl{sup -}{sub 4} retained on the resin column was selectively eluted with acetone- HNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O as an eluent. In addition, iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium remaining on the resin column were eluted as a group with concentrated HCl. However, platinum was eluted with concentrated HNO{sub 3}. The recovery yield of gold with acetone-HNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O was 100.7 {+-} 2.0 % , and the yields of palladium and platinum with concentrated HCl and HNO{sub 3} were 96.1 {+-} 1.8% and 96.6 {+-} 1.3%, respectively. The contents of gold and platinum in a Mongolian chromite sample were 32.6 {+-} 2.2 {mu}g/g and 1.6 {+-} 0.14 {mu}g/g, respectively. Palladium was not detected.

  5. Study of radicals, clusters and transition state species by anion photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D.W.


    Free radicals, elemental and van der Waals clusters and transition state species for bimolecular chemical reactions are investigated using anion photoelectron spectroscopy. Several low-lying electronic states of ozone have been identified via photoelectron spectroscopy of O{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. A characterization of these states is important to models for atmospheric ozone reaction kinetics. The fluoroformyloxyl radical, FCO{sub 2}, has been investigated, providing vibrational frequencies and energies for two electronic states. The technique has also been employed to make the first direct observation and characterization of the NNO{sub 2} molecule. Several electronic states are observed for this species which is believed to play a role as a reactive intermediate in the N + NO{sub 2} reaction. The experimental results for all three of these radicals are supplemented by ab initio investigations of their molecular properties. The clusters investigations include studies of elemental carbon clusters (C{sub 2}{sup {minus}} {minus} C{sub 11}{sup {minus}}), and van der Waals clusters (X{sup {minus}}(CO{sub 2}){sub n}, X = I, Br, Cl; n {le} 13 and I{sup {minus}} (N{sub 2}O){sub n=1--11}). Primarily linear clusters are observed for the smaller carbon clusters, while the spectra of the larger clusters contain contribution from cyclic anion photodetachment. Very interesting ion-solvent interactions are observed in the X{sup {minus}}(CO{sub 2})n clusters. The transition state regions for several bimolecular chemical reactions have also been investigated by photodetachment of a negative ion precursor possessing a geometry similar to that of the transition state species. These spectra show features which are assigned to motions of the unstable neutral complex existing between reactants and products.

  6. One_dimensional chains of gold clusters on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We have investigated the growth of gold nanoclusters on thesurface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in ultrahigh vacuum. Studies of ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy revealed that the size distribution of gold clusters was very narrow and quasi-one-dimensional chains of gold nanoclusters of approximately 2 nm diameter were produced after being annealed at 74℃. Unlike the results obtained by previous workers, these chains of gold clusters were not formed along steps on the substrate surface, and some of them could even go across monoatomic steps. The orientation of chains of gold clusters was also dependent on the size of gold nanoclusters. These results suggest the viability of a new route to the creation of ordered nanoscale structures.

  7. Observations on small anionic clusters in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eritt, Markus


    The term atomic cluster relates to compounds of at least two or three atoms. Thereby the physical properties are size dependent and the property transitions between single atoms and bulk material are not always smooth. Ion traps allow it to observe internal cluster properties independent from the influence of external forces. In this work the electron induced decay of singly negatively charged atomic clusters was observed. The dissociation cross section of the clusters is dominated by detachment of the only weakly bound outer electrons. For simple atoms at low electron energies a simple scaling law can be obtained that includes only the binding energies of the valence electrons. Nevertheless for larger sizes theoretical calculations predict so called ''giant resonances'' as dominant decay process in metal clusters. Due to mass limitations in storage rings exist so far only cross section measurements for simple anions and small negative molecules. In this work the electron detachment cross sections of small negatively charged carbon (C{sub n}{sup -} n=2-12), aluminium (Al{sub n}{sup -} n=2-7) and silver clusters (Ag{sub n}{sup -} n=1-11) were measured in an electrostatic ion beam trap. The classical scaling law, including only the binding energies of the valence electrons, turned out to be not sufficient, especially for larger clusters. In order to improve the correlation between measured and predicted values it was proposed to involve the influence of the cluster volume and the specific polarisability induced by long range coulomb interaction. For silver clusters the best agreement was obtained using a combination of the projected area reduced by the polarisability. The existence of ''giant resonances'' could not be confirmed. According to theory for clusters with a broad internal energy distribution, a power-law decay close to 1/time is expected. For some clusters the lifetime behaviour would be strongly quenched by photon

  8. Photoelectron imaging of small silicon cluster anions, Sin- (n=2-7) (United States)

    Peppernick, Samuel J.; Gunaratne, K. D. Dasitha; Sayres, Scott G.; Castleman, A. W.


    Photoelectron imaging experiments were conducted on small silicon cluster anions, Sin- (n =2-7), acquired at a photon energy of 3.49 eV (355 nm). Electronic transitions arising from the anion ground states are observed, and the evaluated vertical detachment energies agree well with previous measurements and theoretical calculations. The anisotropy β parameters have also been determined for each unique feature appearing in the photoelectron angular distributions at the employed photon energy. Separate calculations using density functional theory are also undertaken to determine the relative atomic orbital contributions constructing the interrogated highest occupied and low-lying molecular orbitals of a specific cluster. A method to interpret the observed cluster angular distributions, term the β-wave approach, is then implemented which provides quantitative predictions of the anisotropy β parameter for partial wave emission from molecular orbitals partitioned by varying contributions of atomic orbital angular momenta. Highlighted in the β-wave analysis is the ability of discriminating between disparate molecular orbitals from two nearly isoenergetic structural isomers of opposing point group symmetry for the Si4- and Si6- cluster ions, respectively.

  9. Mixed monolayer protected gold atom-oxide cluster synthesis and characterization (United States)

    Nambiar, Sindhu R.; Aneesh, Padamadathil K.; Sukumar, Chinthu; Rao, Talasila P.


    Small atomic gold clusters in solution, Aun, stabilized by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cysteine, have been synthesized potentiodynamically in quiescent aqueous solutions. The electrodissolution of gold to gold ions during an anodic scan and subsequent cluster formation during a cathodic scan in underpotential (UPDD) and overpotential dissolution-deposition (OPDD) regions were studied. The experimental potentiodynamic I-E profiles and chronoamperometric i-t transients are fit into reported theoretical models of adsorption and electrocrystallization. The plausible application of clusters/cluster film to cysteine sensing based on fluorescence quenching and square wave stripping voltammetry is demonstrated.Small atomic gold clusters in solution, Aun, stabilized by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and cysteine, have been synthesized potentiodynamically in quiescent aqueous solutions. The electrodissolution of gold to gold ions during an anodic scan and subsequent cluster formation during a cathodic scan in underpotential (UPDD) and overpotential dissolution-deposition (OPDD) regions were studied. The experimental potentiodynamic I-E profiles and chronoamperometric i-t transients are fit into reported theoretical models of adsorption and electrocrystallization. The plausible application of clusters/cluster film to cysteine sensing based on fluorescence quenching and square wave stripping voltammetry is demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30446e

  10. CO2 Activation and Hydrogenation by PtHn (-) Cluster Anions. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Liu, Gaoxiang; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit


    Gas phase reactions between PtHn (-) cluster anions and CO2 were investigated by mass spectrometry, anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and computations. Two major products, PtCO2 H(-) and PtCO2 H3 (-) , were observed. The atomic connectivity in PtCO2 H(-) can be depicted as HPtCO2 (-) , where the platinum atom is bonded to a bent CO2 moiety on one side and a hydrogen atom on the other. The atomic connectivity of PtCO2 H3 (-) can be described as H2 Pt(HCO2 )(-) , where the platinum atom is bound to a formate moiety on one side and two hydrogen atoms on the other. Computational studies of the reaction pathway revealed that the hydrogenation of CO2 by PtH3 (-) is highly energetically favorable.

  11. First spectroscopic observation of gold(i) butadiynylide: Photodetachment velocity map imaging of the AuC4H anion (United States)

    Visser, Bradley R.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.; Metha, Gregory F.


    The velocity map imaging technique was used in the investigation of gold(i) butadiynylide, AuC4H-, with images recorded at two excitation wavelengths. The resultant photodetachment spectra show a well defined vibrational progression in the neutral with an energy spacing of 343 ± 3 cm-1. The adiabatic electron affinity was determined to be 1.775 ± 0.005 eV and assigned to the X1Σ+←X2Σ+ transition between the anionic and neutral ground states. Franck-Condon simulations performed on density functional theory optimized geometries assisted the assignment of linear geometries to the neutral and anion and the observed vibrational progression to that of the Au-C4H stretch.

  12. Selective oxidation with dioxygen by gold nanoparticle catalysts derived from 55-atom clusters. (United States)

    Turner, Mark; Golovko, Vladimir B; Vaughan, Owain P H; Abdulkin, Pavel; Berenguer-Murcia, Angel; Tikhov, Mintcho S; Johnson, Brian F G; Lambert, Richard M


    Supported gold nanoparticles have excited much interest owing to their unusual and somewhat unexpected catalytic properties, but the origin of the catalytic activity is still not fully understood. Experimental work on gold particles supported on a titanium dioxide (110) single-crystal surface has established a striking size threshold effect associated with a metal-to-insulator transition, with gold particles catalytically active only if their diameters fall below approximately 3.5 nm. However, the remarkable catalytic behaviour might also in part arise from strong electronic interaction between the gold and the titanium dioxide support. In the case of industrially important selective oxidation reactions, explanation of the effectiveness of gold nanoparticle catalysts is complicated by the need for additives to drive the reaction, and/or the presence of strong support interactions and incomplete understanding of their possible catalytic role. Here we show that very small gold entities ( approximately 1.4 nm) derived from 55-atom gold clusters and supported on inert materials are efficient and robust catalysts for the selective oxidation of styrene by dioxygen. We find a sharp size threshold in catalytic activity, in that particles with diameters of approximately 2 nm and above are completely inactive. Our observations suggest that catalytic activity arises from the altered electronic structure intrinsic to small gold nanoparticles, and that the use of 55-atom gold clusters may prove a viable route to the synthesis of robust gold catalysts suited to practical application.

  13. Cluster-Continuum Calculations of Hydration Free Energies of Anions and Group 12 Divalent Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL


    Understanding aqueous phase processes involving group 12 metal cations is relevant to both environmental and biological sciences. Here, quantum chemical methods and polarizable continuum models are used to compute the hydration free energies of a series of divalent group 12 metal cations (Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+) together with Cu2+ and the anions OH , SH , Cl , and F . A cluster-continuum method is employed, in which gas-phase clusters of the ion and explicit solvent molecules are immersed in a dielectric continuum. Two approaches to define the size of the solute-water cluster are compared, in which the number of explicit waters used is either held constant or determined variationally as that of the most favorable hydration free energy. Results obtained with various polarizable continuum models are also presented. Each leg of the relevant thermodynamic cycle is analyzed in detail to determine how different contributions yield the observed mean signed error (MSE) and the standard deviation of the error (STDEV) between theory and experiment. The use of a constant number of water molecules for each set of ions is found to lead to predicted relative trends that benefit from error cancellation. Overall, the best results are obtained with MP2 and the Solvent Model D polarizable continuum model (SMD), with eight explicit water molecules for anions and ten for the metal cations, yielding a STDEV of 2.3 kcal/mol and MSE of 0.9 kcal/mol between theoretical to experimental hydration free energies, which range from -72.4 kcal/mol for SH to -505.9 kcal/mol for Cu2+. Using B3PW91 with DFT-D3 dispersion corrections (B3PW91-D) and SMD yields a STDEV of 3.3 kcal mol 1 and MSE of 1.6 kcal/mol, to which adding MP2 corrections from smaller divalent metal ion water molecule clusters yields very good agreement with the full MP2 results. Using B3PW91-D and SMD, with two explicit water molecules for anions and six for divalent metal cations also yields reasonable agreement with experiment

  14. Evolution of nonlinear optical properties: from gold atomic clusters to plasmonic nanocrystals. (United States)

    Philip, Reji; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Qian, Huifeng; Jin, Rongchao; Thomas, Jayan


    Atomic clusters of metals are an emerging class of extremely interesting materials occupying the intermediate size regime between atoms and nanoparticles. Here we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of ultrasmall, atomically precise clusters of gold, which are smaller than the critical size for electronic energy quantization (∼2 nm). Our studies reveal remarkable features of the distinct evolution of the optical nonlinearity as the clusters progress in size from the nonplasmonic regime to the plasmonic regime. We ascertain that the smallest atomic clusters do not show saturable absorption at the surface plasmon wavelength of larger gold nanocrystals (>2 nm). Consequently, the third-order optical nonlinearity in these ultrasmall gold clusters exhibits a significantly lower threshold for optical power limiting. This limiting efficiency, which is superior to that of plasmonic nanocrystals, is highly beneficial for optical limiting applications.

  15. Comparative Study of Formation and Stabilization of Gold and Silver Clusters and Nanoparticles in Mordenites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanchikova, N.; Tuzovskaya, I.; Pestryakov, A.; Susarrey-Arce, A.


    Supporting silver and gold on mordenites by ion-exchange method with further reduction with H2 leads to formation of neutral and charged metal clusters inside zeolite channels as well as metal nanoparticles on external surface of mordenite. A portion of the cluster states of the metals and stability

  16. Melting behaviour of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yee Pin; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)


    The melting behavior of bimetallic gold-platinum nanoclusters is studied by applying Brownian-type isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a program modified from the cubic coupling scheme (CCS). The process begins with the ground-state structures obtained from global minimum search algorithm and proceeds with the investigation of the effect of temperature on the thermal properties of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters. N-body Gupta potential has been employed in order to account for the interactions between gold and platinum atoms. The ground states of the nanoalloy clusters, which are core-shell segregated, are heated until they become thermally segregated. The detailed melting mechanism of the nanoalloy clusters is studied via this approach to provide insight into the thermal stability of the nanoalloy clusters.

  17. Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster. (United States)

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam


    Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.

  18. First principle study of the interaction of elemental Hg with small neutral, anionic and cationic Pd ( = 1-6) clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamoon Ahmad Siddiqui; Nadir Bouarissa


    Density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations have been performed so as to study the interaction of elemental mercury (Hg) with small neutral, cationic and anionic palladium clusters (Pd, = 1-6). Results of these calculations clearly indicate that frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory is a useful method to predict the selectivity of Hg adsorption. Binding energies of Hg on cationic Pd clusters are generally found to be greater than those on neutral and anionic clusters. Results of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis show that the flow of electrons in the neutral and charged complexes is mainly due to s orbitals of Hg. NBO analysis also indicates that, in most of the cases, the binding energies of Hg with Pdn clusters are directly proportional to charge transfer, i.e., greater the charge transfer, higher is the binding energy.

  19. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis. (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun


    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters-TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability.

  20. Enhanced performance of anion exchange membranes via crosslinking of ion cluster regions for fuel cells (United States)

    Lai, Ao Nan; Guo, Dong; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Ye, Mei Ling; Liu, Qing Lin


    Development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with high hydroxide conductivity, good dimensional and alkaline stabilities is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. In this study, we report a new strategy to prepare high-performance AEMs with crosslinked ionic regions. A series of phenolphthalein-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s crosslinked AEMs was synthesized by grafting ion groups selectively and densely on the phenolphthalein units to form ion clusters that are further crosslinked to generate the hydrophilic ionic regions. The crosslinking reaction not only improved the dimensional stability of the AEMs, but also increased the aggregation of the ion clusters leading to the formation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated morphology and ion-conducting channels. As a result, enhancements in both ion conductivity and dimensional stability can be achieved. The crosslinked AEMs showed high hydroxide conductivities in the range of 52.2-143.4 mS cm-1 from 30 to 80 °C and a superb ratio of relative conductivity to relative swelling at 80 °C. Furthermore, the crosslinked AEMs also exhibited good mechanical properties, thermal and alkaline stabilities and desirable single cell performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the synthesis of high-performance AEMs for fuel cells.

  1. Synthesis of DPA dendron encapsulated gold clusters with metal-assembling function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Men, Masayoshi Higuchi and Kimihisa Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Gold clusters modified with first, second and third generation dendritic polyphenylazomethines (DPA were synthesized by an exchanged reaction of corresponding DPA dendron thiols. Measurements by high performance perfect sizer (HPPS and TEM reveal that their diameters increase with a change in the chain length of the modifying molecules from the first to third generation. These gold clusters with DPA dendrons exhibit coordination quantitatively to metal ions such as Fe3+, Sn2+, etc., because of their imine groups; this then resulted in self-aggregation to form a large sphere.

  2. Genetically Programmed Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell-Targeted Photothermal Therapy. (United States)

    Oh, Mi Hwa; Yu, Jeong Heon; Kim, Insu; Nam, Yoon Sung


    Interpretations of the interactions of nanocarriers with biological cells are often complicated by complex synthesis of materials, broad size distribution, and heterogeneous surface chemistry. Herein, the major capsid proteins of an icosahedral T7 phage (55 nm in diameter) are genetically engineered to display a gold-binding peptide and a prostate cancer cell-binding peptide in a tandem sequence. The genetically modified phage attracts gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a cluster of gold nanoparticles (about 70 nanoparticles per phage). The cluster of AuNPs maintains cell-targeting functionality and exhibits excellent dispersion stability in serum. Under a very low light irradiation (60 mW cm(-2)), only targeted AuNP clusters kill the prostate cancer cells in minutes (not in other cell types), whereas neither nontargeted AuNP clusters nor citrate-stabilized AuNPs cause any significant cell death. The result suggests that the prostate cancer cell-targeted clusters of AuNPs are targeted to only prostate cancer cells and, when illuminated, generate local heating to more efficiently and selectively kill the targeted cancer cells. Our strategy can be generalized to target other types of cells and assemble other kinds of nanoparticles for a broad range of applications.

  3. Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients’ sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Al-Dubai


    Full Text Available Haifa Al-Dubai1, Irene Lichtscheidl2, Martina Strobl1, Gisela Pittner1, Fritz Pittner11Department of Biochemistry, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: This study focuses on the development of a sensitive and simple cluster-linked immunosorbent assay (CLISA using gold colloidal cluster labeling for determination of proteins such as antigens (Ags or antibodies (Abs. Abs for detection can be labeled with gold colloid clusters (GCCs. The Fc domain of the Abs binds to the clusters, and the Fab domain to the Ag on a nitrocellulose membrane or a microtiter plate as a support for dot-blotting. The signal of positive interaction between GCC-labeled Abs and its dotted Ag is detectable by the naked eye and can be quantified by comparison to a color scale prepared from a dilution series of known sample concentrations. The colored reaction product is stable for prolonged periods and does not fade, making this method a simple, fast, and convenient means for detection of Ag or Ab biorecognitions and an alternative to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several interactions between different Ags or Abs (eg, ß-lactoglobulin and solutions avoiding gold colloidal cluster flocculation (eg, using protein G were studied. CLISA was tested for other analytical purposes such as detection of IgEs in patients’ sera.Keywords: ELISA, allergen, patient sera, CLISA, immunoassay, ß-lactoglobulin

  4. Cationic Gold Clusters Ligated with Differently Substituted Phosphines: Effect of Substitution on Ligand Reactivity and Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Olivares, Astrid M.; Hill, David E.; Laskin, Julia


    We present a systematic study of the effect of the number of methyl (Me) and cyclohexyl (Cy) functional groups in monodentate phosphine ligands on the solution-phase synthesis of ligated sub-nanometer gold clusters and their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Small mixed ligand cationic gold clusters were synthesized using ligand exchange reactions between pre-formed triphenylphosphine ligated (PPh3) gold clusters and monodentate Me- and Cy-substituted ligands in solution and characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Under the same experimental conditions, larger gold-PPh3 clusters undergo efficient exchange of unsubstituted PPh3 ligands for singly Me- and Cy-substituted PPh2Me and PPh2Cy ligands. The efficiency of ligand exchange decreases with an increasing number of Me or Cy groups in the substituted phosphine ligands. CID experiments performed for a series of ligand-exchanged gold clusters indicate that loss of a neutral Me-substituted ligand is preferred over loss of a neutral PPh¬3 ligand while the opposite trend is observed for Cy-substituted ligands. The branching ratio of the competing ligand loss channels is strongly correlated with the electron donating ability of the phosphorous lone pair as determined by the relative proton affinity of the ligand. The results indicate that the relative ligand binding energies increase in the order PMe3 < PPhMe2 < PPh2Me < PPh3< PPh2Cy < PPhCy2< PCy3. Furthermore, the difference in relative ligand binding energies increases with the number of substituted PPh3-mMem or PPh3-mCym ligands (L) exchanged onto each cluster. This study provides the first experimental determination of the relative binding energies of ligated gold clusters containing differently substituted monophosphine ligands, which are important to controlling their synthesis and reactivity in solution. The results also indicate that ligand substitution is an important

  5. Permanent magnetism in phosphine- and chlorine-capped gold: from clusters to nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Marquez, Miguel A., E-mail:; Guerrero, Estefania; Fernandez, Asuncion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US) (Spain); Crespo, Patricia; Hernando, Antonio [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) (Spain); Lucena, Raquel; Conesa, Jose C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC) (Spain)


    Magnetometry results have shown that gold NPs ({approx}2 nm in size) protected with phosphine and chlorine ligands exhibit permanent magnetism. When the NPs size decreases down to the subnanometric size range, e.g. undecagold atom clusters, the permanent magnetism disappears. The near edge structure of the X-ray absorption spectroscopy data points out that charge transfer between gold and the capping system occurs in both cases. These results strongly suggest that nearly metallic Au bonds are also required for the induction of a magnetic response. Electron paramagnetic resonance observations indicate that the contribution to magnetism from eventual iron impurities can be disregarded.

  6. Geometries, stabilities, and electronic properties of Be-doped gold clusters: a density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dong-Dong; Kuang Xiao-Yu; Zhao Ya-Ru; Shao Peng; Li Yan-Fang


    We have systematically investigated the geometrical structures, relative stabilities and electronic properties of small bimetallic AunBe (n = 1, 2, ..., 8) clusters using a density functional method at BP86 level. The optimized geometries reveal that the impurity beryllium atom dramatically affects the structures of the Aun clusters. The averaged binding energies, fragmentation energies, second-order difference of energies, the highest occupied-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps and chemical hardness are investigated. All of them exhibit a pronounced odd-even alternation,manifesting that the clusters with even number of gold atoms possess relatively higher stabilities. Especially, the linear Au2Be cluster is magic cluster with the most stable chemical stability. According to the natural population analysis, it is found that charge-transferring direction between Au atom and Be atom changes at the size of n = 4.

  7. Cobalt bis(dicarbollides)(1-) covalently attached to the calyx[4]arene platform: the first combination of organic bowl-shaped matrices and inorganic metallaborane cluster anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Bohumír; Mikulasek, Libor; Baca, Jirí; Cisarova, Ivana; Böhmer, Volker; Danila, Crenguta; Reinoso-Garcia, Marta M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco


    Various calix[4]arene and resorc[4]arene ionic compounds substituted by cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions (1) have been prepared for the first time. From tBu-calix[4]arene (A) the complete series of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasubstituted derivatives bearing one to four cluster anions on the lower rim (

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies on the electronic properties of vanadium-benzene sandwich cluster anions, V(n)Bz(n+1)- (n = 1-5). (United States)

    Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Ohi, Katsuya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi


    Vanadium-benzene cluster anions, V(n)Bz(n+1)(-) (Bz = C(6)H(6)) were generated by laser ablation and supersonic jet methods, and studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The density functional theory was employed to compute their geometric and electronic structures. It is concluded that the V(n)Bz(n+1)(-) anions exhibit multiple-decker sandwich structures similar to their corresponding neutrals, and the adiabatic electron affinity increases with the cluster size. Our computation shows that the excess electron of the anion occupies the d orbitals of the vanadium atoms and that it is delocalized one-dimensionally. Furthermore, a very large HOMO-LUMO gap difference between majority and minority spin orbitals is observed for both the neutrals and the anions, and the V(n)Bz(n+1)(0∕-) clusters are found to be completely spin-polarized. These facts confirm the possibility of using V(n)Bz(n+1) clusters as spin filters.

  9. Phosphane-stabilized gold clusters: investigation of the stability of [Au(13)(PMe (2)Ph) (10)Cl (2)] (3+). (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Shu-Guang


    The phosphane-stabilized gold cluster [Au(13)(PMe(2)Ph)(10)Cl(2)](3+) was studied using density functional theory. The extraordinary stability of the cluster has been attributed to the stability of the gold core and the protection conferred by ligands. Here, five stability factors of the gold core were explained and verified by investigating the Au (13) (5+) core in detail. Interactions between the gold core and several PR(3) ligands (R = Me, H, I, Br, Cl, F) were investigated according to the different electron donor abilities of each ligand; bonding energy between the ligand and the gold core was found to increase with the electronegativity of the R substituent. Furthermore, two other aspects of the ligands were clarified: how the ligand stabilizes the Au (13) (5+) core, and which kind of ligand provides the best stabilization for the cluster.

  10. New data on the age of gold mineralization of the Lugokan ore cluster (Eastern Transbaikalia) (United States)

    Redin, Yu. O.; Dultsev, V. F.; Nevolko, P. A.; Ponomarchuk, A. V.


    The Lugokan ore cluster is located in the southeastern part of Transbaikalia within the Aga-Borzya structural-formational zone of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of K-bearing minerals of syngenetic to ore parageneses has been carried out applying stepwise heating technique: it has been demonstrated that the earliest gold-ore mineral associations are Au-pyrite-arsenopyrite (163 ±1.9 Ma) and Au-chalcopyrite (160 ±2 Ma). The later parageneses encompass the Au-polymetallic (156.3 ± 1.8 Ma) and Au-Bi (155.9 ± 4.5 Ma) one. By their ages and position in the general scheme of the Late Jurassic magmatism of Eastern Transbaikalia, the Lugokan's ore cluster gold-bearing mineral associations corresponds to the time of intrusion of the Shakhtama pluton (161 Ma) and the Porphyry Complex (159-155 Ma).

  11. Facile Attachment of TAT Peptide on Gold Monolayer Protected Clusters: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndabenhle M. Sosibo


    Full Text Available High affinity thiolate-based polymeric capping ligands are known to impart stability onto nanosized gold nanoparticles. Due to the stable gold-sulfur bond, the ligand forms a protective layer around the gold core and subsequently controls the physicochemical properties of the resultant nanogold mononuclear protected clusters (AuMPCs. The choice of ligands to use as surfactants for AuMPCs largely depends on the desired degree of hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the MPCs, normally dictated by the intended application. Subsequent surface modification of AuMPCs allows further conjugation of additional biomolecules yielding bilayer or multilayered clusters suitable for bioanalytical applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to diagnostics. In this study, we discuss our recent laboratory findings on a simple route for the introduction of Trans-Activator of Transcription (TAT peptide onto the surface of biotin-derivatised gold MPCs via the biotin-strepavidin interaction. By changing the surface loading of biotin, controlled amounts of TAT could be attached. This bioconjugate system is very attractive as a carrier in intercellular delivery of various delivery cargoes such as antibodies, proteins and oligonucleotides.

  12. Asymmetric partitioning of metals among cluster anions and cations generated via laser ablation of mixed aluminum/Group 6 transition metal targets. (United States)

    Waller, Sarah E; Mann, Jennifer E; Jarrold, Caroline Chick


    While high-power laser ablation of metal alloys indiscriminately produces gas-phase atomic ions in proportion to the abundance of the various metals in the alloy, gas-phase ions produced by moderate-power laser ablation sources coupled with molecular beams are formed by more complicated mechanisms. A mass spectrometric study that directly compares the mass distributions of cluster anions and cations generated from laser ablation of pure aluminum, an aluminum/molybdenum mixed target, and an aluminum/tungsten mixed target is detailed. Mass spectra of anionic species generated from the mixed targets showed that both tungsten and molybdenum were in higher abundance in the negatively charged species than in the target material. Mass spectra of the cationic species showed primarily Al(+) and aluminum oxide and hydroxide cluster cations. No molybdenum- or tungsten-containing cluster cations were definitively assigned. The asymmetric distribution of aluminum and Group 6 transition metals in cation and anion cluster composition is attributed to the low ionization energy of atomic aluminum and aluminum suboxide clusters. In addition, the propensity of both molybdenum and tungsten to form metal oxide cluster anions under the same conditions that favor metallic aluminum cluster anions is attributed to differences in the optical properties of the surface oxide that is present in the metal powders used to prepare the ablation targets. Mechanisms of mixed metal oxide clusters are considered.

  13. Optical Imaging of Cells with Gold Nanoparticle Clusters as Light Scattering Contrast Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan


    developments in advanced cytometry research by pointing out potential new research directions. A brief description of the FDTD method focusing on the features associated with its application to modeling of light scattering and OPCM cell imaging experiments is provided. The examples include light scattering...... from OPCM imaging of single biological cells in conditions of controlled refractive index matching (RIM) and labeling by diffused and clustered gold NPs. The chapter concludes with a discussion and suggestions for future research....

  14. Analysis of cardiac tissue by gold cluster ion bombardment (United States)

    Aranyosiova, M.; Chorvatova, A.; Chorvat, D.; Biro, Cs.; Velic, D.


    Specific molecules in cardiac tissue of spontaneously hypertensive rats are studied by using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The investigation determines phospholipids, cholesterol, fatty acids and their fragments in the cardiac tissue, with special focus on cardiolipin. Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid typical for cardiomyocyte mitochondrial membrane and its decrease is involved in pathologic conditions. In the positive polarity, the fragments of phosphatydilcholine are observed in the mass region of 700-850 u. Peaks over mass 1400 u correspond to intact and cationized molecules of cardiolipin. In animal tissue, cardiolipin contains of almost exclusively 18 carbon fatty acids, mostly linoleic acid. Linoleic acid at 279 u, other fatty acids, and phosphatidylglycerol fragments, as precursors of cardiolipin synthesis, are identified in the negative polarity. These data demonstrate that SIMS technique along with Au 3+ cluster primary ion beam is a good tool for detection of higher mass biomolecules providing approximately 10 times higher yield in comparison with Au +.

  15. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: an experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions. (United States)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C; Culberson, Lori M; Sanov, Andrei


    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO(-) photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  16. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)


    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  17. Thiophenol and thiophenol radical and their complexes with gold clusters Au 5 and Au 6 (United States)

    Remacle, F.; Kryachko, E. S.


    The longstanding controversy between experiment and theory regarding which conformer of thiophenol, planar or perpendicular, is the most stable and what is the magnitude of the corresponding rotational barrier of the S-H group is discussed. We propose a variety of rather modest high-level computational methods within the density theory, which corroborate the experimental data. These methods demonstrate that the planar structure of thiophenol is the most stable and the magnitude of the rotational barrier falls within the experimental range of 3.35±0.84 kJ mol -1. However, the barrier is of the order of RT at room temperature, which might prevent to clearly identify the most stable conformer of thiophenol in experiments and leads to a large-amplitude motion of the thiolic hydrogen. On the other hand, such low value of the barrier may lead to some error in evaluating the thermodynamic properties of thiophenol within the rigid-rotor-harmonic oscillator model, in particular for the bond dissociation enthalpy. We also show the existence of a large entropy contribution to the Gibbs free energy difference between the planar and perpendicular conformers which is the order of the rotational barrier (≈4 kJ mol -1). This might be of interest for experimental study. The most stable complexes of thiophenol with the gold clusters Au 5 and Au 6 are also investigated. It is shown that the sulfur atom prefers to anchor to two- and three-coordinated atoms of gold in these clusters to form a strongly directional gold-sulfur bond. The hydrogen abstraction from the S-H group of thiophenol bonded to the two-coordinated gold atom in Au 5 yields the bridging Au-S dibond and results in a spectacular reduction of the bond dissociation energy of thiophenol by nearly a factor of three.

  18. AunHgm Clusters: Mercury Aurides, Gold Amalgams, or van der Waals Aggregates? (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka


    The class of bimetallic clusters, AunMm (M = Zn, Cd, Hg), is calculated at the ab initio level using the DFT, RI-MP2, and CCSD(T) methods. For the triatomic Au2M (M = Zn, Cd), the auride-type linear Au-M-Au structures are preferred; for Au2Hg, the linear Au-Au-Hg "amalgam" is preferred. The mixed cation [HgAuHg]+, an analog of the known solid-state species Hg32+, is predicted. For larger AunHgm clusters, the results are similar to the isoelectronic AunM- anions. Several local minima and transition states are identified. All are found to be planar.

  19. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Jiaodong Peninsula is the largest repository of gold in China based on the production in history. It covers less than 0.2% of China's territory, but production of gold accounts for about one fourth of the whole country. Thus, the Jiaodong Peninsula is a typical area or case of large-scale metallogenesis and a large clusters of mineral deposits in China. It is characterized by the large clusters of gold deposits in large scale, high reserve and short mineralizing stage. In this study, we suggest that the eastern boundary of the large clusters of gold deposits is as same as that of North China Block, the gold deposits are hosted by Archean metamorphic rocks or Mesozoic granites, and the age of gold mineralization is 121.6 to 122.7 Ma. Gold and related ore-forming materials are derived from multisources, i.e. Archean metamorphic rocks, granites and intermediate-mafic dikes, especially, intermediate-mafic dikes and calc-alkaline granites. The metallogenic geodynamic process is constrained by the tectonic evolution of eastern North China Block during Late Mesozoic, and it is the result of the interaction between mantle and crust as the boundary plates are playing role on the block.

  20. Proton transfer from water to ketyl radical anion: Assessment of critical size of hydrated cluster and free energy barrier in solution from first principles simulations (United States)

    Biswas, Sohag; Dasgupta, Teesta; Mallik, Bhabani S.


    We present the reactivity of an organic intermediate by studying the proton transfer process from water to ketyl radical anion using gas phase electronic structure calculations and the metadynamics method based first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. Our results indicate that during the micro solvation of anion by water molecules systematically, the presence of minimum three water molecules in the gas phase cluster is sufficient to observe the proton transfer event. The analysis of trajectories obtained from initial FPMD simulation of an aqueous solution of the anion does not show any evident of complete transfer of the proton from water. The cooperativity of water molecules and the relatively weak anion-water interaction in liquid state prohibit the full release of the proton. Using biasing potential through first principles metadynamics simulations, we report the observation of proton transfer reaction from water to ketyl radical anion with a barrier height of 16.0 kJ/mol.

  1. In situ investigation of the mobility of small gold clusters on cleaved MgO surfaces (United States)

    Metois, J. J.; Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.


    The mobility of small clusters of gold (about 10 A in diameter) on electron-beam-cleaved MgO surfaces was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy under controlled vacuum and temperature conditions. During the first 10 min following a deposition at room temperature, over 10 per cent of the crystallites moved over short distances (about 20 A) discontinuously, with a velocity greater than 150 A/sec. Eighty per cent of the mobility events were characterized by the avoidance of proximity of other crystallites, and this was tentatively explained as the result of repulsive elastic forces between the interacting crystallites.

  2. Theoretical studies of the interactions of ethylene and formaldehyde with gold clusters. (United States)

    Kang, Guo-Jun; Chen, Zhao-Xu; Li, Zhe


    We studied the adsorption of C(2)H(4) and CH(2)O on the gold clusters Au(n) (n = 1-5) in various adsorption modes using density functional theory PW91 functional. We found that the binding energies of pi-C(2)H(4) and pi and O-sigma modes of CH(2)O increase first and then decrease with the cluster size. Natural bonding orbital (NBO) analyses reveal that the donor-acceptor interaction plays an important role in these adsorption complexes and there is a nice linear relationship between the calculated binding energy and the stabilization energy estimated with second-order perturbation theory in the framework of NBO analysis. It is demonstrated that the bonding interaction between adsorbates and clusters follows the di-sigma > pi > O-sigma mode. However, due to adsorption induced structural deformation of adsorbates and clusters, the binding energies of different adsorption modes are comparable. It is shown that C(2)H(4) interacts more strongly with the clusters than CH(2)O does and that the previously assigned adsorption mode of C(2)H(4) on Au/MgO may not be the pi modes, but the C-sigma configuration.

  3. The Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Group IV 2-15 Atom Cluster Anions (United States)

    Craycraft, Mary Jo.

    The ability to map valence electronic structure is the result of a recent advance in photoelectron spectroscopy; its union with cluster molecular beam technology. The task of interpreting the spectra is hampered by a serious lack of understanding of cluster electronic structure in general. Recently progress has been made in finding models for single s valence electron systems. Alkali and noble metal clusters can be treated as free electron systems and simple interatomic potentials can be used with rare gas clusters. Neither a smeared jellium background nor a simple interatomic potential is adequate to describe covalent bonding, however. The isoelectronic Group IV members have a valence configuration of ns^2 np^2. All readily form clusters, and the elements differ in both their atomic and bulk properties; thus the series provides an ideal system for studying electronic structure. The mass selected cluster ion beam is crossed with a beam (6.42 or 7.9eV) and the resulting photodetached electrons collected with the aid of judiciously arranged magnetic fields. The spectra are found to be unique for each size cluster. Some spectra show a significant gap between the two lowest binding energy features, indicating that the neutral cluster is a closed shell species. The clusters with such gaps are minima in a plot of EA as a function of cluster size. The UPS also vary with the cluster composition. Carbon is unique; an even -odd alternation in electron affinities switches from odd minima for clusters containing less than ten atoms to odd maxima for larger clusters. This corresponds with an alternation in singlet and triplet ground states and a switch from chain to ring structures previously predicted by theory (K. S. Pitzer, E. Clementi, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81 4477 (1958) and R. Hoffmann, Tetrahedron 22 521 (1965)). The spectra of the remaining group IV members are remarkably similar to each other for clusters of up to ten atoms, as is the trend in the electron affinities as

  4. Theoretical study of the electronic states of Nb4, Nb5 clusters and their anions (Nb4?, Nb5?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K; Majumdar, D


    Geometries and energy separations of the various low-lying electronic states of Nb{sub n} and Nb{sub n}{sup -} (n = 4, 5) clusters with various structural arrangements have been investigated. The complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) method followed by multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations that included up to 52 million configuration spin functions have been used to compute several electronic states of these clusters. The ground states of both Nb{sub 4} ({sup 1}A', pyramidal) and Nb{sub 4}{sup -} ({sup 2}B{sub 3g}, rhombus) are low-spin states at the MRSDCI level. The ground state of Nb{sub 5} cluster is a doublet with a distorted trigonal bipyramid (DTB) structure. The anionic cluster of Nb{sub 5} has two competitive ground states with singlet and triplet multiplicities (DTB). The low-lying electronic states of these clusters have been found to be distorted due to Jahn-Teller effect. On the basis of the energy separations of our computed electronic states of Nb{sub 4} and Nb{sub 5}, we have assigned the observed photoelectron spectrum of Nb{sub n}{sup -}(n = 4, 5) clusters. We have also compared our MRSDCI results with density functional calculations. The electron affinity, ionization potential, dissociation and atomization energies of Nb{sub 4} and Nb{sub 5} have been calculated and the results have been found to be in excellent agreement with the experiment.

  5. Structurally Well-Defined Sigmoidal Gold Clusters: Probing the Correlation between Metal Atom Arrangement and Chiroptical Response. (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Yuechao; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Liang


    Asymmetric arrangement of metal atoms is crucial for understanding the chirality origin of chiral metal nanoclusters and facilitating the design and development of new chiral catalysts and chiroptical devices. Here, we describe the construction of four asymmetric gold and gold-silver clusters by chirality transfer from diimido ligands. The acquired metal clusters show strong circular dichroism (CD) response with large anisotropy factors of up to 6 × 10(-3), larger than the values of most reported chiral gold nanoclusters. Regardless of the same absolute configuration of the applied three diimido ligands, sigmoidal and reverse-sigmoidal arrangements of gold atoms both can be achieved, which resultantly produce an opposite Cotton effect within a specific absorption range. On the basis of the detailed structural characterization via X-ray crystallography and contrast experiments, the chirality contribution of the imido ligand, the asymmetrically arranged metal cluster, and the chiral arrangement of aromatic rings of phosphine ligands have been qualitatively evaluated. Time-dependent DFT calculations reveal that the chiroptical property of the acquired metal clusters is mainly influenced by the asymmetrically arranged metal atoms. Correlation of asymmetric arrangements of metal atoms in clusters with their chiroptical response provides a viable means of fabricating a designable chiral surface of metal nanoclusters and opens a broader prospect for chiral cluster application.

  6. Structures of Mo(x)W(3-x)O(6) (x = 0-3) anion and neutral clusters determined by anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. (United States)

    Rothgeb, David W; Hossain, Ekram; Kuo, Angela T; Troyer, Jennifer L; Jarrold, Caroline Chick


    The structures of Mo(3)O(6), Mo(2)WO(6), MoW(2)O(6), and W(3)O(6) and their associated anions were studied using a combination of anion photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The 3.49 eV photon energy anion PE spectra of all four species showed broad electronic bands with origins near 2.8 eV. Calculations predict that low-spin, cyclic structures are the lowest energy isomers for both the anion and neutral species. The lowest energy neutral structures for all four species are analogous, C(3v) (Mo(3)O(6) and W(3)O(6)) or C(s) (mixed clusters) symmetry structures in which all three metal atoms are in formally equivalent oxidation states, with singlet ground electronic states. The lowest energy isomers predicted for Mo(3)O(6)(-) and W(3)O(6)(-) are the same with doublet electronic states. The lowest energy structures calculated for the mixed anions are lower symmetry, with the tungsten centers in higher oxidation states than the molybdenum centers. However, C(s) symmetry structures are competitive, and appear to be the primary contributors to the observed spectra. Spectral simulations based on calculated spectroscopic parameters validate the assignments. This series of clusters is strikingly different from the Mo(2)O(4)/MoWO(4)/W(2)O(4) anion and neutral series described recently [Mayhall et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124313 (2009)]. While the average oxidation state is the same for both series, the structures determined for the Mo(2)O(4)/MoWO(4)/W(2)O(4) anions and neutrals were dissimilar and lower symmetry, and high spin states were energetically favored. This difference is attributed to the large stabilizing effect of electronic delocalization in the more symmetric trimetallic cyclic structures that is not available in the bimetallic species.

