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Sample records for anionic emulsified asphalt

  1. 一类阴离子型高分子沥青乳化剂的合成及乳化沥青的性能%Synthesis of a Kind Anionic Polymer Emulsifier and the Performance of Their Emulsified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝砚; 席曼; 梁博; 王琦; 王建华

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol for matrix surface active monomer polymerization was used to synthesize two new anionic polymer asphalt emulsifier, poly (2-glyceryl undecylenate) dicarboxylate and poly (2-glyceryl oleate) dicarboxylate. Using infrared spectroscopy (IR), near-infrared (NIR) analysis and I H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), the structures of sample were identified. -Mn were got from gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The stability of the hard water, mixing stability and other tests were conducted respectively. And the mechanism of emulsification was studied. The results show that: the synthetic material is target product, which has good hard water stability. And both of them are slow crack asphalt emulsifier. The hydrogen bonds are formed between ester in molecular and hydroxyl in asphaltene, as well as the oxygen in carboxyl ions and water molecules, resulting stabilize asphalt emulsion.%以丙三醇与十一烯酸和油酸为原料,制备了聚(2-十一烯甘油酯)二羧酸钠和聚(2-油酸甘油酯)二羧酸钠两种阴离子型高分子沥青乳化剂。采用红外光谱、近红外和核磁对样品结构予以鉴定,通过凝胶渗透色谱仪对其-Mn进行测定,分别进行硬水稳定性、拌合稳定度和其他国家标准的测试,并对它们的乳化机理进行分析。结果表明,合成物质为目标产物;-Mn分别为3200 g/mol和4100 g/mol;硬水稳定性分别为4级和3级;二者均为慢裂型沥青乳化剂;由于分子结构中亲水基含有大量氧原子,在乳化沥青中与水分子形成大量氢键使乳化沥青稳定。

  2. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  3. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  4. A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier synthesized and investigated by online FTIR spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Laishun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier 3-(N,N,N-dimethyl acetoxy ammonium chloride-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was synthesized after three steps by the reaction of lauric acid, epichlorohydrin, dimethylamine and sodium chloroacetate. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained for the synthesis of the first step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate. The esterification yield reaches 97.1% at the optimum conditions of reaction temperature 80ºC, reaction time 6 h, feedstock mole ratio of epichlorohydrin to lauric acid 1.5, mass ratio of catalyst to lauric acid 2%. The chemical structure of the product was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR. The first synthesis step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was monitored by online FTIR technique. The by-product was detected by the online FTIR analysis. Based upon the experimental data, a plausible reaction mechanism was proposed for the reaction. The CMC of the objective product has a lower value of 7.4×10-4 mol/L. The surface tension at CMC is 30.85 mN/m. The emulsifier is a rapid-set asphalt emulsifier.

  5. Development and Application of Emulsified Asphalt with High Penetrability%高渗透乳化沥青的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白国涛; 郭志刚; 刘守良

    2012-01-01

    Emulsified asphalt with good penetration performance is obtained by selecting high-quality aviation kerosene as penetrating agent and adopting screened emulsifier to emulsify asphalt.Development and application of emulsified asphalt with high penetrability is introduced.%选择优质航空煤油作为渗透剂,用经过筛选的乳化剂对沥青进行乳化,制得渗透性能优良的乳化沥青。介绍了高渗透乳化沥青的研制及应用。

  6. 冷拌沥青混合料乳化沥青研究%Study on emulsified asphalt of cold asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊懿; 姜艺; 胡新华

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two types of emulsifiers , including EA-300 and Weiss Vic .The emulsifiers were utilized to produce emulsified asphalts .It was found that emulsified asphalt per-formed well when the EA-300 content was 2.8%and the soap solution had a pH value between 2 and 3.The corre-sponding values for Weiss Vic were 1 .6%for the emulsifier content and a pH value between 1 and 2 for the sop so-lution.The results of this study indicate that the emulsified asphalt with either of the two emulsifiers will meet the requirements of the standards and specifications .This paper describes the evaluation procedures and presents the study results .%采用EA-300与美德维斯维克两种乳化剂分别制备了乳化沥青,并按照规范检测了乳化沥青的相关性能。对于EA-300的乳化剂,选用乳化剂摻量为2.8%,皂液pH为2—3时,制备出来的乳化沥青的性能较好;对于美德维斯维克的乳化剂,选用乳化剂摻量为1.6%,皂液pH为1—2时,制备出来的乳化沥青的性能较好。通过试验发现,乳化沥青均能满足规范要求,可以很好的运用于冷拌沥青混合料中。

  7. Relationship between the Classification of Modification Emulsified Asphalt and Production Equipment%改性乳化沥青分类与生产设备的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金友

    2011-01-01

    This paper classifies all sorts of modification emulsified asphalt, introduces production process of various modification emulsified asphalt,and the difference among various production equipment of emulsifying asphalt and current domestic reference, compares the index and use of all sorts of emulsified asphalt.%对各种改性乳化沥青加以分类,介绍了各种改性乳化沥青的生产流程,另介绍了各种乳化沥青生产设备的不同及目前国内大致价格供参考.还对各种乳化沥青指标和用途作了比较.

  8. 试论乳化沥青在公路养护中的应用研究%On Emulsified Asphalt in Road Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任联友

    2012-01-01

      road maintenance is an important way to improve highway service life and play Highwaysocial benefits. In this paper, emulsified asphalt in road maintenance for the study. As an entry point o the characteristics of emulsified asphalt, emulsified asphalt slurry seal technology analysis, Enhance-mulsified asphalt in road maintenance effect of the strategy on this basis. Through this study, in order to enhance the application of emulsified asphalt in road maintenance, to provide a theoretical reference.%  公路养护是提升公路使用寿命,发挥公路社会效益的重要途径。本文就乳化沥青在公路养护中的应用为研究对象。以乳化沥青的的特点为切入点,对乳化沥青稀浆封层技术进行了分析,在此基础上分析了提升乳化沥青在公路养护效果的策略。通过本研究,以期为提升乳化沥青在公路养护中的应用,提供理论参考。

  9. Application of cationic asphalt emulsifier%阳离子沥青乳化剂的应用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月欣; 翟赫; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    Emulsified asphalt was prepared by using a blended emulsifier composed of N - (2 - hydroxy - 3 -octadecyl amino) propyltrimethylammonium (A), lignin quaternary ammonium salt (B) and N - [2 -hydroxy - 3 - dodecyl polyoxyethylene ( 9 )]propyltrimethylammonium chloride ( C ).Performance test of the emulsified asphalt showed that when emulsifier A, B and C is used individually with dosage of 0.5% ,2.5%and 2.5% of total mass of the emulsified asphalt respectively, the storage stability of emulsified asphalt achieves 5 d.When blended emulsifiers composed of A & B or A & C with mass ratio of 1:1 up to 9:1 ,and the dosage is only O.5% of total emulsified asphalt, the storage stability of emulsified asphalt is significantly upgraded.The emulsion breaking time for emulsified asphalt using blended emulsifier A and B with mass ratio of 2:3 and dosage of 0.5% of the total mass achieves 259 s ;and that using blended emulsifier A and C with mass ratio of 1:1 and dosage of 0.5% achieves 223 s;while that using single emulsifier A with dosage of 0.5% achieves 191 s only.%以N-(2-羟基-3-十八烷基氨基)丙基三甲基氯化铵(A)、木质素季铵盐(B)和N-[2-羟基-3-十二烷氧基聚氧乙烯醚(9)]丙基三甲基氯化铵(C)为乳化剂制备了乳化沥青.对乳化沥青的性能测试表明,当乳化剂A,B和C单独使用的用量分别为乳化沥青总质量的0.5%,2.5%和2.5%时,乳液能够稳定存在5 d;当使用由乳化剂A和B或A和C以1:1至9:1的质量比组成的复配乳化剂,用量为乳化沥青总质量的0.5%时,制备的乳化沥青的稳定性明显地优于单独使用乳化剂A,B或C制备的乳化沥青.使用由乳化剂A和B以质量比2:3组成的复配乳化剂,用量为0.5%时,所得到的乳化沥青的破乳时间为259 s;由A和C以质量比1:1组成的复配乳化剂,用量为0.5%时,所得到的乳化沥青的破乳时间为223 s;而单独使用乳化剂A,用量为0.5%时,破乳时间仅为191s.

  10. A Study on Properties of Lean Cement with Emulsified Asphalt%外掺乳化沥青贫混凝土性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明熹; 孙重静

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical testing system is used to measure compressive strength,flexural strength, compressive modulus and flexural modulus of three kinds of lean concrete with different emulsified as-phalt content.The shrinkage of lean concrete with different emulsified asphalt is measured under the condition without curing and normal curing.Results indicate that the compressive strength and flexur-al strength decline with the increasing of emulsified asphalt content,because asphalt membrane re-tards the hydration process of cement.The compressive modulus and flexural modulus decline and the deformation behavior of lean concrete is improved.Also the drying shrinkage and cracking of lean con-crete decrease,the flexibility of base is improved and service life of road increases with the increasing of emulsified asphalt content.%通过 MTS测量了3种乳化沥青掺量的碾压贫混凝土的无侧限抗压强度、弯拉强度、抗压模量和弯拉模量,以及在无养护与正常养护条件下的收缩读数。结果表明,乳化沥青掺量增加,贫混凝土的无侧限抗压强度和弯拉强度有所下降,主要是沥青粘聚成膜阻碍水泥水化进程,影响强度形成;贫混凝土的抗压弹性模量和抗弯拉弹性模量降低,贫混凝土的变形性能改善,且具有一定的柔韧性;贫混凝土干缩与开裂减少,基层柔韧度改善,道路使用寿命延长。

  11. Analysis on the Application of Modified Emulsified Asphalt in Expressway Pavement Construction%改性乳化沥青在高速路面施工中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the technology characteristics of modified emulsified asphalt, carries out the analysis and dis-cussion of the modified emulsified asphalt applied in the exp-ressway pavement construction, and has a deep understanding to the relevant contents, aims at providing some enlightenment and thinking to the application of modified emulsified asphalt.%文章论述了改性乳化沥青的技术特点,并着重就改性乳化沥青在高速路面施工中的应用做出了分析与探讨,对其相关内容有了一个深入的了解,意在为改性乳化沥青的现实应用提供借鉴与思路。

  12. Analysis of the Strength Influence Factors of Emulsified Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixtures%乳化沥青冷再生混合料强度影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸建升; 白丛启

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the strength influence factors of the emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture, the author aggre-gates by changing the thickness proportion of mixed, emulsify-ied asphalt dosage, compaction work, cement dosage to emuls-ified the split ing strength test of asphalt cold recycled mixture line.%为了研究乳化沥青冷再生混合料的强度影响因素,我们通过改变粗细集料掺入比例、乳化沥青用量,击实功、水泥用量等来对乳化沥青冷再生混合料行劈裂强度试。

  13. EFFECTS OF CATIONIC EMULSIFIERS ON THE TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ASPHALT%阳离子乳化剂对沥青感温性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炎生; 范维玉; 于艳杰; 王哲

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two cationic emulsifiers (CAP-3 and CAP-1) and their content on the ternperature susceptibility performance of the evaporation residue of asphalt emulsion, such as penetration index (PI), equivalent breaking point (T1.2), equivalent softening point (T800 ) and viscosity index (VTS), were investigated, in which three asphalt samples (Zhonghai AH-90, Karamay AH-90 and Jiangyin AH-90) were involved. Test results show that for emulsions having emulsifier mass fraction in the range of 0-5. 0% , the PI of evaporation residues from Zhonghai AH-90 and Jiangyin AH-70 asphalt emulsions decrease with the increase of CAP-3 emulsifier content, which indicates that their temperature susceptibilities at the medium temperature range degrade, besides, the PI changing trend of evaporation residue from Karamay AH-90 asphalt emulsion goes up firstly followed by decline with the increase of CAP-3 content; however, CAP-1 emulsifier has little effect on the three asphalts in this case. The low temperature crack resistance of these three asphalt samples is improved by adding CAP-3 emulsifier as shown by the reduction of T1.2 , while CAP-1 emulsifier has less impact. Adding CAP-3 emulsifier could decrease the T800 of evaporation residues from these three asphalt samples significantly, thus the plastic deformation resistance at mid-high temperature range of these three samples deteriorates, the reduction sequence is Jiangyin AH-70≈Zhonghai AH-90> Karamay AH-90; nevertheless, the effect of CAP-1 emulsifier in this case is also insignificant. For high temperature susceptibility, with the increase of CAP-3 emulsifier content, Jiangyin AH-70 trends to decrease, Zhonghai AH-90 and Karamay AH-90 trend to increase slightly; this time adding CAP-1 emulsifier shows somewhat raise trends for all the three asphalt samples.%考察了CAP-3和CAP-1两种阳离子乳化剂及其用量对中海油AH-90、克拉玛依AH-90和江阴AH-70三种沥青蒸发残留物感温性能[包括针入

  14. 水对水泥乳化沥青砂浆动态力学性能的影响%Effect of Water on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田冬梅; 邓德华; 田青; 潘云瑞; 唐斯

    2013-01-01

    采用沥青与水泥的质量比为0.3的阴离子乳化沥青砂浆圆柱体试件,将其真空吸水饱和后经恒湿干燥法获得不同饱水度,再利用MTS 810疲劳试验机对基准试件和不同饱水度试件进行不同应力水平的疲劳试验,研究了水对水泥乳化沥青砂浆动态力学性能的影响。结果表明:与基准试件相比,吸水试件的极限疲劳强度显著降低,且饱水度越大,极限疲劳强度降低幅度越大;由于水泥乳化沥青砂浆中沥青相的动态黏弹性行为,使基准试件与吸水试件在不同应力水平下的应变均随着循环次数的增加而逐渐增大;基准试件的疲劳破坏形式为劈裂破坏,大多数为竖向裂缝,而在高频动荷载作用下吸水试件孔隙水形成超孔隙水压,对孔隙周围结构产生剪切作用,使其发生剪切破坏,裂缝呈倾斜状。%The mortar specimens with a mass ratio of asphalt/cement as 0.3 were prepared with anion emulsified asphalt. After being saturated by water in the vacuum chamber, these mortar specimens in a constant humidity dryer were dried to certain mois-ture contents, respectively. The fatigue test was carried on the reference specimen and specimens with different saturation values by MTS 810 fatigue machine. Effect of water on the dynamic mechanical properties of cement emulsified asphalt mortar was in-vestigated. The results show that the ultimate fatigue strength of the suction specimens decreases, compared to the reference specimen. The strain under a certain stress range increases with the increase of cycle number due to the dynamic viscoelastic be-havior of asphalt in the specimens for both reference and suction specimens. The vertical fatigue cracks appear in the reference specimen, meaning the splitting failure, but the sloping cracks appear in most various saturation specimens, reflecting the shear failure due to the shear effect of excess pore pressure on the surrounding

  15. 乳化沥青冷再生混合料疲劳性能及影响因素%Fatigue Performance and Influence Factor for Cold Recycling Mixture With Emulsified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪德才; 郝培文; 魏新来

    2016-01-01

    为研究乳化沥青冷再生混合料抗疲劳性能关键影响因素,采用应力控制模式下的间接拉伸疲劳试验,分析应力水平、水泥用量、旧料( relaimed asphalt pavement, RAP)掺量、乳化沥青类型及乳化沥青用量等因素对冷再生混合料疲劳性能的影响规律,最后,基于灰关联熵分析,对各影响因素进行了量化与比较。结果表明:乳化沥青针入度指标、RAP掺量对乳化沥青冷再生混合料疲劳寿命影响最为显著,乳化沥青用量、乳化沥青延度指标影响次之,应力水平、水泥用量影响最小。%In order to study the key influence factors of fatigue performance for cold recycling mixture with emulsified asphalt, the influence rule of fatigue performance was investigated under different stress levels,cement dosage, RAP proportion,emulsified asphalt content and type by using the indirect tensile fatigue test with stress control mode, and finally based on the grey relation entropy analysis, the impact of various factors was quantified and compared. The results show that fatigue performance for cold recycling mixture with emulsified asphalt is significantly affected by penetration and RAP proportion, whereas less affected by emulsified asphalt content and ductility,and least affected by stress level and cement dosage.

  16. Intercalation of p-methycinnamic acid anion into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to improve UV aging resistance of asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A UV absorber, p-methycinnamic acid (PMCA, was intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH by calcination recovery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the PMCA anions completely replaced the CO32− anions in the interlayer galleries of Zn-Al-LDH containing PMCA anions (Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the interlayer distance increased from 0.78 nm to 1.82 nm after the substitution of PMCA anions for CO32− anions. The similar diffraction angles of the CO32− anion-containing Zn-Al-LDH (Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH and the Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS modified asphalt implied that the asphalt molecules do not enter into the LDH interlayer galleries to form separated-phase structures. The different diffraction angles of Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt indicated that the asphalt molecules penetrated into the LDH interlayer galleries to form an expanded-phase structure. UV-Vis absorbance analyses showed that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH was better able to block UV light due to the synergistic effects of PMCA and Zn-Al-LDH. Conventional physical tests and atomic force microscopy images of the SBS modified asphalt, Zn-Al-CO32−-LDH/SBS modified asphalt and Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH/SBS modified asphalt before and after UV aging indicated that Zn-Al-PMCA-LDH improved the UV aging resistance of SBS modified asphalts.

  17. Relationship between stability of anionic asphalt emulsion and oil-water interfacial tension%阴离子乳化沥青稳定性与油水界面张力的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵品晖; 范维玉; 董爽; 南国枝; 张守杰

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aniunic emulsifier, additives and soap solution pH value on the interfaeial tension of soap solution-toluene model oil with asphalt and the stability of asphalt emulsion was investigated. The results show that the effect regularities of anionic emulsifier, additives and soap solution pH value on the interfarial tension and the stability have good correlation. The interfacial tension decreases with the emulsifier and CMC content and the pH value of system increasing, which results in higher stability. With the pH value of 11, the interfacial tension is the minimum and the stability is the highest. The interfacial tension decreases first and then increases with associative thickener (T) increasing, while the stability shows an opposite tendency. At last both of them tend towards stability. The emulsifier and additives influencing the interfacial tension and the stability in descending order are emulsifier(SD-2), associative thickener (T) , CMC.%采用旋转滴界而张力法和残留物含量差值法考察阴离子乳化剂、助剂和皂液pH值等对皂液-沥青甲苯模拟油界面张力和乳化沥青贮存稳定性的影响.结果表明:乳化剂、助剂和皂液pH值等对油水界面张力和贮存稳定性的影响规律是一致的,两者呈现出较好的相关性;随着乳化剂和羧甲基纤维钠用量的增加,油水界而张力降低,贮存稳定性变好;随着皂液pH值的升高,界面张力和贮存稳定性分别呈现出变小和变好的趋势,在pH=11时,界面张力值最小,贮存稳定性最好;随着缔合型增稠剂T用量的增加,油水界面张力先增加后减小,贮存稳定性先变差后变好,两者最后都趋于稳定;乳化剂和助剂对油水界面张力和贮存稳定性的影响的由大到小顺序为乳化剂SD-2、缔合型增稠剂T、羧甲基纤维素钠.

  18. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  19. Effect of Modulated Coal Tar Pitch on Performance of Composite Modified Emulsified Asphalt%调制煤沥青对复合改性乳化沥青性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红亮; 李其祥; 丁浩; 宋健伟; 王智勇; 伍林

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of modified emulsified asphalt,composite modified emulsified asphalt was prepared by adding modulated coal tar pitch and modified by SBS.Results showed that,with the in-crease of addition of modulated coal tar pitch,the ductility and softening point became better.After adding 20%modulated coal tar pitch,ductility increased to 30 cm,softening point increased to 70 ℃,composite modified e-mulsified asphalt had good performance in high or low temperature.Fluorescence microscopy and infrared spec-tral analysis showed that there were some chemical grafting reactions happened between SBS and asphalt mate-rials in the process of modification besides the physical modification,SBS formed network structure in asphalt material,so modification improved the bonding strength of SBS and asphalt material,and made the asphalt sys-tem more stable.%为提高复合改性乳化沥青的使用性能,采用加入调制煤沥青的方式和用 SBS改性制备复合改性乳化沥青。结果表明,随着调制煤沥青添加量的增加,复合改性乳化沥青的延度和软化点得到改善。当添加20%调制煤沥青后,延度提高至30 cm,软化点升到70℃,复合改性乳化沥青已具有良好的高低温性能。荧光显微图像和红外光谱分析表明,在改性过程中 SBS与沥青材料之间除物理改性外,还发生了某种化学接枝反应形成网络构架,从而提高了 SBS与沥青材料的结合强度,使得沥青体系更加稳定。

  20. Research on the Application of Plant Mixed Emulsified Asphalt Cold Regeneration Technology in the City Roads%厂拌乳化沥青冷再生技术在城市道路中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先锋

    2013-01-01

      文章通过对西安市厂拌乳化沥青冷再生配合比设计及西安市学院路厂拌乳化沥清冷再生工程实施方面的叙述,主要介绍了沥青路面厂拌乳化沥青冷再生技术在西安市城市道路中的应用研究。经过项目检测及分析,该技术适用于西安城市道路的修建与养护,可以充分循环利用旧路面回收材料(RAP),消纳建筑垃圾,减少大量新材料的使用和开山取石,具有显著的环保及资源循环利用效益,值得大力推广。%Through the introduction of plant mixed emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture ratio design plant mixed emulsified asphalt cold regeneration project implementation of xueyuan road in Xi'an, this paper carried out research on the application of asphalt pavement plant mixed emulsified asphalt cold regeneration technology in city roads of Xi'an. After project detection and analysis, the technology can be applied in Xi'an urban road construction and maintenance, can make full use of old pavement recycled materials (RAP), digest construction waste, reduce the use of a large number of new materials, has significant environmental protection and resource recycling benefits, which is worth promoting.