  7. Laser fabrication of gold nanoparticle clustered tips for use in apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy. (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Park, Jung Su; Park, Jin-Ho; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok


    A laser fabrication method was developed to make gold nanoparticle clustered (GNC) tips for apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopes (ANSOMs) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The near-field Rayleigh and Raman scattering of samples are highly enhanced when a gold nanoparticle cluster is synthesized on the end of the tip. This is due to the lightning rod effect in the sharp tips. The localized electromagnetic field enhancement and the spatial resolution (~30 nm) of the fabricated GNC tip were verified by TERS and ANSOM measurements of carbon nanotubes.

  8. Inter-channel effects in monosolvated atomic iodide cluster anion detachment: correlation of the anisotropy parameter with solvent dipole moment. (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Foster; Dao, Diep; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Lasinski, Joshua; Mabbs, Richard


    Photoelectron imaging results are presented for I(-)[middle dot]X cluster anions (X = CO(2), C(4)H(5)N [pyrrole], (CH(3))(2)CO, CH(3)NO(2)). The available detachment channels are labeled according to the neutral iodine atom states produced (channel I ≡ (2)P(3/2) and channel II ≡ (2)P(1/2)). At photon energies in the vicinity of the channel II threshold these data are compared to previously reported results for I(-)[middle dot]X (X = CH(3)CN, CH(3)Cl, CH(3)Br, and H(2)O). In particular, these results show a strong connection between the dipole moment of the solvent molecule and the behavior of the channel I photoelectron angular distributions in this region, which is consistent with an electronic autodetachment process. The evolution of the channel II:channel I branching ratios in this excitation regime supports this contention.

  9. Inter-channel effects in monosolvated atomic iodide cluster anion detachment: Correlation of the anisotropy parameter with solvent dipole moment (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Foster; Dao, Diep; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Lasinski, Joshua; Mabbs, Richard


    Photoelectron imaging results are presented for I-.X cluster anions (X = CO2, C4H5N [pyrrole], (CH3)2CO, CH3NO2). The available detachment channels are labeled according to the neutral iodine atom states produced (channel I ≡ 2P3/2 and channel II ≡ 2P1/2). At photon energies in the vicinity of the channel II threshold these data are compared to previously reported results for I-.X (X = CH3CN, CH3Cl, CH3Br, and H2O). In particular, these results show a strong connection between the dipole moment of the solvent molecule and the behavior of the channel I photoelectron angular distributions in this region, which is consistent with an electronic autodetachment process. The evolution of the channel II:channel I branching ratios in this excitation regime supports this contention.

  10. Efficient floating diffuse functions for accurate characterization of the surface-bound excess electrons in water cluster anions. (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang


    In this work, the effect of diffuse function types (atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating functions and s-type versus p-type diffuse functions) on the structures and properties of three representative water cluster anions featuring a surface-bound excess electron is studied and we find that an effective combination of such two kinds of diffuse functions can not only reduce the computational cost but also, most importantly, considerably improve the accuracy of results and even avoid incorrect predictions of spectra and the EE shape. Our results indicate that (a) simple augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions is beneficial for the vertical detachment energy convergence, but it leads to very poor descriptions for the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) distributions of the water cluster anions featuring a surface-bound excess electron and thus a significant ultraviolet spectrum redshift; (b) the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions can not only contribute to accurate electronic calculations of the ground state but also avoid poor and even incorrect descriptions of the SOMO and the LUMO induced by excessive augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions; (c) the floating functions can be realized by ghost atoms and their positions could be determined through an optimization routine along the dipole moment vector direction. In addition, both the s- and p-type floating functions are necessary to supplement in the basis set which are responsible for the ground (s-type character) and excited (p-type character) states of the surface-bound excess electron, respectively. The exponents of the diffuse functions should also be determined to make the diffuse functions cover the main region of the excess electron distribution. Note that excessive augmentation of such diffuse functions is redundant and even can lead to unreasonable LUMO characteristics.

  11. Carbon nanotubes randomly decorated with gold clusters: from nano{sup 2}hybrid atomic structures to gas sensing prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlier, J-C; Zanolli, Z [Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Arnaud, L; Avilov, I V; Felten, A; Pireaux, J-J [Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matiere et du Rayonnement (PMR-LISE), Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Delgado, M [Sensotran, s.l., Avenida Remolar 31, E-08820 El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Demoisson, F; Reniers, F [Service de Chimie Analytique et Chimie des Interfaces (CHANI), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP255, Boulevard du Triomphe 2, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Espinosa, E H; Ionescu, R; Leghrib, R; Llobet, E [Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avenida Paisos Catalans 26, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ewels, C P; Suarez-Martinez, I [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere-BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Guillot, J; Mansour, A; Migeon, H-N [Departement Science et Analyse des Materiaux, Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann, rue du Brill 41, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Watson, G E, E-mail: [Vega Science Trust, Unit 118, Science Park SQ, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom)


    Carbon nanotube surfaces, activated and randomly decorated with metal nanoclusters, have been studied in uniquely combined theoretical and experimental approaches as prototypes for molecular recognition. The key concept is to shape metallic clusters that donate or accept a fractional charge upon adsorption of a target molecule, and modify the electron transport in the nanotube. The present work focuses on a simple system, carbon nanotubes with gold clusters. The nature of the gold-nanotube interaction is studied using first-principles techniques. The numerical simulations predict the binding and diffusion energies of gold atoms at the tube surface, including realistic atomic models for defects potentially present at the nanotube surface. The atomic structure of the gold nanoclusters and their effect on the intrinsic electronic quantum transport properties of the nanotube are also predicted. Experimentally, multi-wall CNTs are decorated with gold clusters using (1) vacuum evaporation, after activation with an RF oxygen plasma and (2) colloid solution injected into an RF atmospheric plasma; the hybrid systems are accurately characterized using XPS and TEM techniques. The response of gas sensors based on these nano{sup 2}hybrids is quantified for the detection of toxic species like NO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  12. Sensitive electrochemical detection of superoxide anion using gold nanoparticles distributed poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyaniline core-shell electrospun composite electrode. (United States)

    Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Manesh, Kalayil Manian; Lee, Se-Hee; Uthayakumar, Sivaperumal; Gopalan, Anantha Iyengar; Lee, Kwang-Pill


    In the present communication, a novel composite nanofibrous electrode is developed for the detection of superoxide anion (O(2)˙(-)) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The composite fiber electrode is fabricated by dispersing gold nanoparticles onto poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-polyaniline (PANI) core-shell electrospun nanofibers. The constructed architecture is proven to be a favorable environment for the immobilization of the enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Direct electron transfer is achieved between SOD and the electrode with an electron transfer rate constant of 8.93 s(-1). At an applied potential of +300 mV, PMMA/PANI-Au(nano)/SOD-ESCFM shows highly sensitive detection of O(2)˙(-). In addition to this, quantification of different activities of SOD is realized at PMMA/PANI-Au(nano)/SOD-ESCFM. These analytical features offer great potential for construction of the third-generation O(2)˙(-) biosensor.

  13. Cluster Model Studies of Anion and Molecular Specificities via Electrospray Ionization Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue-Bin


    Ion specificity, a widely observed macroscopic phenomenon in condensed phases and at interfaces, is essentially a fundamental chemical physical issue. We have been investigating such effects using cluster models in an “atom-by-atom” and “molecule-by-molecule” fashion not possible with condensed-phase methods. We use electrospray ionization (ESI) to generate molecular and ionic clusters to simulate key molecular entities involved in local binding regions, and characterize them employing negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). Inter- and intramolecular interactions and binding configurations are directly obtained as functions of cluster size and composition, providing insightful molecular-level description and characterization over the local active sites that play crucial roles in determining solution chemistry and condensed phase phenomena. The topics covered in this article are relevant to a wide scope of research fields ranging from ion specific effects in electrolyte solutions, ion selectivity/recognition in normal functioning of life, to molecular specificity in aerosol particle formation, as well as in rational material design and synthesis.

  14. Gold/Iron Carbonyl Clusters for Tailored Au/FeOx Supported Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Albonetti


    Full Text Available A novel preparation method was developed for the preparation of gold/iron oxide supported catalysts using the bimetallic carbonyl cluster salts [NEt4]4[Au4Fe4(CO16] and [NEt4][AuFe4(CO16] as precursors of highly dispersed nanoparticles over different supports. A series of catalysts with different metal loadings were prepared and tested in the complete oxidation of dichlorobenzene, toluene, methanol and in the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of H2 (PROX as model reactions. The characterization by BET, XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, ICP-AES and XPS point out the way the nature of the precursors and the thermal treatment conditions affected the dispersion of the active phase and their catalytic activity in the studied reactions.

  15. Stable oligomeric clusters of gold nanoparticles: preparation, size distribution, derivatization, and physical and biological properties. (United States)

    Smithies, Oliver; Lawrence, Marlon; Testen, Anze; Horne, Lloyd P; Wilder, Jennifer; Altenburg, Michael; Bleasdale, Ben; Maeda, Nobuyo; Koklic, Tilen


    Reducing dilute aqueous HAuCl4 with NaSCN under alkaline conditions produces 2-3 nm diameter yellow nanoparticles without the addition of extraneous capping agents. We here describe two very simple methods for producing highly stable oligomeric grape-like clusters (oligoclusters) of these small nanoparticles. The oligoclusters have well-controlled diameters ranging from ∼5 to ∼30 nm, depending mainly on the number of subunits in the cluster. Our first ["delay-time"] method controls the size of the oligoclusters by varying from seconds to hours the delay time between making the HAuCl4 alkaline and adding the reducing agent, NaSCN. Our second ["add-on"] method controls size by using yellow nanoparticles as seeds onto which varying amounts of gold derived from "hydroxylated gold", Na(+)[Au(OH4-x)Clx](-), are added-on catalytically in the presence of NaSCN. Possible reaction mechanisms and a simple kinetic model fitting the data are discussed. The crude oligocluster preparations have narrow size distributions, and for most purposes do not require fractionation. The oligoclusters do not aggregate after ∼300-fold centrifugal-filter concentration, and at this high concentration are easily derivatized with a variety of thiol-containing reagents. This allows rare or expensive derivatizing reagents to be used economically. Unlike conventional glutathione-capped nanoparticles of comparable gold content, large oligoclusters derivatized with glutathione do not aggregate at high concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or in the circulation when injected into mice. Mice receiving them intravenously show no visible signs of distress. Their sizes can be made small enough to allow their excretion in the urine or large enough to prevent them from crossing capillary basement membranes. They are directly visible in electron micrographs without enhancement, and can model the biological fate of protein-like macromolecules with controlled sizes and charges. The ease of

  16. Gold Cluster Diffusion Kinetics on Stoichiometric and Reduced Surfaces of Rutile TiO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Nir; Browning, Nigel D.


    Gold clusters on rutile TiO2 are known to serve as efficient oxidation catalysts for pollutants and environmental contaminants. However, the mechanism by which highly mobile small clusters migrate and aggregate into larger species relevant to gold’s catalytic activity remains unresolved. We report herein on ab initio simulations of the diffusion of atomic gold clusters up to the trimer on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces. We show that, on the stoichiometric surface, both the dimer and the trimer can exhibit relatively low surface mobility due to high energetic barriers for diffusion out of their energetic minima coupled with low barriers for the reverse motion. On the reduced surface, these clusters can diffuse relatively quickly between energetic minima within the oxygen vacancy site due to the large degree of vibrational entropy in their transition states. Our computed diffusion times provide a point of comparison for future experiments and will aid in development of models of gold cluster island sintering.

  17. Plasmonic Non-linear Conversion of Continuous Wave Light by Gold Nanoparticle Clusters withFluorescent Protein Loaded Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Ildar; Abak, Musa Kurtulus; Turkpence, Deniz; Piantanida, Luca; Fruk, Ljiljana; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre; Lazzarino, Marco; Bek, Alpan


    We propose and demonstrate a method which is feasible for deterministic activation of few molecules. Our method relies on non-linear optical excitation of few enhanced yellow fluorescent protein molecules that are sandwiched between gaps of asymmetrically constructed plasmonic gold nanoparticle clusters. We observe that as infrared photons, which cannot get absorbed by fluorescent molecules, are converted through efficient second harmonic generation activity of gold nanoparticles to visible photons, the molecules absorb them and fluoresce. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that observation of SHG with cw laser becomes possible owing to the cooperative action of conversion enhancement through Fano resonance, hybridization in the plasmon absorption spectrum and the size asymmetry of nanoparticle dimers.

  18. Synthesis of gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped colloids and AuC60 nano-clusters (United States)

    Landon, Preston B.; Jarvis, Brandon C.; Gilleland, Cody L.; Renfro, Tim; Gutierrez, Jose; Synowczynski, Jennifer; Hirsch, Samuel G.; Glosser, Robert


    A technique for the fabrication of colloidal gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped particles using carbon nanotubes and rod shaped viruses as templates is described. The gold (Au) encapsulation process was accomplished by the precipitation of gold chloride from aqueous solutions. When this process was conducted in the presence of hydroxylated C60, small pieces of phase-separated composites of AuC60 appeared to have formed. These nano-clusters may turn out to be large noble metal analogs of the alkali metal fullerides with the smallest geometrically possible Au aggregate consisting of 55 gold atoms. The existence of noble metal fullerene composites has been previously theorized. The alkali metal fullerides are examples of phase separated solids and have exhibited superconductivity with temperatures as high 33K. The mechanism required for the binding energy between C60 and gold has been observed to exist between C60 and many of the mirror metals (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni). This binding energy is a charge transfer from the metal Fermi level into the C60 LUMO. If this bonding energy, is greater than the metals coagulation energy an Au/C60 size terminated mechanism during the formation of the gold aggregates by the adhesion of C60 to the surface is energetically favorable.

  19. Gold conjugate-based liposomes with hybrid cluster bomb structure for liver cancer therapy. (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ai-Yun; Shen, Jia-Jia; Shah, Vishva; Zhang, Can; Hong, Jin; Ding, Ya


    Hybrid drug delivery system containing both organic and inorganic nanocarriers is expected to achieve its complementary advantages for the aim of improving the performance of antineoplastic drugs in tumor therapy. Here we report the use of liposomes and gold nanoparticles to construct a liposome with a hybrid Cluster Bomb structure and discuss its unique multi-order drug release property for liver tumor treatment. A very simple method is used for the hybrid liposome preparation and involves mixing two solutions containing liposomes loaded with either non-covalent or covalent Paclitaxel (PTX, namely free PTX or PTX-conjugated GNPs, respectively) by different ratio of volume (25:75, 50:50, 25:75, v/v). Various mixed liposomes were tested to determine the optimal conditions for maximum drug delivery. The optimized liposome was then tested using xenograft Heps tumor-bearing mice and showed the best efficacy for chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor at PTX liposome: PTX-conjugated GNP liposome of 25:75 ratio (v/v). This system allows for simple and easy preparation while providing a more accurate site- and time-release mode for tumor treatment using antitumor drugs.

  20. Interactions of small gold clusters, Aun (n=1-3), with graphyne: theoretical investigation. (United States)

    Azizi, Elmira; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Jamshidi, Zahra


    The interactions of gold atom and clusters (Au2 and Au3) with the active sites of graphyne (GY) have been investigated using density functional theory (PBE, PBE-D3, and B3LYP-D3). In order to compare performance of DFT functional (BP86, PBE, TPSSh, B3LYP, PBE-D3, TPSSh-D3, and B3LYP-D3), the interactions of Au2 with various functional groups such as -sp, -sp(2) and aromatic sp(2) carbon atoms, -sp, -sp(2) and aromatic sp(2)-bonds have been investigated and also compared with the ab initio MP2 results. Additionally, the nature of interactions for graphyne-Au2 complexes are interpreted by means of the natural bond orbital (NBO), the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and compared with those of related graphene-Au2. This study suggests that graphyne shows complex behavior in comparison to those of graphene and could also be useful in modeling of the next generation electronic devices.

  1. Theoretical design of a novel copper doped gold cluster supported on graphene utilizing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kenichi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Boero, Mauro [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg UMR 7504, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg (France)


    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been used to inspect the adsorption of O{sub 2} to a small gold-copper alloy cluster supported on graphene. The exposed Cu atom in this cluster acts as a crucial attractive site for the approaching of O{sub 2} and consequently widens the reaction channel for the adsorption process. Conversely, a pure Au cluster on the same graphene support is inactive for the O{sub 2} adsorption because the corresponding reaction channel for the adsorption is very narrow. These results clearly indicate that doping a different metal to the Au cluster is a way to enhance the oxygen adsorption and to promote catalytic reactions.

  2. Quantum Chemical Study of the Low-Lying Electronic States of VSi3(-/0) Clusters and Interpretation of the Anion Photoelectron Spectrum. (United States)

    Tran, Van Tan; Tran, Quoc Tri


    The geometrical and electronic structures of VSi3(-/0) clusters have been investigated with the DFT, CCSD(T), and CASSCF/CASPT2 methods. The results showed that the suitable functional to identify the ground states of VSi3(-/0) clusters is not the B3LYP but the BP86. At the BP86, CCSD(T), and CASPT2 levels, the ground state of the anionic cluster was the (1)A' ((1)A1) of tetrahedral η(3)-(Si3)V(-) isomer, while that of the neutral cluster was the 1(2)A' and 1(2)A″ (1(2)E) of the same isomer. The 1(2)A' and 1(2)A″ of the tetrahedral η(3)-(Si3)V isomer were the results of the Jahn-Teller distortions of the 1(2)E in C3v symmetry. All three bands in the photoelectron spectrum of the VSi3(-) cluster were interpreted by one-electron detachments from the (1)A' anionic ground state on the basis of the BP86, CCSD(T), and CASPT2 methods. The calculated adiabatic and vertical detachment energies were in agreement with the experimental values. The broad shape of the first band was explained by Franck-Condon factor simulations for the (1)A' → 1(2)A' and (1)A' → 1(2)A″ transitions within the tetrahedral η(3)-(Si3)V(-/0) isomers.

  3. Density functional theory assessment of molecular structures and energies of neutral and anionic Al(n) (n = 2-10) clusters. (United States)

    Paranthaman, Selvarengan; Hong, Kiryong; Kim, Joonghan; Kim, Dong Eon; Kim, Tae Kyu


    We report the results of a benchmarking study on hybrid, hybrid-meta, long-range-corrected, meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA), and GGA density functional theory (DFT) methods for aluminum (Al) clusters. A range of DFT functionals, such as B3LYP, B1B95, PBE0, mPW1PW91, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, ωB97XD, TPSSh, BLYP, PBE, mPWPW91, M06-L, and TPSS, have been used to optimize the molecular structures and calculate the vibrational frequencies and four energetic parameters for neutral and anionic Al(n) (n = 2-10) clusters. The performances of these functionals are assessed systematically by calculating the vertical ionization energy for neutral Al clusters and the vertical electron detachment energy for anionic Al clusters, along with the cohesive energy and dissociation energy. The results are compared with the available experimental and high-level ab initio calculated results. The calculated results showed that the PBE0 and mPW1PW91 functionals generally provide better results than the other functionals studied. TPSS can be a good choice for the calculations of very large Al clusters. On the other hand, the B3LYP, BLYP, and M06-L functionals are in poor agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results. The calculated results suggest that the hybrid DFT functionals like B3LYP do not always provide better performance than GGA functionals.

  4. Fine-tuned h-ferritin nanocage with multiple gold clusters as near-infrared kidney specific targeting nanoprobe. (United States)

    Sun, Cuiji; Yuan, Yi; Xu, Zhonghe; Ji, Tianjiao; Tian, Yanhua; Wu, Shan; Lei, Jianlin; Li, Jingyuan; Gao, Ning; Nie, Guangjun


    When stabilized and functionalized by biomolecules, noble metal (such as gold and silver) cluster-based hybrid nanocomposites have shown great promise for biomedical applications, due to their unique physiochemical properties originating from the inorganic elements and specific functionality and biocompatibility from their biological components. Although certain promise for bioimaging, biosensing, and biomimetic catalysis has been demonstrated, it is still a great challenge to integrate the defined functionality of the biomolecules with enhanced or novel physiochemical properties of the metal clusters, under control at the molecular level. Herein, based on molecular dynamics simulation of a gold (Au) cluster assembly, we designed near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites with multiple Au clusters within an apo H-ferritin (HFt) nanocage. The fluorescence quantum yield of near-infrared (NIR) Au-HFt is about 63.4% and the emission peak is 810 nm. The NIR Au-HFt is one of the first native protein-guided Au cluster-based nanomaterials for in vivo biowindow imaging. In vivo fluorescent imaging and quantification of Au element confirmed that Au-HFt not only retained the kidney targeting properties of HFt well (about 10 times higher Au concentration in kidney than in liver and spleen, the most common organs for nanoparticle accumulation), but also gained strong NIR imaging capability for live animals. The NIR Au-HFt showed powerful tissue penetrating ability, strong fluorescent efficiency, and excellent kidney targeting specificity. These results thus open new opportunities for kidney disease imaging and theranostic applications.

  5. Relativistic Coupled Cluster Calculations with Variational Quantum Electrodynamics Resolve the Discrepancy between Experiment and Theory Concerning the Electron Affinity and Ionization Potential of Gold (United States)

    Pašteka, L. F.; Eliav, E.; Borschevsky, A.; Kaldor, U.; Schwerdtfeger, P.


    The first ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of the gold atom have been determined to an unprecedented accuracy using relativistic coupled cluster calculations up to the pentuple excitation level including the Breit and QED contributions. We reach meV accuracy (with respect to the experimental values) by carefully accounting for all individual contributions beyond the standard relativistic coupled cluster approach. Thus, we are able to resolve the long-standing discrepancy between experimental and theoretical IP and EA of gold.

  6. Comparative hyperthermia effects of silica–gold nanoshells with different surface coverage of gold clusters on epithelial tumor cells


    Park SE; Lee J.; Lee T.; Bae SB; Kang B; Huh YM; Lee SW; Haam S


    Sang-Eun Park,1,* Jaewon Lee,2,* Taeksu Lee,2 Saet-Byeol Bae,1 Byunghoon Kang,2 Yong-Min Huh,3 Sang-Wha Lee,1 Seungjoo Haam,2 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silica–gold na...

  7. DFT modeling of adsorption of formaldehyde and methanediol anion on the (111) face of IB metals (United States)

    Starodubov, S. S.; Nechaev, I. V.; Vvedenskii, A. V.


    Gas-phase adsorption of formaldehyde and gas- and liquid-phase adsorption of the methanediol anion on the (111) face of copper, silver, and gold was modeled in terms of the density functional theory and the cluster model of the metal single-crystal surface. In the gas phase, formaldehyde was found to be physically adsorbed on the metals, while the methanediol anion was found to be chemisorbed. It exists on the surface in two different stable states. In aqueous solution, the H3CO 2 - anion can spontaneously dissociate into the formate ion and two hydrogen atoms.

  8. New Perspectives for Old Clusters: Anderson-Evans Anions as Building Blocks of Large Polyoxometalate Frameworks in a Series of Heterometallic 3 d-4 f Species. (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Lezama, Luis; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Vicent, Cristian; Haso, Fadi; Liu, Tianbo


    A series of nine [Sb7W36O133Ln3M2(OAc)(H2O)8](17-) heterometallic anions (Ln3M2; Ln=La-Gd, M=Co; Ln=Ce, M=Ni and Zn) have been obtained by reacting 3 d metal disubstituted Krebs-type tungstoantimonates(III) with early lanthanides. Their unique tetrameric structure contains a novel {MW9O33} capping unit formed by a planar {MW6O24} fragment to which three {WO2} groups are condensed to form a tungstate skeleton identical to that of a hypothetical trilacunary derivative of the ɛ-Keggin cluster. It is shown, for the first time, that classical Anderson-Evans {MW6O24} anions can act as building blocks to construct purely inorganic large frameworks. Unprecedented reactivity in the outer ring of these disk-shaped species is also revealed. The Ln3M2 anions possess chirality owing to a {Sb4O4} cluster being encapsulated in left- or right-handed orientations. Their ability to self-associate in blackberry-type vesicles in solution has been assessed for the Ce3Co2 derivative.

  9. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu; Wen Wei; Xiong Huayu; Zhang Xiuhua; Gu Haoshuang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wang Shengfu, E-mail: [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response (<5 s), wide linear range (5.6-2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}. The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} in biological systems.

  10. Photoelectron angular distributions as probes of cluster anion structure: I(-)·(H2O)2 and I(-)·(CH3CN)2. (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Foster; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Dao, Diep Bich; Lasinski, Joshua; Mabbs, Richard


    The use of photoelectron angular distributions to provide structural details of cluster environments is investigated. Photoelectron spectra and angular distributions of I(-)·(H2O)2 and I(-)·(CH3CN)2 cluster anions are recorded over a range of photon energies. The anisotropy parameter (β) for electrons undergoes a sharp change (Δβmax) at photon energies close to a detachment channel threshold. I(-)·(H2O)2 results show the relationship between dipole moment and Δβmax to be similar to that observed in monosolvated I(-) detachment. The Δβmax of the 4.0 eV band in the I(-)·(CH3CN)2 photoelectron spectrum suggests a dipole moment of 5-6 D. This is consistent with predictions of a hydrogen bonded conformer of the I(-)·(CH3CN)2 cluster anion [Timerghazin, Q. K.; Nguyen, T. N.; Peslherbe, G. H. J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 6867-6870].

  11. The as-prepared gold cluster-based fluorescent sensor for the selective detection of AsIII ions in aqueous solution (United States)

    Roy, Subhasish; Palui, Goutam; Banerjee, Arindam


    Water-soluble fluorescent gold clusters (AuCs) have been successfully synthesized by a wet-chemical approach at room temperature using a dipeptide l-cysteinyl-l-cysteine. We have followed the core-etching mechanism for the synthesis of the gold clusters. Clusters show the excitation maximum at 300 nm and the emission maximum at 410 nm. These gold clusters show interesting fluorescent properties including large Stoke's shift (110 nm), with a quantum yield of 41.3%, and photochemical stability. Transmission electron microscopic analysis shows that most of these particles are HR-MS, 1H NMR, FT-IR, XRPD, I-V, TEM, etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11786j

  12. Synthesis of new tren-based tris-macrocycles. Anion cluster assembling inside the cavity generated by a bowl-shaped receptor. (United States)

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Berni, Emanuela; Bianchi, Antonio; Ciattini, Samuele; Giorgi, Claudia; Maoggi, Sauro; Paoletti, Piero; Valtancoli, Barbara


    The synthesis of three new tris-macrocycles, containing three [12]aneN(4) (L1), [12]aneN(3)O (L2), or [14]aneN(4) (L3) moieties appended to a tren unit, is reported. The crystal structure of the [(Na(ClO(4))(6)) subset L1(2)H(13)]Na(6)Cl(2)(ClO(4))(12) compound shows the anionic cluster [Na(ClO(4))(6)](5)(-) assembled inside the cavity defined by two bowl-shaped polyammonium receptors, held by multiple charge-charge and hydrogen bond interactions.

  13. 2D-3D Transition for Cationic and Anionic Gold Clusters: A Kinetic Energy Density Functional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Hammer, Bjørk; Madsen, Georg


    gradient enhancement. Moreover, we show how MGGAs, in contrast to generalize gradient approximations with smaller gradient enhancements, avoid overestimating the bond energies by combining the information contained in the reduced gradient and the kinetic energy. This allows MGGAs to treat differently...

  14. Fuel mediated solution combustion synthesis of ZnO supported gold clusters and nanoparticles and their catalytic activity and in vitro cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Chanu, T Inakhunbi; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T


    Nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles and semiconductor ZnO with wurtzite structure, made by solution combustion synthesis (SCS), as a function of the Zn/fuel ratio with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as fuel exhibit the presence of both nanoparticles and clusters. Atomic gold clusters present on the surface of ZnO nanorods which can be identified by XPS and SEM are easily monitored and characterized by positive ion MALDI experiments as mostly odd numbered clusters, Au3 to Au11 in decreasing amounts. Low concentrations of the fuel produce AuClO and nanoparticles (NPs), with no clusters. Au-ZnO nanocomposites at all [Au] exhibit single blue shifted plasmon absorption and corresponding photoluminescence (PL). Increasing particle size prefers surface plasmon resonance (SPR) scattering of metal that could lead to PL enhancement; however, available ZnO surface in the Au-ZnO composite becomes more important than the particle size of the composite with higher [Au]. The catalytic activity of these Au-ZnO nanocomposites tested on 4-nitrophenol clearly revealed the presence of an intermediate with both NPs and clusters playing different roles. An in vitro study of cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines revealed that these gold nanostructures have turned out to be powerful nanoagents for destruction of cancer cells even with small amounts of gold particles/clusters. The nanorods of ZnO, known to be nontoxic to normal cells, play a lesser role in the anticancer activity of these Au-ZnO nanocomposites.

  15. Ion distribution in quaternary-ammonium-functionalized aromatic polymers: effects on the ionic clustering and conductivity of anion-exchange membranes. (United States)

    Weiber, E Annika; Jannasch, Patric


    A series of copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s that have precisely two, three, or four quaternary ammonium (QA) groups clustered directly on single phenylene rings along the backbone are studied as anion-exchange membranes. The copolymers are synthesized by condensation polymerizations that involve either di-, tri-, or tetramethylhydroquinone followed by virtually complete benzylic bromination using N-bromosuccinimide and quaternization with trimethylamine. This synthetic strategy allows excellent control and systematic variation of the local density and distribution of QA groups along the backbone. Small-angle X-ray scattering of these copolymers shows extensive ionic clustering, promoted by an increasing density of QA on the single phenylene rings. At an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.1 meq g(-1), the water uptake decreases with the increasing local density of QA groups. Moreover, at moderate IECs at 20 °C, the Br(-) conductivity of the densely functionalized copolymers is higher than a corresponding randomly functionalized polymer, despite the significantly higher water uptake of the latter. Thus, the location of multiple cations on single aromatic rings in the polymers facilitates the formation of a distinct percolating hydrophilic phase domain with a high ionic concentration to promote efficient anion transport, despite probable limitations by reduced ion dissociation. These findings imply a viable strategy to improve the performance of alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  16. A comparative study between all-electron scalar relativistic calculation and all-electron calculation on the adsorption of hydrogen molecule onto small gold clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang-Jun Kuang; Xin-Qiang Wang; Gao-Bin Liu


    A comparative study between all-electron relativistic (AER) calculation and all-electron (AE) calculation on the H2 molecule adsorption onto small gold clusters has been performed. Compared with the corresponding AuH2 cluster obtained by AE method, the AuH2 cluster obtained by AER method has much shorter Au-H bond-length, much longer H-H distance, larger binding energy and adsorption energy, higher vertical ionization potentials (VIP), greater charge transfer, higher vibrational frequency of Au-H mode and lower vibrational frequency of H-H mode. The delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for AuH2 cluster obtained by AER method is obvious. All these characteristics suggest that the scalar relativistic effect might strengthen the Au-H bond and weaken the H-H bond. It is believed that the scalar relativistic effect is favourable to the H2 molecule adsorption onto small gold cluster and the reactivity enhancement of H2 molecule. It may be one of the reasons why the dissociative adsorptions take place in some AuH2 clusters. With increasing size of AuH2 clusters, the influence of scalar relativistic effect becomes more significant. Some further studies focused on the influence of scalar relativistic effect on the adsorption behaviour of other small molecules onto gold clusters are necessary in the future.

  17. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo


    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  18. Monoatomic and cluster beam effect on ToF-SIMS spectra of self-assembled monolayers on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuccitto, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche Universita degli Studi di Catania, v.le A. Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)], E-mail:; Torrisi, V.; Delfanti, I.; Licciardello, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche Universita degli Studi di Catania, v.le A. Doria 6, 95125, Catania (Italy)


    Self-assembled monolayers represent well-defined systems that is a good model surface to study the effect of primary ion beams used in secondary ion mass spectrometry. The effect of polyatomic primary beams on both aliphatic and aromatic self-assembled monolayers has been studied. In particular, we analysed the variation of the relative secondary ion yield of both substrate metal-cluster (Au{sub n}{sup -}) in comparison with the molecular ions (M{sup -}) and clusters (M{sub x}Au{sub y}{sup -}) by using Bi{sup +}, Bi{sub 3}{sup +}, Bi{sub 5}{sup +} beams. Moreover, the differences in the secondary ion generation efficiency are discussed. The main effect of the cluster beams is related to an increased formation of low-mass fragments and to the enhancement of the substrate related gold-clusters. The results show that, at variance of many other cases, the static SIMS of self-assembled monolayers does not benefit of the use of polyatomic primary ions.

  19. Gold clusters on WO{sub 3} nanoneedles grown via AACVD: XPS and TEM studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navio, Cristina [Laboratory of Interaction Chemistry on Plasma Surfaces, University of Mons (Belgium); Vallejos, Stella [MINOS, EMaS, Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, University College London, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Stoycheva, Toni; Llobet, Eduard; Correig, Xavier [MINOS, EMaS, Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Snyders, Rony [Laboratory of Interaction Chemistry on Plasma Surfaces, University of Mons (Belgium); Blackman, Christopher [Department of Chemistry, University College London, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Umek, Polona [Solid State Physcis Department Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamov cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ke Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf [Electron Microscopy for Material Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Bittencourt, Carla, E-mail: [Electron Microscopy for Material Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)


    We have prepared tungsten oxide films decorated with gold particles on Si substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) and characterized them using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM shows that the films are composed of needle-like structures and TEM shows that both the needles and the gold particles are crystalline. XPS indicates the presence of oxygen vacancies, i.e. the films are WO{sub 3-x}, and hence the deposited material is composed of semiconducting nanostructures and that the interaction between the gold particles and the WO{sub 3} needles surface is weak. The synthesis of semiconducting tungsten oxide nanostructures decorated with metal particles represents an important step towards the development of sensing devices with optimal properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of WO{sub 3} needle-like structures decorated with gold nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} needle-like structures are crystalline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} needle-like structures are semiconducting.

  20. Density-functional study of the structures and properties of holmium-doped silicon clusters HoSi n (n = 3-9) and their anions. (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Yang, Jucai; Liu, Yuming


    The structures and properties of Ho-doped Si clusters, including their adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs), simulated photoelectron spectra (PESs), stabilities, magnetic moments, and charge-transfer characteristics, were systematically investigated using four density-functional methods. The results show that the double-hybrid functional (which includes an MP2 correlation component) can accurately predict the ground-state structure and properties of Ho-doped Si clusters. The ground-state structures of HoSi n (n = 3-9) are sextuplet electronic states. The structures of these Ho-doped Si clusters (aside from HoSi7) are substitutional. The ground-state structures of HoSi n(-) are quintuplet electronic states. Their predicted AEAs are in excellent agreement with the experimental ones. The mean absolute error in the theoretical AEAs of HoSi n (n = 4-9) is only 0.04 eV. The simulated PESs for HoSi n(-) (n = 5-9) are in good agreement with the experimental PESs. Based on its simulated PES and theoretical AEA, we reassigned the experimental PES of HoSi4(-) and obtained an experimental AEA of 2.2 ± 0.1 eV. The dissociation energies of Ho from HoSi n and HoSi n(-) (n = 3-9) were evaluated to test the relative stabilities of the clusters. HOMO-LUMO gap analysis indicated that doping the Si clusters with the rare-earth metal atom significantly increases their photochemical reactivity. Natural population analysis showed that the magnetic moments of HoSi n (n = 3-9) and their anions derive mainly from the Ho atom. It was also found that the magnetic moments of Ho in the HoSi n clusters are larger than the magnetic moment of an isolated Ho atom.

  1. Density Functional Investigation of the Inclusion of Gold Clusters on a CH3S Self-Assembled Lattice on Au(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnel J. Allen


    Full Text Available We employ first-principles density functional theoretical calculations to address the inclusion of gold (Au clusters in a well-packed CH3S self-assembled lattice. We compute CH3S adsorption energies to quantify the energetic stability of the self-assembly and gold adsorption and dissolution energies to characterize the structural stability of a series of Au clusters adsorbed at the SAM-Au interface. Our results indicate that the inclusion of Au clusters with less than four Au atoms in the SAM-Au interface enhances the binding of CH3S species. In contrast, larger Au clusters destabilize the self-assembly. We attribute this effect to the low-coordinated gold atoms in the cluster. For small clusters, these low-coordinated sites have significantly different electronic properties compared to larger islands, which makes the binding with the self-assembly energetically more favorable. Our results further indicate that Au clusters in the SAM-Au interface are thermodynamically unstable and they will tend to dissolve, producing Au adatoms incorporated in the self-assembly in the form of CH3S-Au-SCH3 species. This is due to the strong S-Au bond which stabilizes single Au adatoms in the self-assembly. Our results provide solid insight into the impact of adatom islands at the CH3S-Au interface.

  2. Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Gold Clusters: Influence of Ion and Ligand on Charge Retention and Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia


    Herein, we employ a combination of reduction synthesis in solution, soft landing of mass-selected precursor and product ions, and in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to examine the influence of ion and the length of diphosphine ligands on the charge retention and reactivity of ligated gold clusters deposited onto self-assembled monolayer surfaces (SAMs). Product ions (Au10L42+, (10,4)2+, L = 1,3-bis(diphenyl-phosphino)propane, DPPP) were prepared through in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) and precursor ions [(8,4)2+, L = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane, DPPH] were synthesized in solution for comparison to (11,5)3+ precursor ions ligated with DPPP investigated previously (ACS Nano 2012, 6, 573 and J. Phys. Chem. C. 2012, 116, 24977). Similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions, the (10,4)2+ product ions are shown to retain charge on 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol monolayers (FSAMs). Additional abundant peaks at higher m/z indicative of reactivity are observed in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of (10,4)2+ product ions that are not seen for (11,5)3+ precursor ions. The abundance of (10,4)2+ on 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (COOH-SAMs) is demonstrated to be lower than on FSAMs, consistent with partial reduction of charge. The (10,4)2+ product ion on 1-dodecanethiol (HSAMs) exhibits peaks similar to those seen on the COOH-SAM. On the HSAM, higher m/z peaks indicative of reactivity are observed similar to those on the FSAM. The (8,4)2+ DPPH precursor ions are shown to retain charge on FSAMs similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions prepared with DPPP. An additional peak corresponding to attachment of one gold atom to (8,4)2+ is observed at higher m/z for DPPH-ligated clusters. On the COOH-SAM, (8,4)2+ is less abundant than on the FSAM consistent with partial neutralization. The results indicate that although retention of charge by product ions generated by CID is similar to precursor ions their reactivity during analysis with SIMS is different

  3. Effect of the Keggin anions on assembly of Cu{sup I}-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes containing multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiuli, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Gao Qiang; Tian Aixiang; Hu Hailiang; Liu Guocheng [Department of Chemistry, Bohai University, Liaoning Province Silicon Materials Engineering Technology Research Centre, Jinzhou 121000 (China)


    In order to investigate the effect of polyoxometalate (POM) on the assembly of transition metal-bis(tetrazole) thioether complexes, three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster [Cu{sup I}{sub 12}(bmtr){sub 9}(HSiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 4}] (1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}(bmtr){sub 3}(PM{sub 12}O{sub 40})] (M=W for 2; Mo for 3) (bmtr=1,3-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)propane), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by routine physical methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, two kinds of nanometer-scale tetranuclear subunits linked by [SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4-} polyanions assemble a (3, 4)-connected three-dimensional (3D) self-penetrating framework. Compounds 2 and 3 are isostructural, exhibiting a 1D chain with [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-}/[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} polyanions and trinuclear clusters arranging alternately. The distinct structural differences between these POM-based Cu{sup I}-bmtr complexes of 1 and 2/3 maybe rest on the contrast of Keggin-type polyoxometalate with different central heteroatoms, which have been discussed in detail. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the title complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes based on different Keggin anions and multinuclear Cu{sup I}-cluster have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The Keggin polyanions with different central heteroatoms play a key role. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flexible bis(tetrazole)-based thioether ligand with some advantages have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Keggin anions with different central heteroatoms has been discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalysis property have been investigated.

  4. Spectroscopic Properties of Novel Aromatic Metal Clusters: NaM4 (M=Al, Ga, In) and their Cations and Anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K; Zhao, C


    The ground and several excited states of metal aromatic clusters, namely NaM4 and NaM{sub 4}{sup {+-}} (M=Al, Ga, In) clusters have been investigated by employing complete activespace self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by Multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) computations that included up to 10 million configurations and other methods. The ground states NaM{sub 4}{sup -} of aromatic anions are found to be symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 1}A{sub 1}) electronic states with ideal square pyramid geometries. While the ground state of NaIn4 is also predicted to be a symmetric C{sub 4v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) square pyramid, the ground state of the NaAl4 cluster is found to have a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rhombus base and the ground state of NaGa{sub 4} possesses a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) pyramid with a rectangle base. In general these structures exhibit 2 competing geometries, viz., an ideal C{sub 4v} structure and a distorted rhomboidal or rectangular pyramid structure (C{sub 2v}). All of the ground states of the NaM{sub 4}{sup +} (M= Al, Ga, In) cations are computed to be C{sub 2v} ({sup 3}A{sub 2}) pyramids with rhombus bases. The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, adiabatic ionization potentials, adiabatic electron affinities for the electronic states of NaM{sub 4} (M=Al, Ga, In) and their ions are computed and compared with experimental results and other theoretical calculations. On the basis of our computed excited states energy separations, we have tentatively suggested assignments to the observed X and A states in the anion photoelectron spectra of Al{sub 4}Na{sup -} reported by Li et al. The X state can be assigned to a C{sub 2v} ({sup 2}A{sub 1}) rhomboidal pyramid. The A state observed in the anion spectrum is assigned to the first excited state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) of the neutral NaAl{sub 4} with the C{sub 4v} symmetry. The assignments of the excited states are consistent with

  5. Determination of structures, stabilities, and electronic properties for bimetallic cesium-doped gold clusters: a density functional theory study. (United States)

    Cheng, Lu; Xiao-Yu, Kuang; Zhi-Wen, Lu; Ai-Jie, Mao; Yan-Ming, Ma


    The equilibrium geometric structures, stabilities, and electronic properties of bimetallic Au(n)Cs (n = 1-10) and pure gold Au(n) (n ≤ 11) clusters have been systematically investigated by using density functional theory with meta-generalized gradient approximation. The optimized geometries show that one Au atom capped on Au(n-1)Cs structures and Cs atom capped Au(n) structures for different sized Au(n)Cs (n = 1-10) clusters are two dominant growth patterns. Theoretical calculated results indicate that the most stable isomers have three-dimensional structures at n = 4 and 6-10. Averaged atomic binding energies, fragmentation energies, and second-order difference of energies exhibit a pronounced even-odd alternations phenomenon. The same even-odd alternations are found in the highest occupied-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps, vertical ionization potential, vertical electron affinity, and hardnesses. In addition, it is found that the charge in corresponding Au(n)Cs clusters transfers from the Cs atom to the Au(n) host in the range of 0.851-1.036 electrons.

  6. Rotational invariance and double frustration in the structures of gold clusters growing around the F(s)-defected MgO (100) surface. (United States)

    Barcaro, Giovanni; Fortunelli, Alessandro


    The interaction of small gold clusters (Au(n), n = 1-4, 20) and a gold monolayer with the MgO (100) surface surrounding a neutral oxygen vacancy (F(s) center) is investigated using density-functional (DF) calculations. It is found that the presence of the defect modifies the interaction of gold not only with the vacancy itself, but also with the oxygen and magnesium atoms around it by increasing both the adhesion energy and the equilibrium bond distances. This is at variance with the interaction of metal atoms with the regular MgO (100) surface or the F(s) defect itself, in which an increase of the adhesion energy is associated with a shortening of the metal-surface distance. The resulting double frustration and cylindrical invariance of the metal-surface interaction cause small gold clusters growing around an F(s) nucleation center to be highly fluxional in terms both of rotational freedom and of multiple competing structural motifs. Fragmentation energies of the gold clusters are also discussed, finding that the lowest-energy pathway corresponds to the detachment of a dimer.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of Lindqvist type mixed-metal cluster anion [V2W4O19]4- in discrete and coordination polymer compounds (United States)

    Yerra, Sridevi; Amanchi, Srinivasa Rao; Das, Samar K.


    Two vanadium substituted Lindqvist type tungsten heteropolyanion containing compounds with molecular formulae [HMTAH]2[H2V2W4O19]·4H2O (1) and [Na2(H2O)4]n[H2V2W4O19]n·2nHMTA·2nH2O (2) have been synthesized, where HMTA is hexamethylenetetramine. Compound 1 is a discrete compound, whereas, compound 2 is a coordination polymer. Compounds 1-2 are characterized by routine elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, electronic absorption spectral analyses, thermogravimetric studies and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The presence of vanadium in the cluster anion is confirmed by 51V NMR spectroscopy, EDS and ICP analyses. The crystal structures of compounds 1 and 2 are refined in orthorhombic space group Immm and monoclinic space group C2/c respectively.

  8. Systematic Study of Au6 to Au12 Gold Clusters on MgO(100) F Centers Using Density-Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Hammer, Bjørk


    We present an optimized genetic algorithm used in conjunction with density-functional theory in the search for stable gold clusters and O2 adsorption ensembles in F centers at MgO(100). For Au8 the method recovers known structures and identifies several more stable ones. When O2 adsorption...

  9. Sorption Recovery of Gold Thiosulphate Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; 等


    The gold sorption from thiosulphate solutions on carbon sorbents and on anion exchangers was studied. It was shown that the anion exchangers AV-17-10P and AP-100 are the most effective and selective at pH=5-8. These anion exchangers can be recommended for the gold recovery from the industrial solutions.

  10. Adsorption of a single gold or silver atom on vanadium oxide clusters. (United States)

    Ding, Xun-Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Rui-Jie; Liao, Heng-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hua-Yong


    The bonding properties between a single atom and its support have a close relationship with the stability and reactivity of single-atom catalysts. As a model system, the structural and electronic properties of bimetallic oxide clusters MV3Oy(q) (M = Au or Ag, q = 0, ±1, and y = 6-8) are systematically studied using density functional theory. The single noble metal atom Au or Ag tends to be adsorbed on the periphery of the V oxide clusters. Au prefers V sites for oxygen-poor clusters and O sites for oxygen-rich clusters, while Ag prefers O sites for most cases. According to natural population analysis, Au may possess positive or negative charges in the bimetallic oxide clusters, while Ag usually possesses positive charges. The bonding between Au and V has relatively high covalent character according to the bond order analysis. This work may provide some clues for understanding the bonding properties of single noble metal atoms on the support in practical single-atom catalysts, and serve as a starting point for further theoretical studies on the reaction mechanisms of related catalytic systems.

  11. The effects of cation-anion clustering on defect migration in MgAl2O4. (United States)

    Zamora, Richard J; Voter, Arthur F; Perez, Danny; Perriot, Romain; Uberuaga, Blas P


    Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), like many other ceramic materials, offers a range of technological applications, from nuclear reactor materials to military body armor. For many of these applications, it is critical to understand both the formation and evolution of lattice defects throughout the lifetime of the material. We use the Speculatively Parallel Temperature Accelerated Dynamics (SpecTAD) method to investigate the effects of di-vacancy and di-interstitial formation on the mobility of the component defects. From long-time trajectories of the state-to-state dynamics, we characterize the migration pathways of defect clusters, and calculate their self-diffusion constants across a range of temperatures. We find that the clustering of Al and O vacancies drastically reduces the mobility of both defects, while the clustering of Mg and O vacancies completely immobilizes them. For interstitials, we find that the clustering of Mg and O defects greatly reduces O interstitial mobility, but has only a weak effect on Mg. These findings illuminate important new details regarding defect kinetics relevant to the application of MgAl2O4 in extreme environments.

  12. The interaction of gold clusters with methanol molecules: Infrared photodissociation of mass-selected Aun+(CH3OH)m (United States)

    Dietrich, G.; Krückeberg, S.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Walther, C.


    Structural and energetic properties of the adducts formed by adsorbing methanol onto size-selected gold clusters are investigated by infrared photodissociation of trapped Aun+(CH3OH)m, n=1-10,15 and m=1-3. The excitation of vibrational modes of methanol leads to the desorption of neutral molecules which is monitored by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Spectra are obtained by measuring the fragment ion intensity as a function of photon energy. The C-O stretching vibration of adsorbed methanol changes discontinuously with cluster size. By comparison with Car-Parrinello calculations this change is traced back to the dimensionality of the gold clusters. The number of photons necessary for the desorption of methanol molecules provides an estimate of the respective separation energies.

  13. A Simple Method for the Size Controlled Synthesis of Stable Oligomeric Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles under Ambient Conditions. (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon; Testen, Anze; Koklic, Tilen; Smithies, Oliver


    Reducing dilute aqueous HAuCl4 with sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) under alkaline conditions produces 2 to 3 nm diameter nanoparticles. Stable grape-like oligomeric clusters of these yellow nanoparticles of narrow size distribution are synthesized under ambient conditions via two methods. The delay-time method controls the number of subunits in the oligoclusters by varying the time between the addition of HAuCl₄ to alkaline solution and the subsequent addition of reducing agent, NaSCN. The yellow oligoclusters produced range in size from ~3 to ~25 nm. This size range can be further extended by an add-on method utilizing hydroxylated gold chloride (Na(+)[Au(OH₄-x)Clx](-)) to auto-catalytically increase the number of subunits in the as-synthesized oligocluster nanoparticles, providing a total range of 3 nm to 70 nm. The crude oligocluster preparations display narrow size distributions and do not require further fractionation for most purposes. The oligoclusters formed can be concentrated >300 fold without aggregation and the crude reaction mixtures remain stable for weeks without further processing. Because these oligomeric clusters can be concentrated before derivatization they allow expensive derivatizing agents to be used economically. In addition, we present two models by which predictions of particle size can be made with great accuracy.

  14. Tuning optical properties of magic number cluster (SiO2)4O2H4 by substitutional bonding with gold atoms. (United States)

    Cai, Xiulong; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Liuxue; Zhang, Wenxian; Ning, Xijing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun


    By bonding gold atoms to the magic number cluster (SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(4), two groups of Au-adsorbed shell-like clusters Au(n)(SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(4-n) (n = 1-4) and Au(n)(SiO(2))(4)O(2) (n = 5-8) were obtained, and their spectral properties were studied. The ground-state structures of these clusters were optimized by density functional theory, and the results show that in despite of the different numbers and types of the adsorbed Au atoms, the cluster core (SiO(2))(4)O(2) of T(d) point-group symmetry keeps almost unchanged. The absorption spectra were obtained by time-dependent density functional theory. From one group to the other, an extension of absorption wavelength from the UV-visible to the NIR region was observed, and in each group the absorption strengths vary linearly with the number of Au atoms. These features indicate their advantages for exploring novel materials with easily controlled tunable optical properties. Furthermore, due to the weak electronic charge transfer between the Au atoms, the clusters containing Au(2) dimers, especially Au(8)(SiO(2))(4)O(2), absorb strongly NIR light at 900 approximately 1200 nm. Such strong absorption suggests potential applications of these shell-like clusters in tumor cells thermal therapy, like the gold-coated silica nanoshells with larger sizes.

  15. Determining the size-dependent structure of ligand-free gold-cluster ions. (United States)

    Schooss, Detlef; Weis, Patrick; Hampe, Oliver; Kappes, Manfred M


    Ligand-free metal clusters can be prepared over a wide size range, but only in comparatively small amounts. Determining their size-dependent properties has therefore required the development of experimental methods that allow characterization of sample sizes comprising only a few thousand mass-selected particles under well-defined collision-free conditions. In this review, we describe the application of these methods to the geometric structural determination of Au(n)(+) and Au(n)(-) with n = 3-20. Geometries were assigned by comparing experimental data, primarily from ion-mobility spectrometry and trapped ion electron diffraction, to structural models from quantum chemical calculations.

  16. UV-visible absorption of small gold clusters in neon: Au(n) (n = 1-5 and 7-9). (United States)

    Lecoultre, S; Rydlo, A; Félix, C; Buttet, J; Gilb, S; Harbich, W


    We present optical absorption spectra in the UV-visible range (1.5 eV < E < 6 eV) for mass selected neutral gold clusters Au(n) (n = 1-5 and 7-9) embedded in solid Ne at 7 K. The experimental spectra are compared with time-dependent density functional calculations. Electronic transitions are distributed over the whole energy range without any concentration of the oscillator strength in a small energy window, characteristic for the more s-like metals such as the alkalis or silver. Contrary to the case of silver and partly copper clusters, transitions issued from mainly d-type states are significantly involved in low energy transitions. The measured integrated cross section is smaller (<20%) than expected from a free-electron system, manifesting the strong screening of the s electrons due to the proximity of the s and d levels in gold.

  17. Large clusters of gold deposits and large-scale metallogene-sis in the Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI; Mingguo


    [1]Tu, G. C., The unique nature in ore deposition, geological background and metallogenic mechanism of non-conventional superlarge ore deposits: A preliminary discussion, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1998, 41 (sup.): 1-6.[2]Pei, R. F., Qiu, X. P., Yin, B. C. et al., The Explosive anomaly of ore-forming processes and super-accumulation of metals, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18 (4): 333-340.[3]Zhai, Y. S., De, J., Li, X. B., Essentials of Metallogeny (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1999: 1-288.[4]Mao, J. W., Hua, R. M., Li, X. B., A preliminary study of large-scale metallogenesis and large clusters of mineral deposits, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1999, 18(4): 291-298.[5]Zhang, C. H., Gu, D. L., Study on the microstructure and deformation mechanism of the sinistral slick ductile shear zone in the middle of the northern Jiaonan uplift, in Tectonic and Geological Evolution of the Northern Jiaonan Uplift (in Chi-nese) (eds. Gu, D. L., Zhang, C. H.), Beijing: China University of Geosciences Press, 1996, 96-104.[6]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Wang, Q. C. et al., Division of geological-tectonic units in the northern Sulu ultra-high pressure zone: An example of thick-skin thrust of crystalline units, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 2000, 35(1): 16-26.[7]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Cong, B. L. et al., Sm-Nd geochronolgy and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region and their geotectonic implication, Scientica Geologica Acta (in Chinese), 1999, 34(3): 301-310.[8]Zhai, M. G., Cong, B., Guo, J., Sm-Nd geochronology and petrography of garnet pyroxene granulites in the northern Sulu region of China and their geotectonic implication, Lithos, 2000, 52: 23-33.[9]Jahn, B. M., Geochemical and isotopic study of UHP terrain in China (abstract), in First Workshop on UHP Metamor-phism and Tectonics, Stanford: Stanford University, 1994, A71-74.[10]Li, S. G., Jagoutz

  18. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Manuel; Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Perez, Juan Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Rodes, Antonio, E-mail: Antonio.Rodes@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  19. From betaines to anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes. Borane, gold, rhodium, and nickel complexes starting from an imidazoliumphenolate and its carbene tautomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu


    Full Text Available The mesomeric betaine imidazolium-1-ylphenolate forms a borane adduct with tris(pentafluorophenylborane by coordination with the phenolate oxygen, whereas its NHC tautomer 1-(2-phenolimidazol-2-ylidene reacts with (triphenylphosphinegold(I chloride to give the cationic NHC complex [Au(NHC2][Cl] by coordination with the carbene carbon atom. The anionic N-heterocyclic carbene 1-(2-phenolateimidazol-2-ylidene gives the complexes [K][Au(NHC−2], [Rh(NHC−3] and [Ni(NHC−2], respectively. Results of four single crystal analyses are presented.

  20. Switching Plasmons: Gold Nanorod-Copper Chalcogenide Core-Shell Nanoparticle Clusters with Selectable Metal/Semiconductor NIR Plasmon Resonances. (United States)

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb; Döblinger, Markus; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jessica


    Exerting control over the near-infrared (NIR) plasmonic response of nanosized metals and semiconductors can facilitate access to unexplored phenomena and applications. Here we combine electrostatic self-assembly and Cd(2+)/Cu(+) cation exchange to obtain an anisotropic core-shell nanoparticle cluster (NPC) whose optical properties stem from two dissimilar plasmonic materials: a gold nanorod (AuNR) core and a copper selenide (Cu(2-x)Se, x ≥ 0) supraparticle shell. The spectral response of the AuNR@Cu2Se NPCs is governed by the transverse and longitudinal plasmon bands (LPB) of the anisotropic metallic core, since the Cu2Se shell is nonplasmonic. Under aerobic conditions the shell undergoes vacancy doping (x > 0), leading to the plasmon-rich NIR spectrum of the AuNR@Cu(2-x)Se NPCs. For low vacancy doping levels the NIR optical properties of the dually plasmonic NPCs are determined by the LPBs of the semiconductor shell (along its major longitudinal axis) and of the metal core. Conversely, for high vacancy doping levels their NIR optical response is dominated by the two most intense plasmon modes from the shell: the transverse (along the shortest transversal axis) and longitudinal (along the major longitudinal axis) modes. The optical properties of the NPCs can be reversibly switched back to a purely metallic plasmonic character upon reversible conversion of AuNR@Cu(2-x)Se into AuNR@Cu2Se. Such well-defined nanosized colloidal assemblies feature the unique ability of holding an all-metallic, a metallic/semiconductor, or an all-semiconductor plasmonic response in the NIR. Therefore, they can serve as an ideal platform to evaluate the crosstalk between plasmonic metals and plasmonic semiconductors at the nanoscale. Furthermore, their versatility to display plasmon modes in the first, second, or both NIR windows is particularly advantageous for bioapplications, especially considering their strong absorbing and near-field enhancing properties.

  1. Composition dependent adsorption of multiple CO molecules on binary silver-gold clusters Ag(n)Au(m)+ (n + m = 5): theory and experiment. (United States)

    Popolan, Denisia M; Nössler, Melanie; Mitrić, Roland; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Bonacić-Koutecký, Vlasta


    The binding energies of multiple CO molecules to five-atom silver-gold cluster cations have been obtained employing temperature dependent gas phase ion trap measurements and ab initio calculations. The CO binding energies to Ag(n)Au(m)(+) (n + m = 5) decrease with increasing number of silver atoms. Most strikingly, after the adsorption of the fourth CO to Au(5)(+) and of the third CO to Ag(5)(+), respectively, a pronounced decrease in the binding energies of further CO molecules was observed. This is related to a CO-induced structural transformation yielding more compact metal cluster geometries. First principles calculations revealed that the exact structure of the carbonyl complexes with multiple CO and the nature of the CO-induced structural transformation strongly depend on the composition of the metal cluster as well as on the number of adsorbed CO molecules.

  2. Organometallic Gold(Ⅲ)Derivatives with Anionic Oxygen Ligands-mononuclear Hydroxo,Alkoxo,and Acetato Complexes:Synthesis and Spectral Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prithwiraj Byabartta


    A variety of gold(Ⅲ) adducts having a-ligated oxygen-donor ligands have been prepared from [Au(ppy)Cl2](ppy·phenylpyridine)(1) either by partial or total replacement of the chloride ions.The new species comprise hydroxo-[Au(ppy)(OH)Cl](2),and[Au(ppy)(OH)2](3),oxo-[Au2(ppy)2(μ-O)2](4),acetate-[Au(ppy)(O2CMe2)] (5),and alkoxo complexes-[Au(ppy)(OR)Cl](6,7)and[Au(ppy)(OR)2](8-10)(R=Me,6 and 8;Et,7 and 9;Pri,10).The dihydroxo and the OXO complexes Can be interconverted by refluxing the former in anhydrous THF and the latter in water.The hydroxides 2 and 3 and the acetato complex 5 undergo σ-ligand metathesis in ROH solution(R=Me,Et or Pri) to give the corresponding alkoxides.

  3. Gold-superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study. (United States)

    Rampino, Sergio; Storchi, Loriano; Belpassi, Leonardo


    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au7- and Au20-E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au7 (planar) and Au20 (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au20-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  4. Theoretical study of oxygen adsorption on pure Au-n+1(+) and doped MAun+ cationic gold clusters for M = Ti, Fe and n=3-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, M. Begona; Fernandez Sanchez, Eva; Balbas, Luis C.


    A comparative study of the adsorption of an O-2 molecule on pure Au-n+1(+) and doped MAun+ cationic gold clusters for n = 3-7 and M = Ti, Fe is presented. The simultaneous adsorption of two oxygen atoms also was studied. This work was performed by means of first principles calculations based...... with adsorption energies of 0.56 and 0.69 eV, respectively. The ground-state geometry of Au-n(+) is almost unperturbed after O-2 adsorption. The electronic charge flows towards O-2 when the molecule is adsorbed in bridge positions and towards the gold cluster when O-2 is adsorbed on top of An atoms, and both...... the adsorption energy and the O-O bond length of adsorbed oxygen increase when the amount of electronic charge on O-2 increases. On the other hand, we studied the adsorption of an O-2 molecule on doped MAun+ clusters, leading to the formation of (MAunO2+)(ad) complexes with different equilibrium configurations...

  5. Protein-gold clusters-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for high drug loading, autonomous gemcitabine/doxorubicin co-delivery, and in-vivo tumor imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.


    Functional nanocarriers capable of transporting high drug contents without premature leakage and to controllably deliver several drugs are needed for better cancer treatments. To address this clinical need, gold cluster bovine serum albumin (AuNC@BSA) nanogates were engineered on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for high drug loadings and co-delivery of two different anticancer drugs. The first drug, gemcitabine (GEM, 40 wt%), was loaded in positively-charged ammonium-functionalized MSN (MSN-NH3+). The second drug, doxorubicin (DOX, 32 wt%), was bound with negatively-charged AuNC@BSA electrostatically-attached onto MSN-NH3+, affording highly loaded pH-responsive MSN-AuNC@BSA nanocarriers. The co-delivery of DOX and GEM was achieved for the first time via an inorganic nanocarrier, possessing a zero-premature leakage behavior as well as drug loading capacities seven times higher than polymersome NPs. Besides, unlike the majority of strategies used to cap the pores of MSN, AuNC@BSA nanogates are biotools and were applied for targeted red nuclear staining and in-vivo tumor imaging. The straightforward non-covalent combination of MSN and gold-protein cluster bioconjugates thus leads to a simple, yet multifunctional nanotheranostic for the next generation of cancer treatments.

  6. Scanning the potential energy surface for synthesis of dendrimer-wrapped gold clusters: design rules for true single-molecule nanostructures. (United States)

    Thompson, Damien; Hermes, Jens P; Quinn, Aidan J; Mayor, Marcel


    The formation of true single-molecule complexes between organic ligands and nanoparticles is challenging and requires careful design of molecules with size, shape, and chemical properties tailored for the specific nanoparticle. Here we use computer simulations to describe the atomic-scale structure, dynamics, and energetics of ligand-mediated synthesis and interlinking of 1 nm gold clusters. The models help explain recent experimental results and provide insight into how multidentate thioether dendrimers can be employed for synthesis of true single-ligand-nanoparticle complexes and also nanoparticle-molecule-nanoparticle "dumbbell" nanostructures. Electronic structure calculations reveal the individually weak thioether-gold bonds (325 ± 36 meV), which act collectively through the multivalent (multisite) anchoring to stabilize the ligand-nanoparticle complex (∼7 eV total binding energy) and offset the conformational and solvation penalties involved in this "wrapping" process. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the dendrimer is sufficiently flexible to tolerate the strained conformations and desolvation penalties involved in fully wrapping the particle, quantifying the subtle balance between covalent anchoring and noncovalent wrapping in the assembly of ligand-nanoparticle complexes. The computed preference for binding of a single dendrimer to the cluster reveals the prohibitively high dendrimer desolvation barrier (1.5 ± 0.5 eV) to form the alternative double-dendrimer structure. Finally, the models show formation of an additional electron transfer channel between nitrogen and gold for ligands with a central pyridine unit, which gives a stiff binding orientation and explains the recently measured larger interparticle distances for particles synthesized and interlinked using linear ligands with a central pyridine rather than a benzene moiety. The findings stress the importance of organic-inorganic interactions, the control of which is central to the

  7. pH值和阴离子对吡啶2,6-二羧酸在金纳米颗粒表面的增强拉曼散射的影响%Influence of pH Value and Anion on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of 2,6-Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid on Gold Nanoparticle Suface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伟琪; 成汉文; 宦双燕; 温国丽; 陈媛媛; 沈国励; 俞汝勤


    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was used for the detection of 2 , 6-pyridinedicar boxylic acid (DPA) , a biomarker for bacterial spores. The gold nanoparticles of 60 nm diameters were immobilized on a polished Au electrode using PVP as an adhesive layer. We demonstrated that the fabricated SERS substrates were steady and highly sensitive. The influence of pH and anions about the adsorption mechanism of DPA on colloidal gold nanoparticles has been examined by SERS. The results showed that using a gold nanoparticle/polyvinylpyrrolidone/gold substrate (AuNPs/PVP/Au)for detection of DPA exhibited a maximum enhancement of SERS signal at low pH, however the SERS features and intensity of DPA were found to weaken when pH was greater than pKa2. The effect of different anions on the adsorption mechanism of this molecule was also investigated, the SERS effect on Au NPs-Au substrate had changed, since the anions may replace the partial sites of the citrate on the gold surface. Owing to the different adsorption mechanism of the three anions, the difference of SERS intensity was observed on the addition of different anions.%表面增强拉曼散射(SERS)被用于检测细菌芽抱中的一种重要的标志物吡啶2,6-羧酸(DPA).以聚乙烯吡啶烷酮(PVP)为粘合剂,将60 nm的金粒子组装到表面打磨光滑的金电极上,制备稳定、灵敏的SERS基底.通过不同pH值下吸附在金基底上的DPA的SERS特征,考察DPA分子吸附构型发生的变化,并分析酸根离子对其吸附的影响.结果表明:在强酸条件下,DPA在Au NPs/PVP/Au基底上的SERS信号能达到最大增强;当pH值大于DPA二级解离常数时,DPA的SERS特征逐渐减弱.在DPA中引入不同酸根盐时,后者会取代纳米金表面的柠檬酸根所占的部分位点,改变Au NPs-Au基底的SERS增强性能.3种酸根吸附性能不同,所以获得的光谱强度存在差异.

  8. Probing the electronic structures and properties of neutral and anionic ScSi(n)((0,-1)) (n = 1-6) clusters using ccCA-TM and G4 theory. (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Jucai; Kang, Yali; Ning, Hongmei


    The geometries, electronic structures and energies of small ScSi n species (n = 1-6) and their anions have been systematically investigated by means of the higher level of the ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) schemes. The global minima of these clusters have been presented. The global minima of neutral ScSi n (n = 1-6) and their anions are "substitutional structure" which is derived from Si n+1 by replacing a Si atom with a Sc atom. The adiabatic electron affinities for ScSi n have been estimated. Compared with limited experimental data, the average absolute deviations from experiment for ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) are 0.21 eV, 0.22 eV, and 0.25 eV, respectively. The dissociation energies of Sc atom from the lowest-energy structure of ScSi n clusters have been evaluated to examine relative stabilities. The electron affinities and dissociation energies predicted by ccCA-TM, G4, and G4(MP2) methods, especially for ccCA-TM and G4, differ little from each other. The agreement may indicate they are reliable.

  9. Evaluation of secondary ion yield enhancement from polymer material by using TOF-SIMS equipped with a gold cluster ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimoto, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijioji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Aoyagi, S. [Department of Regional Development, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue-shi, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Kato, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijioji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Iida, N. [ULVAC-PHI, Inc., 370 Enzo, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-0084 (Japan); Yamamoto, A. [ULVAC-PHI, Inc., 370 Enzo, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-0084 (Japan); Kudo, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijioji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan)


    We investigated the enhancement of the secondary ion intensity in the TOF-SIMS spectra obtained by Au{sup +} and Au{sub 3} {sup +} bombardment in comparison with Ga{sup +} excitation using polymer samples with different molecular weight distributions. Since the polymer samples used in this experiment have a wide molecular weight distribution, the advantages of the gold cluster primary ion source over monoatomic ion could accurately be evaluated. It was observed that the degree of fragmentation decreased by the usage of cluster primary ion beam compared with monoatomic ion beam, which was observed as a shift of the intensity distribution in the spectra. It was also found out that the mass effect of Au{sup +} and Ga{sup +} as monoatomic primary ion, resulted in about 10-60 times of enhancement for both samples with different molecular distributions. On the other hand, the Au{sub 3} {sup +} bombardment caused intensity enhancement about 100-2600 compared with Ga{sup +} bombardment, depending on the mass range of the detected secondary ion species. The cluster primary ion effect of Au{sub 3} {sup +}, compared with Au{sup +}, therefore, was estimated to be about 10-45.

  10. Rationalizing structure, stability, and chemical bonding of pure and doped clusters, isolated and solvated multiply charged anions, and solid-state materials (United States)

    Sergeeva, Alina P.

    Chemistry is the study of materials and the changes that materials undergo. One can tune the properties of the known materials and design the novel materials with desired properties knowing what is responsible for the chemical reactivity, structure, and stability of those materials. The unified chemical bonding theory could address all these questions, but we do not have one available yet. The most accepted general theory of chemical bonding was proposed by Lewis in 1916, though Lewis's theory fails to explain the bonding in materials with delocalized electron density such as sub-nano and nanoclusters, as well as aromatic organic and organometallic molecules. The dissertation presents a set of projects that can be considered the steps towards the development of the unified chemical bonding theory by extending the ideas of Lewis. The dissertation also presents the studies of the properties of multiply charged anions, which tend to undergo Coulomb explosion in the isolated state and release the excess energy stored in them. It is shown how the properties of multiply charged anions can be tuned upon changing the chemical identity of the species or interaction with solvent molecules. Our findings led to the discovery of a new long-lived triply charged anionic species, whose metastability was explained by the existence of a repulsive Coulomb barrier. We also proposed two ways to restore high symmetry of compounds by suppression of the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect, which could lead to the design of new materials with the restored symmetry and therefore the novel properties.

  11. A comparative DFT study of interactions of Au and small gold clusters Aun (n = 2-4) with CH3S and CH2 radicals (United States)

    Blaško, Martin; Rajský, Tomáš; Urban, Miroslav


    We compare DFT binding energies (BEs) of Au and small gold clusters interacting with CH3S and CH2 ligands (Aun-L complexes, n = 1-4). The spin state and the binding mechanism in Aun-L varies with the participation of singly occupied non-bonding orbitals or doubly occupied lone-pair orbitals of a ligand and on the number of atoms (even or odd) of Aun. The highest BE, 354 kJ/mol, exhibits the Au3-CH2 complex with the covalent bond in which participate two singly occupied orbitals of the triplet state of CH2. With CH3S the highest BE (277 kJ/mol) is calculated for Au3-SCH3 with the single Au-S bond.

  12. Synthesis of highly fluorescent and thio-linkers stabilize gold quantum dots and nano clusters in DMF for bio-labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Shiva K., E-mail: [University of Idaho, Department of Chemistry (United States); Denn, Benjamin D.; Branen, A. Larry [University of Idaho, Coeur D' Alene, Biosensors and Nanotechnology Application Laboratory (BNAL) (United States)


    This study demonstrates a one versus two-step synthesis of fluorescent gold quantum dots (F-AuQDs) and nano clusters (F-AuNCs) functionalized with thiolated organic linkers using reduction of gold precursor in N,N Prime -dimethylformamide in 1 h of reaction. The F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs show fluorescence emission at 425 {+-} 5 nm upon excitation at 345 {+-} 5 nm of wavelength, with good water solubility and stability. Five different thiolated organic binary linkers consisting of various functional groups including: carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and aromatic amine, were conjugated with the F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs. The formation mechanism and functionalization of the F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs was characterized using UV-vis absorption spectra, UV-vis light, fluorescent emission spectra, pH, TEM, and FTIR. The fluorescence emission of the F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs is greatly dependent on the thio-linker. This novel one-step approach provides facile and fast synthesis of F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs over the two-step method, with less than 5 h of reaction and workup compared to more than 28 h of reaction for the two-step approach. These thio-linker functionalized F-AuQDs and F-AuNCs have a wide application in fluorescent labeling of biomolecules, optical devices, imaging, energy transfer, and biosensing.

  13. Ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids coupling with exonuclease III-aided cascade target recycling. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bao, Ting; Zeng, Xi; Xiong, Huayu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu


    In this work, a novel and ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was constructed for DNA detection based on functionalized gold clusters/graphene nanohybrids (AuNCs/GR nanobybrids) and exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided cascade target recycling. By utilizing the capacity of GR as universal template, different metal nanoclusters including AuNCs/GR nanobybrids and PtNCs/GR nanohybrids were synthesized through convenient ultrasonic method. Exo III-aided cascade recycling was initiated by target DNA, generating the final cleavage product (S2), which acted as a linkage between capture probe and the functionalized metal nanoclusters/GR conjugates in the construction of the biosensor. The AuNCs/GR-DNA-enzyme conjugates acted as interfaces of enzyme-catalyzed silver deposition reaction, achieving DNA detection ranging from 0.02 fM to 20 pM with a detection limit of 0.057 fM. In addition, PtNCs/GR-DNA conjugates presented peroxidase-like activity and the functionalized PtNCs/GR nanohybrids-based electrochemical biosensor also realized DNA detection by catalyzing the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) system to produce electrochemical signal. This metal clusters/GR-based multiple-amplified electrochemical biosensor provided an universal method for DNA detection.

  14. Structural Order in Ultrathin Films of the Monolayer Protected Clusters Based Upon 4-nm Gold Nanocrystals: An Experimental and Theoretical Study (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Khanal, Subarna; Bahena, Daniel; Olmos-Asar, Jimena A.; Ponce, Arturo; Whetten, Robert L.; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel


    The structural order in ultrathin films of monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) is important in a number of application areas but can be difficult to demonstrate by conventional methods, particularly when the metallic core dimension, d, is in the intermediate size-range, 1.5 < d < 5.0 nm. Here, improved techniques for the synthesis of monodisperse thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles have made possible the production of dodecane-thiolate saturated ~ 4 ± 0.5 nm Au clusters with single-crystal core structure and morphology. An ultrathin ordered film or superlattice of these nanocrystal-core MPCs is prepared and investigated using aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which allowed imaging of long-range hexagonally ordered superlattices of the nanocrystals, separated by the thiolate groups. The lattice constants determined by direct imaging are in good agreement with those determined by small-angle electron diffraction. The STEM image revealed the characteristic grain boundary (GB) with sigma (Σ) 13 in the interface between two crystals. The formation and structures found are interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and coarse-grained (CG) approach. PMID:24875295

  15. A phosphorescent silver(I)-gold (I) cluster complex that specifically lights up the nucleolus of living cells with FLIM imaging. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Lei, Zhen; Feng, Wei; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Quan-Ming; Li, Fuyou


    The phosphorescent silver(I)-gold(I) cluster complex [CAu6Ag2(dppy)6](BF4)4 (N1) selectively stains the nucleolus, with a much lower uptake in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and exhibits excellent photostability. This Ag-Au cluster, which has a photoluminescent lifetime of microseconds, is particularly attractive as a probe in applications of time-gated microscopy. Investigation of the pathway of cellular entry indicated that N1 permeates the outer membrane and nuclear membrane of living cells through an energy-dependent and non-endocytic route within 10 min. High concentrations of N1 in the nucleolus have been quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDXA), which also helped to elucidate the mechanism of the specific staining. Intracellular selective staining may be correlated with the microenvironment of the nucleolus, which is consistent with experiments conducted at different phases of the cell cycle. These results prove that N1 is a very attractive phosphorescent staining reagent for visualizing the nucleolus of living cells.

  16. Quantum-chemical study of the effect of ligands on the structure and properties of gold clusters (United States)

    Golosnaya, M. N.; Pichugina, D. A.; Oleinichenko, A. V.; Kuz'menko, N. E.


    The structures of [Au4(dpmp)2X2]2+clusters, where X =-C≡CH,-CH3,-SCH3,-F,-Cl,-Br,-I, dpmp is bis((diphenylphosphino)methyl)(phenyl)phosphine, are calculated at the level of density functional theory with the PBE functional and a modified Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian in an all-electron basis set (Λ). Using the example of [Au4(dpmp)2(C≡CC6H5)2]2+, the interatomic distances and bond angles calculated by means of PBE0/LANL2DZ, TPSS/LANL2DZ, TPSSh/LANL2DZ, and PBE/Λ are compared to X-ray crystallography data. It is shown that PBE/Λ yields the most accurate calculation of the geometrical parameters of this cluster. The ligand effect on the electronic stability of a cluster and the stability in reactions of decomposition into different fragments is studied, along with the capability of ligand exchange. Stability is predicted for [Au4(dpmp)2F2]2+ and [Au4(dpmp)2(SCH3)2]2+, while [Au4(dpmp)2I2]2+ cluster is unstable and its decomposes into two identical fragments is supposed.

  17. Geometric structure, electronic structure and optical absorption properties of one-dimensional thiolate-protected gold clusters containing a quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-core: a density-functional theoretical study. (United States)

    Ma, Zhongyun; Wang, Pu; Pei, Yong


    Based on the recently reported atomic structures of thiolate-protected Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32 clusters, a family of homogeneous, linear, thiolate-protected gold superstructures containing novel quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-cores is theoretically envisioned, denoted as the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. By means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations, a unified view of the geometric structure, electronic structure, magic stable size and size-dependent NIR absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters is provided. We find that the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters demonstrate oscillating transformation energies dependent on N. The odd-N clusters show more favorable (negative) reaction energies than the even-N clusters. The magic stability of recently reported Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, Au52(SR)32 and Au76(SR)44 clusters can be addressed from the relative reaction energies and geometric distortion of Au-cores. A novel 4N + 4 magic electron-number is suggested for the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. Using the polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory (PSEPT) and the extended Hückel molecular orbital (EHMO) calculations, we suggest that the magic 4N + 4 electron number is correlated with the quasi-fcc Au-cores, which can be viewed as double helical tetrahedron-Au4 chains. The size-dependent optical absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters are revealed based on TD-DFT calculations. We propose that these clusters are potential candidates for the experimental synthesis of atomically precise one-dimensional ligand protected gold superstructures with tunable NIR absorption properties.

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of the structural and electronic properties of vanadium-benzene sandwich clusters and their anions: V(n)Bz(n)(0/-) (n = 1-5) and V(n)Bz(n-1)(0/-) (n = 2-5). (United States)

    Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Iwasa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi


    One end open V(n)Bz(n)(-) (n = 1-5; Bz = benzene) and both ends open V(n)Bz(n-1)(-) (n = 2-5) vanadium-benzene cluster anions were studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The smaller (n ≤ 3) V(n)Bz(n) and V(n)Bz(n-1) clusters and corresponding anions were found to have structural isomers, whereas full-sandwiched V(n)Bz(n+1) clusters preferred to form multiple-decker sandwich structures. Several isomeric V2Bz2 structures were identified theoretically and the anion photoelectron spectra of V2Bz2(0/-) were explained well by the coexistence of two isomeric structures: (1) a V2-core structure sandwiched between benzene molecules and (2) an alternating sandwich structure with the spin state strongly dependent on the structure. The adiabatic electron affinity of both V(n)Bz(n) and V(n)Bz(n-1) was found to increase with the cluster size at larger sizes (n = 4 or 5) and approaches to that of V(n)Bz(n+1). The evolution of the structural and electronic properties of V(n)Bz(m) and V(n)Bz(m)(-) (m = n and n - 1) with size is discussed in comparison with V(n)Bz(n+1) and V(n)Bz(n+1)(-).

  19. Gold Rush! (United States)

    Brahier, Daniel J.


    Describes a mathematical investigation of gold--how it is weighed, stored, used, and valued. For grades 3-4, children estimate the value of treasure chests filled with gold coins and explore the size and weight of gold bars. Children in grades 5-6 explore how gold is mined and used, and how the value of gold changes over time. (PVD)

  20. A model for underpotential deposition in the presence of anions (United States)

    Giménez, M. C.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Leiva, E. P. M.


    A simple model to study the effect of on top coadsorption of anions in underpotential deposition is formulated. It considers a lattice-gas model with pair potential interactions between nearest neighbors. As test system, the electrodeposition of silver on gold is studied by means of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of anions on the adsorption isotherms is analyzed. It is found that as the interaction between silver atoms and anions increases, the monolayer adsorbs at more negative chemical potentials. For large interactions between silver atoms and anions, a expanded structure occurs for the silver monolayer.

  1. Selection and Identification of Molecular Gold Clusters at the Nano(gram) Scale: Reversed Phase HPLC-ESI-MS of a Mixture of Au-Peth MPCs. (United States)

    Black, David M; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Bach, Stephan B H; Whetten, Robert L


    Recent advances in cluster synthesis make it possible to produce an enormous variety molecule-like MPCs of size, composition, shape, and surface-chemical combinations. In contrast to the significant growth in the synthetic capability to generate these materials, progress in establishing the physicochemical basis for their observed properties has remained limited. The main reason for this has been the lack of the analytical capability to generate and measure samples of suitably high (molecular) purity; such capability is also essential to support therapeutic and diagnostic MPC development. In order for MPC products to get to market, especially those products that are medical-field related, characterization is required to identify and quantify all components present in a material mixture. Here, we show results from analysis of several synthetic mixtures of gold MPCs by nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. The additional or hidden components, revealed to be present in these mixtures, provide novel insights into their comparative stability and interactions.

  2. One-dimensional gold clusters in HP-Ce{sub 7}Au{sub 13+x}Ge{sub 10-x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, Gunter; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie; Heying, Birgit; Riecken, Jan F.; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie


    Single crystals of the high-pressure phase Ce{sub 7}Au{sub 13+x}Ge{sub 10-x} were obtained by treating CeAuGe at 9.5 GPa and 1473-1523 K in a multi-anvil press. The structure of Ce{sub 7}Au{sub 13.35}Ge{sub 9.65} was refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: new type, Pbam, a = 1571.9(3), b = 1780.3(4), c = 443.58(9) pm, wR2 = 0.0470, 2017 F{sup 2} values, 96 variables. Two of the five germanium sites show a small degree of Ge/Au mixing. The gold and germanium atoms build up a complex three-dimensional, covalently bonded [Au{sub 13.35}Ge{sub 9.65}] network with Au-Ge distances ranging from 249 to 293 pm. The [Au{sub 13.35}Ge{sub 9.65}] network also exhibits a one-dimensional gold cluster with Au-Au distances of 275-301 pm and a weakly bonded germanium dumb-bell with a Ge4-Ge5 bond length of 271 pm. The four crystallographically independent cerium atoms fill cavities of coordination numbers 19 and 20 within the [Au{sub 13.35}Ge{sub 9.65}] network. These coordinations are known from other structure types. Consequently one can describe the [Au{sub 13.35}Ge{sub 9.65}] structure as an intergrowth variant of EuAuGe, HP-CeAuGe (TiNiSi), CeAu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (CePt{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), and Ce{sub 3}Ag{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} (Gd{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 4}) related slabs. (orig.)

  3. Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of Au m Fe n +/- Clusters Generated from Gold-Iron Nanoparticles and their Giant Nanoflowers. Electrochemical and/or Plasma Assisted Synthesis (United States)

    Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Ausekar, Mayuri Vilas; Pavliňák, David; Galmiz, Oleksandr; Kubáček, Pavel; Havel, Josef


    Gold nanoparticles (NP) with average diameter 100 nm synthesized from tetrachloroauric acid solution using stainless steel as a reducing agent were found to contain iron. Applying simultaneously high frequency (HF) plasma discharge in solution during the electrochemical reduction, giant gold-iron nanoflowers with average size 1000-5000 nm were formed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the morphology of the nanopowders produced as polygonal yet nearly spherical, whereas iron content in both products determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) was found to be at 2.5 at. %. Laser desorption ionization (LDI) of both nanomaterials and mass spectrometric analysis show the formation of Au m Fe n +/- ( m = 1-35; n = 1-3) clusters. Structure of few selected clusters in neutral or monocharged forms were computed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and it was found that typical distances of an iron nucleus from adjacent gold nuclei lie in the interval 2.5 to 2.7 Å. Synthetized Au-Fe nanoparticles were found stable for at least 2 mo at room temperature (even in aqueous solution) without any stabilizing agent. Produced Au-Fe nanoparticles in combination with standard MALDI matrices enhance ionization of peptides and might find use in nanomedicine.