  1. 浅谈乳化沥青旧路面就地冷再生潜力%On potential of emulsified asphalt old roadbed's in-place cold recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝睿智

    2011-01-01

    介绍了乳化沥青就地冷再生的概念、原理及应用方向;着重介绍了国内典型工程案例及室内对具体路段的检测。结果表明:乳化沥青冷再生混合料的工作性、强度形成进程以及胶结料胶结强度均可以通过化学配方手段进行有效调控和平衡;当混合料中有4.0%乳化沥青,2.0%水泥时,马歇尔稳定度(40℃)和劈裂强度(15℃)均远远超过国家标准规范中下面层的要求。%The paper introduces the concepts,the principle and the application direction for the emulsified asphalt old roadbed's in-place cold recycling,introduces the typical engineering casts at home and abroad and the test indoors of the factual road sections,proves by the results that the workability of the mixture of the emulsified asphalt cold recycling,the strength formation process and the bonding strength of binders can be adjusted and balanced by the chemical measures,and indicates the Marshall stabilization(40 ℃) and spitting strength(15 ℃) are highly over the requirements of the national standard regulation on mediate-and-bottom layer when the mixture has the 4.0 percent emulsified asphalt and 2.0 percent cement.

  2. The Optimal Design of Emulsified Asphalt Plant-Mixed Cold-Recycling Mixture Used in the Middle and Lower Layer of Asphalt Pavement%基于中下面层的乳化沥青厂拌冷再生配合比优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞

    2015-01-01

    我国乳化沥青厂拌冷再生混合料一般作为基层使用,国内外研究表明,设计合理的乳化沥青厂拌冷再生混合料同样可以用在中下面层.本研究参考贝雷法级配设计理念,提出以CF比和CA比作为乳化沥青厂拌冷再生设计参数,研究不同CF比和CA比对其路用性能的影响.室内试验结果表明,CF比和CA比存在一个合适的范围使厂拌乳化沥青冷再生沥青混合料的路用性能在此范围内使用效果较好,并根据中下面层的功能特点,考虑乳化沥青冷再生混合料的强度、高温性能和水稳定性能,推荐中粒式乳化沥青厂拌冷再生的CF比区间为(0.7~1.2),CA比为(0.7~1.1).通过试验段对以CF比和CA比选取的级配进行验证,结果表明设计的混合料具有良好的路用性能.%In China,the emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture are commonly used as a base. Both the domestic and foreign research shows that reasonable designed emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture can be used in the middle and lower layer of asphalt pavement. Based on the bailey method,we studied the effect of different CF ratio and CA ratio on the performance of mixture and proposed CF ratio and CA ratio in designing the emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture. All the laboratory experiment results show that when the CF ratio and CA ratio in an appropriate range,the performance of the emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture is good. Considering the functions of the middle and lower layer in asphalt pavement ,and the high temperature stability and water stability of the emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture,we recommend that the CF ratio is between 0.7 and 1.2,and the CA ratio is between 0.7 and 1.1. Through the test section,the results show that it has good performance of the designed emulsified asphalt plant⁃mixed cold⁃recycling mixture.

  3. Workability Indicator for Emulsified Asphalt Recycled Mixture and Influence Factors%乳化沥青冷再生混合料和易性指标及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪德才; 郝培文; 刘娜; 张海伟; 李志刚

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the workability of emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture ( ECRM ) , the different characteristics of emulsified asphalt, reclaimed asphalt pavement ( RAP ) content and the influence laws of mixing water content were researched with the self-developed workability test equipment. Moreover, the significance level of influence factors was analyzed by statistic methods. Finally,the rationality of this method and the indicator was verified by back-calculating the jelling time and the volume parameter of superpave gyratory compactor ( SGC) molding method. The result shows that the workability of ECRM become worse with increasing RAP content, which can be siginificantly improved by proper mixing water content. RAP content and mixing water content have a significantly impacts on the workability,while the emulsified asphalt has no such effects. ECRM has the optimal timing of the compaction after mixing, when the torque threshold is recommended for 20 N·m.%为了研究乳化沥青冷再生混合料和易性,采用自主研发的和易性测试设备,以扭矩值作为乳化沥青冷再生混合料和易性表征指标,研究了不同特性的乳化沥青、回收沥青路面材料( reclaimed asphalt pavement,RAP)掺量及拌和用水量对乳化沥青冷再生混合料和易性的影响规律,分析了乳化沥青冷再生混合料和易性影响因素的显著性,并通过反算水泥初凝时间以及旋转压实成型试件的体积参数是否在规范范围验证了测试方法及指标的合理性.结果表明:再生混合料和易性随着RAP掺量的增加而变差,合适的拌和用水量能显著改善再生混合料和易性;RAP掺量和拌和用水量对再生混合料和易性有显著影响,而乳化沥青特性的影响不明显;乳化沥青冷再生混合料在拌和后存在一个最佳压实时机,推荐扭矩阈值为20 N·m.

  4. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  5. Test on CRTSⅡ type slab ballastless track cement-emulsified asphalt mortar%CRTSⅡ型无砟轨道水泥乳化沥青砂浆试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠元

    2012-01-01

    Taking the practice of CRTSⅡ type slab ballastless track construction of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway three section for basis,combining with its pre-production test analysis and its specific practical application,focusing on carried out comparative test and analysis on the raw material types and dosage of cement-emulsified asphalt mortar and construction technology and other key influence factors,so as to lay foundation for the science preparation and construction of cement-emulsified asphalt mortar.%以京沪高速铁路三标CRTSⅡ型无砟轨道施工的实践为基础,结合其生产前的试验分析及其具体的实践应用,重点对水泥乳化沥青砂浆的原材料种类及其用量和施工工艺等关键影响因素开展试验对比分析,从而为水泥乳化沥青砂浆的科学制备和施工奠定了基础。

  6. Primary research on emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture added recycled materials of base course%乳化沥青复合冷再生混合料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任瑞波; 朱树青; 徐强; 马川义

    2015-01-01

    路面基层废旧料的研究利用可节约工程建设成本,缓解路面养护带来的资源和环境压力。文章通过对路面基层与面层废旧材料分析与设计,确定最佳含水率与合适沥青用量,通过劈裂试验和冻融试验,评价掺加基层废旧料的乳化沥青复合冷再生混合料的性能。结果表明:矿料类型对乳化沥青冷再生混合料最佳含水率和劈裂强度影响较大;在低油量范围内,掺加基层废旧料的乳化沥青复合冷再生混合料劈裂强度较高,具有一定的抗弯拉能力和抗水损害能力,抗冻融能力一般;乳化沥青复合冷再生混合料具有感温性,属于粘弹性材料;掺加基层废旧料乳化沥青复合冷再生混合料性能够基本满足再生技术规范使用要求。%The utilization of old base course materials could save the cost of engineering construction and ease the pressure for resources and environment in pavement maintenance. Based on these,the research on RAP of base course was conducted. Material analysis and grade design were executed to determine the optimum moisture content and appropriate asphalt content and relatively performance tests were carried out under the optimum moisture and suitable asphalt content. Tests results show that mineral aggregate type of emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture had a greater influence on the best moisture content and the splitting strength;emulsified asphalt cold recycled mixture mixed with the materials of base course has certain flexural tensile strength to resistant bending and water damage;the ability of mixture is normal to resist freezing and thawing;the composite materials is sensitive to temperature which said it belong to viscous-elastic material;the composite materials meet technical requirement of cold recycled mixture using on lower layers of pavement.

  7. Influence of pH Value of Emulsified Asphalt on CA Mortar Work Performance%乳化沥青pH值对CA砂浆工作性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝举; 宁少英; 杨元霞; 陈欢

    2012-01-01

    基于乳化沥青pH值对ξ电位的影响,研究了乳化沥青pH值对CA砂浆流动度、可工作时间、分离度、含气量、表观密度及浆体体系pH值的影响.结果表明:乳化沥青pH值在2.5~9.5时,CA砂浆流动度处于稳定状态;pH<2.5,pH>9.5时,CA砂浆流动度均增加,且后者增加显著;pH=11.5时,其流动度达到最高;pH=9.5时,60 min后CA砂浆流动度经时损失最大,达到26.09%.pH=2.5时,CA砂浆表观密度随时间的延长逐渐减小;pH=9.5时,CA砂浆表观密度随时间的延长而增大.pH=1.5,9.5时,CA砂浆的分离度最小.乳化沥青pH值对CA砂浆浆体体系pH值的影响不大.为提高CA砂浆的综合性能,乳化沥青的合适pH值为1.5或9.5.%Influence of pH value of emulsified asphalt on work performance of CA mortar was studied by measuring the effect of pH on zeta potential. Results show that the pH of emulsified asphalt has great influence on the fluidity, working time, separating degree, air content and apparent density and pH of CA mortar, which results in the influence of pH of emulsified asphalt on zeta potential. When pH = 2. 5 -9. 5, the fluidity of CA mortar keeps in a stable level, while pH<2. 5, the fluidity increases, and it increases significantly when pH>9. 5, the fluidity reaches a maximum value when pH = ll. 5. The loss of fluidity with time reaches to 26. 09% when pH = 9. 5. The apparent density decreases with time when pH =2. 5, and it increases when pH = 9. 5. Separating degree has no effect on the symbols of the ζ potential, but it has influence on its absolute value. The bigger the absolute value, the smaller the separating degree and vice versa. When pH = l. 5 and 9. 5, the separating degree was small. pH of asphalt has a little influence on the pH of CA mortar. The appropriate pH of asphalt for CA mortar is 1. 5 or 9. 5.

  8. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, its inner structure and strength are much different from real aggregates. The strength of RAP has decisive effect on the strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. New aggregates and fine gradation design can help improve the bonding between RAP and binder. For emulsified asphalt, slow setting of asphalt can give sufficient time for cement to hydrate which is helpful for strength formation in the cold recycled asphalt mixture. The high viscosity of asphalt can improve the early strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture that is important for traffic opening in the field. Cement is an efficient additive to improve the strength of cold recycled asphalt mixtures by promoting demulsification of emulsified asphalt and producing cement hydrates. However, the cement content is limited by RAP.

  9. Influences of Portland RAP on the Performance of Emulsified Asphalt Cold Regeneration%RAP掺量对乳化沥青冷再生混合料的性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振北

    2015-01-01

    在乳化沥青冷再生混合料中RA P掺量为40%,50%,60%和70%的条件下,对不同RA P掺量的乳化沥青冷再生混合料进行力学及路用性能研究。结果表明,随着 RA P掺量的增加,冷再生混合料的抗压强度几乎不受影响,而抗拉强度降低;相同水泥掺量下,冷再生混合料的高温抗车辙能力略有降低,相同RA P掺量下,添加一定量的水泥后能够显著改善冷再生混合料的高温抗车辙能力;水稳性能和低温抗裂性能随着RA P掺量增加均产生降低趋势,而疲劳寿命有呈现先增大后降低现象,并且通过疲劳方程回归分析得出RA P掺量越大,应力比对其冷再生混合料疲劳寿命的影响越显著。%Emulsified asphalt cold regeneration mixture of R admixture 40% ~ 70% change condition , the paper rseearches the mecharicw and road performance of the change rate of 10% of different RAP dosage cold regeneration mixture .The results show that :with the increase of RAP content ,the com‐pressive strength of cold recycled mixture is almost unaffected ,while reducing the tensile strength ;Under the same cement content ,cold recycled mixture for temperature rutting resistance is slightly lower ,under the same RAP content ,a certain amount of cement can significantly improve the high temperature of cold recycled mixture rutting resistance;With the increase of RAP content ,steady performance for water and low temperature reduced obviously ,the fatigue life reduce the tendency to increase after the first ;in addition ,by fatigue equation regression analysis ,with the increase of RAP content ,stress ratio produces more significant impact on the fatigue life of cold recycled mixes .

  10. Synthesis of zeolite ZSM-5: Effect of emulsifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nilam L.; Murthy, Z.V.P.; Parikh, Parimal A. [Chemical Engineering Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat (India); Das, Jagannath; Jasra, Raksh V. [Reliance Technology Group, Vadodara Manufacturing Division, Reliance Industries Limited, Vadodara (India)

    2012-07-15

    Zeolite ZSM-5 has been synthesized in presence of various emulsifiers. Influence of types and proportions of cationic, anionic and non-ionic emulsifier has been studied. Cationic emulsifier, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide resulted in an amorphous phase, whereas anionic emulsifier, sodium lauryl sulphate afforded crystalline phase, identified as magadiite. Non-ionic emulsifiers, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and sorbital mono-stearate led to the formation of pure crystalline ZSM-5 phase. Emulsifier concentration was found to affect the process of crystallization, and the crystal size and morphology of ZSM-5. Emulsifier necessitated higher crystallization temperature and/or longer hydrothermal period. ZSM-5 crystallization was observed to proceed through magadiite phase formation. In case of benzotriazole, unusual stacked square platelet type morphology and with sorbital monostearate, very small crystals were observed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. 冷再生混合料中最佳乳化沥青用量的方法研究%On Method of the Optimum Amount of Emulsified Asphalt in the Cold Reclaimed Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗飞; 肖杰

    2009-01-01

    冷拌乳化沥青混合料最佳沥青用量与旧沥青含量有关,通过100%RAP(RAP为再生沥青路面材料,Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement)和0%RAP两种乳化沥青混合料的60℃马歇尔试验、25℃马歇尔试验及25℃劈裂试验,探讨了确定冷拌乳化沥青混合料最佳乳化沥青用量方法的区别与联系.

  12. Study on Producing Heavy Paving Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Daosheng; Gao Zhirong; Huo Kaifu; Liao Kejian

    2002-01-01

    The highly viscous crude oil from Shuguang No. 1 zone of Liaohe oilfield features high density,high viscosity and low wax content. It contains no gasoline fraction and its diesel oil fraction yield is only 7.19%, which belongs to the low sulfur naphthenic stocks crude oil. Its heavy fraction is not suited for producing lubricating oil. Its heavy oil, which contains more resins and asphaltenes and less wax, is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic cracking, but is the ideal raw material for producing high-grade paving asphalt.Now this highly viscous crude oil is used as fuel oil after being emulsified in Liaohe oilfield, but its viscosity is so high that it cannot be atomized uniformly and burned completely, resulting not only in waste of oil resource but also in reduction of economical benefit. To make full use of this oil resource and alleviate the shortfall of high grade paving asphalt in China, various brands of asphalt meeting Q/SHR003-1998and ESSO specifications were developed by blending vacuum residue of the said oil and a blending component which are rich in aromatics and deficient in wax. The impact of blending component on properties of blended asphalt has been investigated and road performances of these blended asphalts were studied. The laboratory test results show that the blended asphalts have good road performance and antiaging property.

  13. The Asphalt Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The new and completely revised edition of the Asphalt Handbook, a standard reference work in the field of asphalt technology and construction, summarizes with reference the information contained in other Asphalt Institute technical manuals. Major areas discussed include the following--(1) uses of asphalt, (2) terms relating to asphalt and its…

  14. Analysis of the raw material effect on the performance of emulsiifed asphalt%原材料对乳化沥青性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓燕; 岳永和; 张平; 王兆力

    2013-01-01

    为了研究SBR胶乳、乳化剂等原材料对改性乳化沥青性能的影响,对不同胶乳和乳化剂掺量下乳化沥青性能进行分析。结果表明:SBR胶乳掺量的增加使乳化沥青蒸发残留物粘稠性增大;乳化剂对乳化沥青储存稳定性和分散性有显著影响;乳化剂掺量以乳化沥青胶束达到临界状态为宜。%In order to study the impact of SBR latex, emulsifiers and other raw materials on the performance of modified emulsified asphalt,analyzed the emulsified asphalt performance of different latex and emulsifier dosages.The results show: the dosage of SBR latex increased the viscosity of residue on evaporation of emulsified asphalt;emulsifier have a significant effect on the storage stability and dispersion of emulsified asphalt;emulsifier content to reach a critical emulsified asphalt micelles status is appropriate.

  15. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  16. Asphalt World

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwell, Simon A.

    2009-01-01

    'What, in the end, makes advertisement so superior to criticism? Not what the moving red neon sign says - but the fiery pool reflecting it in the asphalt.' Benjamin, One-Way Street 'The parade has nothing to do with women, everything to do with men... Women are simply the scenery onto which men project their narcissistic fantasies.' Mulvey, Visual & Other Pleasures With invested irony, Simon Bedwell makes drip paintings from used advertising posters, in a messy conflation of a...

  17. Low temperature asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Modrijan, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the problem of manufacturing and building in the asphalt mixtures produced by the classical hot procedure and the possibility of manufacturing low temperature asphalt mixtures.We will see the main advantages of low temperature asphalt mixtures prepared with bitumen with organic addition Sasobit and compare it to the classical asphalt mixtures. The advantages and disadvantages of that are valued in the practical example in the conclusion.

  18. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin

    2007-04-02

    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release.

  19. Influence Factors Research on Performance of SBR Modified Emulsion Asphalt%SBR 改性乳化沥青路用性能影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈益平

    2014-01-01

    为了研究基质沥青、SBR改性剂、乳化剂等原材料对SBR改性乳化沥青性能的影响,对不同基质沥青及不同SBR改性剂和乳化剂掺量下的SBR改性乳化沥青路用性能进行分析。结果表明:SBR胶乳掺量的增加使改性乳化沥青蒸发残留物低温性能和高温性能增强;乳化剂对改性乳化沥青储存稳定性有显著影响。%In order to study the impact of matrix asphalt , SBR latex , emulsifiers and other raw materials on the performance of modified e-mulsified asphalt , the emulsified asphalt performance of different matrix asphalt , latex and emulsifier dosages was analyzed .The results show that the increasing of dosage of SBR latex increased the cryogenic property and elevated temperature property of evaporated modified e -mulsified asphalt residue;and emulsifier has a significant effect on the storage stability of modified emulsified asphalt .

  20. Research on the Influence of SBS Modified Emulsified Bitumen by Change the Emulsifier Dosage%乳化剂用量对 SBS 改性乳化沥青性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓锐; 弥海晨

    2013-01-01

    SBS modified emulsified asphalt as a new type of highway asphalt pavement mainte-nance materials,get so much attention.Based on the indoor test ,study the influence of the modified e-mulsified bitumen sieve residue quantity,Standard viscosity,ductility,penetration,softening point ,60℃ dynamic viscosity and stability by change of emulsifier dosage.A comprehensive comparison to deter-mine the optimal dosage of the BE -3X emulsifier when it emulsifying SBS modified emulsified bitumen.%SBS 改性乳化沥青作为一种新型的高速公路沥青路面养护材料,备受人们关注。以室内试验研究为基础,研究了乳化剂用量的对改性乳化沥青筛余量、标准粘度、延度、针入度、软化点、60℃动力粘度、贮存稳定性的影响,综合比较,确定出 BE-3X 型乳化剂乳化 SBS 改性乳化沥青的最佳用量。

  1. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  2. Laboratory performance of asphalt rubber mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge; Pereira, Paulo; Minhoto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt rubber mixtures are one of the most promising techniques to extend the service life of asphalt pavement overlays. Asphalt rubber binder is composed of crumb rubber from reclaimed tires and conventional asphalt. The asphalt rubber binder can be obtained through wet process in two different systems: tire rubber modified asphalt binder (produced at industrial plants) and continuous blending (produced in asphalt plants). This study presents a laboratory evaluation of asphalt rubber mixtur...

  3. Influence of emulsifier concentration on nanoemulsion gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramreddy, Vivek Vardhan; Ghosh, Supratim

    2014-09-23

    Nanoemulsion gels are a new class of soft materials that manifest stronger elasticity even at lower dispersed phase volume fraction. In this work, gelation in 40 wt % canola oil-in-water nanoemulsions was investigated as a function of emulsifier type (anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or nonionic Tween 20) and concentration. It was observed that the liquid nanoemulsions transformed into viscoelastic gels at a specific concentration range of SDS, whereas no gelation was observed for Tween 20. The apparent viscosity, yield stress, and storage modulus of the nanogels increased with SDS concentration until 15 times critical micelle concentration (CMC), thereafter decreased steadily as the gelation weakened beginning 20 CMC. Three regimes of colloidal interactions in the presence of emulsifier were proposed. (1) Repulsive gelation: at low SDS concentration (0.5-2 times CMC) the repulsive charge cloud around the nanodroplets acted as interfacial shell layer that significantly increased the effective volume fraction of the dispersed phase (ϕ(eff)). When ϕ(eff) became comparable to the volume fraction required for maximal random jamming, nanoemulsions formed elastic gels. (2) Attractive gelation: as the SDS concentration increased to 5-15 times CMC, ϕ(eff) dropped due to charge screening by more counterions from SDS, but depletion attractions generated by micelles in the continuous phase led to extensive droplet aggregation which immobilized the continuous phase leading to stronger gel formation. (3) Decline in gelation due to oscillatory structural forces (OSF): at very high SDS concentration (20-30 time CMC), structural forces were manifested due to the layered-structuring of excess micelles in the interdroplet regions resulting in loss of droplet aggregation. Tween 20 nanoemulsions, on the other hand, did not show repulsive gelation due to lack of charge cloud, while weak depletion attraction and early commencement of OSF regime leading to liquid-like behavior at

  4. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Zn/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Containing 2-Hydroxy-4-n-octoxy-benzophenone on UV Aging Resistance of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation is a main factor to reduce the service life of asphalt pavement due to the UV aging of asphalt binder. To obtain enhanced UV aging resistance, an organic UV absorber called 2-hydroxy-4-n-octoxy-benzophenone (HNOB had been intercalated into an inorganic UV absorber called Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH to play a combined anti-UV role in asphalt binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that HNOB anions have been intercalated into the interlayer galleries of Zn/Al-LDH containing HNOB anions (Zn/Al-HNOB−-LDH. X-ray diffraction results of Zn/Al-LDH containing CO32− anions (Zn/Al-CO32--LDH and Zn/Al-CO32--LDH/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS modified asphalt disclosed that asphalt molecules entered into LDH interlayer galleries to form an expanded phase structure. UV-Vis absorbance patterns showed that Zn/Al-HNOB−-LDH has a better capacity of blocking UV light due to the synergetic effect of HNOB and Zn/Al-LDH. The chemical fractions analysis, conventional physical tests, and rheological tests of SBS modified asphalt, Zn/Al-CO32--LDH/SBS modified asphalt, and Zn/Al-HNOB−-LDH/SBS modified asphalt before and after UV aging testified that Zn/Al-HNOB−-LDH can improve the UV aging resistance of SBS modified asphalt more significantly.

  6. Asphalt for draining pavement; Haisuisei hosoyo asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamori, H.; Nakamura, Y. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The effect and functions of draining pavement with a superb performance as a paved road were introduced. In the draining pavement, a porous asphalt mixture was used for the surface and base layers of the road and the remaining layers are not in water penetration property. It is necessary that void continues to prevent water film from being generated when rain falls and resistance against water flow is small but durability has problems when the void rate is large. According to the balance, the void rate ranges from 20 to 23 % for execution, thus preventing water splash on a rainy day, hydroplaning, and dazzlement, etc. due to reflection of light. The noise during driving due to the tire of an automobile is reduced by 5 to 6 dB owing to draining pavement. Also, engine noise is reduced to 40 - 60 % since the surface is porous. In the draining pavement, a high-viscosity asphalt is used for a binder and the void rate is large, thus preventing temperature to rise easily due to heat release and achieving an improved flow behavior. 6 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. 沥青稳定类冷再生混合料抗剪特性研究%Study on Anti-shearing Behavior of Asphalt Stabilizing Type Cold Recycled Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永青

    2016-01-01

    Using emulsified asphalt and foamed asphalt as stabilizer of cold regenerated asphalt mixture, this paper studies 3 - axis shear behavior of cold regenerated asphalt mixture. Results show that the emulsified asphalt cold regenerated asphalt mixture has better anti -shearing behavior than that of the foamed asphalt cold regenerated asphalt mixture. Adding cement may obviously increase internal friction angle and cohesive strength of cold regenerated asphalt mixture; However, the cohesive strength has the trend of increase and reduce with the increasing of asphalt stabilizer, the internal friction angle reduces with the increment of asphalt, the major factor affect internal friction angle is composition of aggregate grains but not the types of asphalt stabilizer.%采用乳化沥青和泡沫沥青作为冷再生沥青混合料的稳定剂,研究冷再生混合料的三轴抗剪特性.研究表明:乳化沥青冷再生混合料比泡沫沥青冷再生混合料抗剪切强度略高;水泥的掺加能显著增加冷再生混合料的内摩擦角及粘聚力;而粘聚力随着沥青稳定剂用量的增大呈现先增大后减小的趋势,内摩擦角则随沥青用量增大而降低,且影响内摩擦角的主要因素为集料颗粒组成而非沥青稳定剂的类型.

  8. Analysis of asphalt mixtures on town roads

    OpenAIRE

    Glavica, Primož

    2006-01-01

    Asphalt mixtures are most commonly used composite for construction of top layers of different drive ways. By definition asphalt mixtures are composed of crushed rock, fill, bitumen and additives. Percentage of individual components wary according to the purpose asphalt mixture is to be used for. Asphalt mixtures must be capable of enduring different types of load. According to the type of load asphalt mixtures are divided into asphalt mixtures used for supporting layers and asp...

  9. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  10. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  11. Polymer Blends Modified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YunPu; LI YuFeng; GAO XiaoHui; WANG RongMin

    2001-01-01

    @@ Asphalt is an important low-cost thermo-plastic material which is widely used for construction, in particular as road-paving. Therefore it is exposed to a wide range of load and weather conditions. Increasing traffic factors, such as heavier loads, higher traffic volume and higher tire pressure demand higher performance pavements. However, this kind of materials does not have good mechanical properties because it is hard and brittle in cold weather, and soft and fluid in a hot environment.

  12. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Tamaliūnas; Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2011-01-01

    The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP). The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Tamaliūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP. The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  15. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  16. Polymer Blends Modified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YunPu

    2001-01-01

    Asphalt is an important low-cost thermo-plastic material which is widely used for construction, in particular as road-paving. Therefore it is exposed to a wide range of load and weather conditions. Increasing traffic factors, such as heavier loads, higher traffic volume and higher tire pressure demand higher performance pavements. However, this kind of materials does not have good mechanical properties because it is hard and brittle in cold weather, and soft and fluid in a hot environment.  ……

  17. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  18. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category on December 2, 2009...

  19. Curing Behavior of Epoxy Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianying; CONG Peiliang; WU Shaopeng; CHENG Songbo

    2009-01-01

    The curing process of epoxy asphalt was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)spectroscopy.Effect of curing temperature on viscosity of epoxy asphalt,and changes of mechanical properties with curing time were investigated.The evolution of concentration of epoxy band was followed as a function of the applied curing process.The experimental results indicate that the curing reaction rate of epoxy asphalt is invariable before 70 min at 120℃,and it decreases when curing time exceeds 70 min.The viscosity of epoxy asphalt increases slowly with curing time at initial curing stage.But it increases quickly after initial curing stage and the initial curing time decreases as the curing temperature increases.The tensile strength increases slowly at incipient curing stage and increases rapidly when curing time is form 20 min to 70 min.The elongation at break shows a decrease with curing time,but it exceeds 200%after cured.

  20. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  1. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  2. Evaluation and application of surfactants synthesized from asphalt components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, surface activity and applications of nonionic surfactants derived from the asphalt components (maltenes M are presented. These compounds were synthesized by the sulfonation of (maltene, then the prepared maltene sulfonic acid (MS was reacted with hexadecylamine giving maltene sulfonamide product (A which undergoes an alkali-catalyzed ethoxylation at (135–150 °C. Several surfactants (M-10 to M-40 were formed with different ethylene oxide units (from 10 up to 40 and were characterized by molecular weight determinations, elemental analyses and FTIR analysis. Surface tension, as a function of concentration of the surfactants in the aqueous media, was measured at 25 °C. From these measurements, the critical micelle concentration (CMC, the maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax, Minimum area per molecule (Amin, effectiveness of surface reduction (ПCMC and the efficiency (pC20 were calculated. The prepared surfactants were applied as emulsifying agents for making asphalt emulsions. Storage stability, (Saybolt Furol viscosity, settlement (water content difference %, coating ability and water resistance were measured. The results indicated that M-20 (maltene sulfonamide ethoxylated with 20 units of ethylene oxides gives a maximum stability.

  3. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  4. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  5. Nanomaterials Applied in Asphalt Modification: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changqing Fang; Ruien Yu; Shaolong Liu; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gradually penetrated into the field of asphalt modification.Seemingly magic effects of nanomaterials have now been brought to improve the performance of asphalt.To demonstrate many of the prospective applications,researchers have conducted a series of positive and effective efforts dealing with the preparation of modified asphalt to demonstrate the mechanism of modification and the resultant improvement in performance.In this review,various nanomaterials used in asphalt modification are initially presented,followed by the methods employed to modify the asphalt with these materials and finally the effects of nanomaterials on the performance of base asphalt are presented and the modification mechanisms are discussed.Based on the current research results,the influence of preparation process parameters on the compatibility of every phase in the modified asphalt and the stability of the modified asphalt system are described.Finally,the development trend of the topic field is projected.

  6. Sinopec Launches Shanghai Asphalt Sales Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Shanghai Asphalt Sales Company was launched in Shanghai on September 22, marking Sinopec as the largest asphalt supplier in China integrated in famous brand,production, sales and research, and distribution network.This is another important initiative for Sinopec's asphalt segment, after Sinopec won the bid for construction of F 1 racing course, to grasp the market opportunities, further improve the product quality and the level of after-sales services, and further make its asphalt business larger and stronger.

  7. Floating asphalt blocks of the Dead Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large blocks of mineral matter free (less than 0.1%) asphalt are occasionally found floating on the surface of the Dead Sea. Chemical, spectroscopic and isotopic data are given for the asphalt. The source of the asphalt is not accurately known, but presumably it represents mobilization of heavy viscous asphaltic masses at depth below the lake bottom into the floor of the lake. It may be released to the surface by earth tremors.

  8. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  9. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surfac

  10. The improvement of pavement performance using asphalt rubber hot mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The need of a better pavement performance has led researchers to develop new road materials, mainly for the asphalt layers, where the modification of the asphalt is the main example. This modification usually forces the use of polymers and fibers and, more recently, the use of crumb rubber from ground tires, where the modified asphalt is known as asphalt rubber. This asphalt rubber used in asphalt mixtures produces a superior performance if compared to the asphalt mixtures with...

  11. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  12. Evaluation on Low Temperature Performance of Recycled Asphalt Mixture Using Warm Mix Asphalt Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Duan,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic idea is about the recycled technology of asphalt mixture, more in-depth study of the lowtemperature performance of warm mix asphalt(WMA.First of all, Including the evaluation of low temperature performance of WMA made of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP (passed and not passed 2.36mm screen, and the influence of WMA with RAP mixed of different dosage of dispersant. Then, using the SBS modified asphalt and base asphalt were test at low temperature, research on the influence of different type of asphalt to the low temperature performance of WMA.

  13. Recombination of asphalt with bio-asphalt : binder formulation and asphalt mixes application

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Williams, R. Christopher; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The bio-oil from fast pyrolysis is mainly produced using organic waste materials. This is a viscoelastic material, and after a heat treatment it has a viscosity and high/intermediate thermal rheological behavior similar to many types of asphalt used in the paving industry. These two characteristics show that this material could be a good alternative to replace asphalt. In order to improve the performance of bio-oil, it was hypothesized that the addition of crumb rubber would change the rheolo...

  14. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraya, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation. T

  15. Rheological characteristics of aged asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪慧; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 朱国军

    2008-01-01

    Different aging levels(RTFOT,PAV-10h,PAV-20h and PAV-30 h) of asphalt binders with various mass ratios of mineral powder to asphalt(0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0) were used to investigate the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders with respect to their short and long terms aging characteristics.Viscosity test,dynamic shear test and creep test were conducted.The test results indicate that the viscosity of aged asphalt binder increases sharply with the extension of aging period.Complex shear modulus of aged asphalt increases,which indicates that the stiffness of asphalt binders can increase.The phase angle for aged asphalt binders reduces,which indicates that the elastic portion for viscoelastic property of asphalt binders increases.|G*|·sin δ increases after aging procedure which means that the fatigue resistance becomes poor.The creep test results show that creep strain curves varies remarkably for virgin and aged asphalt binders.The total strain during loading period and the permanent strain decreases significantly for aged asphalt binders,which implies that the elastic portion increases and the viscous portion decreases.

  16. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  17. Utilization of Recycled Asphalt Concrete with Warm Mix Asphalt and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Julide Oner; Burak Sengoz

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the tempe...

  18. Experimental Study of the Performance of Ultrathin Asphalt Friction Course%超薄磨耗层沥青混合料使用性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾梦澜; 彭良清; 吴超凡; 谭邦耀

    2012-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to compare skip resistance, penetration and conformation depth of three types of asphalt mixture, which are dense gradation AC-13C, semi-open gradation Novachip⊕ Type C and open gradation OGFC-13. To study influence on interlayer sheer strength by varying layer and tack coat material, wheel rut test specimen was prepared for direct sheer test on pavement structural sheer tester. SBS modified emulsified asphalt and special modified emulsified asphalt Novabond⊕ was equipped in specimen as tack coat, AC-13C,Novachip⊕ Type C,OGFC-13 as wearing layer and AC-20 as middle layer. Results show that maximum cohesive strength of tack coat between different layer materials could be achieved when using optimal tack coat asphalt content For certain pavement structure,special modified emulsified asphalt Novabond⊕ is superior to SBS modified emulsified asphalt as tack coat asphalt Utilizing the same tack coat asphalt,interlayer sheer strength order of different pavement structure is that Novachip⊕ Type C > AC-13C > OGFC-13 in optimal tack coat dosage.%通过试验比较了密级配AC-13C、半开级配Novachip(R) Type C、开级配OGFC-13这3种磨耗层的抗滑、渗水、构造深度等使用性能.以SBS改性乳化沥青及改性乳化沥青NovabondTM为粘层材料,AC-13C、Novachip(R) Type C、OGFC 13作为磨耗层,AC-20C为中面层,制作10 cm复合型车辙试件,采用路面结构层材料剪切试验仪对试件进行直剪试验,分析了粘层种类、用量、磨耗层类型对层间抗剪强度的影响.结果显示,不同面层类型存在粘层油最佳撒布量,此时层间抗剪强度达到最大.对同一种面层类型,改性乳化沥青NovabondTM较SBS改性乳化沥青粘结能力要好.在相同粘层油的最佳撒布量下,不同路面结构抗剪能力依次是Novachip(R)Type C>AC-13C>OGFC-13.

  19. Evaluation on Low Temperature Performance of Recycled Asphalt Mixture Using Warm Mix Asphalt Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolan Duan,; Chunge Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the basic idea is about the recycled technology of asphalt mixture, more in-depth study of the lowtemperature performance of warm mix asphalt(WMA).First of all, Including the evaluation of low temperature performance of WMA made of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) (passed and not passed 2.36mm screen), and the influence of WMA with RAP mixed of different dosage of dispersant. Then, using the SBS modified asphalt and base asphalt were test at low temperature, researc...

  20. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  1. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    14, 2008. Gulf Asphalt Contractor (GAC), Panama City, FL, provided all labor , material (with the exception of pelletized asphalt) and equipment for...produced. Benefits include: reduced transportation, traffic disruption, operating costs, and labor costs, while increased productivity and... Mercado , E. A., A. Epps Martin, E. S. Park, C. Spiegelman, and C. J. Glover, “Factors Affecting Binder Properties between Production and Construction

  2. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a hi

  3. Asphalt Raking. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet consists of the instructor and trainee manuals for an asphalt raking course. The instructor manual contains a course schedule for 4 days of instruction, content outline, and instructor outline. The trainee manual is divided into five sections: safety, asphalt basics, placing methods, repair and patching, and clean-up and maintenance.…

  4. Rheological Evaluation of Polymer Modiifed Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and dynamic rheological characteristics of asphalt containing different polymer modifiers (crumb rubber, styrene-butadiene-styrene and crumb rubber mix with styrene-butadiene-styrene) at mid and high service temperature levels were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) and repeat creep test. The main objective of the investigation was to rank the modifiers based on their effect on performance characteristics of asphalt under service conditions. To evaluate the effect of different modiifers on the viscoelastic response of asphalt, the temperature and frequency dependences of the dynamic viscoelastic properties were compared. The mid-temperature fatigue resistance and high-temperature rutting resistance of three polymer modiifed asphalts were evaluated to predict their ifeld performance in roads. Based on the current results, an improved rutting factor was proposed to determine the rutting resistance of asphalt pavements. In addition, the viscous stiffness (Gv), deifned as the reciprocal of viscous compliance, was used to evaluate the high-temperature deformation resistance of asphalt mixtures. The experimental results indicate that the asphalt containing crumb rubber only shows superior performance at mid and high service temperatures in all three modiifed asphalt binders due to the action of the crumb rubber.

  5. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  6. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  7. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  8. USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT WITH MILLED ROAD PAVEMENT LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the functional properties of asphalt mixes using RAP obtained from milling asphalt road pavements. Asphalt concrete AC 22P with 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% addition of RAP used for base course of road pavements were designed. It was found that asphalt mixes with RAP characterized by comparable and in some cases better functional properties compared to the asphalt mixes without RAP (0%. One should notice the influence of RAP on the performance and durability of the asphalt mixtures, as compared to virgin asphalt mixtures (without RAP.

  9. USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT WITH MILLED ROAD PAVEMENT LAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Plewa; Marta Wasilewska; Władysław Gardziejczyk; Paweł Gierasimiuk

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of research on the functional properties of asphalt mixes using RAP obtained from milling asphalt road pavements. Asphalt concrete AC 22P with 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% addition of RAP used for base course of road pavements were designed. It was found that asphalt mixes with RAP characterized by comparable and in some cases better functional properties compared to the asphalt mixes without RAP (0%). One should notice the influence of RAP on the performance and ...

  10. Synthesis and properties of a clean and sustainable deicing additive for asphalt mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    Full Text Available A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac- by magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac- anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably.

  11. Synthesis and properties of a clean and sustainable deicing additive for asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Yu, Jianying; Zhao, Zhijie; Dai, Jing; Fu, Jingyi; Zhao, Meiling; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac-) by magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH) had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac- anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP) of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably.

  12. Fatigue behavior of asphalt mixtures colombian with addition recycled pavement asphalt to 100 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neidy Betssey Patiño Boyacá

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to establish the fatigue behavior of asphalt mixtures with gradations MD20 Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano (IDU and MDC 2 of The Instituto Nacional de Vías (INVIAS, with addition of recycled granular flexible pavement (RAP with asphalt of penetration 60/70 and 80/100. The first step was to characterize the asphalt and RAP as well as calculate the optimum percentage of asphalt to be added to 100 % RAP mixtures. Then samples were fabricated with different trapezoidal gradations and asphalt, to be tested finally fatigue at different deformations. Among the results found, it was determined that the tested mixtures have a high stiffness; although, it varies depending on the asphalt mix used and that the best fatigue life with respect to those studied is the MDC-2 with bitumen 80/100.

  13. Behaviour of asphalt rubber mixtures with different crumb rubber and asphalt binder sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance in laboratory of gap graded mixture prepared with different crumb rubber types and different conventional grade asphalt binders. The asphalt rubbers were prepared via wet process (continuous blend) and their properties were measured through the current tests: (i) penetration;(ii) softening point: (iii) resilience; (iv) apparent viscosity using a Brookfield viscometer. The rheological properties for conventional asphalts were measured too, in order to evalu...

  14. Emulsifying properties of tribomechanically treated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins are used in a wide range of food products because of their high nutritional value and the ability to contribute to the unique functional properties of the final products. The functional properties of whey proteins are affected not only by the whey origin, season dependent variations of protein and non-protein components amount, but also by the conditions of processes involved in their isolation, purification and modification (temperature, pH, pressure, chemicals. In this research, tribomechanical micronization (TM was used as a technique that could be useful in modification of some functional properties of whey proteins. Therefore, two different commercial powdered whey protein isolates (WPI were used for analysis. Surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties (emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were determined before and after TM treatment. The results obtained showed increases in surface hydrophobicity of WPI after TM treatment indicating that TM could induce changes of protein conformation and increase exposure of the previously buried hydrophobic regions. Emulsions prepared with tribomechanically treated WPI showed higher emulsion activity and better emulsion stability. The results obtained suggest that TM can be useful and fast process technique for improvement of functional properties of WPI.

  15. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  16. Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elihn, Karine; Ulvestad, Bente; Hetland, Siri; Wallen, Anna; Randem, Britt Grethe

    2008-12-01

    An epidemiologic study has demonstrated that asphalt workers show increased loss of lung function and an increase of biomarkers of inflammation over the asphalt paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agent(s) causes the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO(2) was determined by personal sampling. Exposure to ultrafine particles was measured by means of particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer mounted on a van following the paving machine. The fractions of organic and elemental carbon were determined. Asphalt paving workers were exposed to ultrafine particles with medium concentration of about 3.4 x 10(4)/cm(3). Ultrafine particles at the paving site originated mainly from asphalt paving activities and traffic exhaust; most seemed to originate from asphalt fumes. Oil mist exceeded occupational limits on some occasions. Diesel particulate matter was measured as elemental carbon, which was low, around 3 microg/m(3). NO(2) and total dust did not exceed limits. Asphalt pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.

  17. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  18. Mutagenicity of bitumen and asphalt fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, P R; Väänänen, V; Hämeilä, M; Linnainmaa, K

    2003-08-01

    The mutagenicity of asphalt fumes was tested with the Salmonella bioassays. The aim was to investigate if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of emissions. Recycling of old asphalt is increasing, and we studied also the mutagenicity of emissions sampled during the re-use of asphalt. The composition of vapours and fumes were analysed by gas chromatography and by liquid chromatography. Bitumens containing coal fly ash (CFA) or waste plastics were heated to the paving temperatures in the laboratory. In the field, bitumen fumes were collected during paving of stone mastic asphalts (lime or CFA as a filler), remixing of stone mastic asphalt (lime or CFA as a filler), and of asphalt concrete. All the lab-generated vapour fractions were non-mutagenic. The particulate fractions were mutagenic with TA98 in the presence of the S9 activation. In addition, the lab-fumes from bitumen containing waste plastics were positive with both strains without S9. Only particulate fractions sampled in the field were tested. They were mutagenic with and without metabolic activation with both strains. The mutagenic potency of the field samples was higher than that of the lab-generated fumes without S9, and the remixing fumes were more mutagenic than the normal paving and lab-generated fumes with S9. The use of inorganic additive, CFA, did not change the mutagenicity of the fumes, whereas the organic additive, waste plastics, increased the mutagenicity of the laboratory emissions significantly.

  19. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  20. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prat, F.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt emulsion stability.Este trabajo estudia la influencia de las variables salinidad, alcalinidad y cantidad de surfactantes sintéticos, tanto iónicos como no iónicos, existentes en el emulsivo acuoso empleado para formular emulsiones asfálticas, con vistas a la aplicación de las mismas como recubrimientos impermeabilizantes en edificaciones. Para la preparación de los sistemas emulsionados objeto de estudio, se utilizó como producto bituminoso un crudo extrapesado procedente de Venezuela. En tal sentido, los resultados obtenidos muestran cómo las cuatro variables de formulación anteriormente mencionadas modifican una serie de propiedades físicas (viscosidad, tensión superficial y diámetro promedio de partícula muy determinantes para la estabilidad de las referidas emulsiones asfálticas.

  1. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  2. Can Nanorods Emulsify Immiscible Polymer Blends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Michael J. A.