  4. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  5. Anions in Cometary Comae (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.


    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  6. Sb@Ni12@Sb20(-/+) and Sb@Pd12@Sb20(n) Cluster Anions, Where n = +1, -1, -3, -4: Multi-Oxidation-State Clusters of Interpenetrating Platonic Solids. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie; Stevens, Lauren; Hu, Junkai; Zavalij, Peter; Bowen, Kit; Dunlap, Brett I; Glaser, Evan R; Eichhorn, Bryan


    K5Sb4 and K3Sb7 Zintl ion precursors react with Pd(PPh3)4 in ethylenediamine/toluene/PBu4(+) solutions to give crystals of Sb@Pd12@Sb20(n-)/PBu4(+) salts, where n = 3, 4. The clusters are structurally identical in the two charge states, with nearly perfect Ih point symmetry, and can be viewed as an Sb@Pd12 icosahedron centered inside of an Sb20 dodecahedron. The metric parameters suggest very weak Sb-Sb and Pd-Pd interactions with strong radial Sb-Pd bonds between the Sb20 and Pd12 shells. All-electron DFT analysis shows the 3- ion to be diamagnetic with Ih symmetry and a 1.33 eV HOMO-LUMO gap, whereas the 4- ion undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion to an S = 1/2 D3d structure with a small 0.1 eV gap. The distortion is predicted to be small and is not discernible by crystallography. Laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS) studies of the crystalline samples show intense parent Sb@Pd12@Sb20(-) ions (negative ion mode) and Sb@Pd12@Sb20(+) (positive ion mode) along with series of Sb@Pd12-y@Sb20-x(-/+) ions. Ni(cyclooctadiene)2 reacts with K3Sb7 in en/tol/Bu4PBr solvent mixtures to give black precipitates of Sb@Ni12@Sb20(n-) salts that give similar Sb@Ni12@Sb20(-/+) parent ions and Sb@Ni12-y@Sb20-x(-/+) degradation series in the respective LDI-TOF MS studies. The solid-state and gas-phase studies of the icosahedral Sb@M12@Sb20(n-/n+) ions show that the clusters can exist in the -4, -3, -1, +1 (M = Pd) and +1, -1 (M = Ni) oxidation states. These multiple-charge-state clusters are reminiscent of redox-active fullerenes (e.g., C60(n), where n = +1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6).

  7. 金的硫代硫酸根络合物的吸附回收%Sorption Recovery of Gold Thiosulphate Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The gold sorption from thiosulphate solutions on carbon sorbents and on anion exchangers was studied.It was shown that the anion exchangers AV-17-10P and AP-100 are the most effective and selective at pH=5-8.These anion exchangers can be recommended for the gold recovery from the industrial solutions.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy of microhydrated conjugate base anions. (United States)

    Asmis, Knut R; Neumark, Daniel M


    Conjugate-base anions are ubiquitous in aqueous solution. Understanding the hydration of these anions at the molecular level represents a long-standing goal in chemistry. A molecular-level perspective on ion hydration is also important for understanding the surface speciation and reactivity of aerosols, which are a central component of atmospheric and oceanic chemical cycles. In this Account, as a means of studying conjugate-base anions in water, we describe infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectroscopy on clusters in which the sulfate, nitrate, bicarbonate, and suberate anions are hydrated by a known number of water molecules. This spectral technique, used over the range of 550-1800 cm(-1), serves as a structural probe of these clusters. The experiments follow how the solvent network around the conjugate-base anion evolves, one water molecule at a time. We make structural assignments by comparing the experimental infrared spectra to those obtained from electronic structure calculations. Our results show how changes in anion structure, symmetry, and charge state have a profound effect on the structure of the solvent network. Conversely, they indicate how hydration can markedly affect the structure of the anion core in a microhydrated cluster. Some key results include the following. The first few water molecules bind to the anion terminal oxo groups in a bridging fashion, forming two anion-water hydrogen bonds. Each oxo group can form up to three hydrogen bonds; one structural result, for example, is the highly symmetric, fully coordinated SO(4)(2-)(H(2)O)(6) cluster, which only contains bridging water molecules. Adding more water molecules results in the formation of a solvent network comprising water-water hydrogen bonding in addition to hydrogen bonding to the anion. For the nitrate, bicarbonate, and suberate anions, fewer bridging sites are available, namely, three, two, and one (per carboxylate group), respectively. As a result, an earlier onset of water

  9. Cluster-cluster clustering (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.


    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  10. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.


    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  11. Effect of subsurface Ti-interstitials on the bonding of small gold clusters on rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Georg; Hammer, Bjørk


    dependent on the density functional used. As expected, a redshift in the CO stretch vibration is calculated for CO adsorbed on a negatively charged cluster. Somewhat surprisingly a larger redshift is found for CO adsorbed on an overall positively charged Au3 cluster. This is explained by CO being a local...

  12. Monocationic gold(III) Gly-L-His and L-Ala-L-His dipeptide complexes: crystal structures arising from solvent free and solvent-containing crystal formation and structural modifications tuned by counter-anions. (United States)

    Rychlewska, Urszula; Warzajtis, Beata; Glisić, Biljana D; Zivković, Marija D; Rajković, Snezana; Djuran, Milos I


    Monocationic gold(III) complexes with histidine-containing peptides, glycyl-L-histidine (Gly-L-His) and L-alanyl-L-histidine (L-Ala-L-His) have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystallized Au(III) complexes, [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O and [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O, were obtained from water solution at pH complexes were compared with those for the corresponding Pd(II) complexes and for Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes with Gly-Gly-L-His tripeptide. Crystal data for the hydrated [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O complex and its serendipitously obtained unhydrated form were compared with previously reported X-ray data for the hydrated chloride complex [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]Cl·3H(2)O and with the analogous, though uncharged, Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes. Furthermore, in the present study the crystal structure of the nitrate salt of Au(III) complex with L-Ala-L-His dipeptide, [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O has been determined.

  13. Anion-π catalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Beuchat, César; Domoto, Yuya; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Wilson, Adam; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan


    The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π catalysis, a carboxylate base and a solubilizer are covalently attached to the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides. On these π-acidic surfaces, transition-state stabilizations up to ΔΔGTS = 31.8 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) are found. This value corresponds to a transition-state recognition of KTS = 2.7 ± 0.5 μM and a catalytic proficiency of 3.8 × 10(5) M(-1). Significantly increasing transition-state stabilization with increasing π-acidity of the catalyst, observed for two separate series, demonstrates the existence of "anion-π catalysis." In sharp contrast, increasing π-acidity of the best naphthalenediimide catalysts does not influence the more than 12 000-times weaker substrate recognition (KM = 34.5 ± 1.6 μM). Together with the disappearance of Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the expanded π-surfaces of perylenediimides, this finding supports that contributions from π-π interactions are not very important for anion-π catalysis. The linker between the π-acidic surface and the carboxylate base strongly influences activity. Insufficient length and flexibility cause incompatibility with saturation kinetics. Moreover, preorganizing linkers do not improve catalysis much, suggesting that the ideal positioning of the carboxylate base on the π-acidic surface is achieved by intramolecular anion-π interactions rather than by an optimized structure of the linker. Computational simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental results. They confirm, inter alia, that the stabilization of the anionic transition states (but not the neutral ground states) increases with the π-acidity of the

  14. Relaxation processes in optically excites metal clusters; Relaxationsprozesse in optisch angeregten Metallclustern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanzel, J.


    The present work is concerned with the dynamics of optically excited metal clusters in the gas phase. Small mass-selected gold and tungsten cluster anions (Au{sup -}{sub n}, n=5-8, 14, 20 and W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) are studied using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Depending on the electronic structure in the valence region as well as on the optical excitation energy fundamentally different relaxation processes are observed. In small gold cluster anions excited with 1.56 eV an isolated electronically excited state is populated. The time-dependent measurements are strongly sizedependent and open insights into photoinduced geometry changes of the nuclear framework. Oscillatory vibrational wavepacket motion in Au{sup -}{sub 5}, an extremely longlived ({tau} >90 ns) electronically excited state in Au{sup -}{sub 6} as well as photoinduced melting in Au{sup -}{sub 7} and Au{sup -}{sub 8} is monitored in real time. By increasing the OPTICAL excitation energy to 3.12 eV a completely different scenario is observed. A multitude of electronically excited states can be reached upon optical excitation and as a consequence electronic relaxation processes that take place on a time scale of 1 ps are dominating. This is shown for Au{sup -}{sub 7}, Au{sup -}{sub 14} and Au{sup -}{sub 20}. Compared to gold clusters, tungsten clusters are characterized by a significantly higher electronic density of states in the valence region. Therefore electronic relaxation processes are much more likely and take place on a significantly faster time scale. The fast electronic relaxation processes are distinguished from pure vibrational relaxation. It is shown that already in the four atomic tungsten cluster W{sup -}{sub 4} electronic relaxation processes take place on a time scale of 30 fs. In all investigated tungsten cluster anions (W{sup -}{sub n}, n=3-14) an equilibrium between electronic and vibrational system is reached within around 1 ps after optical excitation which

  15. Determination of gold,platinum and palladium in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after concentration with 717 anion exchange resin%717阴离子交换树脂富集-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定地质样品中痕量金铂钯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 王锝; 李彪


    The adsorption property and separation conditions of 717 anion exchange resin to trace gold,platinum and palladium in geological samples were studied. The sample was dissolved with HCl+ aqua regia under heating in water bath. Only Mo in dissolved elements had interference with the determination of Pd, which could be eliminated using mathematical formula correction. When the flow rate of eluent was 2 mL/min, the enrichment effects of gold, platinum and palladium in 5 % HCl medium reached its best, and the recoveries were close to 100 %. After correcting the influence of coexisting ions, the national first-class certified reference materials were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the difference between determination results and certified values was satisfactory. The detection limit of method were 0. 6 ng/mL, 0. 5 ng/mL and 0. 7 ng/mL for Pd, Pt and Au, respectively. Five random geological samples were analyzed by this method in comparison with NiS fire assay-ICP-MS method. The determination results were consistent. The results of two methods were checked by double sample's variance F test, and there was no significant difference.%研究了717型阴离子交换树脂对地质样品中痕量金、铂、钯的吸附性能及分离条件.采用水浴加热,HCl+王水的方式溶解样品,溶出的干扰元素只有Mo对Pd的测定造成干扰,采用数学公式校正可消除此干扰.在5%的HCl介质中,洗脱剂流速为2 mL/min时,金、铂、钯的富集效果最佳,回收率接近100%.经对共存离子影响的校正,用电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定国家一级标准物质,其结果较认定值不超差.方法检出限为Pd 0.6 ng/mL,Pt 0.5ng/mL,Au 0.7ng/mL.随机选取5个地质样品用本法进行分析,同时与硫镍试金-ICP-MS法进行比较,结果一致.两组结果经双样本方差F检验,无显著性差异.

  16. Kinetic evaluation of highly active supported gold catalysts prepared from monolayer-protected clusters: an experimental Michaelis-Menten approach for determining the oxygen binding constant during CO oxidation catalysis. (United States)

    Long, Cormac G; Gilbertson, John D; Vijayaraghavan, Ganesh; Stevenson, Keith J; Pursell, Christopher J; Chandler, Bert D


    Thiol monolayer-protected Au clusters (MPCs) were prepared using dendrimer templates, deposited onto a high-surface-area titania, and then the thiol stabilizers were removed under H2/N2. The resulting Au catalysts were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO. The Au catalysts prepared via this route displayed minimal particle agglomeration during the deposition and activation steps. Structural data obtained from the physical characterization of the Au catalysts were comparable to features exhibited from a traditionally prepared standard Au catalyst obtained from the World Gold Council (WGC). A differential kinetic study of CO oxidation catalysis by the MPC-prepared Au and the standard WGC catalyst showed that these two catalyst systems have essentially the same reaction order and Arrhenius apparent activation energies (28 kJ/mol). However, the MPC-prepared Au catalyst shows 50% greater activity for CO oxidation. Using a Michaelis-Menten approach, the oxygen binding constants for the two catalyst systems were determined and found to be essentially the same within experimental error. To our knowledge, this kinetic evaluation is the first experimental determination of oxygen binding by supported Au nanoparticle catalysts under working conditions. The values for the oxygen binding equilibrium constant obtained from the Michaelis-Menten treatment (ca. 29-39) are consistent with ultra-high-vacuum measurements on model catalyst systems and support density functional theory calculations for oxygen binding at corner or edge atoms on Au nanoparticles and clusters.

  17. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems


    Abrar Muslim


    The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS) systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium co...

  18. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the aqu

  19. Local density variation of gold nanoparticles in aquatic environments (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, F.; Shirazian, F.; Shahsavari, R.; Khoei, A. R.


    Gold (Au) nanoparticles are widely used in diagnosing cancer, imaging, and identification of therapeutic methods due to their particular quantum characteristics. This research presents different types of aqueous models and potentials used in TIP3P, to study the effect of the particle size and density of Au clusters in aquatic environments; so it can be useful to facilitate future investigation of the interaction of proteins with Au nanoparticles. The EAM potential is used to model the structure of gold clusters. It is observed that in the systems with identical gold/water density and different cluster radii, gold particles are distributed in aqueous environment almost identically. Thus, Au particles have identical local densities, and the root mean square displacement (RMSD) increases with a constant slope. However in systems with constant cluster radii and different gold/water densities, Au particle dispersion increases with density; as a result, the local density decreases and the RMSD increases with a larger slope. In such systems, the larger densities result in more blunted second peaks in gold-gold radial distribution functions, owing to more intermixing of the clusters and less FCC crystalline features at longer range, a mechanism that is mediated by the competing effects of gold-water and gold-gold interactions.

  20. Slow-Reduction Synthesis of a Thiolate-Protected One-Dimensional Gold Cluster Showing an Intense Near-Infrared Absorption. (United States)

    Takano, Shinjiro; Yamazoe, Seiji; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Tsukuda, Tatsuya


    Slow reduction of Au ions in the presence of 4-(2-mercaptoethyl)benzoic acid (4-MEBA) gave Au76(4-MEBA)44 clusters that exhibited a strong (3 × 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1)) near-infrared absorption band at 1340 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the Au core has a one-dimensional fcc structure that is elongated along the {100} direction.

  1. Enhanced thermal lens effect in gold nanoparticle-doped Lyotropic liquid crystal by nanoparticle clustering probed by Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S.L.; Lenart, V.M., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Turchiello, R.T. [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UFTPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Goya, G.F. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience, Zaragoza (Spain)


    This work presents an experimental study of the thermal lens effect in Au nanoparticles-doped lyotropic liquid crystals under cw 532 nm optical excitation. Spherical Au nanoparticles of about 12 nm were prepared by Turkevich’s method, and the lyotropic liquid crystal was a ternary mixture of SDS, 1-DeOH, and water that exhibits an isotropic phase at room temperature. The lyotropic matrix induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to a broad and a red-shifted surface plasmon resonance. The thermal nonlinear optical refraction coefficient n{sub 2} increases as a power of number density of nanoparticles, being possible to address this behavior to nanoparticle clustering. (author)

  2. Chirality in Bare and Passivated Gold Nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garzon, I L; Rodrigues-Hernandez, J I; Sigal, I; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K


    Chiral structures have been found as the lowest-energy isomers of bare (Au$_{28}$ and Au$_{55}) and thiol-passivated (Au$_{28}(SCH$_{3})$_{16}$ and Au$_{38}$(SCH$_{3}$)$_{24}) gold nanoclusters. The degree of chirality existing in the chiral clusters was calculated using the Hausdorff chirality measure. We found that the index of chirality is higher in the passivated clusters and decreases with the cluster size. These results are consistent with the observed chiroptical activity recently reported for glutahione-passivated gold nanoclusters, and provide theoretical support for the existence of chirality in these novel compounds.

  3. Modeling the interaction of nitrate anions with ozone and atmospheric moisture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Y. Galashev


    The molecular dynamics method is used to investigate the interaction between one–six nitrate anions and water clus-ters absorbing six ozone molecules. The infrared (IR) absorption and reflection spectra are reshaped significantly, and new peaks appear at Raman spectra due to the addition of ozone and nitrate anions to the disperse water system. After ozone and nitrate anions are captured, the average (in frequency) IR reflection coefficient of the water disperse system increased drastically and the absorption coefficient fell.

  4. Phase transitions and kinetic properties of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wu, Nanhua; Chen, Jionghua; Wang, Jinjian; Shao, Jingling; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Lucun


    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of gold nanoparticles confined between two-layer graphene nanosheets (two-layer-GNSs) are examined and investigated during heating and cooling processes via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique. An EAM potential is applied to represent the gold-gold interactions while a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential is used to describe the gold-GNS interactions. The MD melting temperature of 1345 K for bulk gold is close to the experimental value (1337 K), confirming that the EAM potential used to describe gold-gold interactions is reliable. On the other hand, the melting temperatures of gold clusters supported on graphite bilayer are corrected to the corresponding experimental values by adjusting the εAu-C value. Therefore, the subsequent results from current work are reliable. The gold nanoparticles confined within two-layer GNSs exhibit face center cubic structures, which is similar to those of free gold clusters and bulk gold. The melting points, heats of fusion, and heat capacities of the confined gold nanoparticles are predicted based on the plots of total energies against temperature. The density distribution perpendicular to GNS suggests that the freezing of confined gold nanoparticles starts from outermost layers. The confined gold clusters exhibit layering phenomenon even in liquid state. The transition of order-disorder in each layer is an essential characteristic in structure for the freezing phase transition of the confined gold clusters. Additionally, some vital kinetic data are obtained in terms of classical nucleation theory.

  5. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    CERN Document Server

    Fossez, K; Nazarewicz, W; Michel, N; Garrett, W R; Płoszajczak, M


    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as extreme halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-molecule problem using a non-adiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational ban...

  6. Anionic Forensic Signatures for Sample Matching of Potassium Cyanide Using High Performance Ion Chromatography and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Farmer, Orville T.; Carman, April J.


    Potassium cyanide, a known poison, was used a model compound to determine the feasibility of using anionic impurities as a forensic signature for matching KCN samples back to their source. In this study, portions of eight KCN stocks originating from four countries were separately dissolved in water and analyzed by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection. Sixty KCN aqueous samples were produced from the eight stocks and analyzed for 11anionic impurities. Hierarchal cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to demonstrate that KCN samples cluster according to source based on the concentrations of their anionic impurities. The F-ratio method and degree-of-class separation (DCS) were used for feature selection on a training set of KCN samples in order to optimize sample clustering. The optimal subset of anions needed for sample classification was determined to be sulfate, oxalate, phosphate, and an unknown anion named unk5. Using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and the optimal subset of anions, KCN test samples from different KCN stocks were correctly determined to be manufactured in the United States. In addition, KCN samples from stocks manufactured in Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic were all correctly matched back to their original stocks because each stock had a unique anionic impurity profile. The application of the F-ratio method and DCS for feature selection improved the accuracy and confidence of sample classification by KNN.

  7. Anionic surface binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja


    Full Text Available The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When optical whiteners are used, the application of AKD binders is recommended. In the case of paper it is possible to substitute acrylate binders by AKD binders. The best results are obtained when the paper is first partly treated in bulk and subsequently surface treated.

  8. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions (United States)

    Fossez, K.; Mao, Xingze; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.; Garrett, W. R.; Płoszajczak, M.


    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-rotor problem using a nonadiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. The rotor is treated as a linear triad of point charges with zero monopole and dipole moments and nonzero quadrupole moment. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational bands could be identified above the detachment threshold. We study the evolution of a bound state of an anion as it dives into the continuum at a critical quadrupole moment and we show that the associated critical exponent is α =2 . Everything considered, quadrupolar anions represent a perfect laboratory for the studies of marginally bound open quantum systems.

  9. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW


    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  10. Going for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    While the international gold price in February hit the highest point in 25 years at $541.20 per ounce for futures delivery, a new gold rush is sweeping across China. According to the World Gold Council, the London-based gold marketing organization funded by leading global gold mining firms, the purchase of gold products in China grew by 9 percent in the first nine

  11. Gold in Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryshkevych Olena V.


    Full Text Available The article studies the role of gold in modern economy. It analyses dynamics and modern state of the gold market. It studies volumes of contracts in exchange and off-exchange markets. In order to reveal changes of key features of the gold market, it focuses on the study of gold demand volumes, studies volumes and geographical changes in the world gold mining, and analyses volumes of monetary gold of central banks and its share in gold and currency reserves. It analyses price fluctuations in the gold market during 1968 – 2013 and identifies main factors that determine the gold price. It identifies interconnection between the state of the gold market and financial markets of countries. The study showed that namely geopolitical and economic instability restricts the spectrum of financial assets for investing and gold is not only a safe investment object but also a profitable one.

  12. Monomer adsorption of indocyanine green to gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Manohar, Srirang; Otto, Cees


    NIR-dye encoded gold nanoparticles (GNP) are rapidly emerging as contrast agents in many bio-imaging/sensing applications. The coding process is usually carried out without control or a clear understanding of the metal-liquid interface properties which, in contrast, are critical in determining the type and extension of dye-metal interaction. In this paper, we investigated the effect of gold surface composition on the adsorption of indocyanine green (ICG) on GNP, simulating the surface conditions of gold nanorods on citrate-capped gold nanospheres. These substrates allowed a careful control of the metal-liquid interface composition and, thus, detailed absorption and fluorescence concentration studies of the effects of each individual chemical in the colloidal solution (i.e. bromide anions, cetyl trimethylammonium ions and Ag(+) ions) on the ICG-gold interaction. This study reveals the drastic effect that these experimental parameters can have on the ICG adsorption on GNP.

  13. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng


    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  14. Experimental and DFT studies of gold nanoparticles supported on MgO(111) nano-sheets and their catalytic activity. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Ciobanu, Cristian V; Hu, Juncheng; Palomares-Báez, Juan-Pedro; Rodríguez-López, José-Luis; Richards, Ryan


    A wet chemical preparation of MgO with the (111) facet as the primary surface has recently been reported and with alternating layers of oxygen anions and magnesium cations, this material shows unique chemical and physical properties. The potential to utilize the MgO(111) surface for the immobilization of metal particles is intriguing because the surface itself offers a very different environment for the metal particle with an all oxygen interface, as opposed to the typical (100) facet that possesses alternating oxygen anion and magnesium cation sites on the surface. Gold nanoparticles have demonstrated a broad range of interesting catalytic properties, but are often susceptible to aggregation at high temperatures and are very sensitive to substrate effects. Here, we investigate gold-supported on MgO(111) nanosheets as a catalyst system for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Gold nanoparticles deposited on MgO(111) show an increased level of activity in the solvent-free benzyl alcohol aerobic oxidation as compared to gold nanoparticles deposited on a typical MgO aerogel. TEM studies reveal that the gold nanoparticles have a hemispherical shape while sitting on the main surface of MgO(111) nanosheets, with a large Au-MgO interface. Given that the gold nanoparticles deposited on the two types of MgO have similar size, and that the two types of unmodified MgO show almost the same activities in the blank reaction, we infer that the high activity of Au/MgO(111) is due to the properties of the (111) support and/or those of the gold-support interface. To understand the binding of Au on low-index MgO surfaces and the charge distribution at the surface of the support, we have performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations on all low-index MgO substrates (with and without gold), using a model Au(10) cluster. Due to similar lattice constants of Au(111) and MgO(111) planes, the Au cluster retains its structural integrity and binds strongly on MgO(111) with either

  15. Lysozyme stability and amyloid fibrillization dependence on Hofmeister anions in acidic pH. (United States)

    Poniková, Slavomíra; Antošová, Andrea; Demjén, Erna; Sedláková, Dagmar; Marek, Jozef; Varhač, Rastislav; Gažová, Zuzana; Sedlák, Erik


    We have explored an effect of Hofmeister anions, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, NaSCN and NaClO4, on stability and amyloid fibrillization of hen egg white lysozyme at pH 2.7. The stability of the protein was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. The Hofmeister effect of the anions was assessed by the parameter dT trs/d[anion] (T trs, transition temperature). We show that dT trs/d[anion] correlates with anion surface tension effects and anion partition coefficients indicating direct interactions between anions and lysozyme. The kinetic of amyloid fibrillization of lysozyme was followed by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Negative correlation between dT trs/d[anion] and the nucleation rate of fibrillization in the presence of monovalent anions indicates specific effect of anions on fibrillization rate of lysozyme. The efficiency of monovalent anions to accelerate fibrillization correlates with inverse Hofmeister series. The far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy findings show that conformational properties of fibrils depend on fibrillization rate. In the presence of sodium chloride, lysozyme forms typical fibrils with elongated structure and with the secondary structure of the β-sheet. On the other hand, in the presence of both chaotropic perchlorate and kosmotropic sulfate anions, the fibrils form clusters with secondary structure of β-turn. Moreover, the acceleration of fibril formation is accompanied by decreased amount of the formed fibrils as indicated by ThT fluorescence. Taken together, our study shows Hofmeister effect of monovalent anions on: (1) lysozyme stability; (2) ability to accelerate nucleation phase of lysozyme fibrillization; (3) amount, and (4) conformational properties of the formed fibrils.

  16. Pentaarylfullerenes as noncoordinating cyclopentadienyl anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Meetsma, Auke


    The first example of an early-transition-metal complex involving a pentaarylfullerene was prepared. Instead of half-sandwich complexes, solvent separated ion pairs were obtained in which the pentaarylfullerene moiety acts as noncoordinating cyclopentadienyl anion.

  17. Colorimetric sensing of anions in water using ratiometric indicator-displacement assay. (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao; Chen, Liang; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng


    The analysis of anions in water presents a difficult challenge due to their low charge-to-radius ratio, and the ability to discriminate among similar anions often remains problematic. The use of a 3×6 ratiometric indicator-displacement assay (RIDA) array for the colorimetric detection and identification of ten anions in water is reported. The sensor array consists of different combinations of colorimetric indicators and metal cations. The colorimetric indicators chelate with metal cations, forming the color changes. Upon the addition of anions, anions compete with the indicator ligands according to solubility product constants (K(sp)). The indicator-metal chelate compound changes color back dramatically when the competition of anions wins. The color changes of the RIDA array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. No confusion or errors in classification by hierarchical clustering analysis were observed in 44 trials. The limit of detection was calculated approximately, and most limits of detections of anions are well below μM level using our RIDA array. The pH effect, temperature influence, interfering anions were also investigated, and the RIDA array shows the feasibility of real sample testing.

  18. EQCM Study of Influence of Anion Nature on Electrochemical Reduction of Bismuth Sulfide in Nickel Plating Solution




    The influence of anion nature on the reduction of bismuth sulfide film deposited on gold using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method in solutions containing Ni2+ ions has been investigated by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been determined that the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the nickel plating solution depends on the anion nature: larger cathodic current and mass changes (Dƒ...

  19. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...... efficiency of Au-based catalysts. Finally, our theoretical simulations allow us to discuss the selectivity of supported Au nanoparticles....

  20. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo


    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  1. Bound anionic states of adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H


    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  2. Design Principles of Inert Substrates for Exploiting Gold Clusters’ Intrinsic Catalytic Reactivity (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Ting Cui, Ting; Fu Zhu, Yong; Wen, Zi; Zhao, Ming; Chen Li, Jian; Jiang, Qing


    Ultralow stability of gold clusters prohibits the understanding of their intrinsic reactivity (that is vital for revealing the origin of gold’s catalytic properties). Using density functional theory including many-body dispersion method, we aim to ascertain effective ways in exploiting gold clusters’ intrinsic reactivity on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We find that the many body van der Waals interactions are essential for gold clusters’ reactivity on CNTs and even for O2 activation on these supported clusters. Furthermore, curvature and dopant of CNTs are found to qualitatively change the balance between physisorption and chemisorption for gold clusters on CNTs, determining the clusters’ morphology, charge states, stability, and reactivity, which rationalize the experimental findings. Remarkably, N doped small curvature CNTs, which effectively stabilize gold clusters and retain their inherent geometric/electronic structures, can be promising candidates for exploiting gold clusters’ intrinsic reactivity.

  3. Size control synthesis of starch capped-gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajammul Hussain, S., E-mail: dr_tajammul@yahoo.c [Quaid-i-Azam University, Centre for Nano Science and Catalysis, National Centre for Physics (Pakistan); Iqbal, M.; Mazhar, M. [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan)


    Metallic gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of chloroaurate anions [AuCl{sub 4}]{sup -} solution with hydrazine in the aqueous starch and ethylene glycol solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized gold nanoparticles by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that average size of pure gold nanoparticles is 3.5 nm, they are spherical in shape and are pure metallic gold. The concentration effects of [AuCl{sub 4}]{sup -} anions, starch, ethylene glycol, and hydrazine, on particle size, were investigated, and the stabilization mechanism of Au nanoparticles by starch polymer molecules was also studied by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA analysis shows that hydroxyl groups of starch are responsible of capping and stabilizing gold nanoparticles. The UV-vis spectrum of these samples shows that there is blue shift in surface plasmon resonance peak with decrease in particle size due to the quantum confinement effect, a supporting evidence of formation of gold nanoparticles and this shift remains stable even after 3 months.

  4. Amide-based Fluorescent Macrocyclic Anion Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG, Zhen-Ya(曾振亚); XU, Kuo-Xi(徐括喜); HE, Yong-Bing(何永炳); LIU, Shun-Ying(刘顺英); WU, Jin-Long(吴进龙); WEI, Lan-Hua(隗兰华); MENG, Ling-Zhi(孟令芝)


    Two fluorescent anion receptors (1 and 2) based on amide macrocycle were synthesized and corresponding fluorescence quenching induced by anion complexation was observed in different degree. Receptors form 1: 1 complexes with anions by hydrogen bonding interactions. Receptor 1 bound anions in the order of F->Cl->H2PO4->CH3COO->>Br-, I- and receptor 2 showed high selectivity to F- over other anions.

  5. Application of fundamental organometallic chemistry to the development of a gold-catalyzed synthesis of sulfinate derivatives. (United States)

    Johnson, Miles W; Bagley, Scott W; Mankad, Neal P; Bergman, Robert G; Mascitti, Vincent; Toste, F Dean


    The development of a gold(I)-catalyzed sulfination of aryl boronic acids is described. This transformation proceeds through an unprecedented mechanism which exploits the reactivity of gold(I)-heteroatom bonds to form sulfinate anions. Further in situ elaboration of the sulfinate intermediates leads to the corresponding sulfones and sulfonamides, two pharmacophores routinely encountered in drug discovery.

  6. Irreversible thermochromic behavior in gold and silver nanorod/polymeric ionic liquid nanocomposite films. (United States)

    Tollan, Christopher M; Marcilla, Rebeca; Pomposo, Jose A; Rodriguez, Javier; Aizpurua, Javier; Molina, Jon; Mecerreyes, David


    The novel application of gold and silver nanorods as irreversible thermochromic dyes in polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) nanocomposites is proposed here. These materials have been synthesized by anion exchange of an imidazolium-based PIL in a solution that also contained gold nanorods. This resulted in the entrapment of the nanoobjects within a solid polymer precipitate. In this article, the effect of the temperature was studied in relation to the change of shape and, consequently, color of the gold or silver nanorods within the films. For the nanocomposites studied here, a maximum of two visual thermochromic transitions was observed for gold nanorods and up to three transitions were observed for silver nanorods.

  7. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  8. Anions in Nucleic Acid Crystallography. (United States)

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal


    Nucleic acid crystallization buffers contain a large variety of chemicals fitting specific needs. Among them, anions are often solely considered for pH-regulating purposes and as cationic co-salts while their ability to directly bind to nucleic acid structures is rarely taken into account. Here we review current knowledge related to the use of anions in crystallization buffers along with data on their biological prevalence. Chloride ions are frequently identified in crystal structures but display low cytosolic concentrations. Hence, they are thought to be distant from nucleic acid structures in the cell. Sulfate ions are also frequently identified in crystal structures but their localization in the cell remains elusive. Nevertheless, the characterization of the binding properties of these ions is essential for better interpreting the solvent structure in crystals and consequently, avoiding mislabeling of electron densities. Furthermore, understanding the binding properties of these anions should help to get clues related to their potential effects in crowded cellular environments.

  9. Surface reconstruction precursor to melting in Au309 clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Chen


    Full Text Available The melting of gold cluster is one of essential properties of nanoparticles and revisited to clarify the role played by the surface facets in the melting transition by molecular dynamics simulations. The occurrence of elaborate surface reconstruction is observed using many-body Gupta potential as energetic model for 309-atom (2.6 nm decahedral, cuboctahedral and icosahedral gold clusters. Our results reveal for the first time a surface reconstruction as precursor to the melting transitions. The surface reconstruction lead to an enhanced melting temperature for (100 faceted decahedral and cuboctahedral cluster than (111 faceted icosahedral gold cluster, which form a liquid patch due to surface vacancy.

  10. Electronic shell structure and chemisorption on gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Kleis, Jesper; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    We use density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structure and chemical properties of gold nanoparticles. Different structural families of clusters are compared. For up to 60 atoms we optimize structures using DFT-based simulated annealing. Cluster geometries are found to dist...

  11. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; Grace S Thomas; P Vishnu Kamath


    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange properties together with surface basicity making them materials of importance for many modern applications. In this article, we discuss many different ways of making anionic clays and compare and contrast the rich diversity of this class of materials with the better-known cationic clays.

  12. Anion binding in biological systems (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.


    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  13. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)


    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  14. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kvist Madsen


    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ, the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ. Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction towards the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the protein well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries to SZ. Furthermore all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant proteins. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications.

  15. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman,; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.


    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  16. Generation of aliphatic acid anions and carbon dioxide by hydrous pyrolysis of crude oils (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Lundegard, P.D.; Ambats, G.; Evans, William C.; Bischoff, J.L.


    Two crude oils with relatively high (0.60 wt%) and low (0.18 wt%) oxygen contents were heated in the presence of water in gold-plated reactors at 300??C for 2348 h. The high-oxygen oil was also heated at 200??C for 5711 h. The compositions of aqueous organic acid anions of the oils and of the headspace gases were monitored inn order to investigate the distribution of organic acids that can be generated from liquid petroleum. The oil with higher oxygen content generated about five times as much organic anions as the other oil. The dominant organic anions produced were acetate, propionate and butyrate. Small amounts of formate, succinate, methyl succinate and oxalate were also produced. The dominant oxygen-containing product was CO2, as has been observed in similar studies on the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen. These results indicate that a significant portion (10-30%) of organic acid anions reported i be generated by thermal alteration of oils in reservoir rocks. The bulk of organic acid anions present in formation waters, however, is most likely generated by thermal alteration of kerogen in source rocks. Kerogen is more abundant than oil in sedimentary basins and the relative yields of organic acid anions reported from the hydrous pyrolysis of kerogen are much higher than the yields obtained for the two oils. ?? 1993.

  17. Infrared Spectra of Anionic Cobalt-Carbon Dioxide Clusters (United States)

    Knurr, Benjamin; Weber, J. Mathias


    We present infrared photodissociation spectra of Co(CO_2)_n^- ions (n = 3 - 11) in the wavenumber region 1000 - 2400 cm-1, interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations. The spectra show signatures of several structural motifs for the interaction of a Co atom and CO_2 ligands. The spectra are dominated by a core ion showing bidentate interaction of two CO_2 ligands forming C-Co and O-Co bonds. The prevalence of triplet vs singlet states and the charge distribution in the Co(CO_2)_2^- core ion will also be discussed.

  18. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  19. Efficient Amide Based Halogenide Anion Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xing WU; Feng Hua LI; Hai LIN; Shou Rong ZHU; Hua Kuan LIN


    In this paper, we present the synthesis and anion recognition properties of the amide based phenanthroline derivatives 1, 2 and 3. In all cases 1:1 receptor: anion complexes were observed. The receptors were found to be selective for fluoride and chloride respectively over other putative anionic guest species.

  20. Binding Hydrated Anions with Hydrophobic Pockets. (United States)

    Sokkalingam, Punidha; Shraberg, Joshua; Rick, Steven W; Gibb, Bruce C


    Using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and quantum and molecular dynamics calculations, we demonstrate that relatively soft anions have an affinity for hydrophobic concavity. The results are consistent with the anions remaining partially hydrated upon binding, and suggest a novel strategy for anion recognition.

  1. Structures and electronic properties of Aun-1Cu and Aun (n≤9) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Yan; Li Xi-Bo; Tang Yong-Jian; R. Bruce King; Henry F. Schaefer III


    A systematic study on the structure and electronic properties of gold clusters doped each with one copper atom has been performed using the density functional theory. The average bond lengths in the Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) bimetallic clusters are shorter than those in the corresponding pure gold clusters. The ionization potentials of the bimetallic clusters Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) are larger than those of the corresponding homoatomic gold clusters except for Au5. The energy gaps of the Au-Cu binary clusters are narrower than those of the Aun clusters except AuCu and Au3Cu. No obvious even-odd effect exists in the variations of the electron affinities and ionization potentials for the Aun-1 Cu (n ≤ 9) clusters, which is in contrast to the case of gold clusters Aun.

  2. Electroless selective deposition of gold nano-array for silicon nanowires growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Gomes E.


    Full Text Available Nanopatterns of gold clusters on a large surface of oriented Si(111 substrates, from the galvanic displacement of gold salt (via the spontaneous reduction of AuCl4 -, are demonstrated in this work. The Si substrate is patterned by Focused Ion Beam (FIB prior to being dipped in a gold solution. Here, we show that these patterns lead to successful control of the position and size of gold clusters. Sequential patterning reveals a powerful maskless alternative to surface preparation prior to Si nanowire growth

  3. Structural Analysis of a Gene Cluster Encoding Two Cationic and Three Anionic Peroxidases from Rice Chromosome 4%对水稻第4号染色体长臂近端粒区一个过氧化物酶基因簇的结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽华; 周波; 韩斌; 钱跃民; 洪国藩


    通过对定位BAC克隆q3037(H0207F01)的序列测定和分析,在其中一个22.5kb的区域发现一个由5个第三类过氧化物酶基因(依次命名为osp1、osp2、osp3、osp4、osp5)组成的基因簇。分析表明,osp1、osp2和osp3分别含1个内含子,osp4和osp5分别含2个内含子。该5个基因分别编码338、335、336、343和346个氨基酸残基的蛋白质,而且都具有N端信号肽序列,其中OSP1、OSP4、OSP5为阴离子过氧化物酶,OSP2、OSP3为阳离子过氧化物酶。对5个基因间的两两比较分析和进化分析结果表明:该基因簇是通过一系列的串联基因复制事件而形成;osp5与来自玉米的ap1和来自大麦(Hordeum vulgare)的prx7为潜在的直向同源基因,而且,osp1-5与ap1、prx7构成了分泌性植物过氧化物酶基因家族中一个新的分枝。%Sequence analysis of a rice BAC q3037(H0207F01) identified a cluster of five tandemly arranged peroxidase genes, osp1, osp2, osp3, osp4 and osp5, within a 22.5 kb region. osp4, osp5 each have three exons interrupted by two introns, while osp1, osp2 and osp3 each have two exons interrupted by a single intron.The five genes were predicted products of 338, 335, 336, 343 and 346 amino acid residues, respectively, including putative signal peptide sequence at the amino-termini. And OSP1, OSP4 and OSP5 were predicted to be anionic peroxidase, OSP2 and OSP3 are cationic. Comparative analysis and evolutionary analysis of the clustered genes and other peroxidase family members revealed that the gene cluster occurred by tandemly gene duplications (from osp5 to osp1); and that osp5, ap1 and prx7 were potential orthologies, and ospl-5, apl and prx7 constituted a novel evolutionary branch of class III peroxidases.

  4. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong


    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  5. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel


    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  6. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective. (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Franz P


    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  7. Controlled Aspect Ratios of Gold Nanorods in Reduction-Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeob Kim


    Full Text Available Aspect ratios of gold nanorods have been finely modified in reduction-limited conditions via two electrochemical ways: by changing the amount of a growth solution containing small gold clusters in the presence of already prepared gold nanorods as seeds or by changing electrolysis time in the presence or absence of a silver plate. While the atomic molar ratio of gold in the growth solution to gold in the seed solution is critical in the former method, the relative molar ratio of gold ions to silver ions in the electrolytic solution is important in the latter way for the control of the aspect ratios of gold nanorods. The aspect ratios of gold nanorods decrease with an increase of electrolysis time in the absence of a silver plate, but they increase with an increase of electrolysis time in the presence of a silver plate.

  8. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean


    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C π-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely

  9. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.


    sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  10. Cesium Salt of Sodium 30-Tungstopentaphosphate: An Effective and Green Polyoxometalate for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles along with Decoration of Titanium Dioxide with Gold Nanoparticles for Bleaching of Malachite Green


    Fatemeh Farrash Bamoharram; Afsaneh Moghadam Jafari; Ali Ayati; Bahareh Tanhaei; Mika Sillanpää


    For the first time, capability of the cesium salt of sodium 30-tungstopentaphosphate, the so-called Preyssler’s anion (CsP5), as a green and eco-friendly polyoxometalate was investigated in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles and decoration of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles and nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, XRD, UV, and FTIR. TEM images showed that the gold nanoparticles have tubular and spherical shapes and particle size ranges from 10 to 25 nm. For ...

  11. A versatile, pulsed anion source utilizing plasma-entrainment: Characterization and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl, E-mail: [JILA and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    A novel pulsed anion source has been developed, using plasma entrainment into a supersonic expansion. A pulsed discharge source perpendicular to the main gas expansion greatly reduces unwanted “heating” of the main expansion, a major setback in many pulsed anion sources in use today. The design principles and construction information are described and several examples demonstrate the range of applicability of this anion source. Large OH{sup −}(Ar){sub n} clusters can be generated, with over 40 Ar solvating OH{sup −}. The solvation energy of OH{sup −}(Ar){sub n}, where n = 1-3, 7, 12, and 18, is derived from photoelectron spectroscopy and shows that by n = 12-18, each Ar is bound by about 10 meV. In addition, cis– and trans– HOCO{sup −} are generated through rational anion synthesis (OH{sup −} + CO + M → HOCO{sup −} + M) and the photoelectron spectra compared with previous results. These results, along with several further proof-of-principle experiments on solvation and transient anion synthesis, demonstrate the ability of this source to efficiently produce cold anions. With modifications to two standard General Valve assemblies and very little maintenance, this anion source provides a versatile and straightforward addition to a wide array of experiments.