    2005-03-01

    The addition of nanoscale rods to immiscible binary polymer blends has a pronounced effect on the dynamics of phase separation. The results of computer simulations of the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) model in three dimensions (3D) indicate that when nanorods prefer one of two components in an immiscible binary polymer blend, the rate of phase separation decreases when the volume fraction of nanorods is increased, or as the aspect ratio (L/D) of the rods is increased. Interestingly, anisotropic nanoparticles have a much more pronounced effect on phase separation dynamics in the system when compared to the effects of spherical nanoparticles, which, generically, do not alter the characteristics of the kinetics in the system. In particular, it may be the case that at high volume fractions -- or alternatively, low volume fractions and large aspect ratio of nanorods -- the system may undergo micro-phase separation only, indicating that the nanorods may be excellent emulsifying agents.

  3. Phenolipids as antioxidants in emulsified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Bayrasy, Christelle; Laguerre, Mickäel

    to an increase of the antioxidative effect. When the phenolic compound reaches a certain point of lipophilicity its antioxidative effect decreases. Thus, the polar paradox hypothesis is not valid when the alkyl chain length is above a certain length. Futhermore, the length of the alkyl chain for optimal...... antioxidant effect has been shown to be influenced by the specific phenolic compound and the type of emulsion. The overall aim for our work was to evaluate phenolipids with different lipophilicity as antioxidants in emulsified food. In the study presented here caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acid were selected...... along with their corresponding alkyl esters (C4-C20). The methods used to evaluate the antioxidative effect of the different phenolipids were the CAT assay (o/w emulsion), antioxidant assays (DPPH, Iron chelating and reducing power) and partitioning studies. Moreover, the results from the CAT assay...

  4. Coprocessing Yanzhou coal with petroleum resid for preparing paving asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Li, Y.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z.; Chi, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2003-07-01

    Coprocessing Yanzhou coal with five types of petroleum resid for preparing high grade paving asphalt (HGPA) was investigated. The asphalt obtained was evaluated by 3 indexes: penetration, softening point and ductility. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) and NMR were used to characterise the asphalt. The results show that the properties of resid are crucial for the quality of asphalt. Under the experimental conditions, the resid with the lowest H/C ratio, highest aromatics content and shortest aliphatic side-chain produced asphalt with required quality for high grade paving asphalt used in China. Asphalt yield increased with H{sub 2} pressure and the quality of asphalt decreased with coal to resid ratio. 15 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  5. 厂拌冷再生沥青混合料路用性能研究%Research in the road performance of plant mixed cold recycling asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文美

    2015-01-01

    This paper tested the road performance of 50% RAP emulsified cold recycling asphalt mixture,introduced the experiment used raw materials and mix proportion design,combining with the test scheme,analyzed the test results,pointed out that the indoor emulsified asphalt re-cycling asphalt mixture should make 35 h preservation under 60 ℃ temperature conditions,the construction site should make 3 d~7 d natural preservation based on environment,the strength and high temperature stability of each cement dosage emulsified asphalt cold recycling mixture could meet the construction requirements,the cement dosage was 1. 5%,more economic.%对50%RAP乳化沥青冷再生混合料路用性能进行了试验,介绍了试验所用原材料及配比设计,结合试验方案,对试验结果作了分析,指出试验室内乳化沥青再生混合料需进行60℃温度状态下的35 h养生,施工现场需根据环境进行3 d~7 d的自然养生;各水泥剂量乳化沥青冷再生混合料的强度及高温稳定性都能满足施工要求,水泥剂量为1.5%较经济。

  6. Theoretic computing model of combustion process of asphalt smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui; CHAI Li-yuan; HE De-wen; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data and methods provided by research literature, dispersing mathematical model of combustion process of asphalt smoke is set by theoretic analysis. Through computer programming, the dynamic combustion process of asphalt smoke is calculated to simulate an experimental model. The computing result shows that the temperature and the concentration of asphalt smoke influence its burning temperature in approximatively linear manner. The consumed quantity of fuel to ignite the asphalt smoke needs to be measured from the two factors.

  7. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  8. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  9. Produced Water Treatment for Beneficial Use: Emulsified Oil Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, B.I.H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  10. Design and Performance of Hot Mix Asphalts with High Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt: Approach followed in the Paramix Project

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, F.; Rodriguez, M; Visscher, J.; Vanelstraete, A.; Bock, L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RA) in new asphalt pavements can provide important economical savings, while reducing the negative environmental impact. The European research project PARAMIX aims to improve the techniques for hot mix recycling in plant and cold mix in situ recycling, so as to increase the amount of reclaimed asphalt and develop competitive road pavement rehabilitation techniques. This paper deals with the design of hot mix asphalts for the project. The di...

  11. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, I. L.; V.P. Kuprin

    2016-01-01

    The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifie...

  12. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  13. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed asph

  14. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  15. Simulation of rheological behavior of asphalt mixture with lattice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣枫; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional(3D) lattice model for predicting the rheological behavior of asphalt mixtures was presented.In this model asphalt mixtures were described as a two-phase composite material consisting of asphalt sand and coarse aggregates distributed randomly.Asphalt sand was regarded as a viscoelastic material and aggregates as an elastic material.The rheological response of asphalt mixture subjected to different constant stresses was simulated.The calibrated overall creep strain shows a good approximation to experimental results.

  16. Pneumoproteins and inflammatory biomarkers in asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Ulvestad, Bente; Andersson, Lena; Barregard, Lars

    2010-09-01

    Pneumoproteins, biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation were studied across a season in 72 asphalt pavers, 32 asphalt plant operators and 19 asphalt engineers. Smokers had lower concentrations of Clara cell protein (CC-16) and surfactant protein A, but higher concentrations of surfactant protein D, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 than non-smokers. Smokers reporting wheezing had lower mean CC-16 concentration than smokers not reporting wheezing (5.7 vs 8.6 microg l(-1); p = 0.05). Cholesterol, P-selectin and ICAM-1 were lower in pavers and operators at the end compared with the start of the season. This may be related to increased physical activity during the season.

  17. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  18. Characteristics of asphalt mixes with FT additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefunková, S.

    2012-03-01

    This article is focused on low-temperature asphalt mixture technologies using FT additive and RAP. The modern production and use of asphalt mixture technologies with reduced temperatures has many advantages. These advantages mainly help to save energy and the environment. Lower temperatures enable a reduction in energy consumption, a more acceptable working environment for workers, a reduction in negative environmental effects, such as greenhouse gas emissions, and an improvement in the workability of mixtures and a prolongation of their duration. This technology is currently becoming popular in many countries.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  20. 乳化沥青冷再生沥青混合料的研究%Experimental research on the cold recycled asphalt mixtures with emulsified asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旷怀; 李燕枫; 杨国梁; 凌宏杰

    2008-01-01

    采用CAVF法进行冷再生混合料级配设计,采用普通乳化沥青、SBR改性乳化沥青和自行研制的乳化SBS改性沥青对广深高速公路旧路面回收料(RAP)进行了冷再生室内对比试验研究,试验结果表明乳化SBS改性沥青冷再生混合料性能优于其它两种类型乳化沥青冷再生混合料.同时,在旧料评价过程中,提出了细度模数比这一新的量化评价指标以评价旧料的结团状况.研究表明,细度模数比与旧料和再生混合料性能指标密切相关,对于旧料质量控制和再生混合料配合比设计具有较大的工程意义.

  1. 聚合物改性沥青水泥砂浆的试验研究%Experimental research on the polymer modified asphalt and cement mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾三海; 王鹏; 王光辉; 比干旭光

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly researched mechanical properties of polymer modified emulsified asphalt and cement mortar and analyzed the experiment results. The study results showed that neoprene latex can, to a certain extent, improve the workability of polymer modified emulsified asphalt and cement mortar, reduce pressure off ratio, improve failure modes of the mortar, and fundamentally improve the capability of resistance to brittle fracture at low-temperature and resistance to deformation at high temperature.%研究了聚合物改性乳化沥青水泥砂浆的力学性能,并对其试验结果进行了分析.研究表明,氯丁橡胶乳液可以在一定程度上改善乳化沥青水泥砂浆的工作性,降低压折比,改善砂浆的破坏形态,可从根本上改善水泥乳化沥青砂浆的低温抗脆裂和高温抗变形能力.

  2. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives for Use in Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Zahi

    The objective of this research effort is to evaluate the use of warm-mix additives with polymer modified and terminal blend tire rubber asphalt mixtures from Nevada and California. The research completed over two stages: first stage evaluated two different WMA technologies; Sasobit and Advera, and second stage evaluated one additional WMA technology; Evotherm. The experimental program covered the evaluation of resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage, the performance characteristics of the mixtures, and mechanistic analysis of mixtures in simulated pavements. In the both stages, the mixture resistance to moisture damage was evaluated using the indirect tensile test and the dynamic modulus at multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and the resistance of the various asphalt mixtures to permanent deformation using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT). Resistance of the untreated mixes to fatigue cracking using the flexural beam fatigue was only completed for the first stage. One source of aggregates was sampled in, two different batches, three warm mix asphalt technologies (Advera, Sasobit and Evotherm) and three asphalt binder types (neat, polymer-modified, and terminal blend tire rubber modified asphalt binders) typically used in Nevada and California were evaluated in this study. This thesis presents the resistance of the first stage mixtures to permanent deformation and fatigue cracking using two warm-mix additives; Advera and Sasobit, and the resistance to moisture damage and permanent deformation of the second stage mixtures with only one warm-mix additive; Evotherm.

  3. Microstructural Analysis and Rheological Modeling of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Asphalt Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled materials in pavement construction has seen, over the years, a significant increase closely associated with substantial economic and environmental benefits. During the past decades, many transportation agencies have evaluated the effect of adding Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, and, more recently, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS on the performance of asphalt pavement, while limits were proposed on the amount of recycled materials which can be used. In this paper, the effect of adding RAP and RAS on the microstructural and low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated using digital image processing (DIP and modeling of rheological data obtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR. Detailed information on the internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is acquired based on digital images of small beam specimens and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that RAP increases the autocorrelation length (ACL of the spatial distribution of aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids phases, while an opposite trend is observed when RAS is included. Analogical and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest limited or partial blending between new and aged binder.

  4. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  5. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  6. Microbial life in a liquid asphalt desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 10(7) cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  7. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value. To accomod......The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value....... To accomodate non-constant stress or strain, a mode factor may be introduced or the dissipated energy may be used instead of stress or strain.Cracking of asphalt (or other materials) may be described as a process consisting of three phases. In phase one diffuse microcracking is formed in the material...... damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...

  8. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  9. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C.; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M.; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 107 cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  10. Self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for phytoconstituents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Neeraj; Mittal, Vineet; Kaushik, Deepak; Khatkar, Anurag; Raina, Mitali

    2015-01-01

    The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is considered to be the novel technique for the delivery of lipophillic plant actives. The self emulsifying (SE) formulation significantly enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble phytoconstituents. The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be developed for such plant actives to enhance the oral bioavailability using different excipients (lipid, surfactant, co solvent etc.) and their concentration is selected on the basis of pre formulation studies like phase equilibrium studies, solvent capacity of oil for drug and mutual miscibility of excipients. The present review focuses mainly on the development of SEDDS and effect of excipients on oral bioavailability and aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble phytoconstituents/ derived products. A recent list of patents issued for self emulsifying herbal formulation has also been included. The research data for various self emulsifying herbal formulation and patents issued were reviewed using different databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Google patents, Scopus and Web of Science. In a nutshell, we can say that SEDDS was established as a novel drug delivery system for herbals and with the advances in this technique, lots of patents on herbal SEDDS can be translated into the commercial products.

  11. Anions in Cometary Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  12. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  13. Mechanical properties of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, X. Y.; Gu, X. Y.; Wang, X. W.

    2017-01-01

    Gutta-percha is the isomer of caoutchouc and can be used to enhance the performance of asphalt. In this paper, the produce proceedings of gutta-percha sulfide and gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt are introduced. The performance indices of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt samples with different proportions are examined based on laboratory tests and the optimum ratio of gutta-percha and sulfur is decided.The micromechanism, temperature sensitivity, high and low temperature properties and viscoelasticity of the polymer modified asphalt are analyzed to discuss the modified mechanism and to decide the optimal polymer content. Low temperature bending tests are carried out to verify the low temperature performance of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt mixture. Research results showed that gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt has good low temperature performance and a promising application prospect in the cold regions.

  14. Percolation Model of Graphite-modified Asphalt Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Liantong; WU Shaopeng; LIU Xiaoming; CHEN Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The addition of graphite powder in conventional asphalt mixture can produced asphalt concrete with excellent electrical performance. Percolation theory was employed to discuss the relation between the conductivity and graphite content of graphite-modified asphalt concrete. It was found that the results of percolation model are consistent with experimental values. The percolation threshold of graphite-modified asphalt concrete is 10.94% graphite content account for the total volume of the binder phase consisting of asphalt and graphite. The critical exponent is 3.16, beyond the range of 1.6-2.1 for the standard lattice continuous percolation problem. Its reason is that the tunnel conduction mechanism originates near the critical percent content, which causes this system to be not universal. Tunnel mechanism is demonstrated by the nonlinear voltage-current characteristic near percolation threshold.The percolation model is able to well predict the formation and development of conductive network in graphite-modified asphalt concrete.

  15. Viscoelastic Analysis of Asphalt Mixture Based on Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of mineral fibers were added to AC-16C asphalt mixture. Trabecular bending creep experiments of asphalt mixtures were carried out at -10 and 20°C. The influence of mineral fibers on the low temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures were analyzed systemically. Furthermore, by using Origin, Burgers viscoelastic model was used to investigate the parameter regression for the creep test results at the different temperatures. The results show that the addition of mineral fibers can effectively improve the bending creep rate of asphalt mixtures, indicates the increase of crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. Good agreement between experimental data and Burgers model was found. The parameters of Burgers model at different temperatures can also provide data support for the viscoelastic design of asphalt pavements.

  16. An Improvement in Electrical Properties of Asphalt Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-peng; MO Lian-tong; SHUI Zhong-he; XUAN Dong-xing; XUE Yong-jie; YANG Wen-feng

    2002-01-01

    Materials such as Koch AH - 70, basalt aggregate, limestone powder and graphite particles were used to prepare conductive asphalt concrete, which is a new type of multi functional concrete. The mix proportion by weight was shown as follows. Fineaggregates (2.36-4.75 mm):fine aggregates (< 2.36mm): limestone powder: asphalt = 120:240: 14:30. The content of added graphite particles ranged from 0% to 20% ( by the Special weight of asphalt concerte). A conductive asphalt concrete with a resistivity around 10-103·Ωm was obtained.attention was paid to the effects of graphite content, graphite physical-chemical properties, asphalt content and temperature on the resistivity. Furthermore, an attempt was made to develop an electrically conductive model for asphalt concrete.

  17. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  18. Research of blended petroleum asphalt and coal tar pitch and its emulsification performance%石油沥青与煤沥青的调和及乳化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华东; 范维玉; 张锐; 董夫强; 孔祥军; 梁明; 钱成多; 南国枝

    2014-01-01

    TwO types Of cOal tar pitches and QinhuangdaO AH-90 petrOleum asphalt were blended and emulsified. The influ-ences Of cOal tar pitch types and dOsages On the prOperties Of blended asphalt and emulsified asphalt were investigated. The experimental results shOw that the cOal tar pitches cOntaining a lOt Of tOluene insOluble ( pulverized cOal) lead tO the ductility at 25 ℃ Of the blended asphalt and evapOratiOn residue Of the emulsified asphalt decrease significantly, which cannOt meet the specificatiOn. When the maximal dOsages Of cOal tar pitch l# and 2# are 25% and 20%, the ld and 5d stability results Of the emulsified asphalts meet the standard. At the same cOal tar pitch dOsage, the blended asphalt and its emulsiOn evapOra-tiOn residue by adding cOal tar pitch l # have less penetratiOn at 25 ℃, and have larger ductility at 25 ℃ and sOftening than thOse by adding 2#. With the dOsage Of the twO cOal tar pitches increasing, the blended asphalts and the emulsiOn evapOratiOn residues present the reduced tendency fOr ductility and penetratiOn at 25℃, while the sOftening pOint shOws increasing trend.%将煤沥青与秦皇岛AH-90沥青进行调和及乳化,考察调和沥青及调和后乳化沥青的性质,研究煤沥青的种类及掺量对调和沥青及乳化沥青性质的影响规律。结果表明:煤沥青中大量甲苯不溶物(煤粉)的存在使得调和沥青和乳化沥青蒸发残留物的25℃延度大幅度下降,难以达到标准要求;l #和2#煤沥青最大掺量分别为25%和20%时,乳化沥青的l d和5 d稳定性合格;相同煤沥青掺量时,l#调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物较相应的2#调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物的针入度小、25℃延度大、软化点高;随着煤沥青掺量的增大,两种调和沥青及乳化沥青蒸发残留物的25℃延度、针入度都呈现下降趋势,软化点呈升高趋势。

  19. Application of Asphalt Cold Recycling in Overhaul Maintenance Engineering of National Road 310%沥青冷再生在310国道大修工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守广

    2011-01-01

    The concept of asphalt cold in-place recycling and the meaning of emulsified asphalt cold in-place recycling technology are cleared.Combined with construction practice of this technology in overhaul maintenance engineering of National Road 310,the advantages of mechanical property and application prospect of cold recycling mixture are elaborated.%明确了沥青就地冷再生的概念及乳化沥青就地冷再生技术的意义。结合该项技术在310国道大修工程中的施工实践,阐述了冷再生混合料力学性能的优越性及应用前景。

  20. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  1. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Khattak, Mohammad Jamal; Gallo, August A

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification.

  2. Detection of asphalt pavement cracks using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of asphalt road pavements is inevitable throughout its life cycle. There are several types of deterioration that take place on these surfaces, like surface defects and deformations. One of the most common asphalt defects is cracking. Fatigue, transverse, longitudinal, reflective, edge, block and slippage are types of cracking that can be observed anywhere in the world. Monitoring and preventative/periodic maintenance of these types of wears are two very important actions that have to take place to avoid "costly" solutions. This paper aims to introduce the spectral characteristics of uncracked (healthy) and cracked asphalt surfaces which can give a new asphalt crack index. This is performed through remote sensing applications in the area of asphalt pavements. Multispectral images can be elaborated using the index to enhance crack marks on asphalt surfaces. Ground spectral signatures were acquired from both uncracked and cracked asphalted areas of Cyprus (Limassol). Evaluation separability indices can be used to identify the optimum wavelength regions that can distinguish better the uncracked and cracked asphalt surfaces. The results revealed that the spectral sensitivity for the enhancement of cracked asphalt was detected using the Euclidean, Mahalanobis and Cosine Distance Indices in the Vis range (approximately at 450 nm) and in the SWIR 1 range (approximately at 1750 nm).

  3. Creep Characteristics of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing; XING Yongming

    2011-01-01

    Crumb rubber modified asphalt containing 20 percent crumb rubber particles of 30mesh has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to observe the microcosmic appearance and the characteristic distribution of crumb rubber particles in asphalt. The SEM pictures reveal that the crumb rubber particles distribute evenly in the asphalt and they are compatible well with asphalt. The shear creep test of crumb rubber modified asphalt was carried out at - 10 ℃ and 40 ℃ by Dynamic Shear Rheology (DSR). The shearing deformation at different temperature and creep stiffness modulus curve at loading stage of crumb rubber modified asphalt have been measured. The stiffness modulus of crumb rubber modified asphalt is much temperature sensitive and it decays much quick at the early stage of loading than normal asphalt. The rate of decay of stiffness modulus is slow at the subsequent stage and stiffness modulus approaches to a stable value at the final stage at a higher temperature. In addition, Burgers model is suitable to describe and simulate experimental results of viscoelastic properties of the crumb rubber modified asphalt.

  4. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

  5. The Effect of High RAP and High Asphalt Binder Content on the Dynamic Modulus and Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of using various percentages of RAP and asphalt binder contents on the dynamic modulus and fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete. Two RAP percentages (20% and 40%) and three binder percentages (plant-mixed, plant-mixed + 0.5%, and plant-mixed + 1.0%) were evaluated. A Superpave gyratory compactor and an asphalt vibratory compactor were used to prepare dynamic modulus samples and fatigue beam samples at 7% air voids. Three replicate samples for each percen...

  6. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  7. Produced water treatment for beneficial use: emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, B.I.H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity a

  8. Formula for emulsifier for production of emulsion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakawa, K.; Arai, T.; Oseki, O.; Tega, K.; Wakidzaka, A.

    1982-05-20

    Patent for an emulsifier for preparation of emulsion fuels type v/m (formula provided). This particular formula is utilized to derive emulsion fuels from kerosene, light and heavy oils, etc. The emulsions have water drops of even size and a high thermal stability. When these fuels are used, formation of soot and nitrogen oxides is reduced.

  9. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  10. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan; Zhanping You

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  11. EFFECTS OF ω-ACRYLOYL POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) MACROMONOMER ON EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE AND n-BUTYL ACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Well-defined nonionic hydrophilic ω-acryloyl poly(ethylene oxide) macromonomer (PEO-A) has been prepared by living anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide with diphenyl methyl potassium as the initiator and acryloyl chloride as the reaction terminating agent. The polymer was characterized by FTIR and SEC. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) containing various concentrations of PEO-A was studied. In all cases stable emulsion coplymerizations of MMA and BA were obtained. The stabilizing effect was found to be dependent on the molecular weight and the feed amount of the macromonomer.

  12. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.R.; Doree, A.G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  13. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it wil

  14. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it wil

  15. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete...

  16. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement se

  17. Hot asphalt burns: a review of injuries and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, George M; Wadia, Shernaz A; Padmanabhan, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Hot asphalt burns to human tissue can increase the likelihood of infection and potential conversion of partial thickness to full-thickness injuries. Successful intervention for hot asphalt burns requires immediate and effective cooling of the asphalt on the tissue followed by subsequent gradual removal of the cooled asphalt. A review of the literature reveals that multiple substances have been used to remove asphalt, including topical antibiotics, petroleum jelly, a commercial product known as De-Solv-It (ORANGE-SOL, Chandler, AZ), sunflower oil, baby oil, liquid paraffin, butter, mayonnaise, and moist-exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Although many of these products may be effective in the removal of asphalt, they may not be readily available in an emergency department setting. Topical antibiotics are readily available, are more commonly described in the medical literature, and would be expected to be effective in the removal of asphalt. We developed guidelines for on scene (first-aid) management and the initial care of such patients upon presentation to a health care facility. These guidelines emphasize the principles of early cooling, gradual removal of adherent asphalt using topical antibiotics, and avoidance of the use of topical agents, which are likely to result in tissue toxicity.

  18. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of increa

  19. Durability ofAsphalt in Different Corrosion Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shuanfa; GUAN Bowen; XIONG Rui; SHENG Yanping; HE Rui

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion to asphalt mixture under different kinds of corrosion solution,such as pH=2 solution,pH=12 solution,pH =12 solution and 10% Na2SO4 solution,was studied.The performance attenuation of asphalt mixture was analyzed under the normal environment and the freeze-thaw environment,and the analysis was given on the sensitivity of the test results to the evaluation index.The experimental results show that the performance of asphalt mixture is attenuated faster under the acidic solution,alkaline solution and sulfate solution.Corrosion factor Kc,freeze-thaw corrosion factor Kf,and freeze-thaw effect factor Kfc are proposed to evaluate asphalt mixture resistance to corrosion in different kinds of corrosion solution.The values of Kc and Kfc decrease with the increasing of corrosion time.The change rule of Kf show that the rate of corrosion is decreased by the action of freeze-thaw in acidic solution and in alkaline solution,but is increased by the action of freeze-thaw in sulfate solution.The microscopic analysis indicates that acid solution reacts with aggregate of asphalt mixture,alkaline solution reacts with asphalt cement of asphalt mixture,the surface tension of sulfate solution and crystallization of sulfate are the main reasons which weak the performance of asphalt mixture.

  20. 40 CFR 443.40 - Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory. 443.40 Section 443.40 Protection of Environment... PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Linoleum and Printed Asphalt Felt Subcategory § 443.40 Applicability; description of the linoleum and printed asphalt felt subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 443.30 - Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt roofing subcategory. 443.30 Section 443.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Roofing Subcategory § 443.30 Applicability; description of the asphalt roofing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing... Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and Information... of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Processing (Refining) Operations For * * * You must meet...

  4. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  5. Thermal Conduction and Insulation Modification in Asphalt-Based Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Shengyue Wang; Chao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between thermal conductivity and properties of mixing particles is required for quantitative study of heat transfer processes in asphalt-based materials. In this paper, we measured the e?ective ther- mal conductivity of asphalt-based materials with thermal conduction (graphite) and insulation (cenosphere) powders modification. By taking account of the particle shape, volume fraction, the thermal conductivity of filling particles and base asphalt, we present a new differential effective medium formula to predict the thermal conductivity modification in asphalt-based composite. Our theoretical predications are in good agreement with the experiment data. The new model can be applied for predicting the thermal properties of asphalt-based mixture, which is available for most of thermal modification in two-phase composites.

  6. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Pavement Structure in Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chun-xiang; GUO Zhong-yin

    2008-01-01

    A linear full 3D finite element method (FEM) was performed in order to present the key design parameters of highway tunnel asphalt pavement under double-wheel load on rectangular loaded area considering horizontal contact stress induced by the acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. The key design parameters are the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the surface of the asphalt layer, the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the bottom of the asphalt layer and the maximum vertical shear stresses at the surface of the as- phalt layer were calculated. The influencing factors such as double-wheel weight; asphalt layer thickness; base course stiffness modulus and thickness; and the contact conditions among the structure layers on these key design parameters were also examined separately to propose construction procedures of highway tunnel asphalt pavement.

  8. Effect of ageing on fatigue properties of asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佶; 庞凌; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 陈筝

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue properties of asphalts were investigated after various laboratory simulation ageing tests and outdoor natural exposure ultraviolet radiation ageing,by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) time sweep fatigue test in constant strain model and a new type of specimen which was introduced to avoid the problem of adhesion failure between rotor and asphalt binder.The results show that outdoor natural exposure ageing(NEA) causes the decrease of retained fatigue life distinctly,and photodegradation caused by outdoor NEA of 1 250 μm thin films asphalt for three months,is found to be severer than pressure ageing vessel(PAV) with respects to retained fatigue life.The effect of photodegradation increases as the time of outdoor NEA increases.DSR time sweep fatigue test in constant strain indicates that the aged styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified asphalt still displays better fatigue properties than the corresponding base asphalt after ageing.

  9. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system were analyzed by using the finite element software. The results show that the debonding of CA mortar layer will increase the dynamic response of track. If the length of debonding exceeds 1.95 m, the inflection point will appear on the vertical displacement curve of track. The vertical vibration acceleration of slab increases 4.95 times and the vertical dynamic compressive stress of CA mortar near the debonding region increases 15 times when the debonding length reaches 3.9 m. Considering the durability of ballastless track, once the length of debonding reaches 1.95 m, the mortar debonding should be repaired.

  10. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  11. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  12. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  13. Surface Modification of Fire-retardant Asphalt with Silane Coupling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiqiang; TANG Boming

    2012-01-01

    The theory and approach of the surface modified of asphalt fire-retardant with silane coupling agent were introduced,The optimum silane dosage was determined,and the structure and properties of the asphalt fire-retardant before and after the surface modification were characterized by infrared spectrum and thermo gravimetric analysis.The dispersion effect of asphalt fire-retardant was studied.The influence of the surface modification on the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire-retardant was analyzed.The experimental results showed that there were physical and chemical interactions between the silane coupling agent and the asphalt fire-retardant,which reduced the surface polarity of the asphalt fire retardant.The optimum silane coupling agent dosage was 0.95% of the asphalt fire retardant.The surface modification improved the thermal stability,dispersibility and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire retardant,which enhanced the compatibility between asphalt fire retardant and asphalt.

  14. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies and Recycled Asphalt Pavements in Truckee Meadows, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Montecino, Cristian

    This study evaluated the properties and laboratory-performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures with different levels of Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) content: none for control mixtures, around 15% by dry weight of aggregates, and more than 30% by dry weight of aggregates. The rheological properties were evaluated for virgin and recovered RAP asphalt binders. The target amount of RAP in the mixtures was determined by using Blending Charts and Mortar Experiments. The mixtures are design through the guidelines established in Marshall Mix Design Method considering additional modifications for RAP and WMA from Superpave Mix Design. The mixtures are evaluated for their resistance to moisture damage by means of measuring the Dynamic Modulus |E*| after three freeze/thaw cycles and the indirect tensile strength after one and three freeze/thaw cycles. The resistance of the mixtures to permanent deformation was also evaluated by using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) to measure the flow number (FN). For this study, it was determined that the resistance to moisture damage decreases as the number of freeze/thaw cycles increases for most of the evaluated mixtures. Mixtures exhibited an increase in dynamic modulus as the RAP percentage increased. A decrease in the resistance to moisture damage was detected with the increase in RAP content for most of the mixtures. HMA mixtures exhibited a better performance in rutting than the WMA mixtures. An increase in rutting resistance was observed with the increase in RAP percentage for HMA mixtures whereas an inconsistent trend was observed for WMA mixtures. Further study is needed to validate the use of the high percentage of RAP in Washoe County.

  15. Thermal Emulsion Polymerization without any Conventional Initiators and Emulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stable poly(styrene-co-sodium styrene suffonate) (P(St-NaSS) nanoparticles with broader size distribution were synthesized by thermal emulsion polymerization without any conventional initiators and emulsifiers. The obtained polymer nanoparticles have higher ξpotential, and the particle sizes have broad distribution. The stability of polymer particles originated from the addition of small amounts of ionic comonomer, NaSS, which can act as an emulsifier in somewhat. The monomer conversion could reach up to about 28 wt% in 48 h, and did not increase by further polymerization when higher polymerization temperature (120℃) was employed. This polymerization system may be give some further understand for mechanism of emulsion polymerization.

  16. Grape seed and apple tannins: emulsifying and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Zafimahova, Andrea; Alvarado, Pedro G Maldonado; Dubreucq, Eric; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Tannins are natural antioxidants found in plant-based foods and beverages, whose amphiphilic nature could be useful to both stabilize emulsions and protect unsaturated lipids from oxidation. In this paper, the use of tannins as antioxidant emulsifiers was studied. The main parameters influencing the stability of emulsions (i.e. tannins structure and concentration, aqueous phase pH, and ionic strength) were identified and optimized. Oil in water emulsions stabilized with tannins were compared with those stabilized with two commercial emulsifying agents, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil. In optimized conditions, the condensed tannins allowed to obtain a stability equivalent to that of PVA. Tannins presented good antioxidant activity in oil in water emulsion, as measured by the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) assay.

  17. Nonionic Polymerizable Emulsifier in High-Solids-Content Acrylate Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Deping; HUANG Hongzhi; SHEN Ling; XIE Jin; GUAN Rong

    2012-01-01

    Stable high-solids-content acrylate emulsion were obtained with a nonionic polymerizable emulsifier allyloxy nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) (10) ether (ANPEO10),and a conventional emulsifier OP-10 as a reference sample.1H NMR proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 has been incorporated into the resulted acrylate polymers.TEM demonstrates that there are some differences in the particle morphologies.AFM proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 migrating to the surface of the emulsion film was much less than the conventional emulsifier OP-10.The polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 can enhance the adhesion with glass plate compared to the conventional emulsifier.Furthermore,with increasing amount of emulsifier,the surface free energy of the films first decreased and then increased,and the adhesion with glass plate is initially enhanced and then attenuated.The water-resistance and solvent-resistance of the films prepared by the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 are superior to those prepared by the conventional emulsifier OP-10.

  18. Influence of an emulsifier on the pressure desensitization of emulsion explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The desensitization degree of emulsion explosives (EE) was calculated with the peak pressure of explosion shock waves tested in water.To an explosive, the less the desensitization degree, the better the compression resistance, so the compression resistance of an explosive can be compared and analyzed quantificationally with the desensitization degree.The influence of an emulsifier on the pressure desensitization of EE was studied, including the content and category of emulsifiers.Three kinds of emulsifiers (Span-80,compound emulsifier, and T-152) were used in the tests.The experimental results show that both the content and category of emulsifiers make a great effect on the pressure desensitization of EE.The desensitization degree of EE reduces with the emulsifier content being increased, but there is an optimal content of an emulsifier for the compression resistance of EE.While the content of Span-80 reaches4wt%, the desensitization degree of EE becomes a minimal value, and augments somewhat if the emulsifier content is increased more.That is to say, the compression resistance of EE becomes the highest while the content of Span-80 is 4wt%, and the compression resistance will decline if the content of Span-80 is increased more.The compression resistance of the explosive emulsified by compound emulsifier is the highest among all the explosives, when the content of the whole components and manufacturing engineering are kept invariable.

  19. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation.

  20. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibya Sundar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w, containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  1. Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS ®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil.

  2. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Antonio, Marina Resendes de Sousa; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    An active microbiota, reaching up to 10 E+7 cells/g, was found to inhabit a naturally occurring asphalt lake characterized by low water activity and elevated temperature. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed novel and deeply branching microbial assemblages mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, metal respiration and C1 utilization pathways. These results open a window into the origin and adaptive evolution of microbial life within recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices, and establish the site as a useful analog for the liquid hydrocarbon environments on Saturn's moon Titan.

  3. Effect of acetylation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, O S; Adebowale, K O

    2004-04-01

    Mucuna protein concentrate was acylated with succinic and acetic anhydride. The effects of acylation on solubility, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties were investigated. The pH-dependent solubility profile of unmodified mucuna protein concentrate (U-mpc) showed a decrease in solubility with decrease in pH and resolubilisation at pH values acidic to isoelectric pH (pH 4). Apart from pH 2, both acetylated mucuna protein concentrates (A-mpc) and succinylated mucuna protein concentrate (S-mpc) had improved solubility over the unmodified derivative. Acylation increased the water absorption capacity (WAC) at all levels of ionic strength (0.1-1.0 M). WAC of the protein samples increased with increase in ionic strength up to 0.2 M after which a decline occurred with increase in ionic strength from 0.4-1.0 M. When protein solutions were prepared in salts of various ions, increase in WAC followed the Hofmeister series in the order: NaSCN oil absorption capacity while the lipophilic tendency reduced the following succinylation. Emulsifying capacity increased with increase in concentration up to 2, 4 and 5% w/v for U-mpc, A-mpc and S-mpc, respectively, after which an increase in concentration reduced the emulsifying capacity. Both acetylation and succinylation significantly (P < 0.05) improved the emulsifying capacity at pH 4-10. Initial increase in ionic strength up to 0.4 M for U-mpc and 0.4 M for A-mpc and S-mpc increased the emulsion capacity progressively. Further increase in ionic strength reduced emulsion capacity (EC). Contrary to the effect of various salts on WAC, increase in EC generally follows the series Na2SO4 < NaCl < NaBr < NaI < NaClO4 < NaSCN. At all levels of ionic strength studied, S-mpc had a better emulsifying activity (EA) than both A-mpc and U-mpc. EA and emulsifying stability (ES) were pH-dependent. Maximum EA and ES were recorded at pH 10. ES of protein derivatives were higher than those of U-mpc in the range

  4. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fundamental engineering properties as defined by Marshall properties , index of retained strength , indirect tensile strength , permanent deformation characteristics , and fatigue resistance .A typical dense graded mixture employed in construction of surface course pavement in Iraq in accordance with SCRB specifications was used .The materials used in this study included mineral aggregate materials (coarse and fine sizes were originally obtained from Najaf Sea quarries and two grades of asphalt cements produced from Daurah refinery which are D47 and D66 . The physical properties , stiffness modulus and chemical composition are evaluated for the recovered asphalt cement from prepared asphalt mixes containing various filler types .The paper results indicated that the addition of hydrated lime as mineral filler improved the permanent deformation characteristics and fatigue life and the use of hydrated lime will decrease the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures.

  5. Effect of fiber types on relevant properties of porous asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-peng; LIU Gang; MO Lian-tong; CHEN Zheng; YE Qun-shan

    2006-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose and polyester fibers on the properties of porous asphalt mixes,using the tests of draindown,abrasion,volumetric properties,rutting,and moisture damage. Images of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray computerized tomography were adopted to identify the microstructure of the fiber and inner stone skeleton of porous asphalt. The influence of rutting parameter (G*/sinδ) of asphalt modified by different fibers on the rutting resistance of the mixes was investigated. Based upon Mohr-Coulomb theory,the cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the mixes were derived from both indirect tension and unconfined compression strength. The experimental results indicate that fibers mainly stabilize asphalt binder and thicken asphalt film around aggregates. Furthermore,they result in the improved mechanical strength of porous asphalt mixes at high temperature slightly. From comparison analysis,cellulose fibers appear to perform better than polyester fibers in porous asphalt mixes.

  6. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  7. Low permeability asphalt concrete gamma ray shielding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, S E; Sykes, K L

    1997-01-01

    Energy-dependent gamma ray shielding properties were measured as a function of gamma ray energy for a low permeability asphalt concrete that is used as a cap to prevent water infiltration into radioactive waste sites. Experimental data were compared to ISO-PC point kernel shielding calculations. Calculated dose equivalent rates compared well with experimental values, especially considering the poor detector resolution involved. The shielding properties of the asphalt concrete closely resembled those of aluminum. The results presented can be used to determine the asphalt concrete thickness required to reduce dose equivalent rates from several gamma ray emitting radionuclides.

  8. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  9. Discrete Element Simulation of Asphalt Mastics Based on Burgers Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; FENG Shi-rong; HU Xia-guang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the viscoelastic performance of asphalt mastics, a micro-mechanical model for asphalt mastics was built by applying Burgers model to discrete element simulation and constructing Burgers contact model. Then the numerical simulation of creep tests was conducted, and results from the simulation were compared with the analytical solution for Burgers model. The comparision snowed that the two results agreed well with each other, suggesting that discrete element model based on Burgers model could be employed in the numerical simulation for asphalt mastics.

  10. Anion-π catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Beuchat, César; Domoto, Yuya; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Wilson, Adam; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2014-02-05

    The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π catalysis, a carboxylate base and a solubilizer are covalently attached to the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides. On these π-acidic surfaces, transition-state stabilizations up to ΔΔGTS = 31.8 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) are found. This value corresponds to a transition-state recognition of KTS = 2.7 ± 0.5 μM and a catalytic proficiency of 3.8 × 10(5) M(-1). Significantly increasing transition-state stabilization with increasing π-acidity of the catalyst, observed for two separate series, demonstrates the existence of "anion-π catalysis." In sharp contrast, increasing π-acidity of the best naphthalenediimide catalysts does not influence the more than 12 000-times weaker substrate recognition (KM = 34.5 ± 1.6 μM). Together with the disappearance of Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the expanded π-surfaces of perylenediimides, this finding supports that contributions from π-π interactions are not very important for anion-π catalysis. The linker between the π-acidic surface and the carboxylate base strongly influences activity. Insufficient length and flexibility cause incompatibility with saturation kinetics. Moreover, preorganizing linkers do not improve catalysis much, suggesting that the ideal positioning of the carboxylate base on the π-acidic surface is achieved by intramolecular anion-π interactions rather than by an optimized structure of the linker. Computational simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental results. They confirm, inter alia, that the stabilization of the anionic transition states (but not the neutral ground states) increases with the π-acidity of the

  11. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  12. 信息动态%A Research on the Pavement Performance of Warm Mix Buton Mastic Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Compositing modified asphalt mixture is a kind of asphalt mixture which uses Buton Mastic Asphalt(BMA) and warm modifier compound modification. It is proved that the composite modified asphalt mixture technology can greatly reduce the mixing temperature, save energy and protect the environment, and can guarantee good road performance. Employing Buton Mastic Asphalt as modifier can obviously increase the high temperature stability of asphalt mixture, with little impact on low temperature performance.

  13. Rutting Resistance of Asphalt Overlay with Multilayer Wheel Tracking Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Weidong; CHEN Zheng; WU Shaopeng; MO Liantong; LIU Gang

    2006-01-01

    The rutting resistance of multilayer asphalt overlay was researched by using laboratory wheel tracking test. The effects of loading level and test temperature on rutting resistance of asphalt overlay structure were evaluated by means of multilayer specimens .In comparison with multilayer tests, standard specimens of various layers were also conducted to evaluate the rutting resistance. Experimental results indicated that the test temperature and applied load have a significant effect on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. Higher test temperature and heavier applied load resulted in higher rut depths. In addition, the mutilayer wheel tracking test has been demonstrated to be a more reasonable solution in evaluation on rutting resistance of asphatt pavement structure beasuse it reflects the cumulative permanent deformation in all of asphalt layers.

  14. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  15. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  16. Resistivity-temperature Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wenzhou; LI Xu; YANG Qun; ZHANG Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    The changes of resistivity of conductive asphalt concrete at different temperatures were studied, and positive temperature coefficient (PTC) model was established to estimate the influence of temperature on the resistivity quantitatively, which eliminated the interference with conductivity evaluation brought by temperature variation. Finally, the analysis of temperature cycling test results proves that the changes of percolation network structure caused by temperature variation prompt the emergence of PTC of conductive asphalt concrete.

  17. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  18. Modified rubberized stone matrix asphalt for Nineveh roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Hadidy AI; TAN Yi-qiu

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Crumb Rubber Modifiers (CRMS) on basic engineering properties (i. e.Marshall, tensile strength, and compressive strength) of stone matrix asphalt mixtures, the ASTM testing and procedures were employed. Results of the evaluation were used to quantify the effect of CRM source and CRM content on engineering properties at testing temperatures of 25℃and 60℃. Statistical models were developed, which represent the nature of effects on performance-related properties of stone matrix asphalt mixtures.

  19. RECENT APPROACHES IN SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Singh*, Monika Sharma, Kamal Gandhi and Asha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Self emulsifying is a topic of current interest for overcoming the formulation difficulties of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. SEDDS are isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant with a unique ability to form fine oil-in-water (o/w emulsions or micro emulsions upon mild agitation in the gastrointestinal tract which present the drug in a solubilized form, and the small size of formed droplet provides a large interfacial surface area for drug absorption. It is a promising strategy to improve the rate and extent of oral absorption. The SEDDS were characterized for robustness to dilution, globule size, polydispersity index and zeta potential.

  20. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  1. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  2. Effects of Fibers on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of fiber-modified asphalt mixture were investigated. Cellulose fiber, polyester fiber and mineral fiber were used as additives for asphalt mixture, and the dosage was 0.3%, 0.3%,0.4%, respectively. Dynamic modulus test using SuperPave simple performance tester (SPT) was conducted to study the dynamic modulus (E*) and phase angle (δ) for the control asphalt mixture and fiber-modified ones at various temperatures and frequencies. Experimental results show that all fiber-modified asphalt mixtures have higher dynamic modulus compared with control mixture. The dynamic modulus master curves of each type of asphalt mixtures are determined based on nonlinear least square regression in accordance with the timetemperature superposition theory at a control temperature (21.1 ℃). The fatigue parameter E*×sinδ and rutting parameter E*/sinδ of asphalt mixture are adopted to study the fatigue and rutting-resistance properties, and experimental results indicate that such properties can be improved by fiber additives.

  3. Application of Common Mid-Point Method to Estimate Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Al-Aadi, Imad

    2015-04-01

    3-D radar is a multi-array stepped-frequency ground penetration radar (GPR) that can measure at a very close sampling interval in both in-line and cross-line directions. Constructing asphalt layers in accordance with specified thicknesses is crucial for pavement structure capacity and pavement performance. Common mid-point method (CMP) is a multi-offset measurement method that can improve the accuracy of the asphalt layer thickness estimation. In this study, the viability of using 3-D radar to predict asphalt concrete pavement thickness with an extended CMP method was investigated. GPR signals were collected on asphalt pavements with various thicknesses. Time domain resolution of the 3-D radar was improved by applying zero-padding technique in the frequency domain. The performance of the 3-D radar was then compared to that of the air-coupled horn antenna. The study concluded that 3-D radar can be used to predict asphalt layer thickness using CMP method accurately when the layer thickness is larger than 0.13m. The lack of time domain resolution of 3-D radar can be solved by frequency zero-padding. Keywords: asphalt pavement thickness, 3-D Radar, stepped-frequency, common mid-point method, zero padding.