  12. A versatile, pulsed anion source utilizing plasma-entrainment: Characterization and applications (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl


    A novel pulsed anion source has been developed, using plasma entrainment into a supersonic expansion. A pulsed discharge source perpendicular to the main gas expansion greatly reduces unwanted "heating" of the main expansion, a major setback in many pulsed anion sources in use today. The design principles and construction information are described and several examples demonstrate the range of applicability of this anion source. Large OH-(Ar)n clusters can be generated, with over 40 Ar solvating OH-. The solvation energy of OH-(Ar)n, where n = 1-3, 7, 12, and 18, is derived from photoelectron spectroscopy and shows that by n = 12-18, each Ar is bound by about 10 meV. In addition, cis- and trans- HOCO- are generated through rational anion synthesis (OH- + CO + M → HOCO- + M) and the photoelectron spectra compared with previous results. These results, along with several further proof-of-principle experiments on solvation and transient anion synthesis, demonstrate the ability of this source to efficiently produce cold anions. With modifications to two standard General Valve assemblies and very little maintenance, this anion source provides a versatile and straightforward addition to a wide array of experiments.

  13. Anion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vadivel Murugan


    . Its characterization is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The hybrid material presents predominantly high electronic conductivities of around 2.0 and 7.0 S cm-1 at 300 and 400K respectively.

  14. Tetrahedron DNA dendrimers and their encapsulation of gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Wang, Yijie; Dong, Yuanchen; Chen, Chun; Liu, Dongsheng; Yang, Zhongqiang


    DNA dendrimers have achieved increasing attention recently. Previously reported DNA dendrimers used Y-DNA as monomers. Tetrahedron DNA is a rigid tetrahedral cage made of DNA. Herein, we use tetrahedron DNA as monomers to prepare tetrahedron DNA dendrimers. The prepared tetrahedron DNA dendrimers have larger size compared with those made of Y-DNA. In addition, thanks to the central cavity of tetrahedron DNA monomers, some nanoscale structures (e.g., gold nanoparticles) can be encapsulated within tetrahedron DNA monomers. Tetrahedron DNA encapsulated with gold nanoparticles can be further assembled into dendrimers, guiding gold nanoparticles into clusters.

  15. The relative valuation of gold


    Baur, Dirk G.; Beckmann, Joscha; Czudaj, Robert


    Gold is a globally traded asset and held in large quantities by investors and central banks. Since there is no established model to assess if the price of gold is overvalued or undervalued, we propose a relative valuation framework based on gold price ratios. We analyze gold prices relative to commodity prices, consumer prices, stock prices, dividend and bond yields and find that the relative value of gold varies significantly over time indicating pronounced periods of mispricing of gold rela...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied withcyanide leaching liquor of gold ores, containing various kinds of ions. The adsorbed leaching liquorwas analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method. The contents of variouskinds of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy. ACFF not onlyadsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic, nickel, zinc, calcium, sulphur, bismuth, copper, iron. silverand cyanide anion. Atomic percentage of C and those of O, N, Zr, Fe increase and decreaserespectively with the increase of the layer depth, while those of Ca, Au, Ag keep constant.

  17. Estudos da deposição em subtensão de cádmio sobre ouro policristalino na presença de diferentes ânions co-adsorvidos Voltammetric and microgravimetric studies of the anions influence in the underpotential deposition of cadmium on policrystalline gold electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Santos


    Full Text Available Cadmium UPD on Au was studied by voltammetric and microgravimetric measurements. In the oxide formation/reduction potential region, a mass increasing/decreasing of 32 ng cm-2 was associated to incorporation/elimination of one oxygen per active site. The modifications promoted in the voltammetric and mass profiles by 10-5 M Cd(ClO42 are restricted to potentials more negative than 0.4 V. After a 120 s potential delay at 0.05 V, the positive sweep reveals an anodic peak with charge of 40 muC cm-2 and mass decrease of 22 ng cm-2, associated to Cd ads dissolution. Sulphate or chloride was added to the solution without significant influence, due to the low coverage with Cd or anions.

  18. Barrierless growth of precursor-free, ultrafast laser-fragmented noble metal nanoparticles by colloidal atom clusters - A kinetic in situ study. (United States)

    Jendrzej, Sandra; Gökce, Bilal; Amendola, Vincenzo; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Unintended post-synthesis growth of noble metal colloids caused by excess amounts of reactants or highly reactive atom clusters represents a fundamental problem in colloidal chemistry, affecting product stability or purity. Hence, quantified kinetics could allow defining nanoparticle size determination in dependence of the time. Here, we investigate in situ the growth kinetics of ps pulsed laser-fragmented platinum nanoparticles in presence of naked atom clusters in water without any influence of reducing agents or surfactants. The nanoparticle growth is investigated for platinum covering a time scale of minutes to 50days after nanoparticle generation, it is also supplemented by results obtained from gold and palladium. Since a minimum atom cluster concentration is exceeded, a significant growth is determined by time resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy, analytical disc centrifugation, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. We suggest a decrease of atom cluster concentration over time, since nanoparticles grow at the expense of atom clusters. The growth mechanism during early phase (<1day) of laser-synthesized colloid is kinetically modeled by rapid barrierless coalescence. The prolonged slow nanoparticle growth is kinetically modeled by a combination of coalescence and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner kinetic for Ostwald ripening, validated experimentally by the temperature dependence of Pt nanoparticle size and growth quenching by Iodide anions.

  19. Cluster Dynamics: Laying the Foundations for Tailoring the Design of Cluster Assembled Nanoscale Materials (United States)


    photoelectron images were obtained by a time-of-flight ( TOF ) mass spectrometer coupled to a photoelectron imaging apparatus. The anions were created...gas (He). The anions are extracted using the TOF grid setup and the arrival times of the Pt- and WC- are noted. The photodetachment laser (Nd3+:YAG...Met- Cars , M8C12, were discovered in our laboratory13 and implementing them into cluster-assembled materials requires detailed knowledge of their

  20. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.


    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  1. Cluster headache (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... A cluster headache begins as a severe, sudden headache. The headache commonly strikes 2 to 3 hours after you fall ...

  2. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I


    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  3. Gold in the Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the present Chinese market, more and more businessmen turn to the profit-making trade. Even some counters in the bookstores are selling gold rings, necklaces, bracelets, etc. One day a school teacher asked a store assistant,“Why are you selling gold in your bookstore?”

  4. Star Clusters


    Gieles, M.


    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  5. Ammoniated electron as a solvent stabilized multimer radical anion

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, I A


    The excess electron in liquid ammonia ("ammoniated electron") is commonly viewed as a cavity electron in which the s-type wave function fills the interstitial void between 6-9 ammonia molecules. Herewith an alternative model is examined in which the ammoniated electron is regarded as a solvent stabilized multimer radical anion, as was originally suggested by Symons [Chem. Soc. Rev. 1976, 5, 337]. In this model, most of the excess electron density resides in the frontier orbitals of N atoms in the ammonia molecules forming the solvation cavity; a fraction of this spin density is transferred to the molecules in the second solvation shell. The cavity is formed due to the repulsion between negatively charged solvent molecules. Using density functional theory calculations for small ammonia cluster anions in the gas phase, it is demonstrated that such core anions would quantitatively account for the observed pattern of Knight shifts for 1H and 14N nuclei as observed by NMR spectroscopy and the downshifted stretchin...

  6. Interactions of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides with Gold Nanorod Surfaces Investigated by Refractometric Sensing. (United States)

    Abadeer, Nardine S; Fülöp, Gergő; Chen, Si; Käll, Mikael; Murphy, Catherine J


    The interface between nanoparticles and bacterial surfaces is of great interest for applications in nanomedicine and food safety. Here, we demonstrate that interactions between gold nanorods and bacterial surface molecules are governed by the nanoparticle surface coating. Polymer-coated gold nanorod substrates are exposed to lipopolysaccharides extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, and attachment is monitored using localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensing. The number of lipopolysaccharide molecules attached per nanorod is calculated from the shift in the plasmon maximum, which results from the change in refractive index after analyte binding. Colloidal gold nanorods in water are also incubated with lipopolysaccharides to demonstrate the effect of lipopolysaccharide concentration on plasmon shift, ζ-potential, and association constant. Both gold nanorod surface charge and surface chemistry affect gold nanorod-lipopolysaccharide interactions. In general, anionic lipopolysaccharides was found to attach more effectively to cationic gold nanorods than to neutral or anionic gold nanorods. Some variation in lipopolysaccharide attachment is also observed between the three strains studied, demonstrating the potential complexity of bacteria-nanoparticle interactions.

  7. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar


    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  8. A novel method of supporting gold nanoparticles on MWCNTs: Synchrotron X-ray reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuan-Nan Lin; Tsung-Yeh Yang; Hong-Ming Lin; Yeu-Kuang Hwu; She-Huang Wu; Chung-Kwei Lin


    Gold nanoparticles decorating the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are prepared by photochemical reduction. The gold clusters form different interesting geometrical faceted shapes in accordance to time duration of synchrotron X-ray irradiation. The shape of nanogold could be spherical, rod-like, or triangular. Carbon nanotubes serve as optimal templates for the heterogeneous nucleation of gold nanocrystals. These nanocrystal structures are characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and element analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  9. Design Principles of Inert Substrates for Exploiting Gold Clusters’ Intrinsic Catalytic Reactivity


    Wang Gao; Ting Ting Cui; Yong Fu Zhu; Zi Wen; Ming Zhao; Jian Chen Li; Qing Jiang


    Ultralow stability of gold clusters prohibits the understanding of their intrinsic reactivity (that is vital for revealing the origin of gold’s catalytic properties). Using density functional theory including many-body dispersion method, we aim to ascertain effective ways in exploiting gold clusters’ intrinsic reactivity on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We find that the many body van der Waals interactions are essential for gold clusters’ reactivity on CNTs and even for O2 activation on these supp...

  10. First-Principles Investigation of Ag-Doped Gold Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Yue Fan


    Full Text Available Gold nanoclusters have the tunable optical absorption property, and are promising for cancer cell imaging, photothermal therapy and radiotherapy. First-principle is a very powerful tool for design of novel materials. In the present work, structural properties, band gap engineering and tunable optical properties of Ag-doped gold clusters have been calculated using density functional theory. The electronic structure of a stable Au20 cluster can be modulated by incorporating Ag, and the HOMO–LUMO gap of Au20−nAgn clusters is modulated due to the incorporation of Ag electronic states in the HOMO and LUMO. Furthermore, the results of the imaginary part of the dielectric function indicate that the optical transition of gold clusters is concentration-dependent and the optical transition between HOMO and LUMO shifts to the low energy range as the Ag atom increases. These calculated results are helpful for the design of gold cluster-based biomaterials, and will be of interest in the fields of radiation medicine, biophysics and nanoscience.

  11. Tunable electronic interactions between anions and perylenediimide. (United States)

    Goodson, Flynt S; Panda, Dillip K; Ray, Shuvasree; Mitra, Atanu; Guha, Samit; Saha, Sourav


    Over the past decade anion-π interaction has emerged as a new paradigm of supramolecular chemistry of anions. Taking advantage of the electronic nature of anion-π interaction, we have expanded its boundaries to charge-transfer (CT) and formal electron transfer (ET) events by adjusting the electron-donating and accepting abilities of anions and π-acids, respectively. To establish that ET, CT, and anion-π interactions could take place between different anions and π-acids as long as their electronic and structural properties are conducive, herein, we introduce 3,4,9,10-perylenediimide (PDI-1) that selectively undergoes thermal ET from strong Lewis basic hydroxide and fluoride anions, but remains electronically and optically silent to poor Lewis basic anions, as ET and CT events are turned OFF. These interactions have been fully characterized by UV/Vis, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. These results demonstrate the generality of anion-induced ET events in aprotic solvents and further refute a notion that strong Lewis basic hydroxide and fluoride ions can only trigger nucleophilic attack to form covalent bonds instead of acting as sacrificial electron donors to π-acids under appropriate conditions.

  12. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides (United States)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.


    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  13. Semi-quantitative determination of cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions using gold nanoparticles as reporter probes. (United States)

    Kuong, Chi-Lap; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chie


    Concentrations of cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions have been estimated on the basis of changes in the color of gold nanoparticles, used as reporter probes. We have shown that the colors of gold nanoparticles with anionic protective groups on their surfaces shift from red to indigo/purple and then back to red in a range of cationic surfactant solutions in which concentrations vary from very low to above the theoretical CMCs. The color changes occur near the theoretical CMCs, presumably because the presence of surfactant micelles in the solution prevents the gold nanoparticles from aggregating. We have used gold nanoparticles as reporter probes to determine the concentrations of cationic surfactants in products such as hair conditioners, which often contain large amounts of alkyltrimethylammonium halides. Although this approach can only provide an estimate, it can be performed simply by addition of a given amount of gold nanoparticles to a series of diluted solutions, without the need for instruments or labor-intensive procedures.

  14. Platinum monolayer electrocatalyst on gold nanostructures on silicon for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution. (United States)

    Kye, Joohong; Shin, Muncheol; Lim, Bora; Jang, Jae-Won; Oh, Ilwhan; Hwang, Seongpil


    Pt monolayer decorated gold nanostructured film on planar p-type silicon is utilized for photoelectrochemical H2 generation in this work. First, gold nanostructured film on silicon was spontaneously produced by galvanic displacement of the reduction of gold ion and the oxidation of silicon in the presence of fluoride anion. Second, underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper under illumination produced Cu monolayer on gold nanostructured film followed by galvanic exchange of less-noble Cu monolayer with more-noble PtCl6(2-). Pt(shell)/Au(core) on p-type silicon showed the similar activity with platinum nanoparticle on silicon for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction in spite of low platinum loading. From Tafel analysis, Pt(shell)/Au(core) electrocatalyst shows the higher area-specific activity than platinum nanoparticle on silicon demonstrating the significant role of underlying gold for charge transfer reaction from silicon to H(+) through platinum catalyst.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 23 - Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled... (United States)


    ... Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate, Silver, and Platinum Industry...—Exemptions Recognized in the Assay for Quality of Gold Alloy, Gold Filled, Gold Overlay, Rolled Gold Plate... be considered in any assay for quality of a gold filled, gold overlay and rolled gold plate...

  16. Light-Induced In Situ Transformation of Metal Clusters to Metal Nanocrystals for Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zeng, Zhiping; Hsu, Shao-Hui; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin


    In situ transformation of glutathione-capped gold (Aux) clusters to gold (Au) nanocrystals under simulated solar light irradiation was achieved and utilized as a facile synthetic approach to rationally fabricate Aux/Au/TiO2 ternary and Au/TiO2 binary heterostructures. Synergistic interaction of Aux clusters and Au nanocrystals contributes to enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis.

  17. Surface reconstruction precursor to melting in Au309 clusters


    Fuyi Chen; Li, Z. Y.; Roy L. Johnston


    The melting of gold cluster is one of essential properties of nanoparticles and revisited to clarify the role played by the surface facets in the melting transition by molecular dynamics simulations. The occurrence of elaborate surface reconstruction is observed using many-body Gupta potential as energetic model for 309-atom (2.6 nm) decahedral, cuboctahedral and icosahedral gold clusters. Our results reveal for the first time a surface reconstruction as precursor to the melting transitions. ...

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid and superoxide anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag Ljubuncic; Omar Abu-Salach; Arieh Bomzon


    AIM: To investigate the ability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to scavenge superoxide anion (O2-).METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to scavenge (O2-) generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) in a cell-free system and its effect on the rate of O2--induced ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in hepatic post-mitochondrial supernatants.RESULTS: UDCA at a concentration as high as 1 mmol/Ldid not impair the ability of the X-XO system to generate O2-, but could scavenge O2- at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, and decrease the rate of AA oxidation at a concentration of 100 μmol/L.CONCLUSION: UDCA can scavenge O2-, an action that may be beneficial to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  19. Colorimetric As (V) detection based on S-layer functionalized gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Lakatos, Mathias; Matys, Sabine; Raff, Johannes; Pompe, Wolfgang


    Herein, we present simple and rapid colorimetric and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods for detecting anionic arsenic (V) complexes in aqueous media. The methods exploit the aggregation of S-layer-functionalized spherical gold nanoparticles of sizes between 20 and 50 nm in the presence of arsenic species. The gold nanoparticles were functionalized with oligomers of the S-layer protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12. The aggregation of the nanoparticles results in a color change from burgundy-red for widely dispersed nanoparticles to blue for aggregated nanoparticles. A detailed signal analysis was achieved by measuring the shift of the particle plasmon resonance signal with UV/VIS spectroscopy. To further improve signal sensitivity, the influence of larger nanoparticles was tested. In the case of 50 nm gold nanoparticles, a concentration of the anionic arsenic (V) complex lower than 24 ppb was detectable.

  20. Using Glutamic Acid, Phenylalanine and Tryptophan to Synthesize Capped Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Khoshnevisan


    Full Text Available Introduction: The study and investigation of gold nanoparticles produced by amino acid is one of the interesting and applied issues in nanotechnology. In this study, amino acids were used to reduce gold cations as well as an agent to cap gold nanoparticles. In fact, strong bound of amino groups to amino acid and protein on the gold nanoparticles surface indicate the medical applications of these materials. Methods: In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared and functionalized by using solution reduction containing gold cations with optimum concentration (0.005 M, and also prepared by using glutamic acid, phenylalanine and tryptophan with optimum concentration (0.025 M. Results: The investigation of optimum condition for gold solution and amino acids and also determination of gold nanoparticles were done by UV-Vis. The nanoparticles size were reported 5-20, 10-20 and 20-30 nm respectively by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques, which is appropriate for biological activities. Conclusion: The comparison of the data from experimental and quantum calculations demonstrated that amino acids have strong band when they are conjugated by anion state. Free carboxylic groups of capped gold nanoparticles with glutamic acid are one of the suitable and capable beads for binding to biological agents.

  1. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Microhydrated Conjugate Base Anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmis, K. R.; Neumark, D. M.


    Conjugate-base anions are ubiquitous in aqueous solution. Understanding the hydration of these anions at the molecular level represents a long-standing goal in chemistry. A molecular-level perspective on ion hydration is also important for understanding the surface speciation and reactivity of aeros

  2. The 2Πg shape resonance of acetylene anion: an investigation with the RAC method (United States)

    Čurík, Roman; Paidarová, Ivana; Horáček, Jiří


    Recently developed method of regularized analytic continuation (RAC) is applied to determination of the 2Πg resonance of acetylene anion. The method is based on continuation of the electron affinities calculated for the anion in presence of an external perturbation field. Its independence on the correlation treatment of the many-electron system allows application of accurate coupled-clusters methods for electronic structure calculations utilized in determination of the resonance position and width. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  3. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar H. Flood


    Full Text Available The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures.

  4. Anion stripping as a general method to create cationic porous framework with mobile anions. (United States)

    Mao, Chengyu; Kudla, Ryan A; Zuo, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Mueller, Leonard J; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with cationic frameworks and mobile anions have many applications from sensing, anion exchange and separation, to fast ion conductivity. Despite recent progress, the vast majority of MOFs have neutral frameworks. A common mechanism for the formation of neutral frameworks is the attachment of anionic species such as F(-) or OH(-) to the framework metal sites, neutralizing an otherwise cationic scaffolding. Here, we report a general method capable of converting such neutral frameworks directly into cationic ones with concurrent generation of mobile anions. Our method is based on the differential affinity between distinct metal ions with framework anionic species. Specifically, Al(3+) is used to strip F(-) anions away from framework Cr(3+) sites, leading to cationic frameworks with mobile Cl(-) anions. The subsequent anion exchange with OH(-) further leads to a porous network with mobile OH(-) anions. New materials prepared by anion stripping can undergo ion exchange with anionic organic dyes and also exhibit much improved ionic conductivity compared to the original unmodified MOFs.

  5. Prelude to Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    FEMALE Chinese athletes Fu Mingxia and Wang Junxia recorded outstanding performances at 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Fu Mingxia won gold medals in both platform and springboard diving, and in so doing became the first double medal winner in Olympic diving since 1960. Wang Junxia, the holder of several world records in women’s long distance events, struggled against the odds and captured gold in the 5,000-meter event,

  6. Joining the Gold Rush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO


    @@ Flush with advanced technology and large amounts of capital, overseas mining firms are carving a place in the Chinese gold industry Dozens of Western mining companies, particularly those from Canada, are making the journey into the kind of remote corners in China that other overseas investors shy away from. What are they looking for? The answer is one of the most precious substances on the planet: gold.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of small silver-sulfur clusters: A density functional study (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Li, Yang; Li, Ying; Tan, Jia-Jin; Li, Hui-Li


    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of neutral and anionic AgnSm (2≤n+m≤6) clusters. The results show that the ground-state structures of neutral clusters are different from those of anionic clusters. Theoretical electron detachment energies (both vertical and adiabatic) are compared with the experimental measurements to verify the ground states of silver-sulfur clusters obtained in the present study. For both neutral and anionic systems, the highest occupied-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps exhibit an odd-even oscillation as a function of the cluster size. In addition, the natural population analysis reveals that the charges transfer from Ag atoms to S atoms in AgnSm clusters, and the extra electron of AgnSm- clusters is mainly localized on the 3p subshells of S atoms.

  8. Anion conductance selectivity mechanism of the CFTR chloride channel. (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul


    All ion channels are able to discriminate between substrate ions to some extent, a process that involves specific interactions between permeant anions and the so-called selectivity filter within the channel pore. In the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion-selective channel, both anion relative permeability and anion relative conductance are dependent on anion free energy of hydration--anions that are relatively easily dehydrated tend to show both high permeability and low conductance. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the relative conductance of different anions in CFTR, and the effect of mutations within the channel pore. In constitutively-active E1371Q-CFTR channels, the anion conductance sequence was Cl(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > formate > SCN(-) > I(-). A mutation that disrupts anion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore (K95Q) disrupted anion conductance selectivity, such that anions with different permeabilities showed almost indistinguishable conductances. Conversely, a mutation at the putative narrowest pore region that is known to disrupt anion permeability selectivity (F337A) had minimal effects on anion relative conductance. Ion competition experiments confirmed that relatively tight binding of permeant anions resulted in relatively low conductance. These results suggest that the relative affinity of ion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore controls the relative conductance of different permeant anions in CFTR, and that the pore has two physically distinct anion selectivity filters that act in series to control anion conductance selectivity and anion permeability selectivity respectively.

  9. Anion photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of glyoxal (United States)

    Xue, Tian; Dixon, Andrew R.; Sanov, Andrei


    We report a photoelectron imaging study of the radical-anion of glyoxal. The 532 nm photoelectron spectrum provides the first direct spectroscopic determination of the adiabatic electron affinity of glyoxal, EA = 1.10 ± 0.02 eV. This assignment is supported by a Franck-Condon simulation of the experimental spectrum that successfully reproduces the observed spectral features. The vertical detachment energy of the radical-anion is determined as VDE = 1.30 ± 0.04 eV. The reported EA and VDE values are attributed to the most stable (C2h symmetry) isomers of the neutral and the anion.

  10. Cation effects on rotational dynamics of anions and water molecules in alkali (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+) thiocyanate (SCN-) aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Bian, Hongtao; Chen, Hailong; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jiebo; Wen, Xiewen; Zhuang, Wei; Zheng, Junrong


    Waiting time dependent rotational anisotropies of SCN(-) anions and water molecules in alkali thiocyanate (XSCN, X = Li, Na, K, Cs) aqueous solutions at various concentrations were measured with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy. It was found that cations can significantly affect the reorientational motions of both water molecules and SCN(-) anions. The dynamics are slower in a solution with a smaller cation. The reorientational time constants follow the order of Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) ~/= Cs(+). The changes of rotational time constants of SCN(-) at various concentrations scale almost linearly with the changes of solution viscosity, but those of water molecules do not. In addition, the concentration-dependent amplitudes of dynamical changes are much more significant in the Li(+) and Na(+) solutions than those in the K(+) and Cs(+) solutions. Further investigations on the systems with the ultrafast vibrational energy exchange method and molecular dynamics simulations provide an explanation for the observations: the observed rotational dynamics are the balanced results of ion clustering and cation/anion/water direct interactions. In all the solutions at high concentrations (>5 M), substantial amounts of ions form clusters. The structural inhomogeneity in the solutions leads to distinct rotational dynamics of water and anions. The strong interactions of Li(+) and Na(+) because of their relatively large charge densities with water molecules and SCN(-) anions, in addition to the likely geometric confinements because of ion clustering, substantially slow down the rotations of SCN(-) anions and water molecules inside the ion clusters. The interactions of K(+) and Cs(+) with water or SCN(-) are much weaker. The rotations of water molecules inside ion clusters of K(+) and Cs(+) solutions are not significantly different from those of other water species so that the experimentally observed rotational relaxation dynamics are only slightly affected by the ion concentrations.

  11. Cellular Binding of Anionic Nanoparticles is Inhibited by Serum Proteins Independent of Nanoparticle Composition. (United States)

    Fleischer, Candace C; Kumar, Umesh; Payne, Christine K


    Nanoparticles used in biological applications encounter a complex mixture of extracellular proteins. Adsorption of these proteins on the nanoparticle surface results in the formation of a "protein corona," which can dominate the interaction of the nanoparticle with the cellular environment. The goal of this research was to determine how nanoparticle composition and surface modification affect the cellular binding of protein-nanoparticle complexes. We examined the cellular binding of a collection of commonly used anionic nanoparticles: quantum dots, colloidal gold nanoparticles, and low-density lipoprotein particles, in the presence and absence of extracellular proteins. These experiments have the advantage of comparing different nanoparticles under identical conditions. Using a combination of fluorescence and dark field microscopy, flow cytometry, and spectroscopy, we find that cellular binding of these anionic nanoparticles is inhibited by serum proteins independent of nanoparticle composition or surface modification. We expect these results will aid in the design of nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

  12. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.


    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  13. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.


    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  14. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle


    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  15. Anion conductance of the human red cell is carried by a maxi-anion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glogowska, Edyta; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cueff, Anne


    Historically, the anion transport through the human red cell membrane has been perceived to be mediated by Band 3, in the two-component concept with the large electroneutral anion exchange accompanied by the conductance proper, which dominated the total membrane conductance. The status of anion...... that the diversity of anionic channel activities recorded in human erythrocytes corresponds to different kinetic modalities of a unique type of maxi-anion channel with multiple conductance levels and probably multiple gating properties and pharmacology, depending on conditions. It demonstrates the role of activator...... played by serum in the recruitment of multiple new conductance levels showing very complex kinetics and gating properties upon serum addition. These channels, which seem to be dormant under normal physiological conditions, are potentially activable and could confer a far higher anion conductance...

  16. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Microsolvated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ditte Linde

    intrinsic factors and solvent effects is the enhanced reactivity of α-nucleophiles – nucleophiles with a lone-pair adjacent to the attacking site – referred to as the α-effect. This thesis concerns the reactivity of microsolvated anions and in particular how the presence of a single solvent molecule affects...... the gas-phase α-effect. The experimental studies are performed by means of the flowing after glow selected ion flow tube technique, and these are supplemented by electronic structure calculations. The α-nucleophile employed is the microsolvated hydrogen peroxide anion whose reactivity is compared...... to that of a series of microsolvated oxygen centered anions. The association of the nucleophiles with a single water or methanol molecule allows the α-effect to be observed in the SN2 reaction with methyl chloride; this effect was not apparent in the reactions of the unsolvated anions. The results suggest...

  17. Renal elimination of organic anions in cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana Mónica Tortes


    The disposition of most drugs is highly dependent on specialized transporters.OAT1 and OAT3 are two organic anion transporters expressed in the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells,identified as contributors to xenobiotic and endogenous organic anion secretion.It is well known that cholestasis may cause renal damage.Impairment of kidney function produces modifications in the renal elimination of drugs.Recent studies have demonstrated that the renal abundance of OAT1 and OAT3 plays an important role in the renal elimination of organic anions in the presence of extrahepatic cholestasis.Time elapsed after obstructive cholestasis has an important impact on the regulation of both types of organic anion transporters.The renal expression of OAT1 and OAT3 should be taken into account in order to improve pharmacotherapeutic efficacy and to prevent drug toxicity during the onset of this hepatic disease.

  18. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina


    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...... algorithms accordingly....

  19. Solidification of gold nanoparticles in carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Arcidiacono, S; Walther, J H; Poulikakos, D; Passerone, D; Koumoutsakos, P


    The structure and the solidification of gold nanoparticles in a carbon nanotube are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations indicate that the predicted solidification temperature of the enclosed particle is lower than its bulk counterpart, but higher than that observed for clusters placed in vacuum. A comparison with a phenomenological model indicates that, in the considered range of tube radii (R(CNT)) of 0.5 < R(CNT) < 1.6 nm, the solidification temperature depends mainly on the length of the particle with a minor dependence on R(CNT).

  20. Quantitative detection of gold nanoparticles on individual, unstained cancer cells by scanning electron microscopy. (United States)

    Hartsuiker, L; VAN Es, P; Petersen, W; VAN Leeuwen, T G; Terstappen, L W M M; Otto, C


    Gold nanoparticles are rapidly emerging for use in biomedical applications. Characterization of the interaction and delivery of nanoparticles to cells through microscopy is important. Scanning electron microscopes have the intrinsic resolution to visualize gold nanoparticles on cells. A novel sample preparation protocol was developed to enable imaging of cells and gold nanoparticles with a conventional below lens scanning electron microscopes. The negative influence of 'charging' on the quality of scanning electron microscopes' images could be limited by deposition of biological cells on a conductive (gold) surface. The novel protocol enabled high-resolution scanning electron microscopes' imaging of small clusters and individual gold nanoparticles on uncoated cell surfaces. Gold nanoparticles could be counted on cancer cells with automated routines.

  1. Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensors for anions (United States)

    Teichmann, Maria; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lippitsch, Max E.


    Sensing of anions has been investigated using the fluorescence decaytime as the information carrier. The sensing mechanism is based on the coextraction of an anion and a proton, and the presence of a fluorophore with a rather long fluorescence decaytime inside the membrane to act as a pH indicator. The relevant theory is discussed shortly. As an example a sensor for nitrate is shown, and the influence of ionic additives on the working function has been investigated.

  2. A new class of organocatalysts: sulfenate anions. (United States)

    Zhang, Mengnan; Jia, Tiezheng; Yin, Haolin; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J


    Sulfenate anions are known to act as highly reactive species in the organic arena. Now they premiere as organocatalysts. Proof of concept is offered by the sulfoxide/sulfenate-catalyzed (1-10 mol%) coupling of benzyl halides in the presence of base to generate trans-stilbenes in good to excellent yields (up to 99%). Mechanistic studies support the intermediacy of sulfenate anions, and the deprotonated sulfoxide was determined to be the resting state of the catalyst.

  3. Studies of cluster-assembled materials: From gas phase to condensed phase (United States)

    Gao, Lin

    . After being mass gated in a reflectron equipped time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and deposited onto TEM grids, the resultant specimens can be loaded onto high-resolution TEM investigation via electron diffraction. In conclusion, soft-landing of mass selected clusters has been shown to be a successful approach to obtain structural information on Zr-Met-Car cluster-assembled materials collected from the gas phase. TEM images indicate the richness of the morphologies associated with these cluster crystals. However, passivation methods are expected to be examined further to overcome the limited stabilities of these novel clusters. From this initial study, it's shown the promising opportunity to study other Met-Cars species and more cluster-based materials. Experimental results of reactions run with a solvothermal synthesis method obtained while searching for new Zr-C cluster assembled materials, are reported. One unexpected product in single crystal form was isolated and tentatively identified by X-ray diffraction to be [Zr6i O(OH)O12·2(Bu)4], with space group P2 1/n and lattice parameters of a = 12.44 A, b = 22.06 A, c = 18.40 A, alpha = 90°, beta = 105°, gamma = 90°, V = 4875 A3 and R 1 = 3.15% for the total observed data (I ≥ 2 sigma I) and oR2 = 2.82%. This novel hexanuclear Zr(IV)-oxo-hydroxide cluster anion may be the first member in polyoxometalates class with metal atoms from the IVB group and having Oh symmetry. Alternatively, it may be the first member in {[(Zr6Z)X 12]X6}m- class with halides replaced by oxo- and hydroxyl groups and with an increased oxidation state of Zr. It is predicted to bear application potentials directed by both families. This work could suggest a direction in which the preparation of Zr-C cluster-assembled materials in a liquid environment may be eventually fulfilled. 1,3-Bis(diethylphosphino)propane (depp) protected small gold clusters are studied via multiple techniques, including Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  4. Application of the superfine fraction analysis method in ore gold geochemical prospecting in the Shamanikha-Stolbovsky Area (Magadan Region) (United States)

    Makarova, Yuliya; Sokolov, Sergey; Glukhov, Anton


    The Shamanikha-Stolbovsky gold cluster is located in the North-East of Russia, in the basin of the Kolyma River. In 1933, gold placers were discovered there, but the search for significant gold targets for more than 50 years did not give positive results. In 2009-2011, geochemical and geophysical studies, mining and drilling were conducted within this cluster. Geochemical exploration was carried out in a modification based on superimposed secondary sorption-salt haloes (sampling density of 250x250 m, 250x50 m, 250x20 m) using the superfine fraction analysis method (SFAM) because of complicated landscape conditions (thick Quaternary sediments, widespread permafrost). The method consists in the extraction of superfine fraction (quartz formation are identified within the anomalous geochemical field core zone. 3. In all these prospects, mining and drilling penetrated gold ore bodies within the identified potentially gold zones. The Nadezhda target now has the status of gold deposit.

  5. Cluster Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kneib, Jean-Paul; 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3


    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining...

  6. Metal-organic framework supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2 capture: anion effects. (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Chen, Yifei; Hu, Zhongqiao; Jiang, Jianwen


    IRMOF-1 supported ionic liquid (IL) membranes are investigated for CO(2) capture by atomistic simulation. The ILs consist of identical cation 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM](+), but four different anions, namely hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)](-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf(2)N](-), and thiocyanate [SCN](-). As compared with the cation, the anion has a stronger interaction with IRMOF-1 and a more ordered structure in IRMOF-1. The small anions [PF(6)](-), [BF(4)](-), and [SCN](-) prefer to locate near to the metal-cluster, particularly the quasi-spherical [PF(6)](-) and [BF(4)](-). In contrast, the bulky and chain-like [BMIM](+) and [Tf(2)N](-) reside near the phenyl ring. Among the four anions, [Tf(2)N](-) has the weakest interaction with IRMOF-1 and thus the strongest interaction with [BMIM](+). With increasing the weight ratio of IL to IRMOF-1 (W(IL/IRMOF-1)), the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) at infinite dilution is enhanced. At a given W(IL/IRMOF-1), the selectivity increases as [Tf(2)N](-) membrane with W(IL/IRMOF-1) = 1, [SCN](-) is identified to be the most favorable site for CO(2) adsorption. [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 outperforms polymer membranes and polymer-supported ILs in CO(2) permeability, and its performance surpasses Robeson's upper bound. This simulation study reveals that the anion has strong effects on the microscopic properties of ILs and suggests that MOF-supported ILs are potentially intriguing for CO(2) capture.

  7. Chemistry for oncotheranostic gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Trouiller, Anne Juliette; Hebié, Seydou; El Bahhaj, Fatima; Napporn, Teko W; Bertrand, Philippe


    This review presents in a comprehensive ways the chemical methods used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with focus on anti-cancer applications. The review covers the parameters required for the synthesis gold nanoparticles with defined shapes and sizes, method for targeted delivery in tumours, and selected examples of anti-cancers compounds delivered with gold nanoparticles. A short survey of bioassays for oncology based on gold nanoparticles is also presented.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Studies on Metai-hexafluorobenzene Anionic Comolexes(M=Ag,Au,Pd,Pt,Pb and Bi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhang; SUN Shu-tao; LIU Hong-tao; ZHU Qi-he; GAO Zhen; TANG Zi-chao


    The anionic products from the reactions between metal(M=Ag,Au,Pd,Pt,Pb and Bi) vapour produced by laser ablation and hexafluorobenzene seeded in carrier gas(Ar) were studied by means of a homemade reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry(RTOF-MS).Experimental results show that the dominant products were [MmC6F6]-complexes for the reactions of Ag,Au,Pd and Pt with C6F6,while the dominant products were [MmC6Fs]- complexes for the reactions of Pb and Bi with C6F6.The formation mechanisms of the products,including the adsorption of metal cluster anions on hexafluorobenzene and the C-F cleavage induced by metal cluster anions,were discussed.

  9. Clusters of Monoisotopic Elements for Calibration in (TOF) Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Kolářová, Lenka; Prokeš, Lubomír; Kučera, Lukáš; Hampl, Aleš; Peňa-Méndez, Eladia; Vaňhara, Petr; Havel, Josef


    Precise calibration in TOF MS requires suitable and reliable standards, which are not always available for high masses. We evaluated inorganic clusters of the monoisotopic elements gold and phosphorus (Au n +/Au n - and P n +/P n -) as an alternative to peptides or proteins for the external and internal calibration of mass spectra in various experimental and instrumental scenarios. Monoisotopic gold or phosphorus clusters can be easily generated in situ from suitable precursors by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Their use offers numerous advantages, including simplicity of preparation, biological inertness, and exact mass determination even at lower mass resolution. We used citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles to generate gold calibration clusters, and red phosphorus powder to generate phosphorus clusters. Both elements can be added to samples to perform internal calibration up to mass-to-charge (m/z) 10-15,000 without significantly interfering with the analyte. We demonstrated the use of the gold and phosphorous clusters in the MS analysis of complex biological samples, including microbial standards and total extracts of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We believe that clusters of monoisotopic elements could be used as generally applicable calibrants for complex biological samples.

  10. Neutral pyrimidine C-H donor as anion receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁迎雪; 吴娜娜; 韩逸飞; 宋相志; 王洪波


    Anion receptors including pyrimidine subunit were designed and synthesized and their binding abilities with various anions were investigated by fluorescence and 1H NMR titration experiments. DFT calculations provided some information for anion recognition. It is confirmed that both of two new pyrimidine anion receptors have the selectivity for Cl−.

  11. Photoinduced conductivity of a porphyrin-gold composite nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilina, Svletana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilin, Dmitri S [UNIV OF FL; Prezhdo, Oleg [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Tsemekhman, Kiril [NON LANL


    Negatively charged phosphine groups on the backbone of DNA are known to attract gold nanoclusters from a colloid, assembling the clusters at fixed intervals. Bridging these intervals with porphyrin-dye linkers forms an infinite conducting chain, a quantum wire whose carrier mobility can be enhanced by photoexcitation. The resulting nanoassembly can be used as a gate: a wire with a controllable conductivity. The electronic structure of the porphyrin-gold wire is studied here by density functional theory, and the conductivity of the system is determined as a function of the photoexcitation energy. Photoexcitations of the dye are found to enhance the wire conductivity by orders of magnitude.

  12. Data Clustering (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.


    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  13. Digging for Gold (United States)

    Waters, John K.


    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  14. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute, maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.


    Smith, A.E.


    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  16. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  17. Aiming for Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Twenty-three years ago he claimed China’s first Olympic gold medal,with a win in the 50-meter pistol shooting competition.Now Xu Haifeng is leading the country’s modern pentathlon team in its bid for success at the Beijing Games

  18. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites. (United States)

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M


    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method.

  19. Lipid-coated gold nanocomposites for enhanced cancer therapy. (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hee; Ko, Young Tag


    The aim of the work reported here was to develop lipid-coated multifunctional nanocomposites composed of drugs and nanoparticles for use in cancer therapy. We incorporated thermosensitive phospholipids onto the surface of anisotropic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to further enhance drug delivery, with possible additional applications for in vivo imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Lipid-coated nanohybrids loaded with the drug docetaxel (DTX) were prepared by a thin-film formation, hydration, and sonication method. Nanoparticles and their composites were characterized using particle-size analysis, zeta potential measurements, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating successful loading of DTX into the lipid bilayer on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Initial in vitro studies using breast-cancer (MCF-7) and melanoma (B16F10) cell lines demonstrated that the drug-containing nanocomposites at equivalent drug concentrations caused significant cytotoxicity compared to free DTX. Differential flow cytometry analysis confirmed the improved cellular uptake of lipid-coated nanocomposites. Our preliminary results show that DTX-loaded anionic lipid-coated gold nanorod (AL_AuNR_DTX) and cationic lipid-coated gold nanoparticle (CL_AuNP_DTX) possess effective tumor cell-suppression abilities and can therefore be considered promising chemotherapeutic agents. Further evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of these hybrid nanoparticles combined with external near-infrared photothermal treatment is warranted to assess their synergistic anticancer actions and potential bioimaging applications.

  20. Metallogenic epoch and genesis of the gold deposits in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: a regional review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqiang; DENG Jun; GE Liangsheng; WANG Qingfei; ZHANG Jing; GAO Bangfei; JIANG Shaoqing; XU Hao


    Gold deposits are characterized by multi-sources, superimposition, large scale and temporal-spatial concentration in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China. In this paper, we review the history and the development of the study on metallogenic chronology and genesis of gold deposits, summarize the main features of superimposed metallogenesis, provide evidence of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system, and point out some problems for further research of Jiaodong gold deposit cluster from a regional view. Although gold deposits are different in genetic types, ore-forming materials and geological settings, our research indicates that the accumulation and emplacement of the ore-forming materials are temporally-spatially concentrated on a large scale, and the main metallogenic epoch of Jiaodong gold deposits was concentrated in Mesozoic. Metallogenic chronology and geological-geochemical data indicate that there are two periods of gold mineralizations occurred in 130-110 Ma and 90-80 Ma respectively in Jiaodong ore cluster. The gold deposit cluster results from the superimposition of the polygenetic mineralization, and further study is needed to investigate the formation and evolution of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system.