  4. Rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing various fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶群山; 吴少鹏; 陈筝; 刘至飞

    2008-01-01

    Rheological characteristics of fiber-modified asphalt mixture were investigated.Cellulous fiber,polyester fiber and mineral fiber were used as additives for asphalt mixture,and the dosages were 0.3%,0.3%,0.4%,respectively.Dynamic modulus test using superpave simple performance tester(SPT) was adopted to study the dynamic modulus and phase angle for the control mixture and fiber-modified ones at various temperatures and frequencies.Test results show that the rheological properties can be improved significantly by the addition of various fibers.The dynamic modulus increases with the increase of frequency,and the phase angle decreases with the increase of frequency.When various fibers are used,the dynamic modulus increases and phase angle decreases at each frequency.This indicates that the stiffness and the elastic portion of fiber-modified asphalt mixtures can be enhanced when various fibers are used,which results in the change of viscoelastic properties of mixtures.The creep test results show that the total strain and the permanent strain of asphalt mixtures during load-unload cycle can be significantly reduced,which results in the improvement of resistance to permanent deformation for asphalt mixtures containing various fiber additives.The Burgers model can be employed effectively to illustrate the rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt mixtures.

  5. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1999-01-01

    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the aqu

  6. Effectiveness of Micro- and Nanomaterials in Asphalt Mixtures through Dynamic Modulus and Rutting Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to use micro- and nanomaterials to modify the asphalt mixture and to evaluate the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures. These micro- and nanomaterials, including carbon microfiber, Nanomer material, nanosilica, nonmodified nanoclay, and polymer modified nanoclay, were selected to blend with the control asphalt to improve the overall performance of the modified asphalt binders and mixtures. The microstructures of original materials and asphalt binders were observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The mixture performance tests were employed to evaluate the resistance to rutting and permanent deformation of the modified asphalt mixtures. Test results indicate that (1 the dynamic modulus of micro- and nanomodified asphalt mixtures improved significantly; (2 the rutting susceptibility of the modified asphalt mixtures was reduced significantly compared to that of the control asphalt mixture; (3 the microstructures of modified asphalt binders were different from the control asphalt, and the structures determine the improvement in the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. These results indicate that the addition of micro- and nanomaterials enhanced the rutting performance and strength of asphalt mixtures. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the modifying effects of micro- and nanomaterials on the performance.

  7. Comparing Production and Placement of Warm-Mix Asphalt to Traditional Hot-Mix Asphalt for Constructing Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    pressure cells ( EPC ), single depth deflectometers (SDD), and asphalt strain gauges (ASG) are indicated by symbols denoted on the figures. Further...gauges, I-buttons, ASGs, SDDs, and EPCs to measure the pavement response to simulated aircraft loading. The asphalt concrete strain gauges (Figure 55...gauge in backscatter mode. The type of roller used for each pass is indicated on each figure. The contractor determined how many roller passes to use

  8. Quantitative exposure matrix for asphalt fume, total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica among roofing and asphalt manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerweather, William E; Trumbore, David C; Johnson, Kathleen A; Niebo, Ronald W; Maxim, L Daniel

    2011-09-01

    This paper summarizes available data on worker exposures to asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica (quartz) [hereinafter RCS] over a 30-year period in Owens Corning's asphalt production and roofing manufacturing plants. For the period 1977 through 2006, the air-monitoring database contains more than 1,400 personal samples for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), 2,400 personal samples for total particulate, and 1,300 personal samples for RCS. Unique process-job categories were identified for the asphalt production and roofing shingle manufacturing plants. Quantitative exposures were tabulated by agent, process-job, and calendar period to form an exposure matrix for use in subsequent epidemiologic studies of the respiratory health of these workers. Analysis of time trends in exposure data shows substantial and statistically significant exposure reductions for asphalt fume (soluble fraction), total particulate matter, and respirable crystalline silica at Owens Corning plants. Cumulative distribution plots for the most recent sampling period (2001-2006) show that 95% of the asphalt fume (soluble fraction) measurements were less than 0.25 mg/m3; 95% of the total particulate measurements were less than 2.2 mg/m3; and 95% of the RCS measurements were less than 0.05 mg/m3. Several recommendations are offered to improve the design of future monitoring efforts.

  9. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Kuei Tseng, Hsien Chang Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series burning tests, the fuel saving can be over 8~15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of varies emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will leading a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, that means the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effectively. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  10. Effects of the toxicity of mineral oil and solvent emulsifier upon sea fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Koichiro; Masuda, Nobuto

    1982-01-01

    The solvent emulsifier does not solely exist in the sea water but in a state necessarily mixed with spilt oil. In the present experiment, therefore, we are going to discuse the effects of toxicity, respectively with fish and with mineral oil, through the observations of the fishes bred in the sea water containing mineral oils and solvent emulsifier.

  11. Properties of Polyacrylate Latex Prepared Under Different Emulsified Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lijun; WU Fengqin

    2012-01-01

    The polyacrylate latexes were synthesized via pre-emulsified and semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization technology when conventional surfactant or polymerizable surfactant was used as emulsifiers.The resultant latexes and their films were characterized with the contact angle determinator and rheometer.Effect of the polymerizable surfactant on water resistance,stability and rheology of the latex was studied.Results show that the water resistance of film is increased first then decreased with the increase of the amount of the polymerizable surfactant.There exists the optimum value of the amount of the polymerizable surfactant for the water resistance of the film.In comparison with the latex prepared with the conventional surfactant,both the mechanical stability and the freezing-thaw stability of the latex are improved when the polymerizable surfactant is used during the course of the emulsion polymerization.The resultant latex has rheological properties of pseudo-plastic fluid and belongs to non-Newtonian fluid.

  12. Spectroscopic Evaluation of Effects of Heat Treatments on the Structures and Emulsifying Properties of Caseins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; WANG Peng-jie; LEI Xin-gen; YANG Hong-ju; ZHANG Lu-da; REN Fa-zheng; ZHENG Li-min

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment(heating temperature and pH) on the structures and emulsifying properties of caseins were systematically studied by spectroscopy.Heat treatment from 60 to 100 ℃ resulted in an increase in their fluorescence intensity,hydrodynamic diameter,turbidity and emulsifying activity index,but decreased the size polydispersity of caseins.In the pH range of 5.5 to 7.0,the fluorescence intensity,hydrodynamic diameter,turbidity and emulsifying properties decreased with increased heating pH,but the size polydispersity of caseins increased with increased pH.The relationship between the surface fluorescence intensity and emulsifying activity was also investigated,revealing a correlation coefficient of 0.90.These results suggested that heat treatment could be used to modify the structures and emulsifying properties of caseins by appropriately selecting heating conditions.

  13. Professionalising the asphalt construction process: aligning information technologies, operators' knowledge and laboratory practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank Roland

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the need to professionalise the asphalt construction process. A distinctive action research strategy is designed and carried out to progressively improve operational strategies of asphalt teams from technological, human (operator) and laboratory perspectives. Using informatio

  14. The Effect of Joint Width on Structural Performance of Asphalt Block Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelgalil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt blocks have been occasionally used around the world as a road pavement, but there have been very limited studies being done to evaluate the effect of joint width (spacing between the blocks on the structural performance of asphalt paving blocks. This study explains the experimental study to assess the performance and properties of asphalt paving blocks laid with different joint widths between the blocks i.e., 0, 2 and 3 mm, respectively. A total of 250 asphalt paving blocks was manufactured and tested in the laboratory to ascertain the density, air voids, the compressive strength and the rut depth and displacement occurred in asphalt paving block. The design compressive load of single asphalt paving block is 166 kN. The test results showed that the joint width plays a vital role on the performance of asphalt block pavement. Asphalt paving blocks were laid as closely in contact as possible (0 mm yields the best structural performance.

  15. 21 CFR 524.1742 - N-(Mercaptomethyl) phthalimide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid. 524.1742 Section 524.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid. (a) Specifications. The emulsifiable liquid contains 11.6 percent N... available at most fertilizer dealers as 0-45-0 or 0-46-0. Stir the dip thoroughly, preferably with...

  16. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  17. Application and Analysis of Emulsified Bitumen Slurry Seal in Maintenance of Highway%乳化沥青稀浆封层在公路养护中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2014-01-01

    Abrasion and deterioration problem often happens in the use of a period of time for most of the asphalt pavement due to long-term suffers from the vehicle load. The applied technology of emulsified bitumen slurry seal can make the pavement has a high wear-resistant performance, skid resista-nce performance and waterproof performance, in order to achieve the purpose of maintaining. This article analyses the application of emulsified bitumen slurry seal in maintenance of highway.%由于长期承受车辆的载荷作用,大部分沥青路面在使用一段时间后会出现路面的磨损、老化问题。沥青路面应用乳化沥青稀浆封层,可以使沥青路面具有耐磨、抗滑、防水等能力,以达到养护的目的。本文分析了乳化沥青稀浆封层在公路养护中的应用。

  18. Using Pyrolized Carbon Black (PCB) from Waste Tires in Asphalt Pavement (Part 1, Limestone Aggregate)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Taesoon; Lovell, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    This study presents the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt concrete. Different ratios of PCB (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of asphalt) were blended with two grades of asphalt (AC-10 and AC-20). The complete behaviors of the PCB modified asphalt concrete were investigated by comprehensive laboratory testing and evaluation. The Marshall method was used to determine the optimum binder content and the mechanical properties and void relationships were investigated by th...

  19. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Bing; Zhao Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  20. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Ji; Hui Yao; Luhou Liu; Zhi Suo; Peng Zhai; Xu Yang; Zhanping You

    2017-01-01

    The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH) and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90), and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt) were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were establis...

  1. Research on the relationship between water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Bing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early destruction of asphalt pavement, water damage is the most major form.In this paper, experimental study was conducted on the composition of asphalt concrete,Marshall specimens were made in different types of aggregate gradation with the same kind of asphalt. Water immersion tests were conducted in order to analysis the relationship between the water stability and aggregate gradation of asphalt pavement.

  2. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-01-01

    The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fib...

  3. Study on Process for Manufacturing Heavy Traffic Asphalt from Gudong Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zijun; Long Jun; She Yucheng

    2004-01-01

    The Gudong crude from Gudao oil-bearing region in the Shengli oilfield was used as the target for studying the process of manufacturing heavy traffic road asphalt. The heavy traffic road asphalt products can be made from Gudong crude through blending residuum from mild thermal conversion of vacuum resid with extract, blending the deoiled asphalt from VR propane deasphalting with vacuum resid and the extract, and blending of oxidizedhard asphalt originated from VR with the extract.

  4. Structural and Thermal Analysis of Asphalt Solar Collector Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jinshah Basheer Sheeba; Ajith Krishnan Rohini

    2014-01-01

    The collection of solar energy using asphalt pavements has got a wide importance in the present energy scenario. Asphalt pavements subjected to solar radiation can reach temperature up to 70°C because of their excellent heat absorbing property. Many working parameters, such as pipe diameter, pipe spacing, pipe depth, pipe arrangement, and flow rate, influence the performance of asphalt solar collector. Existing literature on thermal energy extraction from asphalt pavements is based on the sma...

  5. Asphalt fume exposure levels in North American asphalt production and roofing manufacturing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axten, Charles W; Fayerweather, William E; Trumbore, David C; Mueller, Dennis J; Sampson, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    This study extends by 8 years (1998-2005) a previous survey of asphalt fume exposures within North American asphalt processing and roofing product manufacturing workers. It focuses on characterizing personal, full-shift samples and seeks to address several limitations of the previous survey. Five major roofing manufacturers with established occupational health programs submitted workplace asphalt fume sampling results to a central repository for review and analysis. A certified industrial hygienist-led quality assurance team oversaw the data collection, consolidation, and analysis efforts. The analysis dataset consisted of 1261 personal exposure samples analyzed for total particulate (TP) and benzene soluble fraction (BSF) using existing NIOSH methods. For BSF, the survey's arithmetic (0.25 mg/m(3), SD = 0.62) and geometric (0.12 mg/m(3), GSD = 2.88) means indicate that the industry has sustained the control levels achieved in the late 1980s, early 1990s. Similar results were found for TP. The survey-wide summary statistics are consistent with other post-1990 multi-company exposure studies. Although these findings indicate that currently available controls are capable of achieving substantial (95%) compliance with the current threshold limit value in asphalt processing and inorganic shingle and roll plants, they also show that the majority of plants are not achieving this level of exposure control, and that exposures are significantly higher in plants making other product lines, particularly organic felt products. The current retrospective survey of existing company exposure data, like its predecessor, has several important limitations. These include lack of data on smaller manufacturers and on several commercially important product lines; insufficient information on the prevalence and effectiveness of engineering controls; no standard criteria by which to define and assess exposures in non-routine operations; and a paucity of exposure data collected as part of a

  6. Performances and Durability of Asphalt Mixtures Made with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Noferini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    According to most recent surveys, 265 mil tonnes of asphalt for road applications were produced in the European area in 2014. In the same year, the amount of available RAP was more than 50 mil tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. In spite of its economic and environmental benefits, the use of RAP is often subjected to restrictive policies pursued by agencies due to uncertainty related to RAP mixes field per...

  7. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road: How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surfac

  8. 40 CFR 436.60 - Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphaltic mineral subcategory. 436.60 Section 436.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphaltic Mineral Subcategory § 436.60 Applicability; description of the asphaltic mineral subcategory....

  9. Research on fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete based on double-K fracture criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Qian, Z. D.; Xue, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    After cracks appear on steel bridge deck epoxy asphalt concrete pavement, cracks propagate fast under vehicle load. This paper studied the fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete, utilized single edge notched beam (SEB) three-point bending test, measured the load (P) exerted on epoxy asphalt SEB; utilized digital camera to record the fracture process of epoxy asphalt SEB, extracted the images according to the required sampling frequency and utilized Image-Pro Plus to measure the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of epoxy asphalt SEB on the extracted images; calculated the double-K fracture parameters according to the P-CMOD curve. Results indicate that of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.11 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 2.31 MPa at -15°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.02 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.83 MPa at -5°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 0.77 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.82 MPa at 5°C. The double-K fracture parameters of epoxy asphalt concrete increase slightly when the temperature decreases at the scope of -15°C to 5°C. The relation of and is .

  10. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  11. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr Nikolajevitsj

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt la

  12. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  13. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  14. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Other Requirements and... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * *...

  16. Image analysis of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture%Image analysis of aggregate, mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADHIKARI Sanjeev; YOU Zhan-ping; HAO Pei-wen; WANG Hai-nian

    2013-01-01

    The shape characterization and spatial distribution of aggregate,mastic and air void phases for asphalt mixture were analyzed.Three air void percentage asphalt mixtures,4%,7% and 8%,respectively,were cut into cross sections and polished.X-ray scanning microscope was used to capture aggregate,mastic,air void phase by the image.The average of polygon diameter was chosen as a threshold to determine which aggregates would be retained on a given sieve.The aggregate morphological image from scanned image was utilized by digital image processing method to calculate the gradation of aggregate and simulate the real gradation.Analysis result shows that the air void of asphalt mixture has influence on the correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation.When comparing 4.75 mm sieve size of 4%,7% and 8% air void asphalt mixtures,7% air void asphalt mixture has 55% higher than actual size gradation,8% air void asphalt mixture has 8% higher than actual size gradation,and 4% air void asphalt mixture has 3.71% lower than actual size gradation.4% air void asphalt mixture has the best correlation between calculation gradation and actual gradation comparing to other specimens.The air void percentage of asphalt mixture has no obvious influence on the air void orientation,and three asphalt mixtures show the similar air orientation along the same direction.4 tabs,7 figs,17 refs.

  17. Inhalation and dermal exposure among asphalt paving workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, M D; Rinehart, R D; Ngo, L; Eisen, E A; Kelsey, K T; Herrick, R F

    2004-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify determinants of inhalation and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among asphalt paving workers. The study population included three groups of highway construction workers: 20 asphalt paving workers, as well as 12 millers and 6 roadside construction workers who did not work with hot-mix asphalt. During multiple consecutive work shifts, personal air samples were collected from each worker's breathing zone using a Teflon filter and cassette holder connected in series with an XAD-2 sorbent tube, while dermal patch samples were collected from the underside of each worker's wrist. All exposure samples were analyzed for PACs, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Inhalation and dermal PAC exposures were highest among asphalt paving workers. Among paving workers, inhalation and dermal PAC exposures varied significantly by task, crew, recycled asphalt product (RAP) and work rate (inhalation only). Asphalt mix containing high RAP was associated with a 5-fold increase in inhalation PAC exposures and a 2-fold increase in dermal PAC exposure, compared with low RAP mix. The inhalation PAC exposures were consistent with the workers' proximity to the primary source of asphalt fume (paver operators > screedmen > rakers > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among paver operators (5.0 microg/m3, low RAP; 24 microg/m3, high RAP) were 12 times higher than among roller operators (0.4 microg/m3, low RAP; 2.0 microg/m3, high RAP). The dermal PAC exposures were consistent with the degree to which the workers have actual contact with asphalt-contaminated surfaces (rakers > screedmen > paver operators > roller operators), such that the adjusted mean exposures among rakers (175 ng/cm2, low RAP; 417 ng/cm2, high RAP) were approximately 6 times higher than among roller operators (27 ng/cm2, low RAP; 65 ng/cm2, high RAP). Paving task, RAP content and crew were also found to be significant determinants of

  18. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  19. Performance evaluation of high modulus asphalt concrete mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritonovs, V.; Tihonovs, J.; Zaumanis, M.

    2016-04-01

    Dolomite is one of the most available sedimentary rocks in the territory of Latvia. Dolomite quarries contain about 1000 million tons of this material. However, according to Latvian Road Specifications, this dolomite cannot be used for average and high intensity roads because of its low quality (mainly, LA index). Therefore, mostly imported magmatic rocks (granite, diabase, gabbro, basalt) or imported dolomite are used which makes asphalt expensive. However, practical experience shows that even with these high quality materials roads exhibit rutting, fatigue and thermal cracks. The aim of the research is to develop a high performance asphalt concrete for base and binder courses using only locally available aggregates. In order to achieve resistance against deformations at a high ambient temperature, a hard grade binder was used. Workability, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance, as well as sufficient water resistance is achieved by low porosity (3-5%) and higher binder content compared to traditional asphalt mixtures. The design of the asphalt includes a combination of empirical and performance based tests, which in laboratory circumstances allow simulating traffic and environmental loads. High performance AC 16 base asphalt concrete was created using local dolomite aggregate with polymer modified (PMB 10/40-65) and hard grade (B20/30) bitumen. The mixtures were specified based on fundamental properties in accordance to EN 13108-1 standard.

  20. An Approach for Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Evaluation in Asphalt Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Thongram, Sonika

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue due to vehicular loads is one of the primary distress mechanisms in asphalt pavements. It happens primarily due to deterioration in asphalt material with load repetitions. Degradation of asphalt material may be evaluated using different parameters. In view of degradation, the incremental damage in a given pavement section would be different for different repetitions, even with same loadings. Therefore, the damage progression becomes nonlinear with repetitions. Accounting such nonlinearity in damage accumulation, and based on different damage evaluation parameters, this paper presents an equivalent approach for fatigue damage evaluation in asphalt pavements. Traditional fatigue equation adopted in mechanistic-empirical pavement design has been used in the present work. Four different criteria, namely number of load repetitions, asphalt stiffness reduction, strain enhancement and fatigue life reduction with repetitions are considered for damage estimation. The proposed approach could estimate same value of nonlinear damage, irrespective of the criteria used. The simplest form of criterion i.e. the number of load repetitions can be used for fatigue performance evaluation. Probabilistically, the damage propagation is also correlated and assessed with the failure probability.

  1. Tetrapyrroles and associated compounds in Dead Sea asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenshtat, Z. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel); Dinur, D.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    Metallo- and free porphyrins (1000 to 1500 ppM) isolated from asphalts occurring as huge blocks floating in the northern part of the Dead Sea, have been analyzed by visible-uv (v-uv) spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry. The concentration of vanadyl porphyrins in the asphalts exceeds by far that of the Ni-porphyrins, despite the l:3 V/Ni ratio found in the total asphalt sample. The free porphyrins resemble those from the Uinta Basin (USA) gilsonite and contain a mixture of homologous Aetio- and deoxyphyllo-erythroaetioporphyrins (DPEP). The non-porphyrin fraction of the asphalt showed an identical aliphatic, hydrocarbon distribution with that of heavy crude oil from the same area. The more polar fraction associated with the porphyrins was compared with the polar fraction of the previously described ozokerite from the Dead Sea area. From high-resolution MS, IR, v-uv and NMR spectra, combined with hydrolysis and GLC analysis, it is suggested that even-numbered (C/sub 12/, C/sub 16/, C/sub 18/, C/sub 18/ /sub 1/, C/sub 22/) fatty acids are associated with the asphaltic porphyrins, probably in the triglyceride form.

  2. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  3. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  4. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  5. Aqueous leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bitumen and asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; de Groot, P C

    2001-12-01

    The application of bitumen in, e.g. asphalt roads, roofs and hydraulic applications will lead to the leaching of compounds from the bitumen/asphalt into the environment. Because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in bitumen, static and dynamic leach tests have been performed to study the leaching behaviour of this class of compounds. Nine petroleum bitumens covering a representative range of commercially available products and one asphalt made from one of the bitumens have been tested in a static leach test. The asphalt has been also subjected to a dynamic leach test. The main conclusions are that a 30h dynamic leach test is sufficient to determine the equilibrium concentration that will be reached after bitumen or asphalt has been in contact with the water for more than 3-6 days. As an alternative to performing a leach test, this concentration can be calculated from the PAH concentrations in the bitumen, and their distribution coefficients, as calculated here, or from their aqueous solubilities. The equilibrium PAH concentrations in the leach water from bitumens stay well below the surface water limits that exist in several EEC-countries and are also more than an order of magnitude lower than the current EEC limits for potable water.