  1. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  2. Low-energy electron-induced dissociation in condensed-phase L-cysteine II: a comparative study on anion desorption from chemisorbed and physisorbed films (United States)

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Massey, Sylvain; Sanche, Léon; Rowntree, Paul A.


    Due to its multifunctional structure, cysteine is becoming an ideal model molecule for investigating the complex interactions of proteins with metallic surfaces such as gold nanoparticles. We report herein the results of low-energy electron induced degradation of L-cysteine films, chemisorbed on a gold substrate via the thiol group or physisorbed into a clean gold surface. The data were recorded under ultra-high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Anion yields desorbed from these films by the impact of 0.5 to 19 eV electrons provide clear evidence of the efficient decomposition of this amino acid via dissociative electron attachment (i.e., from dissociation of intermediate transient anions located between 5 and 14 eV). The peaks in the desorbed-anion yield functions, associated with DEA, are superimposed on a continuously rising signal attributed to dipolar dissociation. Similar to the results previously observed from physisorbed films, light anionic species, with masses lower than 35 amu, have been detected. In addition, we measured for first time fragments at 14 amu (CH2-) and 15 amu (CH3-) desorbing from physisorbed films, as well as heavier fragments of mass 45 and 46 amu desorbing from chemisorbed films. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  3. Absorption, fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral characteristics of interaction of gold nanoparticle with safranine T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Youqiu; LIU Shaopu; LIU Qin; LIU Zhongfang; HU Xiaoli


    The interaction between gold nanoparticle and safranine T (ST) has been studied with resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectra, absorption and fluorescence spectra. In the pH 5 solution, citrate [(H2L)2-] self-assembles on the surface of positively-charged gold nanoparticle, which results in the [(Au)n(H2L)m]x- complex. In other words, one of carboxylate oxygens in (H2L)2- moves inward and combines with gold nanoparticle. The other carboxylate oxygens moves outward to form a supermolecular complex anion with x negative charges. Then by virtue of electrostatic attraction, hydrophobic force and charge transfer action, the complex anion binds with ST cation to form a new ion-association complex. Here (H2L)2- acts as a bridge. The formation of the complex results in the significant enhancement of RRS intensity, the appearance of new RRS spectrum, the red shift of plasma absorption band of gold nanoparticle as well as the decrease in the absorbance and fluorescence quenching for safranine T. In this work, the interaction between gold nanoparticle and ST on the RRS, absorption and fluorescence spectra has been investigated. The reason why RRS intensity increases greatly and the reaction mechanism have been inquired. The results show that RRS spectra can not only be used to study nanoparticle and reaction product, but also are a sensitive means to characterize and detect nanoparticles.

  4. Isatinphenylsemicarbazones as efficient colorimetric sensors for fluoride and acetate anions - anions induce tautomerism. (United States)

    Jakusová, Klaudia; Donovalová, Jana; Cigáň, Marek; Gáplovský, Martin; Garaj, Vladimír; Gáplovský, Anton


    The anion induced tautomerism of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) derivatives is studied herein. The interaction of F(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), Br(-) or HSO4(-) anions with E and Z isomers of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) and N-methylisatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) as sensors influences the tautomeric equilibrium of these sensors in the liquid phase. This tautomeric equilibrium is affected by (1) the inter- and intra-molecular interactions' modulation of isatinphenylsemicarbazone molecules due to the anion induced change in the solvation shell of receptor molecules and (2) the sensor-anion interaction with the urea hydrogens. The acid-base properties of anions and the difference in sensor structure influence the equilibrium ratio of the individual tautomeric forms. Here, the tautomeric equilibrium changes were indicated by "naked-eye" experiment, UV-VIS spectral and (1)H NMR titration, resulting in confirmation that appropriate selection of experimental conditions leads to a high degree of sensor selectivity for some investigated anions. Sensors' E and Z isomers differ in sensitivity, selectivity and sensing mechanism. Detection of F(-) or CH3COO(-) anions at high weakly basic anions' excess is possible.

  5. Ultrabright Luminescence from Gold Nanoclusters: Rigidifying the Au(I)-Thiolate Shell. (United States)

    Pyo, Kyunglim; Thanthirige, Viraj Dhanushka; Kwak, Kyuju; Pandurangan, Prabhu; Ramakrishna, Guda; Lee, Dongil


    Luminescent nanomaterials have captured the imagination of scientists for a long time and offer great promise for applications in organic/inorganic light-emitting displays, optoelectronics, optical sensors, biomedical imaging, and diagnostics. Atomically precise gold clusters with well-defined core-shell structures present bright prospects to achieve high photoluminescence efficiencies. In this study, gold clusters with a luminescence quantum yield greater than 60% were synthesized based on the Au22(SG)18 cluster, where SG is glutathione, by rigidifying its gold shell with tetraoctylammonium (TOA) cations. Time-resolved and temperature-dependent optical measurements on Au22(SG)18 have shown the presence of high quantum yield visible luminescence below freezing, indicating that shell rigidity enhances the luminescence quantum efficiency. To achieve high rigidity of the gold shell, Au22(SG)18 was bound to bulky TOA that resulted in greater than 60% quantum yield luminescence at room temperature. Optical measurements have confirmed that the rigidity of gold shell was responsible for the luminescence enhancement. This work presents an effective strategy to enhance the photoluminescence efficiencies of gold clusters by rigidifying the Au(I)-thiolate shell.

  6. Cluster Fusion: Face-Fused Nine-Atom Deltahedral Clusters in [Sn14 Ni(CO)](4.). (United States)

    Perla, Luis G; Sevov, Slavi C


    The title anion was synthesized by heating dimethylformamide (DMF) solution of the known Ni-centered and Ni(CO)-capped tin clusters [Ni@Sn9 Ni(CO)](3-) . The new anion represents the first example of face-fused nine-atom molecular clusters. The two clusters are identical elongated tricapped trigonal prisms of nido-[Sn8 Ni(CO)](6-) with nickel at one of the capping positions. They are fused along a triangular face adjacent to a trigonal prismatic base and made of two Sn and one Ni atoms. The new anion is structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the compound (K[222-crypt])4 [Sn14 Ni(CO)]⋅DMF. Its presence in solution is corroborated by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  7. EQCM Study of Influence of Anion Nature on Electrochemical Reduction of Bismuth Sulfide in Nickel Plating Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The influence of anion nature on the reduction of bismuth sulfide film deposited on gold using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method in solutions containing Ni2+ ions has been investigated by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been determined that the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the nickel plating solution depends on the anion nature: larger cathodic current and mass changes (Dƒ are observed in the solution containing acetate anion as compared to those in the solution containing sulfate anion. As the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the background solutions depends on the nature of anion, it influences the cathodic reduction of Ni2+ ions prior to OPD of Ni. A greater current and mass change (Dƒ is conditioned by simultaneously occurring reduction of bismuth sulfide film when the film is reduced in the acetate nickel plating electrolyte in contrast to that in the sulfate one.

  8. Cluster decay in very heavy nuclei in Relativistic Mean Field


    Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Gangopadhyay, G.


    Exotic cluster decay of very heavy nuclei has been studied in the microscopic Super-Asymmetric Fission Model. Relativistic Mean Field model with the force FSU Gold has been employed to obtain the densities of the cluster and the daughter nuclei. The microscopic nuclear interaction DDM3Y1, which has an exponential density dependence, and the Coulomb interaction have been used in the double folding model to obtain the potential between the cluster and the daughter. Half life values have been ca...

  9. Clustered regression with unknown clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barman, Kishor


    We consider a collection of prediction experiments, which are clustered in the sense that groups of experiments ex- hibit similar relationship between the predictor and response variables. The experiment clusters as well as the regres- sion relationships are unknown. The regression relation- ships define the experiment clusters, and in general, the predictor and response variables may not exhibit any clus- tering. We call this prediction problem clustered regres- sion with unknown clusters (CRUC) and in this paper we focus on linear regression. We study and compare several methods for CRUC, demonstrate their applicability to the Yahoo Learning-to-rank Challenge (YLRC) dataset, and in- vestigate an associated mathematical model. CRUC is at the crossroads of many prior works and we study several prediction algorithms with diverse origins: an adaptation of the expectation-maximization algorithm, an approach in- spired by K-means clustering, the singular value threshold- ing approach to matrix rank minimization u...

  10. Structures and energetics of neutral and ionic silicon-germanium clusters: density functional theory and coupled cluster studies. (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Siang; Chao, Sheng D


    We have calculated the structural and energetic properties of neutral and ionic (singly charged anionic and cationic) semiconductor binary silicon-germanium clusters Si(m)Ge(n) for s = m + n ≤ 12 using the density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) and coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] methods with Pople's 6-311++G(3df, 3pd) basis set. Neutral and anionic clusters share similar ground state structures for s = 3-7, independent of the stoichiometry and atom locations, but start to deviate at s = 8. The relative energetic stability of the calculated ground state structures among possible isomers has been analyzed through a bond strength propensity model where the pair interactions of Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge are competing. Electron affinities, ionization potentials, energy gaps between the highest and lowest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO gaps), and cluster mixing energies were calculated and analyzed. Overall, for a fixed s, the vertical ionization potential increases as the number of silicon atoms m increases, while the vertical electron affinity shows a dip at m = 2. As s increases, the ionization potentials increase from s = 2 to s = 3 and then decrease slowly to s = 8. The mixing energies for neutral and ionic clusters are all negative, indicating that the binary clusters are more stable than pure elemental clusters. Except for s = 4 and 8, cationic clusters are more stable than anionic ones and, thus, are more likely to be observed in experiments.

  11. Subspace clustering through attribute clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun NIU; Shubo ZHANG; Junliang CHEN


    Many recently proposed subspace clustering methods suffer from two severe problems. First, the algorithms typically scale exponentially with the data dimensionality or the subspace dimensionality of clusters. Second, the clustering results are often sensitive to input parameters. In this paper, a fast algorithm of subspace clustering using attribute clustering is proposed to over-come these limitations. This algorithm first filters out redundant attributes by computing the Gini coefficient. To evaluate the correlation of every two non-redundant attributes, the relation matrix of non-redundant attributes is constructed based on the relation function of two dimensional united Gini coefficients. After applying an overlapping clustering algorithm on the relation matrix, the candidate of all interesting subspaces is achieved. Finally, all subspace clusters can be derived by clustering on interesting subspaces. Experiments on both synthesis and real datasets show that the new algorithm not only achieves a significant gain of runtime and quality to find subspace clusters, but also is insensitive to input parameters.

  12. Effect of cluster environment on the electron attachment to 2-nitrophenol* (United States)

    Kočišek, Jaroslav; Grygoryeva, Kateryna; Lengyel, Jozef; Fárník, Michal; Fedor, Juraj


    Effect of cluster environment on the electron attachment to 2-nitrophenol (2NP) is studied in homogeneous 2NP clusters and heterogeneous clusters of 2NP, argon and water. The cluster environment significantly reduces fragmentation of 2NP after electron attachment. Parent cluster anions 2NPn- are primary reaction products in both, homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters. Non-dissociative electron attachment to homogeneous clusters proceeds at low energies web page at

  13. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L. (Purdue); (Colorado)


    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  14. π Activation of Alkynes in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Gold Catalysis. (United States)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Belanzoni, Paola; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco


    The activation of alkynes toward nucleophilic attack upon coordination to gold-based catalysts (neutral and positively charged gold clusters and gold complexes commonly used in homogeneous catalysis) is investigated to elucidate the role of the σ donation and π back-donation components of the Au-C bond (where we consider ethyne as prototype substrate). Charge displacement (CD) analysis is used to obtain a well-defined measure of σ donation and π back-donation and to find out how the corresponding charge flows affect the electron density at the electrophilic carbon undergoing the nucleophilic attack. This information is used to rationalize the activity of a series of catalysts in the nucleophilic attack step of a model hydroamination reaction. For the first time, the components of the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, donation and back-donation, are put in quantitative correlation with the kinetic parameters of a chemical reaction.

  15. The expanding universe of thiolated gold nanoclusters and beyond. (United States)

    Jiang, De-en


    Thiolated gold nanoclusters form a universe of their own. Researchers in this field are constantly pushing the boundary of this universe by identifying new compositions and in a few "lucky" cases, solving their structures. Such solved structures, even if there are only few, provide important hints for predicting the many identified compositions that are yet to be crystallized or structure determined. Structure prediction is the most pressing issue for a computational chemist in this field. The success of the density functional theory method in gauging the energetic ordering of isomers for thiolated gold clusters has been truly remarkable, but to predict the most stable structure for a given composition remains a great challenge. In this feature article from a computational chemist's point of view, the author shows how one understands and predicts structures for thiolated gold nanoclusters based on his old and new results. To further entertain the reader, the author also offers several "imaginative" structures, claims, and challenges for this field.

  16. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar


    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  17. Krebs cycle anions in metabolic acidosis. (United States)

    Bowling, Francis G; Morgan, Thomas J


    For many years it has been apparent from estimates of the anion gap and the strong ion gap that anions of unknown identity can be generated in sepsis and shock states. Evidence is emerging that at least some of these are intermediates of the citric acid cycle. The exact source of this disturbance remains unclear, because a great many metabolic blocks and bottlenecks can disturb the anaplerotic and cataplerotic pathways that enter and leave the cycle. These mechanisms require clarification with the use of tools such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  18. Templating irreversible covalent macrocyclization by using anions. (United States)

    Kataev, Evgeny A; Kolesnikov, Grigory V; Arnold, Rene; Lavrov, Herman V; Khrustalev, Victor N


    Inorganic anions were used as templates in the reaction between a diamine and an activated diacid to form macrocyclic amides. The reaction conditions were found to perform the macrocyclization sufficiently slow to observe a template effect. A number of analytical methods were used to clarify the reaction mechanisms and to show that the structure of the intermediate plays a decisive role in determining the product distribution. For the macrocyclization under kinetic control, it was shown that the amount of a template, the conformational rigidity of building blocks, and the anion affinities of reaction components and intermediates are important parameters that one should take into consideration to achieve high yields.

  19. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer


    at the moment, especially in the fields of lasers, they though have some problems concerning the placement of the tumor in the human body. Local heating by MR has tremendous advance in comparison too lasers. The first step is to validate the hypothesis of the inductive heating of the gold nano particles trough......Introduction   Cancer cells are highly thermo sensitive. On the basis of an article in Nature the idea arose, for a new non-invasive thermotherapy technique, based on radio frequency inductive heating of nano gold particles in an MR-scanner. Thermotherapy is getting considerably attention...... the low energy radio frequencies. If the method is demonstrated to be feasible, next step is testing in cell line trials.   Confocal microscopy experiments on cells are very hard to do reliable and reproducible statistic on, due to the fact that that it’s user counting which makes the data. Automatic...

  20. Rushing for gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Bryceson, Deborah Fahy


    African rural dwellers have faced depressed economic prospects for several decades. Now, in a number of mineral-rich countries, multiple discoveries of gold and precious stones have attracted large numbers of prospective small-scale miners. While their 'rush' to, and activities within, mining sites...... are increasingly being noted, there is little analysis of miners' mobility patterns and material outcomes. In this article, on the basis of a sample survey and interviews at two gold-mining sites in Tanzania, we probe when and why miners leave one site in favour of another. Our findings indicate that movement...... is often 'rushed' but rarely rash. Whereas movement to the first site may be an adventure, movement to subsequent sites is calculated with knowledge of the many risks entailed. Miners spend considerable time at each site before migrating onwards. Those with the highest site mobility tend to be more...

  1. Spiky gold nanoshells. (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Park, So-Jung


    We report a high-yield synthetic method for a new type of metal nanostructure, spiky gold nanoshells, which combine the morphological characteristics of hollow metal nanoshells and nanorods. Our method utilizes block copolymer assemblies and polymer beads as templates for the growth of spiky nanoshells. Various shapes of spiky metal nanoshells were prepared in addition to spherical nanoshells by using block copolymer assemblies such as rod-like micelles, vesicles, and bilayers as templates. Furthermore, spiky gold shells encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles or quantum dots were prepared based on the ability of block copolymers to self-assemble with various types of nanoparticles and molecules. The capability to encapsulate other materials in the core, the shape tunability, and the highly structured surface of spiky nanoshells should benefit a range of imaging, sensing, and medical applications of metal nanostructures.

  2. The RHIC gold rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University (United States)


    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  3. The RHIC gold rush

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, T


    Physicists are colliding gold nuclei to recreate the fireball that existed in the very early universe, and they may have found evidence for quark-gluon plasma. What happens to ordinary matter as you heat it to higher and higher temperatures, or compress it to greater and greater densities? This simple question underpins a major effort to create extreme conditions in the lab, which has recently taken the shape of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This machine has been colliding gold nuclei since 2000, and has produced tantalizing hints that a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma - is created in the reactions. But it has also sparked surprises that are sending researchers back to the drawing board. (U.K.)

  4. Film Ace Takes Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "Really, I never, never expected to win this," said Chinese director Jia Zhangke on hearing he had taken the top award for his movie Still Life (Sanxia Haoren) at the Venice Film Festival, on September 9. A surprise late entry, Still Life quickly emerged as the favorite and the Gold Lion was again hugged by Chinese. The well-known Chinese director Zhang Yimou won the same award back in 1999, for Not One Less-also a

  5. Gold and the Stock Market: 3 Essays on Gold Investments


    Taurasi, Donatella


    This thesis gives an overview of the history of gold per se, of gold as an investment good and offers some institutional details about gold and other precious metal markets. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of gold as a store of value and hedge against negative market movements in turbulent times. I investigate gold’s ability to act as a safe haven during periods of financial stress by employing instrumental variable techniques that allow for time varying conditional covarian...

  6. Gold-gold junction electrodes:the disconnection method. (United States)

    Dale, Sara E C; Vuorema, Anne; Ashmore, Ellen M Y; Kasprzyk-Horden, Barbara; Sillanpää, Mika; Denuault, Guy; Marken, Frank


    The formation of gold-gold junction electrodes for application in electroanalysis is described here based on electro-deposition from a non-cyanide gold plating bath. Converging growth of two hemispherical gold deposits on two adjacent platinum microelectrodes (both 100 µm diameter in glass, ca. 45 µm gap) followed by careful etching in aqueous chloride solution was employed. During growth both gold hemispheres "connect" and during etching "disconnection" is evident in a drop in current. Gold-gold junctions with sub-micron gaps are formed and applied for the electroanalytical detection of sub-micromolar concentrations of hydroquinone in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.04 V vs. SCE) and sub-micromolar concentration of dopamine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7 (E(rev) = 0.14 V vs. SCE). The potential future uses in analysis and limitations of gold-gold junction electrodes are discussed.

  7. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan


    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  8. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel


    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  9. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David


    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  10. An Electrochemical and Raman Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited Silver on a Gold Substrate. (United States)


    Raman Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited Silver on a Gold Substrate By Stanley Pons. J. Li, J. Liang DTIC S ELECTE APR 14...ACCCSSIONd 14U. 3. i4CCipIa.ti rs CATALOG. PiumnRi - 4. ITL (sa~utfie) . TYPE Of REPORT a PCI3ioo covEuiv Investigation of Underpotentially Deposited ...spectroelectrochemical data indicate that underpotentially * deposited silver adatoms on gold substrates are photolyzed to form silver meta clusters. *DD

  11. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.;


    Polypyrrole (PPy) polymer films permanently doped with large, immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS) have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry in order to clarify the roles of cations and anions in the aqueous electrolyte as mobile ions in the film. Aqueous solutions of 0.05-0.1 M...... alkali metal chlorides as well as BaCl2, NaBr and (CH3CH2CH2)(4)NBr were used to investigate the effects of both the ionic charge, size and shape. In 1: 1 electrolytes using small ions only three peaks are present: a sharp cathodic peak at ca. - 0.6 V vs, SCE representing both the insertion of cations...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  12. Synthesis of azaphenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Møller; Lysén, M.; Begtrup, M.;


    A new and convergent synthesis of azaphenanthridines via an anionic ring closure is reported. Ortho-lithiation/in situ borylation of cyanopyridines produces the corresponding cyanopyridylboronic esters, which undergo a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling to give the key intermediates. Addition of lithium...

  13. Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) for Anion Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso Vega, M.F.; Weng, L.P.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Donnan membrane technique (DMT) is developed and tested for determination of free anion concentrations. Time needed to reach the Donnan membrane equilibrium depends on type of ions and the background. The Donnan membrane equilibrium is reached in 1 day for Cl-, 1-2 days for NO3-, 1-4 days for SO42-

  14. Anionic/cationic complexes in hair care. (United States)

    O'Lenick, Tony


    The formulation of cosmetic products is always more complicated than studying the individual components in aqueous solution. This is because there are numerous interactions between the components, which make the formulation truly more than the sum of the parts. This article will look at interactions between anionic and cationic surfactants and offer insights into how to use these interactions advantageously in making formulations.

  15. Wigner photoemission time delay from endohedral anions (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.; Dolmatov, Valeriy K.; Kheifets, Anatoli


    Characteristic features of Wigner photoemission time delay from endohedral anions A@C60q along with their dependence on the anion charge q are unraveled. Specifically, significant enhancement of the time delay in the innermost dipole photoionization channels near threshold is found, owing to the presence of the Coulomb confined resonances (CRs). Moreover, it is shown that interchannel coupling of the inner-shell Coulomb CRs with outer-shell photoionization channels results in resonantly enhanced time delay in the release of the outer-shell photoelectron well above, several hundreds eV, the outer-shell thresholds. It is also demonstrated that, and explained why, photoionization cross sections of the innermost subshells as well as outer subshells (near the inner-subshell threshold) depends only very weakly on the anion charge q , but the dependence of the corresponding time delays on q can be significant. Furthermore, Coulomb CRs are found to emerge in the innermost quadrupole photoionization channels as well, thereby causing considerable time delay in the quadrupole photoemission. These findings are illustrated in calculations of the photoionization of inner and outer subshells of the endohedral anions Ne@C60-1 and Ne@C60-5 that were chosen as case studies.

  16. Stoichiometry of uranyl salophene anion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Snellink-Ruel, Bianca H.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    In PVC/NPOE ion-selective membranes of potentiometric sensors, the guest-host stoichiometry of the anion complex of H2PO4 - and F- selective uranyl salophene derivatives is 2:1. This stoichiometry is different from the stoichiometry observed in DMSO solution (1H NMR) or solid state (X-ray crystal st

  17. Ab Initio Computational Study of Chromate Molecular Anion Adsorption on the Surfaces of Pristine and B- or N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene (United States)

    Hizhnyi, Yuriy; Nedilko, Sergii; Borysiuk, Viktor; Shyichuk, Andrii


    Density functional theory (DFT) computations of the electronic structures of undoped, B- and N-doped CNT(3,3), CNT(5,5) carbon nanotubes, and graphene with adsorbed chromate anions CrO4 2- were performed within molecular cluster approach. Relaxed geometries, binding energies, charge differences of the adsorbed CrO4 2- anions, and electronic wave function contour plots were calculated using B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation functional. Oscillator strengths of electronic transitions of CrO4 2- anions adsorbed on the surfaces of studied carbon nanostructures were calculated by the TD-DFT method. Calculations reveal covalent bonding between the anion and the adsorbents in all studied adsorption configurations. For all studied types of adsorbent structures, doping with N strengthens chemical bonding with CrO4 2- anions, providing a 2-eV increase in binding energies comparatively to adsorption of the anion on undoped adsorbents. Additional electronic transitions of CrO4 2- anions appear in the orange-green spectral region when the anions are adsorbed on the N-doped low-diameter carbon nanotubes CNT(3,3) and CNT(5,5).

  18. Decoupling of epitaxial graphene via gold intercalation probed by dispersive Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, P. B., E-mail:, E-mail:; DeSouza, M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Semiconductor Materials and Device Group, Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Narula, R.; Reich, S. [Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wong, L. Y.; Batten, T. [Renishaw, Old Town, Wotton-under-Edge, GL12 7DW Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Pokorny, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)


    Signatures of a superlattice structure composed of a quasi periodic arrangement of atomic gold clusters below an epitaxied graphene (EG) layer are examined using dispersive Raman spectroscopy. The gold-graphene system exhibits a laser excitation energy dependant red shift of the 2D mode as compared to pristine epitaxial graphene. The phonon dispersions in both the systems are mapped using the experimentally observed Raman signatures and a third-nearest neighbour tight binding electronic band structure model. Our results reveal that the observed excitation dependent Raman red shift in gold EG primarily arise from the modifications of the phonon dispersion in gold-graphene and shows that the extent of decoupling of graphene from the underlying SiC substrate can be monitored from the dispersive nature of the Raman 2D modes. The intercalated gold atoms restore the phonon band structure of epitaxial graphene towards free standing graphene.

  19. Oxygen clamps in gold nanowires


    Novaes, Frederico D.; da Silva, Antonio J. R.; da Silva, E. Z.; Fazzio, A.


    We investigate how the insertion of an oxygen atom in an atomically thin gold nanowire can affect its rupture. We find, using ab initio total energy density functional theory calculations, that O atoms when inserted in gold nanowires form not only stable but also very strong bonds, in such a way that they can extract atoms from a stable tip, serving in this way as a clamp that could be used to pull a string of gold atoms.

  20. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani


    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in understanding the toxicity and rational design of gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications in recent years. In this study gold nanoparticles were synthesized using dextrose as a reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles displayed characteristic Surface Plasmon Resonance peak at around 550 nm having a mean particle size of 75±30 nm. In order to identify and analyze nanoparticles, UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used.

  1. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes. (United States)

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M


    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  2. The extractive metallurgy of gold (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.


    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  3. Transformation of thiolated chitosan-templated gold nanoparticles to huge microcubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yudie [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Honglin, E-mail: [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yang, Liangbao, E-mail: [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Bai; Liu, Jinhuai [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mercapto groups were grafted to chitosan molecule by a reactive amine reduction. • Functional polymer with well-defined monomer units controls AuNPs assembly. • Assembled morphologies depend on the ratio of AuNPs to thiolate groups. • Microcubes with side length of ∼20 μm was synthesized through a dialysis step. • A edge-to-middle growth mechanism of gold microcubes was observed. - Abstract: The L-cysteine molecules were successfully grafted to the 2-amino group of chitosan by a reactive amine reduction, and the as-synthesized thiolated chitosan (TC) molecules were used as the templates to direct the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles and induce the transformation of these assemblies to gold microcubes through a deep-going dialysis. We found that the ratio of gold nanoparticles to TC molecules could greatly affect the shape of the assembled clusters. Different stages of these clusters and microstructures during the dialysis process were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the microcubes with average side length of about 20 μm were successfully synthesized. According to the morphology evolution of the assembly, it could be concluded that the microcubes were formed from external to internal. The SERS area mapping images of microcubes and some clusters were also collected to study the formation mechanism of gold microcubes. Our work demonstrates a simple and highly effective way to assemble gold nanoparticles into microcubes with unique properties.

  4. Impact of co-adsorbed oxygen on crotonaldehyde adsorption over gold nanoclusters: a computational study. (United States)

    Zeinalipour-Yazdi, Constantinos D; Willock, David J; Machado, Andreia; Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F


    Crotonaldehyde (2-butenal) adsorption over gold sub-nanometer particles, and the influence of co-adsorbed oxygen, has been systematically investigated by computational methods. Using density functional theory, the adsorption energetics of crotonaldehyde on bare and oxidised gold clusters (Au13, d = 0.8 nm) were determined as a function of oxygen coverage and coordination geometry. At low oxygen coverage, sites are available for which crotonaldehyde adsorption is enhanced relative to bare Au clusters by 10 kJ mol(-1). At higher oxygen coverage, crotonaldehyde is forced to adsorb in close proximity to oxygen weakening adsorption by up to 60 kJ mol(-1) relative to bare Au. Bonding geometries, density of states plots and Bader analysis, are used to elucidate crotonaldehyde bonding to gold nanoparticles in terms of partial electron transfer from Au to crotonaldehyde, and note that donation to gold from crotonaldehyde also becomes significant following metal oxidation. At high oxygen coverage we find that all molecular adsorption sites have a neighbouring, destabilising, oxygen adatom so that despite enhanced donation, crotonaldehyde adsorption is always weakened by steric interactions. For a larger cluster (Au38, d = 1.1 nm) crotonaldehyde adsorption is destabilized in this way even at a low oxygen coverage. These findings provide a quantitative framework to underpin the experimentally observed influence of oxygen on the selective oxidation of crotyl alcohol to crotonaldehyde over gold and gold-palladium alloys.

  5. Collagen peptide-based biomaterials for protein delivery and peptide-promoted self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Ernenwein, Dawn M.


    Bottom-up self-assembly of peptides has driven the research progress for the following two projects: protein delivery vehicles of collagen microflorettes and the assembly of gold nanoparticles with coiled-coil peptides. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the mammals yet due to immunogenic responses, batch-to-batch variability and lack of sequence modifications, synthetic collagen has been designed to self-assemble into native collagen-like structures. In particular with this research, metal binding ligands were incorporated on the termini of collagen-like peptides to generate micron-sized particles, microflorettes. The over-arching goal of the first research project is to engineer MRI-active microflorettes, loaded with His-tagged growth factors with differential release rates while bound to stem cells that can be implemented toward regenerative cell-based therapies. His-tagged proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, have successfully been incorporated on the surface and throughout the microflorettes. Protein release was monitored under physiological conditions and was related to particle degradation. In human plasma full release was obtained within six days. Stability of the microflorettes under physiological conditions was also examined for the development of a therapeutically relevant delivery agent. Additionally, MRI active microflorettes have been generated through the incorporation of a gadolinium binding ligand, DOTA within the collagen-based peptide sequence. To probe peptide-promoted self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by non-covalent, charge complementary interactions, a highly anionic coiled-coil peptide was designed and synthesized. Upon formation of peptide-GNP interactions, the hydrophobic domain of the coiled-coil were shown to promote the self-assembly of peptide-GNPs clustering. Hydrophobic forces were found to play an important role in the assembly process, as a peptide with an equally overall negative charge, but lacking an

  6. Two new polyoxovanadate clusters templated through cysteamine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pavani; S Upreti; A Ramanan


    Two new fully oxidized polyoxovanadate cluster-based solids (C4N2S2H14)2[H2V10O28]$\\cdot$4H2O, 1 and (C4N2S2H14)5[H4V15O42]2.10H2O, 2 are crystallized under self-assembly process in the presence of cysteamine. In both 1 and 2, cysteamines are oxidized forming disulphide linkages and occur as counter cations. The organic cations assemble around V10O28 cluster anions in 1 whereas they aggregate around V15O42 clusters in 2. pH appears to be the structure determinant in the occurrence of decavanadate cluster in 1 and pentadecavanadate in 2, with the same counter cation.

  7. Understanding and modeling removal of anionic organic contaminants (AOCs) by anion exchange resins. (United States)

    Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S


    Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ≥ aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH.

  8. Anion-π interactions involving [MX(n)](m-) anions: a comprehensive theoretical study. (United States)

    Estarellas, Carolina; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio


    In this manuscript we perform a systematic study on the geometric and energetic features of anion-π complexes, wherein the anion is a metal complex of variable shapes and charges. Such a study is lacking in the literature. For the calculations we used the ab initio RI-MP2/def2-TZVPP level of theory. A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) provides the experimental starting point that inspired the subsequent theoretical study. The influence of [MX(n)](m-) on the anion-π interaction was analyzed in terms of energetic, geometric, and charge transfer properties and Bader's theory of "atom-in-molecules" (AIM). The binding energy depends on the coordination index, geometric features and different orientations adopted by the metallic anion. The binding mode resembling a stacking interaction for linear, trigonal planar and square-planar anions is the most favorable. For tetrahedral and octahedral anions the most favorable orientation is the one with three halogen atoms pointing to the ring.

  9. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan L. Sessler


    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  10. Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions. (United States)

    Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin


    Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

  11. Anion Adsorption on an Au Colloid Monolayer Based Cysteamine-Modified Gold Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Xiao-ya


    [1]Faraday, M. , Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 147, 145(1857)[2]Haruta, M. , Yamada, N. , Kobayashi, T. et al. , J. Catal. , 115, 301(1989)[3]Martin, C. R. , Mitchell, D. T. , Anal. Chem. , 70, 322A(1998)[4]Dutton, T. , Van Wontergheim, B. , Saltiel, S. et al. , J. Phys. Chem. , 94, 1 100(1990)[5]Hache, F. , Ricard, D. , Flytzanis, C. et al. , Appl. Phys. A, 47, 347(1988)[6]Henglein, A. , J. Phys. Chem. , 97, 5 457(1993)[7]Weitz, D. A. , Lin, M. Y. , Sandroff, C. J. , Surf. Sci. , 158, 147(1985)[8]Chow, M. K. , Zukoski. C. F. , J. Colloid Interface Sci. , 165, 97(1994)[9]Lin, M. Y. , Lindsay, H. M. , Weitz, D. A. et al. , Nature, 339, 360(1989)[10]Brown, K. R., Fox, A. P., Natan, M. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 118, 1 154(1996)[11]Silva, F.,Sottomayor, M. J., Martins, A., J. Electroanal. Chem., 375, 395(1994)[12]Shi, Z., Lipkowski, J., J. Electroanal. Chem., 403, 225(1996)[13]Angerstein-Kozlowska, H., Conway, B. E., Hamelin, A. et al., J. Electroanal. Chem., 228, 429(1987)[14]Hamelin, A., J. Electroanal. Chem, 255, 281(1988)[15]Edens, G. J., Gao, X. P., Weaver, M. J., J. Electroanal. Chem. , 375, 357(1994)[16]Hamelin, A., Sottomayor, M. J., Silva, F. et al. , J. Electroanal. Chem., 295, 291(1990)[17]Horanyi, G. , Rizmayer, E. M. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 176, 349(1984)[18]Piela, B. , Wrona, P. K. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 388, 69(1995)[19]Smalley, J. F. , Geng, L., Feldberg, S. W. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 356, 181(1993)[20]Nguyen Van Huong, G. , Hinnen, G. , Lecoeur, J. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 106, 185(1980)[21]Tremiliosi-Filho, G., Dall' Antonia, L. H. , Jerkiewicz, G., J. Electroanal. Chem., 422, 149(1997)[22]Turkevich, J. , Stevenson, P. C. , Hillier, J. , Discuss. Faraday Soc. , 11, 55(1951)[23]Porter, M. D. , Bright, T. B. , Allara, D. L. et al. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 109, 3 559(1987)[24]Green, S. J. , Stokes, J. J. , Hostetler, M. J. et al. , J. Phys. Chem. B, 101, 2 663(1997)[25]Ingram, J. L. , Bowyer, W. J. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 365, 79(1994)[26]Trasatti, S. , Petrii, O. A. , J. Electroanal. Chem., 327, 353(1992)[27]Schlereth, D. D., Schmidt, H. L. , J. Electroanal. Chem. , 380, 117(1995)[28]Katz, E., Schlereth, D. D., Schmidt, H. L., J. Electroanal. Chem., 367, 59(1994)[29]Grabar, K. C. , Freeman, R. G. , Hommer, M. B. et al. , Anal. Chem. , 67, 735(1995)[30]Hu, X. Y., Xiao, Y., Chen, H. Y. , J. Electroanal. Chem. 466, 26(1999)[31]Angerstein-Kozlowska, H. , Conway, B. E., Hamelin, A., J. Electroanal. Chem., 277, 233(1990)

  12. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  13. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Anne Harnisch


    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  14. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisch, Jennifer Anne [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  15. Identification of the Atomic Scale Structures of the Gold-Thiol Interfaces of Molecular Nanowires by Inelastic Tunneling Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Firuz


    We examine theoretically the effects of the bonding geometries at the gold-thiol interfaces on the inelastic tunneling spectra of propanedithiolate (PDT) molecules bridging gold electrodes and show that inelastic tunneling spectroscopy combined with theory can be used to determine these bonding geometries experimentally. With the help of density functional theory, we calculate the relaxed geometries and vibrational modes of extended molecules each consisting of one or two PDT molecules connecting two gold nanoclusters. We formulate a perturbative theory of inelastic tunneling through molecules bridging metal contacts in terms of elastic transmission amplitudes, and use this theory to calculate the inelastic tunneling spectra of the gold-PDT-gold extended molecules. We consider PDT molecules with both trans and gauche conformations bound to the gold clusters at top, bridge and hollow bonding sites. Comparing our results with the experimental data of Hihath et al. [Nano Lett. 8, 1673 (2008)], we identify the mo...

  16. Color Responses of a Tripodal Colorimetric Sensor toward Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lan-Hua; HE Yong-Bing; WU Jin-Long; QIN Hai-Juan; XU Kuo-Xi; MENG Ling-Zhi


    A thiourea-based tripodal colorimetric anion sensor was synthesized. Its binding abilities with AcO- and halide anions in DMSO were studied by UV-Vis spectra. The sensor showed different color responses to these anions. The association constants and different stoichiometries were deduced by nonlinear least-square curve fitting or linear fitting.

  17. Colorimetric detection of biological hydrogen sulfide using fluorosurfactant functionalized gold nanorods. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Wenjuan; Yuan, Zhiqin; Lu, Chao


    As a well-known environmental pollutant but also an important gaseous transmitter, the specific detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is significant in biological systems. In this study, fluorosurfactant functionalized gold nanorods (FSN-AuNRs) have been proposed to act as selective colorimetric nanoprobes for H2S. With the combination of strong gold-S interactions and small FSN bilayer interstices, FSN-AuNRs demonstrate favorable selectivity and sensitivity toward H2S over other anions and small biological molecules. The practical application of the present method in biological H2S detection was validated with human and mouse serum samples. Moreover, the proposed nanoprobe can also be used for evaluating the activity of H2S synthetase.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied with cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores,containing various kinds of ions.The adsorbed leaching liquor was analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method.The contents of various kinds. of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy.ACFF not only adsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic,nickel,zinc,calcium,sulphur,bismuth,copper,iron,silver and cyanide,anion.Atomic percentage of C and those of O,N,Zn,Fe increase and decrease respectively with the increase of the layer depth,while those of Ca,Au,Ag keep constant.

  19. Composite Hybrid Cluster Built from the Integration of Polyoxometalate and a Metal Halide Cluster: Synthetic Strategy, Structure, and Properties. (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Ma, Xiang; Zheng, Wen-Xu; Qi, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Yang, Guo-Yu


    A step-by-step synthetic strategy, setting up a bridge between the polyoxometalate (POM) and metal halide cluster (MHC) systems, is demonstrated to construct an unprecedented composite hybrid cluster built up from one high-nuclearity cationic MHC [Cu8I6](2+) and eight Anderson-type anionic POMs [HCrMo6O18(OH)6](2-) cross-linked by a tripodal alcohol derivative.

  20. Effect of morphology of thin DNA films on the electron stimulated desorption of anions (United States)

    Mirsaleh-Kohan, Nasrin; Bass, Andrew D.; Sanche, Léon


    We present a comparison between the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anions from DNA samples prepared by lyophilization (an example of poorly organized or nonuniform films) and molecular self-assembly (well-ordered films). The lyophilization (or freeze- drying) method is perhaps the most frequently employed technique for forming DNA films for studies of low-energy electron (LEE) interactions leading to DNA damage; however, this technique usually produces nonuniform films with considerable clustering which may affect DNA configuration and enhance sample charging when the film is irradiated. Our results confirm the general validity of ESD measurements obtained with lyophilized samples, but also reveal limitations of lyophilization for LEE studies on DNA films. Specifically we observe some modulation of structures, associated with dissociative electron attachment, in the anion yield functions from different types of DNA film, confirming that conformational factors play a role in the LEE induced damage to DNA.

  1. Anionic microsolvation in helium droplets: OH- (He)N structures from classical and quantum calculations. (United States)

    Coccia, E; Marinetti, F; Bodo, E; Gianturco, F A


    Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are carried out for clusters of OH- (1Sigma+) with N 4He atoms, N varying up to 15, while classical configurations from a genetic algorithm optimization are obtained up to N=20. The overall interaction potential is assembled from ab initio data for the partners using the sum-of-potentials scheme. In contrast with the cationic dopants' behavior, the results indicate a very marked spatial delocalization and quantum features of the solvent adatoms surrounding the anionic impurity, thus making classical calculations of solvent's spatial locations of only limited use. In spite of the generally known repulsive interaction of negative charges in He droplets, the calculations show that this polar molecular anion is solvated by a liquidlike solvent layer, reminiscent of what happens in pure helium droplets.

  2. Femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for the study of anion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Benjamin J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A new experimental technique for the time-resolved study of anion reactions is presented. Using femtosecond laser pulses, which provide extremely fast (~100 fs) time resolution, in conjunction with photoelectron spectroscopy, which reveals differences between anion and neutral potential energy surfaces, a complex anion reaction can be followed from its inception through the formation of asymptotic products. Experimental data can be modeled quantitatively using established theoretical approaches, allowing for the refinement of potential energy surfaces as well as dynamical models. After a brief overview, a detailed account of the construction of the experimental apparatus is presented. Documentation of the data acquisition program is contained in the Appendix. The first experimental demonstration of the technique is then presented for I2- photodissociation, modeled using a simulation program which is also detailed in the Appendix. The investigation of I2- photodissociation in several size-selected I2-(Ar)n (n = 6-20) and I2-(CO2)n (n = 4-16) clusters forms the heart of the dissertation. In a series of chapters, the numerous effects of solvation on this fundamental bond-breaking reaction are explored, the most notable of which is the recombination of I2- on the ground $\\tilde{X}$(2Σu+) state in sufficiently large clusters. Recombination and trapping of I2- on the excited $\\tilde{A}$(2π3/2,g) state is also observed in both types of clusters. The studies have revealed electronic state transitions, the first step in recombination, on a ~500 fs to ~10 ps timescale. Accompanying the changes in electronic state is solvent reorganization, which occurs on a similar timescale. Over longer periods (~1 ps to >200 ps), energy is transferred from vibrationally

  3. Femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for the study of anion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, B.J.


    A new experimental technique for the time-resolved study of anion reactions is presented. Using femtosecond laser pulses, which provide extremely fast ({approx} 100 fs) time resolution, in conjunction with photoelectron spectroscopy, which reveals differences between anion and neutral potential energy surfaces, a complex anion reaction can be followed from its inception through the formation of asymptotic products. Experimental data can be modeled quantitatively using established theoretical approaches, allowing for the refinement of potential energy surfaces as well as dynamical models. After a brief overview, a detailed account of the construction of the experimental apparatus is presented. Documentation of the data acquisition program is contained in the Appendix. The first experimental demonstration of the technique is then presented for I{sub 2}{sup -} photodissociation, modeled using a simulation program which is also detailed in the Appendix. The investigation of I{sub 2}{sup -} photodissociation in several size-selected I{sub 2}{sup -}(Ar){sub n} (n = 6-20) and I{sub 2}{sup -}(CO{sub 2}){sub n} (n = 4-16) clusters forms the heart of the dissertation. In a series of chapters, the numerous effects of solvation on this fundamental bond-breaking reaction are explored, the most notable of which is the recombination of I{sub 2}{sup -} on the ground {tilde X}({sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) state in sufficiently large clusters. Recombination and trapping of I{sub 2}{sup -} on the excited {tilde A}({sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2,g}) state is also observed in both types of clusters. The studies have revealed electronic state transitions, the first step in recombination, on a {approx}500 fs to {approx}10 ps timescale. Accompanying the changes in electronic state is solvent reorganization, which occurs on a similar timescale. Over longer periods ({approx}1 ps to >200 ps), energy is transferred from vibrationally excite d I{sub 2}{sup -} to modes of the solvent, which in turn leads

  4. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan;


    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c....... A symptom may belong to more than one class. For instance to the class of very severe disease and to the class of failure of awareness of the own disturbance. The description of language failures by c-mean classification of analyzed factors correspond in many but not in all cases to the traditional......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  5. Gold electrodes from recordable CDs (United States)

    Angnes; Richter; Augelli; Kume


    Gold electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry. The notable performance when used in stripping analysis of many ionic species and the extraordinary affinity of thio compounds for its surface make these electrodes very suitable for many applications. This paper reports a simple and novel way to construct gold electrodes (CDtrodes) using recordable CDs as the gold source. The nanometer thickness of the gold layer of recordable disks (50-100 nm) favors the construction of band nanoelectrodes with areas as small as 10(-6) cm2. The plane surface can be easily used for the construction of conventional-sized gold electrodes for batch or flow injection analysis or even to obtain electrodes as large as 100 cm2. The low price of commercial recordable CDs allows a "one way use". The evaluation and applicability of these electrodes in the form of nanoelectrodes, in batch and associated with flow cells, are illustrated in this paper.

  6. Specific anion effects in Artemia salina. (United States)

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero


    The specific anion effect on the vitality of Artemia salina was investigated by measuring the Lethal Time LT50 of the crustaceans in the presence of different sodium salts solutions at room temperature and at the same ionic strength as natural seawater. Fluoride, thiocyanate and perchlorate are the most toxic agents, while chloride, bromide and sulfate are well tolerated. The rates of oxygen consumption of brine shrimps were recorded in mixed NaCl+NaF or NaCl+NaSCN solutions as a function of time. The results are discussed in terms of the Hofmeister series, and suggest that, besides the biochemical processes that involve F(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-), the different physico-chemical properties of the strong kosmotropic and chaotropic anions may contribute in determining their strong toxicity for A. salina.

  7. Electron anions and the glass transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Sushko, Peter V.; Tomota, Yudai; Hosono, Hideo


    Properties of glasses are typically controlled by judicious selection of the glass-forming and glass-modifying constituents. Through an experimental and computational study of the crystalline, molten, and amorphous [Ca12Al14O32]2+ ∙ (e)2, we demonstrate that electron anions in this system behave as glass-modifiers that strongly affect solidification dynamics, the glass transition temperature, and spectroscopic properties of the resultant amorphous material. Concentration of such electron anions is a consequential control parameter: it invokes materials evolution pathways and properties not available in conventional glasses, which opens a new avenue in rational materials design.

  8. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Jaksch, S.; Martins, G.; Dang, H. M.; Dampc, M.; Denifl, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Ellis, A. M.; Scheier, P.


    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by electro

  9. Stability and Characteristics of the Halogen Bonding Interaction in an Anion-Anion Complex: A Computational Chemistry Study. (United States)

    Wang, Guimin; Chen, Zhaoqiang; Xu, Zhijian; Wang, Jinan; Yang, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang


    Halogen bonding is the noncovalent interaction between the positively charged σ-hole of organohalogens and nucleophiles. In reality, both the organohalogen and nucleophile could be deprotonated to form anions, which may lead to the vanishing of the σ-hole and possible repulsion between the two anions. However, our database survey in this study revealed that there are halogen bonding-like interactions between two anions. Quantum mechanics calculations with small model complexes composed of halobenzoates and propiolate indicated that the anion-anion halogen bonding is unstable in vacuum but attractive in solvents. Impressively, the QM optimized halogen bonding distance between the two anions is shorter than that in a neutral system, indicating a possibly stronger halogen bonding interaction, which is verified by the calculated binding energies. Furthermore, natural bond orbital and quantum theory of atoms in molecule analyses also suggested stronger anion-anion halogen bonding than that of the neutral one. Energy decomposition by symmetry adapted perturbation theory revealed that the strong binding might be attributed to large induction energy. The calculations on 4 protein-ligand complexes from PDB by the QM/MM method demonstrated that the anion-anion halogen bonding could contribute to the ligands' binding affinity up to ∼3 kcal/mol. Therefore, anion-anion halogen bonding is stable and applicable in reality.

  10. Intrinsic multistate switching of gold clusters through electrochemical gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Mertens, S.F.L.; Ulstrup, Jens


    The electrochemical behavior of small metal nanoparticles is governed by Coulomb-like charging and equally spaced charge-transfer transitions. Using electrochemical gating at constant bias voltage, we show, for the first time, that individual nanoparticles can be operated as multistate switches...... in condensed media at room temperature, displaying distinct peak features in the tunneling current. The tunneling conductance increases with particle charge, suggesting that solvent reorganization and dielectric saturation become increasingly important....

  11. Lowest autodetachment state of the water anion (United States)

    Houfek, Karel; Čížek, Martin


    The potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H2O- is carefully mapped using multireference CI calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O-+H2 and OH-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The autodetachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O- + H2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slighly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the autodetachment region. The autodetachment region is directly accessible from the OH-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the autodetachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  12. Politseiuuringud kooskõlastamisele / Liivia Anion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anion, Liivia


    1. aprillil 2003. a. moodustatud uurimistööde kooskõlastamise komisjoni tegevuse eesmärk on saada ülevaade kõrgkoolides õppivate töötajate poolt politseis korraldatavatest uurimustest, kasutada saadud infot politsei kasuks ja vältida teenistujate tööd segavate uurimuste tegemist. Komisjoni liige Liivia Anion teeb ülevaate komisjoni otsustuspädevuse valdkondadest ja töökorraldusest

  13. Donnan membrane technique (DMT) for anion measurement. (United States)

    Vega, Flora Alonso; Weng, Liping; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H


    Donnan membrane technique (DMT) is developed and tested for determination of free anion concentrations. Time needed to reach the Donnan membrane equilibrium depends on type of ions and the background. The Donnan membrane equilibrium is reached in 1 day for Cl(-), 1-2 days for NO(3)(-), 1-4 days for SO(4)(2-) and SeO(4)(2-), and 1-14 days for H(2)PO(4)(-) in a background of 2-200 mM KCl or K(2)SO(4). The strongest effect of ionic strength on equilibrium time is found for H(2)PO(4)(-), followed by SO(4)(2-) and SeO(4)(2-), and then by Cl(-) and NO(3)(-). The negatively charged organic particles of fulvic and humic acids do not pass the membrane. Two approaches for the measurement of different anion species of the same element, such as SeO(4)(2-) and HSeO(3)(-), using DMT are proposed and tested. These two approaches are based on transport kinetics or response to ionic strength difference. A transport model that was developed previously for cation DMT is applied in this work to analyze the rate-limiting step in the anion DMT. In the absence of mobile/labile complexes, transport tends to be controlled by diffusion in solution at a low ionic strength, whereas at a higher ionic strength, diffusion in the membrane starts to control the transport.

  14. Coalescence and Collisions of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pérez-Tijerina


    Full Text Available We study the assembling of small gold clusters subject to collisions and close contact coalescence by using molecular dynamics simulations to simulate events that occur typically in the sputtering process of synthesis. Our results support the notion that the kinetics of coalescence processes strongly determine the geometry and structure of the final particle. While impact velocities, relative orientations, and the initial shape of the interacting particles are unlikely to strictly determine the structural details of the newly formed particle, we found that high initial temperatures and/or impact velocities increase the probability of appearance of icosahedral-like structures, Wulff polyhedra are likely to be formed as a product of the interactions between nanospheres, while the appearance of fcc particles of approximately cuboctahedral shape is mainly due to the interaction between icosahedra.

  15. Ab initio ro-vibronic spectroscopy of the 2Π PCS radical and +1ΣPCS- anion (United States)

    Finney, Brian; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Peterson, Kirk A.


    Near-equilibrium potential energy surfaces have been calculated for both the PCS radical and its anion using a composite coupled cluster approach based on explicitly correlated F12 methods in order to provide accurate structures and spectroscopic properties. These transient species are still unknown and the present study provides theoretical predictions of the radical and its anion for the first time. Since these species are strongly suggested to play an important role as intermediates in the interstellar medium, the rotational and vibrational spectroscopic parameters are presented to help aid in the identification and assignment of these spectra. The rotational constants produced will aid in ground-based observation. Both the PCS radical and the PCS- anion are linear. In the PCS- anion, which has a predicted adiabatic electron binding energy (adiabatic electron affinity of PCS) of 65.6 kcal/mol, the P-C bond is stronger than the corresponding neutral radical showing almost triple bond character, while the C-S bond is weaker, showing almost single bond character in the anion. The PCS anion shows a smaller rotational constant than that of the neutral. The ω3 stretching vibrational frequencies of PCS- are red-shifted from the radical, while the ω1 and ω2 vibrations are blue-shifted with ω1 demonstrating the largest blue shift. The ro-vibronic spectrum of the PCS radical has been accurately calculated in variational nuclear motion calculations including both Renner-Teller (RT) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects using the composite potential energy near-equilibrium potential energy and coupled cluster dipole moment surfaces. The spectrum is predicted to be very complicated even at low energies due to the presence of a strong Fermi resonance between the bending mode and symmetric stretch, but also due to similar values of the bending frequency, RT, and SO splittings.

  16. Molecular Evolution of Slow and Quick Anion Channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs). (United States)

    Dreyer, Ingo; Gomez-Porras, Judith Lucia; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar


    Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant) SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant) ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  17. Molecular evolution of slow and quick anion channels (SLACs and QUACs/ALMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eDreyer


    Full Text Available Electrophysiological analyses conducted about 25 years ago detected two types of anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. One type of channel responds slowly to changes in membrane voltage while the other responds quickly. Consequently, they were named SLAC, for SLow Anion Channel, and QUAC, for QUick Anion Channel. Recently, genes SLAC1 and QUAC1/ALMT12, underlying the two different anion current components, could be identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the gene products in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the quick and slow current kinetics. In this study we provide an overview on our current knowledge on slow and quick anion channels in plants and analyze the molecular evolution of ALMT/QUAC-like and SLAC-like channels. We discovered fingerprints that allow screening databases for these channel types and were able to identify 192 (177 non-redundant SLAC-like and 422 (402 non-redundant ALMT/QUAC-like proteins in the fully sequenced genomes of 32 plant species. Phylogenetic analyses provided new insights into the molecular evolution of these channel types. We also combined sequence alignment and clustering with predictions of protein features, leading to the identification of known conserved phosphorylation sites in SLAC1-like channels along with potential sites that have not been yet experimentally confirmed. Using a similar strategy to analyze the hydropathicity of ALMT/QUAC-like channels, we propose a modified topology with additional transmembrane regions that integrates structure and function of these membrane proteins. Our results suggest that cross-referencing phylogenetic analyses with position-specific protein properties and functional data could be a very powerful tool for genome research approaches in general.

  18. Anion order in perovskites: a group-theoretical analysis. (United States)

    Talanov, M V; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, V M


    Anion ordering in the structure of cubic perovskite has been investigated by the group-theoretical method. The possibility of the existence of 261 ordered low-symmetry structures, each with a unique space-group symmetry, is established. These results include five binary and 14 ternary anion superstructures. The 261 idealized anion-ordered perovskite structures are considered as aristotypes, giving rise to different derivatives. The structures of these derivatives are formed by tilting of BO6 octahedra, distortions caused by the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect and other physical effects. Some derivatives of aristotypes exist as real substances, and some as virtual ones. A classification of aristotypes of anion superstructures in perovskite is proposed: the AX class (the simultaneous ordering of A cations and anions in cubic perovskite structure), the BX class (the simultaneous ordering of B cations and anions) and the X class (the ordering of anions only in cubic perovskite structure). In most perovskites anion ordering is accompanied by cation ordering. Therefore, the main classes of anion order in perovskites are the AX and BX classes. The calculated structures of some anion superstructures are reported. Comparison of predictions and experimentally investigated anion superstructures shows coherency of theoretical and experimental results.

  19. Gold supported on thin oxide films: from single atoms to nanoparticles. (United States)

    Risse, Thomas; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Nilius, Niklas; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim


    [Figure: see text]. Historically, people have prized gold for its beauty and the durability that resulted from its chemical inertness. However, even the ancient Romans had noted that finely dispersed gold can give rise to particular optical phenomena. A decade ago, researchers found that highly dispersed gold supported on oxides exhibits high chemical activity in a number of reactions. These chemical and optical properties have recently prompted considerable interest in applications of nanodispersed gold. Despite their broad use, a microscopic understanding of these gold-metal oxide systems lags behind their application. Numerous studies are currently underway to understand why supported nanometer-sized gold particles show catalytic activity and to explore possible applications of their optical properties in photonics and biology. This Account focuses on a microscopic understanding of the gold-substrate interaction and its impact on the properties of the adsorbed gold. Our strategy uses model systems in which gold atoms and clusters are supported on well-ordered thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. As a result, we can investigate the systems with the rigor of modern surface science techniques while incorporating some of the complexity found in technological applications. We use a variety of different experimental methods, namely, scanning probe techniques (scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, STM and STS), as well as infrared (IR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to evaluate these interactions and combine these results with theoretical calculations. We examined the properties of supported gold with increasing complexity starting from single gold atoms to one- and two-dimensional clusters and three-dimensional particles. These investigations show that the binding of gold on oxide surfaces depends on the properties of the oxide, which leads to different electronic properties of

  20. Understanding the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles through multi-scale simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Simon Hedegaard; Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk


    We investigate how the chemical reactivity of gold nanoparticles depends on the cluster size and shape using a combination of simulation techniques at different length scales, enabling us to model at the atomic level the shapes of clusters in the size range relevant for catalysis. The detailed...... atomic configuration of a nanoparticle with a given number of atoms is calculated by first finding overall cluster shapes with low energy and approximately the right size, and then using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations to identify the detailed atomic configuration. The equilibrium number of low...... is in excellent agreement with experiments, and we conclude that the experimentally observed trends are mostly explained by the high reactivity of under-coordinated corner atoms on the gold clusters. Other effects, such as the effect of the substrate, may influence the reactivities significantly, but the presence...

  1. Expanded Porphyrin-Anion Supramolecular Assemblies: Environmentally Responsive Sensors for Organic Solvents and Anions. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Kim, Dong Sub; Lin, Chung-Yon; Zhang, Huacheng; Lammer, Aaron D; Lynch, Vincent M; Popov, Ilya; Miljanić, Ognjen Š; Anslyn, Eric V; Sessler, Jonathan L


    Porphyrins have been used frequently to construct supramolecular assemblies. In contrast, noncovalent ensembles derived from expanded porphyrins, larger congeners of naturally occurring tetrapyrrole macrocycles, are all but unknown. Here we report a series of expanded porphyrin-anion supramolecular assemblies. These systems display unique environmentally responsive behavior. Addition of polar organic solvents or common anions to the ensembles leads to either a visible color change, a change in the fluorescence emission features, or differences in solubility. The actual response, which could be followed easily by the naked eye, was found to depend on the specifics of the assembly, as well as the choice of analyte. Using the ensembles of this study, it proved possible to differentiate between common solvents, such as diethyl ether, THF, ethyl acetate, acetone, alcohol, acetonitrile, DMF, and DMSO, identify complex solvent systems, as well as distinguish between the fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and sulfate anions.

  2. Quotients of cluster categories


    Jorgensen, Peter


    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  3. 20th-Century Gold Rush. (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.


    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  4. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas


    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  5. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J


    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  6. Interaction of anions with substituted buckybowls. The anion's nature and solvent effects. (United States)

    Campo-Cacharrón, Alba; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; González-Veloso, Iván; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús


    Complexes formed by CN-substituted corannulene and sumanene with monovalent anions have been computationally studied to evaluate the effect of anion's nature and solvent upon the interaction. The results indicate that the most stable complex arrangement corresponds in all cases to the anion located by the center of the concave face of the bowl. All complexes are remarkably stable in the gas phase, with interaction energies ranging from -47 to -24 kcal/mol depending on the anion and the bowl considered. The order of stability for the different anion complexes in the gas phase is CO2H(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > NO3(-) ≫ ClO4(-) > BF4(-). Regarding the bowl employed, the intensity of the interaction is largest with the sumanene derivative substituted in the C-H aromatic groups. The weakest interactions are obtained with the sumanene derivative substituted in the CH2 groups, whereas complexes with the corannulene derivative give intermediate values. NO3(-) is oriented parallel to the bowl in the most stable complexes, whereas CO2H(-) prefers being oriented perpendicular to the bowl; ClO4(-) and BF4(-) arrange themselves with three bonds pointing to the bowl. These orientations are preferred on the basis of larger electrostatic and dispersion interactions. The preference of anions for the concave face of the bowl not only is mainly related to larger electrostatic interactions but also is because dispersion and induction are larger than in other arrangements considered. The presence of solvent modeled with a continuum model has a deep impact on the interaction energies already in solvents with low dielectric constant. All complexes remain stable, though energies in water hardly reach -7 kcal/mol. Br(-) complexes are the most stable in solvent, whereas CO2H(-) ones suffer a large penalty in solvent, becoming among the least stable complexes despite being the most stable in the gas phase.

  7. A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion. (United States)

    Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto


    A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values.

  8. Nematic director-induced switching of assemblies of hexagonally packed gold nanorods. (United States)

    Thomas, Michael R; Klein, Susanne; Greasty, Robert J; Mann, Stephen; Perriman, Adam W; Richardson, Robert M


    Self-assembled disc-shaped clusters of hexagonally packed, thiol-functionalized gold nanorods are prepared and dispersed in thermotropic nematic liquid crystals. The resultant hybrid complex fluids exhibit colloidal anisotropy with very high orientational order and are characterized by SAXS as shown in the figure. Precise, reconfigurable control of the cluster orientation at very low electric field strengths (0.18 V μm(-1) ) is achieved.

  9. Regional Innovation Clusters (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  10. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles (United States)

    Arcadi, Antonio


    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  11. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille;


    by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study....... In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....

  12. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin


    Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Protein-mediated autoreduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Nivedita; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail:


    Here we report for the first time that proteins can function as unique reducing agents to produce gold nanoparticles from gold salts. We demonstrate that three different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Rituximab (RIT-an anti-CD20 antibody) and Cetuximab (C225-anti-EGFR antibody), reduce gold salts to gold nanoparticles (GNP). Interestingly, among all the three proteins tested, only BSA can reduce gold salts to gold nanotriangles (GNT). BSA-induced formation of GNT can be controlled by carefully selecting the reaction condition. Heating or using excess of ascorbic acid (AA) as additional reducing agent shifts the reaction towards the formation of GNP with flower-like morphology, whereas slowing down the reaction either by cooling or by adding small amount of AA directs the synthesis towards GNT formation. GNT is formed only at pH 3; higher pHs (pH 7 and pH 10) did not produce any nanoparticles, suggesting the involvement of specific protein conformation in GNT formation. The nanomaterials formed by this method were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is an important finding that will have uses in various nanotechnological applications, particularly in the green synthesis of novel nanomaterials based on protein structure.

  14. Preparation and regulating cell adhesion of anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxide micropatterned arrays. (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sailong; Huo, Ruijie; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Fujian


    We describe a reliable preparation of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) micropatterned arrays on gold substrate by combining SO3(-)-terminated self-assembly monolayer and photolithography. The synthesis route is readily extended to prepare LDH arrays on the SO3(-)-terminated polymer-bonded glass substrate amenable for cell imaging. The anion-exchangeable MgAl-LDH micropattern can act both as bioadhesive region for selective cell adhesion and as nanocarrier for drug molecules to regulate cell behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion shows that selective HepG2 cell adhesion and spreading are promoted by the micropatterned MgAl-LDH, and also suppressed by methotrexate drug released from the LDH interlayer galleries.

  15. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    -industrialism and the ‘liveable' region. In this paper the cluster strategies that have been applied to the automotive sector in Wales are analysed. The paper includes a theoretical discussion on how the cluster concept has been applied to industrial policies, along with an empirical analysis of the application of the concept...... automotive sector in Wales. The paper draws from a survey of Welsh automotive suppliers on the characteristics of the local business environment and innovation. On the basis of the survey it is concluded that the public sector has an important task ahead concerning the linkages between universities and local...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  16. On the thermal conductivity of gold nanoparticle colloids. (United States)

    Shalkevich, Natallia; Escher, Werner; Bürgi, Thomas; Michel, Bruno; Si-Ahmed, Lynda; Poulikakos, Dimos


    Nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles) have been reported to display significantly enhanced thermal conductivities relative to those of conventional heat transfer fluids, also at low concentrations well below 1% per volume (Putnam, S. A., et at. J. Appl. Phys. 2006, 99, 084308; Liu, M.-S. L., et al. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer. 2006, 49; Patel, H. E., et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2003, 83, 2931-2933). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the particle size, concentration, stabilization method and particle clustering on the thermal conductivity of gold nanofluids. We synthesized spherical gold nanoparticles of different size (from 2 to 45 nm) and prepared stable gold colloids in the range of volume fraction of 0.00025-1%. The colloids were inspected by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The thermal conductivity has been measured by the transient hot-wire method (THW) and the steady state parallel plate method (GAP method). Despite a significant search in parameter space no significant anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was observed. The highest enhancement in thermal conductivity is 1.4% for 40 nm sized gold particles stabilized by EGMUDE (triethyleneglycolmono-11-mercaptoundecylether) and suspended in water with a particle-concentration of 0.11 vol%.

  17. Organic superconductors with an incommensurate anion structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kawamoto and Kazuo Takimiya


    Full Text Available Superconducting incommensurate organic composite crystals based on the methylenedithio-tetraselenafulvalene (MDT-TSF series donors, where the energy band filling deviates from the usual 3/4-filled, are reviewed. The incommensurate anion potential reconstructs the Fermi surface for both (MDT-TSF(AuI20.436 and (MDT-ST(I30.417 neither by the fundamental anion periodicity q nor by 2q, but by 3q, where MDT-ST is 5H-2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene-1,3-diselena-4,6-dithiapentalene, and q is the reciprocal lattice vector of the anion lattice. The selection rule of the reconstructing vectors is associated with the magnitude of the incommensurate potential. The considerably large interlayer transfer integral and three-dimensional superconducting properties are due to the direct donor–donor interactions coming from the characteristic corrugated conducting sheet structure. The materials with high superconducting transition temperature, Tc, have large ratios of the observed cyclotron masses to the bare ones, which indicates that the strength of the many-body effect is the major determinant of Tc. (MDT-TS(AuI20.441 shows a metal–insulator transition at TMI=50 K, where MDT-TS is 5H-2-(1,3-diselenol-2-ylidene-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene, and the insulating phase is an antiferromagnet with a high Néel temperature (TN=50 K and a high spin–flop field (Bsf=6.9 T. There is a possibility that this material is an incommensurate Mott insulator. Hydrostatic pressure suppresses the insulating state and induces superconductivity at Tc=3.2 K above 1.05 GPa, where Tc rises to the maximum, Tcmax=4.9 K at 1.27 GPa. This compound shows a usual temperature–pressure phase diagram, in which the superconducting phase borders on the antiferromagnetic insulating phase, despite the unusual band filling.

  18. Structure and energetics of nanometer size clusters of sulfuric acid with ammonia and dimethylamine. (United States)

    DePalma, Joseph W; Bzdek, Bryan R; Doren, Douglas J; Johnston, Murray V


    The structures of positively and negatively charged clusters of sulfuric acid with ammonia and/or dimethylamine ((CH(3))(2)NH or DMA) are investigated using a combination of Monte Carlo configuration sampling, semiempirical calculations, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Positively charged clusters of the formula [(NH(4)(+))(x)(HSO(4)(-))(y)](+), where x = y + 1, are studied for 1 ≤ y ≤ 10. These clusters exhibit strong cation-anion interactions, with no contribution to the hydrogen-bonding network from the bisulfate ion protons. A similar hydrogen-bonding network is found for the [(DMAH(+))(5)(HSO(4)(-))(4)](-) cluster. Negatively charged clusters derived from the reaction of DMA with [(H(2)SO(4))(3)(NH(4)(+))(HSO(4)(-))(2)](-) are also studied, up to the fully reacted cluster [(DMAH(+))(4)(HSO(4)(-))(5)](-). These clusters exhibit anion-anion and ion-molecule interactions in addition to cation-anion interactions. While the hydrogen-bonding network is extensive for both positively and negatively charged clusters, the binding energies of ions and molecules in these clusters are determined mostly by electrostatic interactions. The thermodynamics of amine substitution is explored and compared to experimental thermodynamic and kinetic data. Ammonia binds more strongly than DMA to sulfuric acid due to its greater participation in hydrogen bonding and its ability to form a more compact structure that increases electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. However, the greater gas-phase basicity of DMA is sufficient to overcome the stronger binding of ammonia, making substitution of DMA for ammonia thermodynamically favorable. For small clusters of both polarities, substitutions of surface ammonium ions are facile. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion becomes encapsulated in the center of the cluster, making it inaccessible to substitution.

  19. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun


    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  20. Probes for anionic cell surface detection (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.


    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  1. Electroculture for crop enhancement by air anions (United States)

    Pohl, H. A.; Todd, G. W.


    Electroculture, the practice of applying strong electric fields or other sources of small air ions to growing plants, has potential to markedly increase crop production and to speed crop growth. The considerable evidence for its effectiveness, and the studies of the mechanisms for its actions are discussed. A mild current of air anions (4 pA/cm2) stimulates bean crop growth and also earlier blossoming and increased growth in the annual, Exacum affine (Persian violet), as well as in seedling geraniums. The present results would indicate that the growing period required until the plants reach a saleable stage of maturity can be shortened by about two weeks under greenhouse conditions.

  2. On the electronic structure of fullerene anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomi, L.; Jolicoeur, T. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique)


    The authors study the electronic states of isolated fullerene anions C[sub 60][sup n-] (1 [<=] n [<=] 6) taking into account the effective interaction between electrons due to exchange of intramolecular phonons. If the vibronic coupling is strong enough such an effect may overwhelm Hund's rule and lead to an ordering of levels that can be interpreted as on-ball pairing, in a manner similar to the pairing in atomic nuclei. The authors suggest that such effects may be sought in solutions of fulleride ions and discuss recent experimental results.

  3. Gold, currencies and market efficiency (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Vosvrda, Miloslav


    Gold and currency markets form a unique pair with specific interactions and dynamics. We focus on the efficiency ranking of gold markets with respect to the currency of purchase. By utilizing the Efficiency Index (EI) based on fractal dimension, approximate entropy and long-term memory on a wide portfolio of 142 gold price series for different currencies, we construct the efficiency ranking based on the extended EI methodology we provide. Rather unexpected results are uncovered as the gold prices in major currencies lay among the least efficient ones whereas very minor currencies are among the most efficient ones. We argue that such counterintuitive results can be partly attributed to a unique period of examination (2011-2014) characteristic by quantitative easing and rather unorthodox monetary policies together with the investigated illegal collusion of major foreign exchange market participants, as well as some other factors discussed in some detail.

  4. Gold island fiber optic sensor (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Wig, A. G.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Buncick, Milan; Ferrell, Trinidad L.


    A fiber optic chemical sensor based on gold-island surface plasmon excitation is presented. The sensing part of the fiber is the end of the fiber onto which a thin layer of gold has been deposited to form a particulate surface. Annealing the gold reshapes the particles and produces an optical absorbance near 535 nm with the fiber in air. The optical absorption resonance of the gold particles is shifted if the fiber is immersed in a medium other than air. These resonance shifts are examined by transmission spectroscopy through the fiber. Experimental results for the sensitivity and dynamic range in the measurement of liquid solutions are in agreement with a basic theoretical model which characterizes the surface plasmon using nonretarded electrodynamics.

  5. Monocarbaborane anion chemistry. [COOH], [CH2OH] and [CHO] units as functional groups on ten-vertex monocarbaborane anionic compounds. (United States)

    Franken, Andreas; Carr, Michael J; Clegg, William; Kilner, Colin A; Kennedy, John D


    B(10)H(14) reacts with para-C(6)H(4)(CHO)(COOH) in aqueous KOH solution to give the [nido-6-CB(9)H(11)-6-(C(6)H(4)-para-COOH)](-) anion 1, which undergoes cage closure with iodine in alkaline solution to give the [closo-2-CB(9)H(9)-2-(C(6)H(4)-para-COOH)](-) anion 2. Upon heating, anion 2 rearranges to form the [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(C(6)H(4)-para-COOH)](-) anion 3. Similarly, B(10)H(14) with glyoxylic acid OHCCOOH in aqueous KOH gives the [arachno-6-CB(9)H(13)-6-(COOH)](-) anion 4, which undergoes cage closure with iodine in alkaline solution to give the [closo-2-CB(9)H(9)-2-(COOH)](-) anion 5. Upon heating, anion 5 rearranges to give the [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(COOH)](-) anion 6. Reduction of the [COOH] anions 3 and 6 with diisobutylaluminium hydride gives the [CH(2)OH] hydroxy anions [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(C(6)H(4)-para-CH(2)OH)](-) and [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(CH(2)OH)](-) 8 respectively. The [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(C(6)H(4)-para-CH(2)OH)](-) anion 7 can also be made via isomerisation of the [closo-2-CB(9)H(9)-2-(C(6)H(4)-para-CH(2)OH)](-) anion 9, in turn obtained from the [nido-6-CB(9)H(11)-6-(C(6)H(4)-para-CH(2)OH)](-) anion 10, which is obtained from the reaction of B(10)H(14) with terephthaldicarboxaldehyde, C(6)H(4)-para-(CHO)(2), in aqueous KOH solution. Oxidation of the hydroxy anions 7 and 8 with pyridinium dichromate gives the aldehydic [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(C(6)H(4)-para-CHO)](-) anion 11 and the aldehydic [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-(CHO)](-) anion 12 respectively, characterised as their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives, the [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-C(6)H(4)-para-CH=N-NHC(6)H(3)(NO(2))(2)](-) anion 13 and the [closo-1-CB(9)H(9)-1-CH=N-NHC(6)H(3)(NO(2))(2)](-) anion respectively.

  6. Gold, coal and oil. (United States)

    Dani, Sergio U


    Jared Diamond has hypothesized that guns, germs and steel account for the fate of human societies. Here I propose an extension of Diamond's hypothesis and put it in other terms and dimensions: gold, coal and oil account not only for the fate of human societies but also for the fate of mankind through the bodily accumulation of anthropogenic arsenic, an invisible weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change. The background is clear; arsenic species fulfill seven criteria for a weapon of mass extinction and evolutionary change: (i) bioavailability to all living organisms; (ii) imperceptibility; (iii) acute toxicity; (iv) bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity; (v) adverse impact on reproductive fitness and reproductive outcomes and early-age development and growth in a wide range of microbial, plant and animal species including man; (vi) widespread geographical distribution, mobility and ecological persistence on a centennial to millennial basis and (vii) availability in necessary and sufficient amounts to exert evolutionarily meaningful effects. The proof is becoming increasingly feasible as human exploitation of gold, coal and oil deposits cause sustainable rises of arsenic concentrations in the biosphere. Paradoxically, humans are among the least arsenic-resistant organisms because humans are long-lived, encephalized and complex social metazoans. An arsenic accumulation model is presented here to describe how arsenic accumulates in the human body with increasing age and at different provisionally safe exposure levels. Arsenic accumulates in the human body even at daily exposure levels which are within the lowest possible WHO provisional tolerance limits, yielding bodily arsenic concentrations which are above WHO provisional limits. Ongoing consequences of global scale arsenic poisoning of mankind include age-specific rises in morbidity and mortality followed by adaptive changes. The potential rise of successful forms of inborn resistance to arsenic in humans

  7. Straightforward and robust synthesis of monodisperse surface-functionalized gold nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Varela-Aramburu


    Full Text Available Gold nanoclusters are small (1–3 nm nanoparticles with a high surface area that are useful for biomedical studies and drug delivery. The synthesis of small, surface-functionalized gold nanoclusters is greatly dependent on the reaction conditions. Here, we describe a straightforward, efficient and robust room temperature one-pot synthesis of 2 nm gold nanoclusters using thioglucose as a reducing and stabilizing agent, which was discovered by serendipity. The resultant monodisperse gold nanoclusters are more stable than those generated using some other common methods. The carboxylic acid contained in the stabilizing agent on the cluster surface serves as anchor for nanocluster functionalization. Alternatively, the addition of thiols serves to functionalize the nanoclusters. The resulting non-cytotoxic nanoclusters are taken up by cells and constitute a tuneable platform for biomedical applications including drug delivery.

  8. Straightforward and robust synthesis of monodisperse surface-functionalized gold nanoclusters (United States)

    Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Wirth, Richard; Lai, Chian-Hui; Orts-Gil, Guillermo


    Summary Gold nanoclusters are small (1–3 nm) nanoparticles with a high surface area that are useful for biomedical studies and drug delivery. The synthesis of small, surface-functionalized gold nanoclusters is greatly dependent on the reaction conditions. Here, we describe a straightforward, efficient and robust room temperature one-pot synthesis of 2 nm gold nanoclusters using thioglucose as a reducing and stabilizing agent, which was discovered by serendipity. The resultant monodisperse gold nanoclusters are more stable than those generated using some other common methods. The carboxylic acid contained in the stabilizing agent on the cluster surface serves as anchor for nanocluster functionalization. Alternatively, the addition of thiols serves to functionalize the nanoclusters. The resulting non-cytotoxic nanoclusters are taken up by cells and constitute a tuneable platform for biomedical applications including drug delivery. PMID:27826501

  9. A way to decylamine-stabilized gold nanoparticles of tailored sizes tuning their growth in solution. (United States)

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Raffa, Patrizio; Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Vitulli, Giovanni; Bertinetti, Luca; Martra, Gianmario


    Acetone solvated Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis (MVS) co-condensing Au and acetone vapours. Nanoparticles growth was quenched at different times by using decylamine (DA) as stabilizer and DA-stabilized Au NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, NMR DOSY and HRTEM techniques. The dependence of metal clustering processes on gold concentration was investigated.

  10. An interpretation of the absorption and emission spectra of the gold dimer using modern theoretical tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geethalakshmi, K. R.; Ruiperez, F.; Knecht, S.


    The excited states of the gold dimer have been investigated using modern theoretical tools including the multiconfigurational exact molecular mean-field intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space Coupled Cluster, X2Cmmf-IHFSCC, and the complete active space self-consistent field followed by second order...

  11. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)


    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES.

  12. Antibacterial gold nanoparticles-biomass assisted synthesis and characterization. (United States)

    Badwaik, Vivek D; Willis, Chad B; Pender, Dillon S; Paripelly, Rammohan; Shah, Monic; Kherde, Yogesh A; Vangala, Lakshmisri M; Gonzalez, Matthew S; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam


    Xylose is a natural monosaccharide found in biomass such as straw, pecan shells, cottonseed hulls, and corncobs. Using this monosaccharide, we report the facile, green synthesis and characterization of stable xylose encapsulated gold nanoparticles (Xyl-GNPs) with potent antibacterial activity. Xyl-GNPs were synthesized using the reduction property of xylose in an aqueous solution containing choloraurate anions carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. These nanoparticles were stable and near spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 +/- 5 nm. Microbiological assay results showed the concentration dependent antibacterial activity of these particles against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) bacteria. Thus the facile, environmentally friendly Xyl-GNPs have many potential applications in chemical and biomedical industries, particularly in the development of antibacterial agents in the field of biomedicine.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation on porphyrins nano-assemblies onto gold nanorods (United States)

    Trapani, Mariachiara; De Luca, Giovanna; Romeo, Andrea; Castriciano, Maria Angela; Scolaro, Luigi Monsù


    The interaction between gold nanorods (Au NRs), synthesized by a conventional seeded growth protocol, and the anionic tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS4) has been investigated through various spectroscopic techniques. At neutral pH, the formation of H-aggregates and the inclusion of porphyrin monomers in CTAB micelles covering the nanorods have been evidenced. Under mild acidic conditions (pH = 3) a nano-hybrid assembly of porphyrin J-aggregates and Au NRs has been revealed. For the sake of comparison, Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal porphyrin derivatives as well as a cationic porphyrin have been studied in the same experimental conditions, showing that: i) CuTPPS4 forms porphyrin H-dimers onto the Au NRs; ii) ZnTPPS4 undergoes to demetallation, followed by acidification of the central core and eventually aggregation onto Au NRs; iii) cationic porphyrin does not interact with Au NRs.

  14. Zero-point energy effects in anion solvation shells. (United States)

    Habershon, Scott


    By comparing classical and quantum-mechanical (path-integral-based) molecular simulations of solvated halide anions X(-) [X = F, Cl, Br and I], we identify an ion-specific quantum contribution to anion-water hydrogen-bond dynamics; this effect has not been identified in previous simulation studies. For anions such as fluoride, which strongly bind water molecules in the first solvation shell, quantum simulations exhibit hydrogen-bond dynamics nearly 40% faster than the corresponding classical results, whereas those anions which form a weakly bound solvation shell, such as iodide, exhibit a quantum effect of around 10%. This observation can be rationalized by considering the different zero-point energy (ZPE) of the water vibrational modes in the first solvation shell; for strongly binding anions, the ZPE of bound water molecules is larger, giving rise to faster dynamics in quantum simulations. These results are consistent with experimental investigations of anion-bound water vibrational and reorientational motion.

  15. Combining Theory and Experiment to Characterize the Atomic Structures of Surface-Deposited Au309 Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curley, B.C.; Johnston, R.L.; Young, N.P.; Li, Z.; Di Vece, M.; Palmer, R.E.; Bleloch, A.l.


    Gold clusters with icosahedral, decahedral, and cuboctahedral shell structures, have been studied using the Gupta many-body potential, to aid in the structural characterization of surface-deposited Au309 clusters using high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-ST

  16. Modeling Carbon Chain Anions in L1527

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Nanase


    The low-mass protostellar region L1527 is unusual because it contains observable abundances of unsaturated carbon-chain molecules including CnH radicals, H2Cn carbenes, cyanopolyynes, and the negative ions C4H- and C6H-, all of which are more associated with cold cores than with protostellar regions. Sakai et al. suggested that these molecules are formed in L1527 from the chemical precursor methane, which evaporates from the grains during the heat-up of the region. With the gas-phase osu.03.2008 network extended to include negative ions of the families Cn-, and CnH-, as well as the newly detected C3N-, we modeled the chemistry that occurs following methane evaporation at T~ 25-30 K. We are able to reproduce most of the observed molecular abundances in L1527 at a time of ~5000 yr. At later times, the overall abundance of anions become greater than that of electrons, which has an impact on many organic species and ions. The anion-to-neutral ratio in our calculation is in good agreement with observation for C6H-...

  17. Isatin phenylhydrazones: anion enhanced photochromic behaviour. (United States)

    Cigáň, M; Jakusová, K; Gáplovský, M; Filo, J; Donovalová, J; Gáplovský, A


    The photochemical properties of two basic easily synthesized isatin N(2)-phenylhydrazones were investigated. Contrary to the corresponding isatin N(2)-diphenylhydrazones, only Z-isomers were isolated from the reaction mixtures during the synthesis due to their stabilization by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Although the presence of the C=N double bond creates conditions for the formation of a simple on-off photoswitch, the low photochemical quantum yield and particularly the low switching amplitude in absorbance hamper their photochromic applications. However, the addition of strongly basic anions to phenylhydrazone solutions leads to isatin NH group deprotonation and creates a new diazene T-type Vis-Vis photochromic system with sufficiently separated absorption maxima. Interestingly, although the thermally stable A-form is also photostable in ambient light, its irradiation with a stronger LED source leads to thermally unstable B-form formation which rapidly isomerizes back to the corresponding A-form. The process is reversible and switching cycles can be repeated in both directions. The important advantages of this two-component organic chromophore-inorganic anion photochromic system are its easy synthesis, easy handling due to its insensitivity to room light, easy further structural modification and reversibility. The corresponding photochemical quantum yield, however, remains relatively low (Φ ∼ 0.001). The theoretically calculated properties are in agreement with the obtained experimental results and support the proposed reaction mechanism.

  18. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, Hai [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Park, Andrew M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  19. Towards Effective Photothermal/Photodynamic Treatment Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla; Maslyakova, Galina; Terentyuk, Georgy; Yakunin, Alexander; Avetisyan, Yuri; Bibikova, Olga; Tuchina, Elena; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Tuchin, Valery


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells. Specifically, we discuss a combined PPT/PDT treatment of tumors and killing of pathogen bacteria with gold-based nanocomposites and atomic clusters, cell optoporation, and theoretical simulations of nanoparticle-mediated laser heating of tissues and cells.

  20. Towards Effective Photothermal/Photodynamic Treatment Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Bucharskaya


    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT/photodynamic (PDT therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells. Specifically, we discuss a combined PPT/PDT treatment of tumors and killing of pathogen bacteria with gold-based nanocomposites and atomic clusters, cell optoporation, and theoretical simulations of nanoparticle-mediated laser heating of tissues and cells.