  6. Determination of Rheological Properties of Bio Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high oil prices the price of asphalt binder has increased tremendously. This scenario has warranted demand for higher viscosity cheaper asphalt for pavement construction. A study was conducted to take advantage of the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB of Date and Oil Palm trees (which are considered as waste to produce cellulose fiber to be used as additives in the asphalt binder. If these EFB's could be beneficially utilized in any application, it would reduce the load on the nation's landfills and at the same time reducing the cost of road construction. A total of 11 blends were prepared that consisted of 5 blends with date palm fiber, 5 blends with oil palm fiber and one control sample that contained no fibers. The samples were evaluated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR equipment in accordance with the superpave Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP requirements. The neat asphalt binders (Unaged, Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO aged and Pressure Ageing Vessel (PAV samples were then measured for phase angle, shear strain and complex shear modulus and then evaluated in accordance with SHRP requirements. The results indicated that the fibers enhanced the rheological performance of Bio Mastic Asphalt (BMA blends. The control sample which was categorized as PG58 was enhanced to PG76 with 0.375% date palm fiber. The oil palm has also improved the blend up to PG70 with 0.3% oil palm fiber.

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  8. Effect of emulsifier type, pH and iron on oxidative stability of 5% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using different emulsifiers on lipid oxidation in 5% w/w fish oil‐in‐water emulsions was investigated. Emulsifiers included two of milk protein origin (whey protein isolate (Whey) or sodium caseinate (Cas)), soy lecithin (Lec) or emulsifiers high in milk phospholipid (20 or 75......%). Forty different emulsions were produced with the five different emulsifiers. For each emulsifier, emulsions were prepared at two concentrations (0.2 and 0.75 wt%) at pH 3 or 7 and with or without added iron. Emulsions were stored in closed bottles in the dark at RT (20°C) for up to 7 days (with added...

  9. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...... consists of three stages: the problem definition stage, the model - based design stage, and the experiment - based verification stage. In the probl em definition stage, the consumer needs are trans- lated into a set of target thermo - physical properties and into a list of categories of ingre- dients...... formulation are measured by means of tailor - made exp eriments. The formulation is then validated or, if necessary, re- fined thanks to a systematic list of action. The problem definition stage relies on a robust knowledge base, which needs to system- atically generate quantitative, useful input information...

  10. Advances in the generation of a new emulsified fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A. [Technical Consultancy, Energy Plus UC, Huitzilac, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Aseguramiento de Hidrocarburos, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Termofluidos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bolado, R.; Mora, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Combustion, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The development of a new emulsified fuel is described, from the conceptual idea to the semi-industrial tests of the final product. The starting point was the necessity to lower the particulate matter (PM) emissions produced by the combustion of more than 200 MBD of heavy fuel oil (HFO) used for electric power conversion. The major component of HFO is a vacuum residue of the oil refining process mixed with light cycle oils to make it pumpable. An alternative to handle and burn the high viscosity residue (solid at room temperature) is by converting it in an oil-in-water emulsion. The best emulsions resulted of 70% residue in 30% water, Sauter Mean Diameter of 10-20 {mu}m and a stability of more than 90 days. Spray burning tests of the emulsion against HFO in a semi-industrial 500 kW furnace showed a reduction in PM emissions of 24-36%. (orig.)

  11. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  12. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  13. Emulsified lipids: formulation and control of end-use properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal-Calderon Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In many practical applications including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc., lipids are emulsified in an aqueous phase in the presence of surface-active molecules and other additives like thickening/gelling agents. Once fabricated, the emulsions may exhibit all kinds of rheological behaviors from viscous fluid to elastic pastes, and transitions: reversible phase transitions as a result of droplet interactions that may be modified to a large extent, and irreversible transitions that generally involve their destruction. Besides the predominance of empiricism in controlling most of the end-use properties, the scientific background of emulsions is progressing. In this paper we aim to review some advances concerning the control of the structure, the texture (rheological properties and the ageing of emulsions.

  14. Preparation Technology of Multifunctional Emulsifying Wax%多功能乳化蜡的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大维; 王坤

    2011-01-01

    The formirig principle and prospect of market application have been introduced. The preparation technological conditions have been studied. The main factors are analyzed affecting the stability of wax emulsion,such as the types and dosage of emulsifying agents used, emulsifying temperature, mixing speed, emulsifying time,etc. The content of the complex emulsifying agent is 7% ,emulsifying temperature is 85℃, mixing speed is 1 000 r/rain, emulsifying 30 min, under such conditions, emulsifying wax with good stability and dispersibility can be got.%介绍了乳化蜡的形成原理以及市场应用前景,并研究了乳化蜡的制备工艺条件,其中乳化剂的种类及其用量、乳化温度、搅拌速度、乳化时间等是影响乳化蜡稳定性的主要因素.得出在选用复合乳化剂用量为7%,乳化温度为85℃,在1000r/min的搅拌速度下,乳化30 min,可以制备出稳定性以及分散性好的乳化蜡.

  15. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  16. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  17. STATE OF TRANSPORT PROCESSES FOR REPAIRING AND ASPHALTING OF ASPHALT ROADS AND WAYS THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev N. N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the transport process when performing repair jobs of asphalt roads. The scheme of the technological process was drawn up; job steps were identified, while the latter may be characterized by non-productive downtime of transport as well as that one of technological machines. We have analyzed the following steps of the flowchart of the road concrete mix transportation: the preparation of the road concrete mix for transportation, loading, transportation, unloading, laying and packing. The transportation of goods starts at the working site of their production and ends at the site of their consumption. The transportation process is a multistep and multioperational process having the greater diversity of technological, operational and economic operations, which must be correctly organized. It is extremely important to deliver the road concrete mix of coating plant (OP just in time, while avoiding the unproductive idle standing of the equipment, the deterioration of the mixture, as well as performing the job steps at minimum transportation cost savings. The successful combining of the steps of the concept organization of the road concrete mix transportation (coating plant, asphalt laying step, transportation step will improve the performance and will provide the reduction of the job cost. One must perform the coordination of job steps on different road sections using information technologies and communication facility

  18. Production of De-asphalted Oil and Fine Asphalt Particles by Supercritical Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锁奇; 许志明; 王仁安

    2003-01-01

    A continuous three-stage supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process with a capacity of 1.0kg.h-1 was setup to extract petroleum residue by pentane to obtain more oil for further upgrading. A discharging system integrated to the bottom of the extractor was used to recover solvent as gas while asphalt was obtained as fine particles. The influence of operating conditions on the yield and quality of extracts, i.e., deasphalted oil (DAO) and resin, was studied in the range of temperature 150-220℃, pressure of 4.0-6.0 MPa and the mass ratio of solvent to oil feed (S/O) 2.5-5.0. The particle size distribution, apparent forms and the packing density, which vary with operating pressure, were measured. The particle structures were observed by SEM as well. With the modification to conventional processes, furnace can be eliminated for solvent recovery from asphalt phase, so as to reduce energy consumption.

  19. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  20. Possibilities of preparation asphalt concrete by oil sands of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbol Tileuberdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper physicochemical properties of oil sands of Munayli-Mola deposits and efficient ways to use them for preparing asphalt concrete were represented. For determination of organic part of oil sands the extraction methods were used in Soxhlet apparatus by variety of solvents. It has been established 16 wt.% content of natural bitumen in oil sands, which compared with results of ash content determination. According to results of experiment, the natural bitumen is heavy oil and its characteristics close to characteristics of paving bitumen. The optimum content of oil sands in asphalt mix are 28 and 47 mass %, the mixes prepared under these conditions satisfy standard requirements of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the asphalt mixture ST RK 1225-2003.

  1. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  2. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámek, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E*) measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ɛ6). The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  3. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  4. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, Nikoleta; Markova, Daniela; Murdzheva, Dilyana; Vasileva, Ivelina; Slavov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase) with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  5. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheva Nikoleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  6. Open Graded Asphalt Mixture Design for Environmentally Friendly Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Suryoto; Sumarsono, A.; Widyastuti, S.

    2017-02-01

    The road is an important infrastructure to support various economic development. By increasing the population, the constructions of road infrastructure are obviously required and cover more land use area, consequently narrowed the areas for water absorption into the land. Therefore, it is necessary to improve more environmentally friendly of road constructions, in this case is by using open graded asphalt. Open graded asphalt is the mixture of asphalt with low fine aggregate content to produce a high percentage of air voids, which expected to be able to absorb water into the land underneath. This observation uses laboratory experiment method. Materials that are used are natural gravel and the volcanic gravel, 60/70 asphalt penetration and stone dust filler. The tests performed for the samples are Marshall test, falling head water permeability, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The optimum bitumen content for each type of aggregate have been found to be 2.95% for natural gravel and 4.65% for volcanic gravel. Open graded asphalt porosity is 26.52% for natural gravel, whereas the volcanic gravel is 22.31%. The vertical and horizontal permeability for natural gravel are 1.25 cm/second and 0.92 cm/second, respectively. Whereas, for the volcanic gravel is 1.43 cm/second and 1.10 cm/second, respectively. Indirect tensile strength (ITS) value for natural gravel is 59.49 KPa whereas the volcanic gravel is 74.84 KPa. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) value for natural gravel is 1070.63 KPa, whereas the volcanic gravel is 1120.69 KPa. It is concluded that the open graded porous asphalt is only compatible for low volume traffic road and need improvement to be able to be used as standard road.

  7. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  8. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    CERN Document Server

    Fossez, K; Nazarewicz, W; Michel, N; Garrett, W R; Płoszajczak, M

    2016-01-01

    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as extreme halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-molecule problem using a non-adiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational ban...

  9. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90, and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were established, and the adhesion work was calculated subsequently. The energy ratios were built to evaluate the effect of organic additives and water on the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface. The results indicate that the addition of organic additives can enhance the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry conditions, because organic additives reduced the surface free energy of asphalt. However, the organic additives have hydrophobic characteristics and are sensitive to water. As a result, the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface of the asphalt containing organic additives in wet conditions sharply decreased due to water damage to asphalt and organic additives. Furthermore, the compatibility of asphalt, aggregate with organic additive was noted and discussed.

  10. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  11. [Biological monitoring of PAH exposure among asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Calisti, Roberto; Polledri, Elisa; Barretta, Francesco; Stopponi, Roberta; Massacesi, Stefania; Bertazzi, Pieralberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this work was the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in asphalt workers. Median levels of 1-OHPyr resulted higher in asphalt workers than in controls (184 vs. < 20 ng/L, p < 0.001). The determinants of exposure of 1-OHPyr resulted smoking habit, the number of consecutive days at work and the job task; 1-OHPyr was also associated to urinary creatinine. End of work week 1-OHPyr is suggested as an useful indicator of occupational exposure to PAHs in bitumen fumes.

  12. Characterization and thermal behavior of polymer-modified asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Cavalcante Lucena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A styrene-butadiene-styrene modified asphalt cement was characterized by infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and empirical tests such as ring and ball softening point, penetration and elastic recovery. After aging in the rolling thin-film oven, the polymer-modified asphalt presented structural changes relating to oxidation of the material. The infrared spectra showed an increase in hydroxyl groups and the formation of carbonyl compounds and sulphoxides. The percentage of crystallized fraction calculated from differential scanning calorimetry was 0.41%. Thermogravimetric analyses in inert and oxidative atmospheres revealed distinct events during thermal decomposition; the initial activation energies were similar, but changed as the process evolved.

  13. Criteria for asphalt-rubber concrete in civil airport pavements: Mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F. L.; Lytton, R. L.; Hoyt, D.

    1986-07-01

    A mixture design procedure is developed to allow the use of asphalt-rubber binders in concrete for flexible airport pavement. The asphalt-rubber is produced by reacting asphalt with ground, scrap tire rubber to produce the binder for the asphalt-rubber concrete. Procedures for laboratory preparation of alsphalt-rubber binders using an equipment setup that was found by researchers to produce laboratory binders with similar properties to field processes are included. The rubber-asphalt concrete mixture design procedure includes adjustments to the aggregate gradation to permit space for the rubber particles in the asphalt-rubber binder as well as suggested mixing and compaction temperatures, and compaction efforts. While the procedure was used in the laboratory to successfully produce asphalt-rubber concrete mixtures, it should be evaluated in the field to ensure that consistent results can be achieved in a production environment.

  14. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... the effects of porous asphalt on nine different risk factors associated with accident occurrence were also reviewed. It was found that four of the risk factors were favourably influenced by porous asphalt, three were adversely influenced, and two were not influenced by porous asphalt. The net impact...

  15. [Anesthetic management in a patient with head and neck burn by asphalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Niiyama, Yukitoshi; Tokinaga, Yasuyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2013-10-01

    In cases of facial burns caused by molten asphalt, examination for possible airway burns and early removal of the asphalt should be carried out to prevent chemical-induced tissue damage and infection. However, asphalt that has adhered to tissues is difficult to remove. A 35-year-old male with burns caused by molten asphalt was scheduled for emergency debridement. He had 6% body surface area burns on his face and neck. He was not able to open his eyes due to the adherence of asphalt. His respiratory condition was stable and a perioperative fiberoptic view revealed no airway burns. After awake intubation, orange peel oil was used to remove the asphalt from his face and eyes. Since orange peel oil does not contain any harmful substances, it is effective for removing asphalt without causing tissue damage.

  16. The humoral immune response of mice exposed to simulated road paving-like asphalt fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Munson, Albert E; Tomblyn, Seth; Meade, B Jean; Diotte, Nicole M

    2008-07-01

    Asphalt is a complex mixture of organic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which have been reported to cause serious adverse health effects in humans. Workers in manufacturing and construction trades exposed to asphalt are potentially at risk for being exposed to asphalt fumes and PAHs. Epidemiological investigations have collected mounting evidence that chemicals found in asphalt fumes present carcinogenic and possibly immunotoxic hazards. Studies evaluating the immunotoxic effects of asphalt fume are limited due to the large number of variables associated with asphalt fume exposures. This work investigates the immuno-toxic effects of road paving-like asphalt fume by analyzing the in vivo IgM response to a T-dependent antigen after exposure to whole, vapor, and particulate phase road paving-like asphalt fumes and asphalt fume condensate. Systemic exposures via intraperitoneal injection of asphalt fume condensate (at 0.625 mg/kg) and the particulate phase (at 5 mg/kg) resulted in significant reductions in the specific spleen IgM response to SRBC. Pharyngeal aspiration of the asphalt fume condensate (at 5 mg/kg) also resulted in significant suppression of the IgM response to SRBC. A significant reduction in the specific spleen IgM activity was observed after inhalation exposure to whole asphalt fumes (35 mg/m(3)) and the vapor components (11 mg/m(3)). Dermal exposures to the asphalt fume condensate resulted in significant reductions in the total (at 50 mg/kg) and specific (at 250 mg/kg) spleen IgM response to SRBC. These results demonstrate that exposure to road paving-like asphalt fumes is immunosuppressive through systemic, respiratory, and dermal routes of exposure in a murine model and raise concerns regarding the potential for adverse immunological effects.

  17. Analysis of Adhesive Characteristics of Asphalt Based on Atomic Force Microscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng; Huang, Yudong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-05-18

    Asphalt binder is a very important building material in infrastructure construction; it is commonly mixed with mineral aggregate and used to produce asphalt concrete. Owing to the large differences in physical and chemical properties between asphalt and aggregate, adhesive bonds play an important role in determining the performance of asphalt concrete. Although many types of adhesive bonding mechanisms have been proposed to explain the interaction forces between asphalt binder and mineral aggregate, few have been confirmed and characterized. In comparison with chemical interactions, physical adsorption has been considered to play a more important role in adhesive bonding between asphalt and mineral aggregate. In this study, the silicon tip of an atomic force microscope was used to represent silicate minerals in aggregate, and a nanoscale analysis of the characteristics of adhesive bonding between asphalt binder and the silicon tip was conducted via an atomic force microscopy (AFM) test and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the measurements and simulations could help in better understanding of the bonding and debonding procedures in asphalt-aggregate mixtures during hot mixing and under traffic loading. MD simulations on a single molecule of a component of asphalt and monocrystalline silicon demonstrate that molecules with a higher atomic density and planar structure, such as three types of asphaltene molecules, can provide greater adhesive strength. However, regarding the real components of asphalt binder, both the MD simulations and AFM test indicate that the colloidal structural behavior of asphalt also has a large influence on the adhesion behavior between asphalt and silicon. A schematic model of the interaction between asphalt and silicon is presented, which can explain the effect of aging on the adhesion behavior of asphalt.

  18. Effects of asphalt rejuvenator on thermal and mechanical properties on oxidized hot mixed asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Nicholas A.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of asphalt rejuvenator, and its effectiveness for restoring thermal and mechanical properties was investigated via Disk-shaped Compact Tension (DC(T)) and acoustic emission (AE) testing for determining mechanical properties and embrittlement temperatures of the mixtures. During the DC(T) testing the fracture energies and peak loads were used to measure the resistance of the rejuvenated asphalt to low temperature cracking. The AE testing monitored the acoustic emission activity while the specimens were cooled from room temperature to -40 °C to estimate the temperature at which thermal cracking began (i.e. the embrittlement temperature). First, a baseline response was obtained by obtaining the mechanical and thermal response of virgin HMA samples and HMA samples that had been exposed to oxidative aging for 36 hours at 135°C. The results showed the virgin samples had much higher peak loads and fracture energies than the 36 hours aged samples. Acoustic Emission showed similar results with the virgin samples having embrittlement temperatures 10 °C cooler than the 36 hours aged specimens. Then, overaged for 36 hours specimens were treated different amounts of rejuvenator (10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of binder content) and left to dwell for increased amount of time periods varying from one to eight weeks. It was observed that the AE results showed an improvement of embrittlement temperature with increasing with the dwell times. The 8 weeks specimens had cooler embrittlement temperatures than the virgin specimens. Finally, the low temperature effects on fracture energy and peak load of the rejuvenated asphalt was investigated. Rejuvenator was applied (10% by weight of binder) to specimens aged 36 hours at 135 °C, and the dwell time was varied from 1 to 4 weeks. The results showed that the peak loads were restored to levels of the virgin specimens, and the fracture energies improved to levels beyond that of the virgin specimens. The results also showed a

  19. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  20. Experimental research on influence of emulsifier on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosives under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-yao; YAN Shi-long; WU Hong-bo; YUAN Sheng-fang

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic pressure was applied on emulsion explosive by using an underwater explosion measuring apparatus, and the crystallization quantity was measured by dissolution method after emulsion explosive was pressed; the influence of emulsi fier content and type was analyzed. The experimental results show that emulsifier content and type have an important effect on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosive. The crystallization quantity will reduce with Span-80 content from 2% to 4%, so the demulsification and crystallization will decrease if the emulsifier content improves appropriately and the dynamic pressure resistance will increase. For emulsion explosive emulsified by T-152 and Span-80, the crystallization quantity with T-152 is less than that of Span-80 under the same dynamic pressure. This shows that the emulsifying effect of T-152 is better than Span-80.

  1. Improvement of solubility and Emulsifying Properties of Soy Protein Isolates by Glucose Conjugotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianShaojun; LiuDongmei

    2002-01-01

    Soy Protein Isolate(SPI)was modified with glucose(G-) through the amino-carbonyl reaction (Maillard Reaction).Solubility and emulsifying properties of the modified proteins were investigated.G-SPI conjugate was highly soluble at wide pH while untreated SPI was hardly soluble especially at pH4-PH6.Solubility of modified SPI showed the resistance to heat treatment and high ionic concentration.Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of G-SPI conjugate was much higher than those of native SPI were.Comparing with some commercial emulsifiers,the G-SPI conjugate showed as good or better emulsifying properties in high salt concentration and in neutral pH.SDS-PAGE was also used to confirm the formation of G-SPI conjugate.

  2. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period.

  3. Chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin in comparison with some other food emulsifiers

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shattory, Y.; El-Magoli, Salwa B.; Abu-Ria, S. H.; Magahed, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin and other food emulsifiers (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 and Glycerol mono stéarate) were studied. The characteristics of these emulsifiers studied were solubility, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), stability index (SI), fatty acid composition and infrared spectrum. The results obtained showed that Emulfuid E and local lecithin were mixture of lecithins and phosphatidyl ethanol-amine. In addition, Triodan R 90 was a polygl...

  4. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan; , Ijah; Aga Prima Hardika

    2015-01-01

    Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG) can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm...

  5. 天然沥青改性沥青的表面自由能分析%Surface free energy analysis of asphalt modified with natural asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马峰; 郝景贤; 傅珍; 汪立龙; 汪林兵

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately evaluate the adhesion of asphalt modified with natural asphalt and aggregate,the contact angles of three liquids on the sample surface of asphalt modified with natural asphalt were measured based on sessile drop method.According to the theory of surface physical chemistry,the measuring method of polar component and dispersion component for asphalt surface free energy under the condition of room temperature was determined.The surface free energies of base asphalt and asphalts modified with different dosages of natural asphalt were calculated.The relationship between asphalt surface free energy and asphalt-aggregate adhesion grade was analyzed based on the test result by using water-boiling method.Test result shows that the surface free energies of 70 # grade A base asphalt and asphalt modified with 8% natural asphalt are 10.60,18.60 mJ ·m-2 respectively,so the surface free energy of asphalt modified with natural asphalt increases distinctly with the addition of natural asphalt.There is a good correlation between asphalt-aggregate adhesion and the surface free energy of asphalt calculated by contact angle method.The natural asphalt contains higher polar functional groups such as O, S and N etc.High contents of asphaltene and net structure can absorb the light components of base asphalt such as saturates,aromatics.The increase of surface free energy for asphalt modified with natural asphalt is attributed to the polar functional groups and the absorbing functions. 4 tabs,4 figs,23 refs.%为了准确评价天然沥青改性沥青与集料的粘附性能,采用座滴法测定了3种液体在天然沥青改性沥青试样表面的接触角,基于表面物理化学理论,确定了室温条件下沥青表面自由能极性分量和色散分量的测定方法,计算了基质沥青和不同掺量天然沥青改性沥青的表面自由能。结合水煮法试验结果,分析了沥青结合料表面自由能与沥青-集料粘附性等级的

  6. Anionic surface binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When optical whiteners are used, the application of AKD binders is recommended. In the case of paper it is possible to substitute acrylate binders by AKD binders. The best results are obtained when the paper is first partly treated in bulk and subsequently surface treated.