  1. A colorimetric tetrathiafulvalene-calix 4 pyrrole anion sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. A.


    The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and AcO-) to a s......The interaction and colorimetric sensing properties of a tetrathiafulvalene substituted calix[4]pyrrole sensor with anions were investigated using H-1 NMR and absorption spectroscopic techniques. Visual color changes were observed upon addition of different anions (Cl-, Br-, CN-, and Ac......O-) to a solution of the sensor. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Tourmaline from the Archean G.R.Halli gold deposit, Chitradurga greenstone belt, Dharwar craton (India): Implications for the gold metallogeny


    Susmita Gupta; Jayananda, M.; Fareeduddin


    Tourmaline occurs as a minor but important mineral in the alteration zone of the Archean orogenic gold deposit of Guddadarangavanahalli (G.R.Halli) in the Chitradurga greenstone belt of the western Dharwar craton, southern India. It occurs in the distal alteration halo of the G.R.Halli gold deposit as (a) clusters of very fine grained aggregates which form a minor constituent in the matrix of the altered metabasalt (AMB tourmaline) and (b) in quartz-carbonate veins (vein tourmaline). The vein...

  3. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis. (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori


    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  4. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi


    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  5. Influence of α-amylase template concentration on systematic entrapment of highly stable and monodispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Ananth, A. Nitthin; Ananth, A. Nimrodh; Jose, Sujin P.; Umapathy, S.; Mathavan, T.


    Nano gold / α-amylase colloidal dispersions of profound stability were made using simple procedure with a conventional reducing agent. The surface plasmon resonance of the gold nanocrystals was used to quantify the extent of the dispersion stability and functionalization. It is found that the reduced gold nanoparticles were trapped into the protein network without denaturation the structure of α-amylase protein. This kind of entrapment of particles into the protein network prevents clustering of individual gold nanoparticles (6.42 nm ± 0.92 nm) by acting as a natural spacer. Systematic entrapment was facilitated by the affinity of gold to the sulfur moieties (Au-S) in the protein structure.

  6. Au/HClO4 interface: Influence of preparation technique of the electrode surface and specific anion adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We present electrochemical impedance spectra made on gold alloy containing 30% silver electrodes of various roughnesses in aqueous perchlorate acid solution as supporting electrolyte in the absence and the presence of mM of specifically adsorbed halide ions X (X = Br-, Cl-, I-, at potentials where the dominant electrode process is the adsorption of the above anions. Efforts were mainly concentrated on the importance of surface preparation technique of the electrode and its influence on impedance spectra. Atomic scale inhomogeneities are introduced by mechanical treatment and can be decreased by annealing. Due to the annealing the double layer behaves as (almost an ideal capacitance in the absence of specific adsorption though surface roughness remains the same. A study of the related impedance behaviour in the presence of adsorbates even at very low concentrations (10-4M, revealed capacitance dispersion increasing with the extent of specific anion adsorption at the gold/silver surface.

  7. Ionic liquid-based stable nanofluids containing gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wang, Baogang; Wang, Xiaobo; Lou, Wenjing; Hao, Jingcheng


    A one-phase and/or two-phase method were used to prepare the stable ionic liquid-based nanofluids containing same volume fraction but different sizes or surface states of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and their thermal conductivities were investigated in more detail. Five significant experiment parameters, i.e. temperature, dispersion condition, particle size and surface state, and viscosity of base liquid, were evaluated to supply experimental explanations for heat transport mechanisms. The conspicuously temperature-dependent and greatly enhanced thermal conductivity under high temperatures verify that Brownian motion should be one key effect factor in the heat transport processes of ionic liquid-based gold nanofluids. While the positive influences of proper aggregation and the optimized particle size on their thermal conductivity enhancements under some specific conditions demonstrate that clustering may be another critical effect factor in heat transport processes. Moreover, the remarkable difference of the thermal conductivity enhancements of the nanofluids containing Au NPs with different surface states could be attributed to the surface state which has a strong correlation with not only Brownian motion but also clustering. Whilst the close relationship between their thermal conductivity enhancements and the viscosity of base liquid further indicate Brownian motion must occupy the leading position among various influencing factors. Finally, a promisingly synergistic effect of Brownian motion and clustering based on experimental clues and theoretical analyses was first proposed, justifying different mechanisms are sure related. The results may shed lights on comprehensive understanding of heat transport mechanisms in nanofluids.

  8. An Automatic Clustering Technique for Optimal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, K Karteeka; Rao, A V Dattatreya; 10.5121/ijcsea.2011.1412


    This paper proposes a simple, automatic and efficient clustering algorithm, namely, Automatic Merging for Optimal Clusters (AMOC) which aims to generate nearly optimal clusters for the given datasets automatically. The AMOC is an extension to standard k-means with a two phase iterative procedure combining certain validation techniques in order to find optimal clusters with automation of merging of clusters. Experiments on both synthetic and real data have proved that the proposed algorithm finds nearly optimal clustering structures in terms of number of clusters, compactness and separation.

  9. Glucose oxidase-functionalized fluorescent gold nanoclusters as probes for glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaodong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Long, Yunfei, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Wang, Jianxiu, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Highlights: ► A glucose oxidase/gold nanocluster conjugates formed by etching chemistry. ► Integration of the bioactivities and fluorescence properties within a single unit. ► These conjugates serve as novel fluorescent probe for glucose. -- Abstract: Creation and application of noble metal nanoclusters have received continuous attention. By integrating enzyme activity and fluorescence for potential applications, enzyme-capped metal clusters are more desirable. This work demonstrated a glucose oxidase (an enzyme for glucose)-functionalized gold cluster as probe for glucose. Under physiological conditions, such bioconjugate was successfully prepared by an etching reaction, where tetrakis (hydroxylmethyl) phosphonium-protected gold nanoparticle and thioctic acid-modified glucose oxidase were used as precursor and etchant, respectively. These bioconjugates showed unique fluorescence spectra (λ{sub em} {sub max} = 650 nm, λ{sub ex} {sub max} = 507 nm) with an acceptable quantum yield (ca. 7%). Moreover, the conjugated glucose oxidase remained active and catalyzed reaction of glucose and dissolved O{sub 2} to produce H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which quenched quantitatively the fluorescence of gold clusters and laid a foundation of glucose detection. A linear range of 2.0 × 10{sup −6}–140 × 10{sup −6} M and a detection limit of 0.7 × 10{sup −6} M (S/N = 3) were obtained. Also, another horseradish peroxidase/gold cluster bioconjugate was produced by such general synthesis method. Such enzyme/metal cluster bioconjugates represented a promising class of biosensors for biologically important targets in organelles or cells.

  10. Anion-Channel Blockers Inhibit S-Type Anion Channels and Abscisic Acid Responses in Guard Cells. (United States)

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Schwarz, M.; Scheaffer, J.; Assmann, S. M.; Schroeder, J. I.


    The effects of anion-channel blockers on light-mediated stomatal opening, on the potassium dependence of stomatal opening, on stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and on current through slow anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells were investigated. The anion-channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) and niflumic acid blocked current through slow anion channels of Vicia faba L. guard cells. Both 9-AC and niflumic acid reversed ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in V. faba L. and Commelina communis L. The anion-channel blocker probenecid also abolished ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in both species. Additional tests of 9-AC effects on stomatal aperture in Commelina revealed that application of this anion-channel blocker allowed wide stomatal opening under low (1 mM) KCI conditions and increased the rate of stomatal opening under both low and high (100 mM) KCI conditions. These results indicate that anion channels can function as a negative regulator of stomatal opening, presumably by allowing anion efflux and depolarization, which prohibits ion up-take in guard cells. Furthermore, 9-AC prevented ABA induction of stomatal closure. A model in which ABA activation of anion channels contributes a rate-limiting mechanism during ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening is discussed.

  11. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush". (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan


    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  12. Serum gold concentrations during treatment with auranofin. (United States)

    Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; Van de Putte, L B; Arts, C W; Van Aernsbergen, A


    Serum gold concentrations were measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients during chronic treatment with the orally adsorbable gold compound auranofin. In agreement with data in the literature, the highest serum gold concentration was reached after 16 weeks of treatment with 6 mg auranofin daily. A striking finding in this study was that thereafter the serum gold concentrations did not appear to plateau but declined gradually. Statistically this resulted in a significantly lower concentration after one year as compared with week 16 (p less than 0.05, paired t-test). It is suggested that a shift from protein bound gold to cell-bound gold might be the explanation.

  13. Gold process mineralogy: Objectives, techniques, and applications (United States)

    Zhou, Joe Y.; Cabri, Louis J.


    The extractive metallurgy of gold is largely driven by mineralogical factors such as gold particle size; association with other minerals; coatings; presence of cyanicides, oxygen consumers, and preg-robbers; presence of refractory gold minerals; and locking of submicroscopic gold in sulfide and sulfarsenide mineral structures. Gold process mineralogy addresses all issues related to gold ore processing by the detailed study of an ore or a mill product. The methodology is widely used as a predictive tool in feasibility studies and during the process development stage, and as a trouble-shooting tool for mineral processing and hydrometallurgical operations.

  14. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval. (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T


    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  15. Charge retention of soft-landed phosphotungstate Keggin anions on self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, K. Don D.; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Andersen, Amity; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia


    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces often results in partial loss of charge that may affect the structure and reactivity of deposited species. In this study, Keggin phosphotungstate anions in two selected charge states, PW12O403- (WPOM3-) and PW12O402- (WPOM2-), were soft-landed onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces and examined using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Partial retention of the 3- charge was observed when WPOM3- was soft-landed onto the fluorinated SAM (FSAM), while the charge state distribution was dominated by the 2- charge after both WPOM3- and WPOM2- were deposited onto a hydrophilic alkylthiol SAM terminated with cationic NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM). We found that during the course of the soft landing of WPOM3-, the relative abundance of WPOM3- on FSAM decreased while that of WPOM2- increased. We propose that the higher stability of immobilized WPOM2- in comparison with WPOM3- makes it the preferred charge state of WPOM on both the FSAM and NH3+SAM. We also observe weaker binding of WPOM anions to SAMs in comparison with phosphomolybdate ions (MoPOM) reported previously (J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 27611–27622). The weaker binding of WPOM to SAMs is attributed to the lower reactivity of WPOM reported in the literature. This study demonstrates that both the charge retention and the reactivity of deposited anionic POM clusters on surfaces are determined by the type of addenda metal atoms in the cluster.

  16. Molybdate templated assembly of Ln12Mo4-type clusters (Ln = Sm, Eu, Gd) containing a truncated tetrahedron core. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Qian-Chong; Long, La-Sheng; Huang, Rong-Bin; Müller, Achim; Schnack, Jürgen; Zheng, Lan-Sun; Zheng, Zhiping


    Three heterometallic cluster complexes {Ln(12)Mo(4)} featuring an Ln(12) core of a distorted truncated tetrahedron were synthesized with the assistance of four MoO(4)(2-) anions as ancillary ligands. Magnetic studies of the {Gd(12)Mo(4)} cluster revealed a large magnetocaloric effect due to the presence of the large number of weakly coupled Gd(III) ions.

  17. Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Hodgdon, R.B.


    Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe/sup +3/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin membranes was limited by the scarcity of compatible fabrics. The most durable and useful backing fabrics were modacrylics. One membrane, a copolymer of 4 vinylpyridine and vinyl benzylchloride was outstanding in overall electrochemical and physical properties. Long term (1000 hrs) membrane chemical and thermal durability in redox environment was shown by three candidate polymers and two membranes. The remainder had good durability at ambient temperature. Manufacturing capability was demonstrated for large scale production of membrane sheets 5.5 ft/sup 2/ in area for two candidate systems.

  18. Once upon Anion: A Tale of Photodetachment (United States)

    Lineberger, W. Carl


    This contribution is very much a personal history of a journey through the wonderful world of anion chemistry, and a tale of how advances in laser technologies, theoretical methods, and computational capabilities continuously enabled advances in our understanding. It is a story of the excitement and joy that come from the opportunity to add to the fabric of science, and to do so by working as a group of excited explorers with common goals. The participants in this journey include me, my students and postdoctoral associates, my collaborators, and our many generous colleagues. It all happened, in the words of the Beatles, “with a little help from my friends.” Actually, it was so much more than a little help!

  19. Advanced polymer chemistry of organometallic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, R.M.; Abney, K.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Balaich, G.J.; Fino, S.A. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States)


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to prepare and characterize new polymers incorporating cobalt dicarbollide. Specific goals were to prepare polymerizable cobalt dicarbollide monomers using the nucleophilic substitution route discovered in laboratories and to establish the reaction conditions required to form polymers from these complexes. This one-year project resulted in two publications (in press), and provided the foundation for further investigations into polymer synthesis and characterization using cobalt dicarbollide and other metallocarboranes. Interest in synthesizing organometallic polymers containing the cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion is motivated by their possible application as cation exchange materials for the remediation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from nuclear wastes.

  20. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty


    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  1. Anion channelrhodopsins for inhibitory cardiac optogenetics (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G.; Cunha, Shane R.; Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Spudich, John L.


    Optical control of the heart muscle is a promising strategy for cardiology because it is more specific than traditional electrical stimulation, and allows a higher temporal resolution than pharmacological interventions. Anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from cryptophyte algae expressed in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes produced inhibitory currents at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity required by previously available optogenetic tools, such as the proton pump archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch). Because of their greater photocurrents, ACRs permitted complete inhibition of cardiomyocyte electrical activity under conditions in which Arch was inefficient. Most importantly, ACR expression allowed precisely controlled shortening of the action potential duration by switching on the light during its repolarization phase, which was not possible with previously used optogenetic tools. Optical shortening of cardiac action potentials may benefit pathophysiology research and the development of optogenetic treatments for cardiac disorders such as the long QT syndrome. PMID:27628215

  2. Papain-directed synthesis of luminescent gold nanoclusters and the sensitive detection of Cu2+. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Chuanxi; Li, Wenying; Zhou, Huipeng; Jiao, Huping; Lin, Quan; Yu, Cong


    Highly fluorescent papain stabilized gold nanoclusters (NCs) have been synthesized through a simple wet chemical route. Papain was used for the first time as an effective capping and reducing agent for these clusters. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of the gold nanoclusters, including the concentrations of papain and NaOH, reaction time and temperature, were investigated. The as-prepared Au clusters show intense red emission at ∼660nm (QY ∼4.3%) and are uniform in size. The clusters are quite stable and the intense red emission remained unchanged at a buffer pH range of 6-12. The fluorescent Au NCs were then used as a label-free probe for the sensitive detection of Cu(2+). A limit of detection of 3nM was obtained. The sensing strategy is also highly selective against the various potential interference ions.

  3. Regulation of organic anion transport in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM


    In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cmo

  4. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud


    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined...

  5. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters (United States)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Märk, T. D.


    Highly monochromatized electrons (with 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters \\(O2\\)n at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2 eV. At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction \\(O2\\)n+e-->O-2 rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to \\(O2\\)n. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations.



    Sprik, M.


    By means of a fully polarizable model for the chloride ion-water interaction we show that the modelling of anion solvation suffers from a similar inconsistency as the current electron-solvent potentials. Either the bulk hydration enthalpies are correct with the first hydration shell overbound, or the potential is adapted to describe the local environment of the solute at the expense of a major loss of solvation enthalpy. It is argued that boundary effects in the simulation are at least partly...

  7. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles. (United States)

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C


    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs.

  8. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis. (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook


    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  9. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)


    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  10. Nucleophilic reactivities of the anions of nucleobases and their subunits. (United States)

    Breugst, Martin; Corral Bautista, Francisco; Mayr, Herbert


    The kinetics of the reactions of different heterocyclic anions derived from imidazoles, purines, pyrimidines, and related compounds with benzhydrylium ions and structurally related quinone methides have been studied in DMSO and water. The second-order rate constants (log k(2)) correlated linearly with the electrophilicity parameters E of the electrophiles according to the correlation log k(2) = s(N)(N+E) (H. Mayr, M. Patz, Angew. Chem. 1994, 106, 990-1010; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1994, 33, 938-957) allowing us to determine the nucleophilicity parameters N and s(N) for these anions. In DMSO, the reactivities of these heterocyclic anions vary by more than six orders of magnitude and are comparable to carbanions, amide and imide anions, or amines. The azole anions are generally four to five orders of magnitude more reactive than their conjugate acids.

  11. Economic geology: Gold buried by oxygen


    Gaillard, Fabrice; Copard, Y.


    International audience; he Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa contains extraordinary amounts of gold. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the gold may have accumulated there in response to a perfect storm of conditions available only during the Archaean.

  12. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta


    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  13. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in general. 100.4 Section 100.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general....

  14. Electron Diffraction Determination of Nanoscale Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Joel H


    Dominant research results on adsorption on gold clusters are reviewed, including adsorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} on gold cluster cations and anions, kinetics of CO adsorption to middle sized gold cluster cations, adsorption of CO on Au{sub n}{sup +} with induced changes in structure, and H{sub 2}O enhancement of CO adsorption.

  15. Single-crystalline gold nanoplates from a commercial gold plating solution. (United States)

    Li, Zhonghao; Lapeyre, Véronique; Ravaine, Valérie; Ravaine, Serge; Kuhn, Alexander


    A novel route was proposed to synthesize gold nanoplates using a commercial gold plating solution as the reactant. Single-crystalline gold nanoplates can be successfully synthesized by reacting gold plating solution with HCl. The as-prepared nanoplates are from several micrometers to tens of micrometers in size. The effects of reactant concentration and temperature on the morphology of the gold products were investigated. The size of the gold nanoplate increases with the decrease of the amount of gold plating solution, while irregular gold nanoparticles are formed as the HCl concentration becomes low. When the reaction temperature is as low as room temperature, nanoplates with a concavity form. Specifically, it is found that the Cl- plays an important role for the formation of these gold nanoplates. The formation mechanism of the gold nanoplates is studied in detail.

  16. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne


    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  17. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern


    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  18. Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions


    Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov


    There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.

  19. Study on the Anion Recognition Properties of Synthesized Receptors (Ⅲ): Convenient Synthesis and Anion Recognition Property of Bisthiosemicarbazone Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-Ming; XU Wei-Xia; YAO Hong; WEI Tai-Bao


    A new series of bisthiosemicarbazone derivative receptors (1, 2 and 3) have been synthesized by simple steps in good yields. Their anion recognition properties were studied by UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The result showed that the receptors 1, 2 and 3 all had a better selectivity to F-, CH3COO- and H2PO4-, but no evident binding with Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3- and HSO4. Upon addition of the three anions to the receptors in DMSO, the solution acquired a color change from colorless to dark yellow that can be observed by the naked-eyes, thus the receptors can act as fluoride ion sensors even in the presence of other halide ions. The data showed that it was regular that the three receptors had different binding ability with the three anions. For the same anion, the association conformed through hydrogen bonding interactions between compound 1, 2 or 3 and anions.

  20. The α-effect in gas-phase SN2 reactions of microsolvated anions: methanol as a solvent. (United States)

    Thomsen, Ditte L; Reece, Jennifer N; Nichols, Charles M; Hammerum, Steen; Bierbaum, Veronica M


    The α-effect, an enhanced reactivity of nucleophiles with a lone-pair adjacent to the reaction center, has been studied in solution for several decades. The gas-phase α-effect has recently been documented in studies of SN2 reactions as well as in competing reactions for both bare and microhydrated anions. In the present work we extend our studies of the significance of microsolvation on the α-effect, employing methanol as the solvent, in the expectation that the greater stability of the methanol cluster relative to the water cluster will lower the reactivity and thereby allow studies over a wider efficiency range. We compare the gas-phase reactivity of the microsolvated α-nucleophile HOO(-)(CH3OH) to that of microsolvated normal alkoxy nucleophiles, RO(-)(CH3OH) in reactions with CH3Cl and CH3Br. The results reveal enhanced reactivity of HOO(-)(CH3OH) toward both methyl halides relative to the normal nucleophiles, and clearly demonstrate the presence of an α-effect for the microsolvated α-nucleophile. The highly exothermic reactions with methyl bromide result in a smaller Brønsted βnuc value than observed for methyl chloride, and the α-effect in turn influences the reactions with methyl chloride more than with methyl bromide. Computational investigations reveal that reactions with methyl bromide proceed through earlier transition states with less advanced bond formation compared to the related reactions of methyl chloride. In addition, solvent interactions for HOO(-) are quite different from those with the normal nucleophiles at the transition state, indicating that differential solvation may well contribute to the α-effect. The greater thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the anion-methanol clusters relative to the anion-water clusters accounts well for the differences in the influence of solvation with the two protic polar solvents.

  1. A Simple Approach to Control the Growth of Non-spherical Gold Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YUAN; Ru Xiu CAI; Dai Wen PANG


    A simple method to prepare the non-spherical gold particles was developed. The result solution included trigonal, truncated trigonal, hexagonal layers, and a pseudo-pentagonal shaped gold nanocrystals. The key factor is to control the relative rates of nucleation and cluster growth in this method. These attributes make seeding growth method as a useful tool in the fabrication of colloidal metal materials. A longitudinal plasmon resonance of 866 nm was observed, which is in the near-IR spectral regions (600-1000 nm). The excellent optical properties as near-IR labels are used to develop highly sensitive analysis method.

  2. Characterization of citrate capped gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex: Experimental and quantum chemical approach (United States)

    Pal, Rajat; Panigrahi, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar


    Quercetin and several other bioflavonoids possess antioxidant property. These biomolecules can reduce the diabetic complications, but metabolize very easily in the body. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of a flavonoid may further increase its efficacy. Gold nanoparticle is used by different groups as vehicle for drug delivery, as it is least toxic to human body. Prior to search for the enhanced efficacy, the gold nanoparticle-flavonoid complex should be prepared and well characterized. In this article, we report the interaction of gold nanoparticle with quercetin. The interaction is confirmed by different biophysical techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and cross checked by quantum chemical calculations. These studies indicate that gold clusters are covered by citrate groups, which are hydrogen bonded to the quercetin molecules in the complex. We have also provided evidences how capping is important in stabilizing the gold nanoparticle and further enhances its interaction with other molecules, such as drugs. Our finding also suggests that gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex can pass through the membranes of human red blood cells.

  3. Preparation and characterization of silica–gold core–shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien, E-mail:; Le, Tuyet Ngan; Do, Thi Hue; Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Do, Quang Hoa; Tran, Hong Nhung [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Physics (Viet Nam)


    Silica–gold core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by gold ion plating on hydrophilic-functionalized silica core NPs using formaldehyde as a reducing reagent. The monodisperse silica particles were first prepared by a sol–gel method, while the ultrafine gold colloids (diameter 1–2 nm) were synthesized by the reduction of chloroauric acid with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride. The growth and attachment of the gold NPs onto the functionalized surface of the silica NPs with average diameter ranging from 40 to 180 nm, using a low-temperature-mediated route, were systematically investigated. The coverage of the gold NPs and clusters on the surface of the silica NPs have been evaluated by means of UV–Vis/near-infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The surface plasmon resonance absorption spectra from 550 to 1,000 nm of the core–shell NPs can be effectively controlled by the surface gold coverage or the silica core NP’s size.

  4. Gallium based low-interaction anions (United States)

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.


    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  5. Photoelectron Imaging of OXIDE.VOC Clusters (United States)

    Patros, Kellyn M.; Mann, Jennifer; Chick Jarrold, Caroline


    Perturbations of the bare O2- and O4- electronic structure arising from VOC (VOC = hexane, isoprene, benzene and benzene.D6) interactions are investigated using anion photoelectron imaging at 2.33 and 3.49 eV photon energies. Trends observed from comparing features in the spectra include VOC-identity-dependent electron affinities of the VOC complexes relative to the bare oxide clusters, due to enhance stability in the anion complex relative to the neutral. Autodetachment is observed in all O4-.VOC spectra and only isoprene with O2-. In addition, the intensities of transitions to states correlated with the singlet states of O2 neutral via detachment from the O2-.VOC anion complexes show dramatic VOC-identity variations. Most notably, benzene as a complex partner significantly enhances these transitions relative to O2- and O2-.hexane. A less significant enhancement is also observed in the O2-.isoprene complex. This enhancement may be due to the presence of low-lying triplet states in the complex partners.

  6. Ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinlongshan Carlin type gold ore belt in Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Jinlongshan gold ore belt in southern Shaanxi Province contains a number of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Qinling collisional orogenic belt. Their fluid inclusions are of the Na+ - Cl- type. From the main metallogenic stage to later stages, the total quantity of anions and cations, temperature and deoxidation parameter (R) for fluid inclusions all gradu ally decreased, suggesting the gradual intensification of fluid oxidation, the reduction of met allogenic depth and the input of meteoric water and organic components. The deposits were formed during crustal uplifting and hence had similar tectonic settings to orogenic gold depos its. The CO2 contents and CO2/H2O values of the ore fluid increased from early to late sta ges, and the wall-rock alteration is represented by decarbonation, which is inconsistent with the characteristics of orogenic gold deposits. It is also discovered that Na + , K + ,SO42-, Cl-and the total amounts of anions and cations in the inclusions in quartz are higher than those in the coexisting calcite. The H, O and C isotope ratios indicate that the ore fluid was sourced from meteoric water and metamorphic devolatilisation of the sedimentary rocks that host the ores. The high background δ18O and δ13C values of wall rocks resulted in high δ18O and δ13 C values of ore fluid and also high δ 18 O and δ 13 C values of hydrothermal minerals such as quartz and carbonate. The carbon in ore fluid stemmed largely from the hosting strata. The δ 18O and δ13C values of Fe-calcite and the δD values of fluid inclusions are lower than those of calcite and quartz. In terms of the theory of coordination chemistry, all these differences can be ascribed to water-rock interaction in the same fluid system, instead, to the multi source of ore fluid.

  7. Gold, Silver and Bronze Citations. (United States)

    American School & University, 2003


    Presents the gold, silver, and bronze winners of a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total…

  8. Gold color in dental alloys. (United States)

    Cameron, T


    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  9. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server


    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  10. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere


    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  11. Clustering and Community Detection with Imbalanced Clusters


    Aksoylar, Cem; Qian, Jing; Saligrama, Venkatesh


    Spectral clustering methods which are frequently used in clustering and community detection applications are sensitive to the specific graph constructions particularly when imbalanced clusters are present. We show that ratio cut (RCut) or normalized cut (NCut) objectives are not tailored to imbalanced cluster sizes since they tend to emphasize cut sizes over cut values. We propose a graph partitioning problem that seeks minimum cut partitions under minimum size constraints on partitions to de...

  12. Support Effects in the Gold-Catalyzed Preferential Oxidation of CO

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanova, S.


    The study of support effects on the gold-catalyzed preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen (PROX reaction) is possible only with careful control of the gold particle size, which is facilitated by the application of the direct anionic exchange method. Catalytic evaluation of thermally stable gold nanoparticles, with an average size of around 3 nm on a variety of supports (alumina, titania, zirconia, or ceria), clearly shows that the influence of the support on the CO oxidation rate is of primary importance under CO+O 2 conditions and that this influence becomes secondary in the presence of hydrogen. The impact of the support surface structure on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity, and catalyst activation/deactivation is investigated in terms of oxygen vacancies, oxygen mobility, OH groups, and surface area on the oxidation rates, catalyst selectivity and catalyst activation/deactivation. It allows the identification of key morphological and structural features of the support to ensure high activity and selectivity in the gold-catalyzed PROX reaction. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Gene delivery in conjunction with gold nanoparticle and tumor treating electric field (United States)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.; Soo Lee, Yeon


    The advances in electrotherapy to treat the diseased biological cell instigate its extension in gene therapy through the delivery of gene into the nucleus. The objective of this study is to investigate the application of moderate intensity alternating electric field, also known as tumor treating electric field on a carrier system consisting of a charged gene complex conjugated to the surface of a gold nanoparticle. The gene delivery mechanism relies on the magnitude and direction of the induced electric field inside the cytoplasm in presence of carrier system. The induced electric field strength is significant in breaking the gene complex-gold nanoparticle bonding, and exerting an electric force pushing the charged gene into the nucleus. The electric force orientation is dependent on the aspect ratio (AR) of the gold nanoparticle and a relationship between them is studied via Maxwell two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulation analyzer. The development of charge density on the surface of carrier system and the required electric field strength to break the bonding are investigated utilizing the Gouy-Chapman-Grahame-Stern (GCGS) theoretical model. A carrier system having the aspect ratio of the gold nanoparticle in the range 1 < AR ≤ 5 and AR = 1 are substantial delivering cationic and anionic genes into the nucleus, respectively.

  14. Robust nanogap electrodes by self-terminating electroless gold plating. (United States)

    Serdio V, Victor M; Azuma, Yasuo; Takeshita, Shuhei; Muraki, Taro; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka


    Robust nanogap electrodes for nanodevices with a separation of 3.0 ± 1.7 nm were simultaneously mass-produced at a yield of 90% by a combination of electron beam lithography (EBL) and electroless gold plating (EGP). Nanogap electrodes demonstrated their robustness as they maintained their structure unchanged up to temperatures of 170 °C, during the isotropic oxygen plasma ashing removal of the amorphous carbon overlayer resulting from scanning electron microscopy observations, therefore maintaining their surface reactivity for EGP and formation of a self-assembled monolayer. A gold layer grows over the electrode surface during EGP, narrowing the separation between the electrodes; growth stops around 3 nm due to a self-termination phenomenon. This is the main factor in the high yield and reproducibility of the EGP process because it prevents contact between the electrodes. A 90% yield is achieved by also controlling the etching and physisorption of gold clusters, which is accomplished by reduction of triiodide ions and heat treatment of the EGP solution, respectively. A mixed self-assembled monolayer of octanethiol and decanedithiol can be formed at the surface of the nanogap electrodes after the oxygen plasma treatment, and decanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles were chemisorbed between the self-terminated nanogap electrodes via decanedithiol. Chemically assembled single-electron transistors based on the nanogap electrodes exhibit ideal, stable, and reproducible Coulomb diamonds.

  15. Designing New Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Using Superhalogen Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar


    The electrolytes used in Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) such as LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. are Li-salts of some complex anions, BF4-, PF6- etc. The investigation shows that the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of these anions exceeds to that of halogen, and therefore they behave as superhalogen anions. Consequently, it might be possible to design new electrolytic salts using other superhalogen anions. We have explored this possibility using Li-salts of various superhalogen anions such as BO2-, AlH4-, TiH5- and VH6- as well as hyperhalogen anions, BH4-y(BH4)y-(y = 1 to 4). Our density functional calculations show that Li-salts of these complex anions possess similar characteristics as those of electrolytic salts in LIBs. Note that they all are halogen free and hence, non-toxic and safer than LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. In particular, LiB4H13 and LiB5H16 are two potential candidates for electrolytic salt due to their smaller Li-dissociation energy ({\\Delta}E) than those of LiBF4, LiPF6 etc. We have also noticed that {\\Delta}E of Li...

  16. Cluster chemical reactions at mineral–liquid interface in metal leaching by photo-electroactive water-and-gas emulsions (United States)

    Sekisov, AG


    Possibility of cluster (inter-cluster) reactions at the interface of mineral and liquid phases in leaching of metals mainly in dispersed cluster form by photo-electrically activated water-and-gas emulsions is theoretically evaluated. The governing role of active clusters of water and clustered hydrate envelopes generated under dissolution of active oxygen forms is determined. The scope of the study covers possible processes of transformation of clustered gold in mineral substance under direct interaction with the components of the active water-and-gas emulsions.

  17. Gold Adsorption from Chlorination Leaching Solution of Refractory Gold Concentrate%从难处理金精矿氯化浸金溶液中吸附金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金创石; 张廷安; 曾勇; 洪正秀


    对国内某难处理金精矿高压氧化渣进行氯化浸出及吸附试验.结果表明,在下述最佳条件下浸金率达到96.5%:次氯酸钠浓度10 g/L、pH=4、氯化钠浓度75 g/L、温度40℃、液固比3∶1、搅拌速度300 r/min、时间120 min.浸金液在室温采用1 g/L的717阴离子交换树脂吸附30 min,金吸附率达到99.2%.该方法污染少、操作简单、反应速度快.%Chlorination leaching and adsorption of gold on high-pressure oxidation residue of a domestic refractory gold concentrate were investigated. The results show that the gold leaching rate is 96. 5% under the optimum conditions including sodium hypochlorite concentration of 10 g/L, Ph = 4, sodium chloride concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 ℃ , ratio of liquid to solid of 3 : 1, stirring speed of 300 r/min and time of 120 min. The gold absorption rate is 99. 2% when the above gold leaching solution is absorbed with 1 g/L 717 anion exchange resin at room temperature for 30 min. This process is simple, rapid with less pollution.

  18. Gold recycling; a materials flow study (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.


    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  19. New approach to fabricate nanoporous gold film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhou; Lan Jin; Wei Xu


    A simple preparation of ultrathin nanoporous gold film was described. Copper and gold were used to fabricate Cu-Au alloy films through vacuum deposition. The formation of nanoporous gold films from the alloy films involved thermal process and chemical etch by hydrochloric acid or by nitric acid. The free-standing nanoporous gold films have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was noted that the nanoporous gold film etched by hydrochloric acid is uniform with a cover of fog-like moieties.

  20. I. Unbound serum gold: procedure for quantitation. (United States)

    Lorber, A; Vibert, G J; Harralson, A F; Simon, T M


    The unbound fraction of many drugs appears to be the therapeutically active component. However, the major problem encountered in following unbound serum gold (UBSG) concentration during chrysotherapy has been the ability to quantitate such a small quantity of gold reliably without matrix interference. The methodology detailed here overcomes these difficulties and provides an effective means of monitoring the UBSG fraction during chrysotherapy. We have observed that the unbound fraction of gold dissipates quickly after gold sodium thiomalate administration and constitutes less than 2% of the total serum gold concentration.

  1. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. (United States)

    Gorin, David J; Toste, F Dean


    Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. Cationic phosphine-gold(i) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. The reactivity of these species can be understood in the context of theoretical studies on gold; relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. This Review draws on experimental and computational data to present our current understanding of homogeneous gold catalysis, focusing on previously unexplored reactivity and its application to the development of new methodology.

  2. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides


    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R.; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Hagan, David; Steven P. Nolan


    We report the synthesis of nine new N-heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical an...

  3. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E


    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  4. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense]. (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E


    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  5. Pyruvate anions neutralize peritoneal dialysate cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Brunkhorst, R


    A new peritoneal dialysate containing pyruvate anions was developed in order to avoid cytotoxic effect of conventional lactate-based dialysate. The dialysate has a final pH of 5.4 to 5.6 and is composed of 1.36-3.86% glucose-monohydrate; 132 mmol/l sodium; 1.75 mmol/l calcium; 0.75 mmol/l magnesium; 102 mmol/l chloride and 35 mmol/l pyruvate. For cytotoxicity testing peritoneal macrophages, and mesothelial cells (MC) were exposed to conventional lactate dialysate, and pyruvate dialysate. We investigated the O2- generation and cytokine synthesis after endotoxin stimulation in peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of mesothelial cells of cultured human MC. After exposure to lactate dialysate O2- generation and cytokine synthesis in peritoneal macrophages and proliferation of mesothelial cells were inhibited when compared to solution containing pyruvate and the control solution. After preincubation with 3.86% glucose containing solutions, all negative effects became even more pronounced in the lactate group whereas after pre-exposure to pyruvate containing solution the toxic effects were absent. These results suggest that the acute toxic effects of commercially available peritoneal dialysates can be avoided by the use of sodium pyruvate instead of sodium lactate.

  6. Cluster headaches. (United States)

    Ryan, R E; Ryan, R E


    The patient with cluster headaches will be afflicted with the most severe type of pain that one will encounter. If the physician can do something to help this patient either by symptomatic or, more importantly, prophylactic treatment, he or she will have a most thankful patient. This type of headache is seen most frequently in men, and occurs in a cyclic manner. During an acute cycle, the patient will experience a daily type of pain that may occur many times per day. The pain is usually unilateral and may be accompanied by unilateral lacrimation, conjunctivitis, and clear rhinorrhea. Prednisone is the first treatment we employ. Patients are seen for follow-up approximately twice a week, and their medication is lowered in an appropriate manner, depending on their response to the treatment. Regulation of dosage has to be individualized, and when one reaches the lower dose such as 5 to 10 mg per day, the drug may have to be tapered more slowly, or even maintained at that level for a period of time to prevent further recurrence of symptoms. We frequently will use an intravenous histamine desensitization technique to prevent further attacks. We will give the patient an ergotamine preparation to use for symptomatic relief. As these patients often have headaches during the middle of the night, we will place the patient on a 2-mg ergotamine preparation to take prior to going to bed in the evening. This often works in a prophylactic nature, and prevents the nighttime occurrence of a headache. We believe that following these principles to make the accurate diagnosis and institute the proper therapy will help the practicing otolaryngologist recognize and treat patients suffering from this severe pain.

  7. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**


    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S.; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W.


    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electro...

  8. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuexing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs-. In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy.

  9. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuexing


    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs{sup {minus}}. In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy.

  10. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Book, D.E.


    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  11. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon


    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  12. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?) (United States)

    Eisler, R.


    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  13. Leaching behavior of butanedionedioxime as gold ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Butanedionedioxime, a small organic compound with low-toxicity and good chemical stability, has been proposed as an effective gold ligand in gold extraction. The result of experiment shows that: 1) highly effective gold lixiviantcan be composed of butanedionedioxime (BDM) with many oxidants, especially potassium permanganate; 2)in the leaching system of BD M- K M nO4 the suitable Ox/Lig(ratio of oxidants to gold ligands) tange is 0.20 ~ 0. 50, optimally 0.25 ~0.45 at the pH range of 7 ~ 11; 3) BDM-KMnO4 extraction of gold from an oxide ore is similar to cyanide(cyanide-O2)extraction, but the leaching rate of gold by BDM-KMnO4 is faster than that by cyanide-O2; 4) gold may readily be recov-ered by carbon adsorption and zinc precipitation

  14. Electrodeposition of ZnO from DMSO solution: influence of anion nature and its concentration in the nucleation and growth mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Daniel, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Tello, Alejandra; Schrebler, Ricardo; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Curauma, Valparaiso (Chile)


    The influence of the anion nature and its concentration in the electrodeposition of ZnO onto a gold electrode from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions was studied. Voltammetric experiments revealed important changes in the zinc oxide electrodeposition process depending on the employed anion as electrolyte. From chronoamperometric experiments, the corresponding current-time curves were fitted with different nucleation and growth mechanism models. The analysis of these results showed changes from an instantaneous to a progressive growth when the solution composition was changed from ZnCl{sub 2} to ZnCl{sub 2} + LiCl. The change of the mechanism is associated to the adsorption of chloride ion on the active sites of the electrode surface when LiCl is present in the solution. (author)

  15. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler


    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  16. Structural and optical properties of Si-doped Ag clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb


    The structural and optical properties of AgN and Ag N-1Si1 (neutral, cationic, and anionic) clusters (N = 5 to 12) are systematically investigated using the density functional based tight binding method and time-dependent density functional theory, providing insight into recent experiments. The gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and therefore the optical spectrum vary significantly under Si doping, which enables flexible tuning of the chemical and optical properties of Ag clusters. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  17. Electron attachment to oxygen clusters studied with high energy resolution (United States)

    Matejcik, S.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.


    Highly monochromatized electrons (with energy distributions of less than 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiments to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O2)n at electron energies from approximately zero eV up to several eV. At energies close to zero the attachment cross section for the reaction (O2)n+e→(O2)m- (for m=1, 2, and 3) rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to (O2)n. Peaks in the oxygen attachment cross sections present at higher energies (≈80 meV, 193 meV, 302 meV) can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the anion populated by attachment of an electron to a single oxygen molecule within the target cluster via a direct Franck-Condon transition from the ground vibrational state v=0 to a vibrational excited state v'=7,8,9,… of the anion produced. The vibrational structures observed here for the first time can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations using a microscopic model to examine the attachment of an electron to an oxygen molecule inside a cluster. This involves (i) molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the structure of neutral clusters prior to the attachment process and (ii) calculation of the solvation energy of an oxygen anion in the cluster from the electrostatic polarization of the molecules of the cluster. The occurrence of this polarization energy at the surface of larger clusters explains the appearance of an s-wave capturing cross section at 0 eV and the slightly smaller spacings (compared to the monomer case) between the peaks at finite energy, as observed experimentally. The relative transition probabilities from the ground state of the neutral oxygen molecule to the different vibrational levels of the anion are obtained by calculating the corresponding Franck-Condon factors thereby resulting in a reasonable theoretical fit to the observed yields of negatively charged oxygen molecules and clusters.

  18. [Contact allergy to gold and its alloys. Pertinence of gold salt patch tests]. (United States)

    Collet, E; Lacroix, M; Dalac, S; Ponnelle, C; Lambert, D


    Allergic contact dermatitis to gold and its alloys is a rare affection and it is difficult to interpret gold salts patch tests. We report two cases of patients with positive patch tests to 0.5% sodium aurothiosulfate discovered during a dermatology exploration of an occupational contact eczema (for the first patient) and an intolerance to gold jewelry (for the second). There is much confusion in the literature concerning the allergologic exploration of contact dermatitis to gold: no standardized test, possible cross reactions between different gold salts, the tests often irritate. The mechanism of sensitization to gold salts is unknown since pure gold is inalterable and does not contain any salts. The pertinence of a positive test to one or more gold salts must therefore be examined carefully and the diagnosis of gold allergy must not be made without sufficient evidence.

  19. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai


    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  20. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of gold ion and gold modified

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The gold ion modified TiO2 was prepared by means of sol- gelwhereas gold deposited TiO2 was prepared by means of photo- reduction. The physical properties were influenced significantly by the presence of gold ion or gold. The enhanced photo-activity of gold modified TiO2 was quantified in terms of methylene blue degradation. The presence of gold ion in TiO2 lattices or gold on TiO2 surface enhanced their photo-activity. The optimum molar content of gold ion doping and gold deposition all was 0.5%. The first-order rates constants of gold modified TiO2 was more than that of pure TiO2, and decreased by increasing the content of gold ion and gold when their contents were more than 0.5%. Gold iondoped in TiO2 lattices was more effective to enhance the photo-activity than gold on TiO2 surface. Moreover, the relationship between physical properties, chemical properties and photo-activityhas been discussed.