  7. Induction and development of the oil emulsifying system in an alkane oxidizing Rhodococcus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biotechnology, Trondheim, (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    There is a potential use of oil emulsifying bacteria for the clean-up of oil-contaminated natural environments, and oil transport and storage systems. The control mechanisms of the emulsifying abilities in these bacteria are important in relation to the optimization of such processes. A study was conducted to investigate the physiological criteria for the formation of the emulsifying activity in Rhodococcus sp. strain 094, which forms a hydrophobic cell surface when cultivated on alkanes, permitting oil-associated exponential growth. The ability of this bacteria to produce oil emulsifying agents is clearly inducible by crude oil or a number of single hydrophobic compounds. Before the cells are able to emulsify the oil, they must pass through a relatively short induction period followed by a longer period of synthesis of hydrophobic surface parts, coinciding with cell proliferation. The latter is due to the required coordination with new cell wall synthesis. If the cells are allowed to produce sufficient amounts of hydrophobic cell surface parts, they commence to emulsify the oil efficiently when the hydrophobic factor is released from the cell surface as part of their change to a more hydrophillic state. All the positive inducers were hydrophobic alkyl derivatives, and with one exception, also substrate for growth. Many of the better inducers were alkanes, and would require an alkane oxidizing system to be used by the cells. 14 ref., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Interface tuning and stabilization of monoglyceride mesophase dispersions: Food emulsifiers and mixtures efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serieye, Sébastien; Méducin, Fabienne; Milošević, Irena; Fu, Ling; Guillot, Samuel

    2017-06-15

    Several food surfactants were examined as possible efficient emulsifiers for liquid crystalline monolinolein-based particles and as alternative choices to the non-food-grade emulsifier conventionally used Pluronic® F127. We described a food emulsifiers' toolbox, investigating their ability to emulsify mesophases (stabilization capacity, particle size, zeta potential) and their impact on internal nanostructures (from swelling to drastic modifications). Among the selected surfactants, sucrose stearate (S1670) was found to be the best candidate for replacing in a long term F127 as an efficient stabilizer of lipid particles. The emulsification performed by mixing F127 with S1670 or sodium caseinate (NaCas), and S1670/NaCas helped to discriminate their respective role in the particles and so their efficiency for the stabilization. In case of S1670 as co-emulsifier no strong structural modification was observed, while using F127 (25wt% NaCas) an unexpected hexagonal mesophase was highlighted in self-assemblies. The evolution of zeta potentials by varying the mesophase and the emulsifier also informed about the distribution of co-surfactants in the particles. We thus reported submicronic nanostructured systems (from 100 to 350nm) that were fully food-grade and possibly contained limonene, with a surface charge from -70 to -5mV.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The water/oil/water multiple emulsions exhibited typical multiple structure, with relatively small volume-weighted mean droplet size 6.0 ± 0.7 μm and high self-emulsifying ability (self-emulsifying time <2 min. Encapsulation of nattokinase was up to 86.8 ± 8.2%. The cumulative release of nattokinase within 8 h was about 30%, exhibiting a sustained release effect. The pharmacodynamics study indicated that nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS could significantly prolong the whole blood clotting time in mouse and effectively improve the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis compared with nattokinase solution. Moreover, we showed that SDEDDS could successfully self-emulsify into water/oil/water multiple emulsions upon dilution in dispersion medium with gentle stirring and effectively protect nattokinase activity in gastric environment. Our findings suggested that SDEDDS could be a promising strategy for peptide and protein drugs by oral administration.

  10. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Furse, Samuel; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  11. Effects of Selected Polysorbate and Sucrose Ester Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical Properties of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80 and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate. The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.

  12. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  13. Sinopec Wins Bid for Special Asphalt for Racing Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On February 13 Sinopec and Shanghai International Circuit held a signing ceremony in Beijing for the contract to supply special asphalt for racing track use. Mr. Wang Jiming,Vice Board Chairman and President of Sinopec and Mr. Wang Tianpu, Senior Vice President of Sinopec, attended the ceremony.

  14. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Thijs; Voordijk, Hans; Sijde, van der Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  15. Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP is the reclaimed and reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. Most RAP is recycled back into pavements, and as a result there is a general lack of data pertaining to the mechanical properties for RAP in other possible applications such as Portland cement concrete. In the present study, some mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete containing RAP as coarse aggregate were investigated in the laboratory. Six concrete mixes of widely differing water/cement ratios and mix proportions were made using RAP as coarse aggregate. The properties tested include the physical properties of the RAP aggregate, the compressive and flexural strengths of the concrete. These properties were compared with those of similar concretes made with natural gravel aggregate. Results of the tests suggest that the strength of concrete made from RAP is dependent on the bond strength of the “asphalt-mortar” (asphalt binder-sand-filler matrix coatings on the aggregates and may not produce concrete with compressive strength above 25 MPa. However, for middle and low strength concrete, the material was found to compare favorably with natural gravel aggregate.

  16. Performance related characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of asphalt mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to support innovations in the field of asphalt pavement design and material selection, and to be able to evaluate or judge the risk of failure and cost-effectiveness of newly developed paving materials in order to justify their application. To be able to determine th

  17. Assessment of Water Quality of Runoff from Sealed Asphalt Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses the results of runoff tests from recently-sealed asphalt surfaces conducted at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility (UWRF) in Edison, New Jersey. Both bench-scale panels and full-scale test plots were evaluated. Full-scale tests were performed on an asp...

  18. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  19. Compressive Strength Development and Microstrueture of Cement.asphalt Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YAN Peiyu; KONG Xiangming; YANG Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    The compressive strength developing process and the microstructure of cement-asphalt mortar (CA mortar) were investigated.The fluidity of CA mortar has a great influence on its strength.The optimum value of spread diameter of slump flow test is in the range of 300 to 400 mm.The compressive strength of CA mortar keeps a relatively high growth rate in 56 days and grows slowly afterwards.The residual water of hydration in CA mortar freezes under minus environmental temperature which can lead to a significant reduction of the strength of CA mortar.Increasing A/C retards asphalt emulsion splitting and thus prolongs the setting process of CA mortar.The hydration products of cement form the major structural framework of hardened CA mortar and asphalt is a weak phase in the framework but improves the viscoelastic behavior of CA mortar.Therefore,asphalt emulsion should be used as much as possible on the condition that essential performance criterions of CA mortar are satisfied.

  20. Optimal formulations of some asphalt concrete roadway protective impregnation compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Ubas’kina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper describes optimization of the formulations of asphalt concrete roadway protective impregnation compositions based on BND 60/90 bitumen modified with petroleum resin. Physicochemical, technological and operating parameters of the prepared samples of the compositions are investigated.

  1. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  2. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossez, K.; Mao, Xingze; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.; Garrett, W. R.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2016-09-01

    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-rotor problem using a nonadiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. The rotor is treated as a linear triad of point charges with zero monopole and dipole moments and nonzero quadrupole moment. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational bands could be identified above the detachment threshold. We study the evolution of a bound state of an anion as it dives into the continuum at a critical quadrupole moment and we show that the associated critical exponent is α =2 . Everything considered, quadrupolar anions represent a perfect laboratory for the studies of marginally bound open quantum systems.

  3. Catalytic wet air oxidation for the treatment of emulsifying wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-fu; CHEN Ling; LU Yi-cheng; TANG Wen-wei

    2005-01-01

    The wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic WAO (CWAO) of the high strength emulsifying wastewater containing nonionic surfactants have been investigated in terms of COD and TOC removal. The WAO and homogeneous CWAO processes were carried out at the temperature from 433 K to 513 K, with initial oxygen pressure 1.2 MPa. It was found that homogeneous catalyst copper(Cu ( NO3 )2 )had an fairly good catalytic activity for the WAO process, and the oxidation was catalyzed when the temperature was higher than 473 K.Moreover, several heterogeneous catalysts were proved to be effective for the WAO process. At the temperature 473 K, after 2 h reaction,WAO process could achieve about 75% COD removal and 66% TOC removal, while catalysts Cu/Al2O3 and Mn-Ce/Al2O3 elevated the COD removal up to 86%-89% and that of TOC up to 82%. However, complete elimination of COD and TOC was proved to be difficult even the best non-noble catalyst was used. Therefore, the effluent from WAO or CWAO process need to be further disposed. The bioassay proved that the effluent from WAO process was amenable to the biochemical method.

  4. Changes in secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Analía V.; Ferrer, Evelina G.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2013-02-01

    Changes in the secondary structure of gluten proteins due to emulsifiers were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy. The protein folding induced by 0.25% SSL (Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate) (GS0.25, Gluten + 0.25% SSL) included an increase in α-helix conformation and a decrease in β-sheet, turns and random coil. The same behavior, although in a less degree, was observed for 0.5% gluten-DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides) system. The low burial of Tryptophan residues to a more hydrophobic environment and the low percentage area of the C-H stretching band for GS0.25 (Gluten + 0.25% SSL), could be related to the increased in α-helix conformation. This behavior was also confirmed by changes in stretching vibrational modes of disulfide bridges (S-S) and the low exposure of Tyrosine residues. High levels of SSL (0.5% and 1.0%) and DATEM (1.0%) led to more disordered protein structures, with different gluten networks. SSL (1.0%) formed a more disordered and opened gluten matrix than DATEM, the last one being laminar and homogeneous.

  5. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  6. Towards small scale use of asphalt as a fuel. An application of interest to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.

    2002-01-01

    This survey deals with the feasibility of the combustion of asphalt instead of firewood. On the seashores of the numerous islands of Indonesia, especially on those of south and southeast Sulawesi, mangrove forests are endangered by extensive logging, lately on an increasing scale by locals for whom firewood is the sole resource of energy. Urged by Yayasan-Sarna, an Indonesian non-governmental organisation of South East Sulawesi, the Dutch foundation Zephyr-Sama has prompted research on the feasibility to use asphalt from deposits on the island of Buton as a domestic fuel. This research was thought to possibly lead to the development of a porous plug stove, or to a stove in which carbonised bamboo containers filled with asphalt are used as fuel elements. This survey consists of a literature review and an overview of possible routes for controlled combustion of asphalt. Attention has been paid to the environmental effects of the combustion as well. The literature mainly shows side effects of combustion of asphalt, which provide some knowledge on the combustion process. No direct studies on the combustion of asphalt were found. To explore the bottlenecks of the combustion process, an asphalt candle was made, because the taper seemed an ideal capillary active carrier for fluid asphalt. However, this experimental candle did not bum, likely due to high viscosity at the base of the taper and clogging of carbonaceous residue at the liquid/gas interface of the taper. An increase of the porosity of asphalt gives a better chance for a propagating combustion. The pores may increase the diffusion rate of volatile components, thus increasing the combustion rate. However, if asphalt is heated it will melt and the fluid will block the pores. Its melting at a relatively low temperature is a big handicap of asphalt. To overcome this handicap, asphalt could be transported by capillary forces into the combustion zone and combust at solid/liquid/gas interfaces - like is happening in a

  7. Investigation on Flowability and Microstructure of Fresh Cement Asphalt Binder%新拌水泥沥青浆体的流动性及显微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥明; 张艳荣; 张敬义; 马晓伟; 曹恩祥; 刘永亮; 黄婉利

    2011-01-01

    研究了乳化沥青对新拌水泥沥青浆体流动性和显微结构的影响;分析测试了添加不同类型及不同掺量的乳化沥青后新拌浆体的流动性(扩展度)及水化热;采用光学显微镜原位观察了分散体系显微结构的形成及演化过程.结果表明:乳化沥青的加入可大大提高浆体的流动性和流动保持性,同时可延缓水泥水化进程;随乳化沥青掺量的增大,浆体流动性先增大后降低,流动保持性逐渐增强,诱导期逐渐延长;阴离子乳化沥青对浆体流动性和流动保持性的改善及其对水泥水化的延缓效果较阳离子乳化沥青更为显著;浆体显微结构的形成及演化包括乳化沥青颗粒对水泥颗粒的吸附、乳化沥青破乳同时伴随水泥水化等几个过程,最终形成水泥、水化产物和沥青膜互穿的有机-无机复合结构.%Influence of asphalt emulsion on the flowability and microstructure of fresh cement asphalt binder was investigated. The spread diameter of fresh cement asphalt paste with different asphalt content and type was measured. Optical microscope was used to observe the formation and evolution of the microstructure. Results show that the flowability and flow retention of the paste were significantly improved, and the time to reach peak temperature of hydration curve was delayed obviously. As the asphalt content increased, the flowability became better at first but got poorer then. The flow retention was enhanced and dormant period increased. The effect of anionic asphalt emulsion on the flowability, flow retention and microstructure was more obvious than cationic asphalt emulsion. It was proved from direct observation on fresh cement asphalt paste by optical microscope that the evolution process of microstructure included three stages:the adsorption of asphalt particles on the cement grains, the demulsification and film-forming of asphalt particles as well as the hydration of cement. The final

  8. Lymphocyte DNA damage in Turkish asphalt workers detected by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaksiz, Aysegul; Kayaalti, Zeliha; Soylemez, Esma; Tutkun, Engin; Soylemezoglu, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has a highly complex structure and it contains several organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. In this study, comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage in blood lymphocytes of 30 workers exposed to asphalt fumes and 30 nonexposed controls. This is the first report on Turkish asphalt workers' investigated DNA damage using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The DNA damage was evaluated by the percentage of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) for each cell. According to our results, workers exposed to asphalt fumes had higher DNA damage than the control group (p asphalt fumes caused a significant increase in DNA damage and the comet assay is a suitable method for determining DNA damage in asphalt workers.

  9. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao;

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers...... on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar by thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis. It is shown that the combustion of asphalt mortar is not just a linear superposition of asphalt and limestone. The limestone will increase the ignition point and the activation energy of the primary volatile release......, and will catalyze the char formation from the primary volatile release. Kinetic analysis shows that the primary volatile release stage of asphalt mortar combustion can be explained by a three-dimensional diffusion model, the secondary volatile release and char combustion stage can be explained by a model under...

  10. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  11. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  12. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  13. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  14. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  15. INVESTIGATING EFFECTS OF AMINE BASED MODIFIER ON RECYCLED ASPHALT SHINGLES BLENDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of Amine based modifier on rheological characteristics of particle filled viscous medium such as asphalt binder in presence of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS). In this study, virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22), three different percentages (20, 30 and 40%) of tear-off shingles and modifiers; Rediset, Evotherm and Bio-binder were used. The tear-off shingles acquired from local reroofing company in Greensboro, North Carolina; were finely ...

  16. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of In-Place Asphalt Recycling Technologies for Small Airfield Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recommendation of materials, equipment and process for in-place asphalt recycling Part I Laboratory Evaluation RAP Material Characterization • Binder...laboratory testing based upon their chemical properties and costs. Reclaimed asphalt pavement ( RAP ) material was obtained from both test sites for...Part I of this study was to conduct laboratory testing to:  characterize the reclaimed asphalt pavement ( RAP ) from the test sites,  evaluate how

  17. Engineering and Design: Use of Petroleum Contaminated Soil in Cold-Mix Asphalt Stabilized Base Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and construction of mixtures using petroleum contaminated soil and similar hydrocarbon waste for cold -mix asphalt stabilized base course (ASB). This...also performed an analysis using the diesel contaminated soil as part of a cold mix asphalt mixture . The mixtures produced with and without contaminated...quality materials ( RAP and asphalt cement) and good mixture design, construction procedures, and quality control, a high quality base or intermediate

  18. 沥青路面粘层材料性能的试验%Experimental research of tack coat materials' performance on asphalt pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭寅川; 申爱琴; 张金荣; 孙增智

    2011-01-01

    沥青路面层间材料粘结性能的优劣直接关系到路面的整体受力状态,进而影响路面的使用寿命。利用自行研发的多功能剪切仪,对普通沥青、SBS改性沥青和SBS改性乳化沥青这3种常用的粘层材料在不同温度及洒布量条件下的粘结性能进行试验研究,提出以不同温度下的粘结抗剪强度作为评价指标。结果表明:3种材料的粘结抗剪强度均随着温度的升高而减小,但随温度的变化规律有所不同;相比而言,在较低洒布量时,SBS改性乳化沥青表现出更优异的粘结性能,且最佳洒布量为0.5~0.7kg/m2。%Adhesion performance of the materials between asphalt pavement is directly related to the stress of the asphalt pavement,which affects the road life.The hot bitumen,SBS modified bitumen,SBS modified emulsified bitumen are selected to test the adhesion under different temperatures and the spread quantity.The shear strengthen in different temperatures is considered as the assessment indicator.The results show that the shear strengthen of the three kinds of materials will increase with the temperature down,but the changing laws of the three materials with temperature are different,in low quantity of spreading,the modified emulsified bitumen of SBS is better in adhesion performance,and the best spreading is from 0.5 kg/m2 to 0.7 kg/m2.

  19. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  20. Mechanism of Fume Suppression and Performance on Asphalt of Expanded Graphite for Pavement under High Temperature Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gang; HE Zhaoyi; HUANG Yangcheng; ZHOU Chao; YUAN Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Fume suppression mechanisms and the effect of expanded graphite on the performance of asphalt were studied by applying infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and comprehensive thermal analysis (TG, DSC). The experimental results confirm that asphalt which is mixed with expandable graphite will expand in the process of hot mix, and the expanded graphite layer will swell by the light component in the asphalt. The light component in the asphalt and PAHs adsorption on expanded graphite surface or part of the plug in the expanded graphite layer between plates made nucleation crystallization growth. And the Van der Waals force and the bonding of the lattice can effectively restrain the asphalt fume release. Meanwhile, the expanding agent with oxidative can spread into the asphalt, leading to asphalt oxygenated and plastic abate, while the ductility decreases. Expanded graphite, SBS modifier and environment- friendly plasticizers are used to composite modified asphalt. According to asphalt fume release experiment, normal test of asphalt performance, Brookfield viscosity test, RTFOT test and asphalt mixture tests (high temperature stability, low temperature stability, water stability), it has been proven that the modified asphalt’s performance is better than that of matrix asphalt and equivalent to that of SBS modified asphalt. Furthermore, it has good fume suppression effect.

  1. Pentaarylfullerenes as noncoordinating cyclopentadienyl anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Meetsma, Auke

    2009-01-01

    The first example of an early-transition-metal complex involving a pentaarylfullerene was prepared. Instead of half-sandwich complexes, solvent separated ion pairs were obtained in which the pentaarylfullerene moiety acts as noncoordinating cyclopentadienyl anion.

  2. Effects of Fibre Additive on the High Temperature Property of Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyester fibre and floc xylogen fibre were used to prepare fibre-asphalt binder.An SHRP's dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was employed to investigate the rheology charac teristics of fibre-asphalt binder, andthe flow resistance of binder was revealed by combining the rutting parameter, G * / sinδ.The results indicate that both kinds of fibres remarkably improved the high temperature pe~orrnance of asphalt binder.At the same time, the reinforcement mechanism of the fibres in the asphalt binder was also analyzed.

  3. Assessing Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt with Wire Wool Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed N. Bdour; Yahia Khalayleh; Aslam A. Al-Omari

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential application of wire wool in the modification of hot asphalt mixes (HMA). Wire wool material is widely available at local markets as a by-product of wire wool industry and as waste products from homes. For the purpose of this study, wire wool was cut into small pieces so that it can be placed in the asphalt mixes. Different percentages of wire wool were incorporated with the hot asphalt mixes (0.0%, 0.25%, and 0.5%) of the total weight of the asphalt binde...

  4. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; De Farias, Márcio Muniz; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  5. The Silurian Reservoir Bed-Differentiated Asphalts in Tarim Basin and Modeling Experiments on Their Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫; 刘宏江; 王洪玉; 曾溅辉

    2002-01-01

    There is a type of asphalt that originated from differentiation from reservoir bed (named reservoir bed-differentiated asphalt) in the Silurian asphaltic sandstones of the Tarim Basin. These asphalts are the result of second-time charging of hydrocarbons into the Silurian reservoir, which were derived from Lower Paleozoic source rocks. Asphalt was differentiated from the reservoir bed in the hydrocarbon gathering area of secondary migration. The differen tiation is caused by changes in reservoir physical properties when pearl or chain hydrocarbons migrating through and gathering in the reservoir bed, and light components are lost and heavy ones are involved in the formation of asphalt or heavy oil. There are two kinds of occurrence of these asphalts in the Silurian system of the Tarim Basin. One is the poor heavy oil layer with lower oil saturation in trap and the other is scattered hydrocarbon distributed along the transport layer and unconformity surface. Reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts have two characteristics: total hydrocarbon content is high in extractable organic matter and the ratio of saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon is usually greater than unity. The physically modeling experiment has confirmed these characteristics and the genesis of the reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts.

  6. Optimization of technical measures for improving high-temperature performance of asphalt-rubber mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Xiao; Tianqing Ling; Yanjun Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt-rubber pavements often become dam-aged in high-temperature regions and appear rutted or wavy, and experience slippage. To improve the high-tem-perature performance of the asphalt-rubber mixture, tech-nical measurements, such as, the optimal adjustment of gradation, technique of composite modification, and con-trol of compaction were investigated. An optimal adjust-ment of aggregate gradation based on stone matrix asphalt improves the high-temperature stability of the asphalt-rubber mixture significantly. Through composite modifi-cation, the effect of asphalt-rubber modification was enhanced, and the dynamic stability and relative defor-mation indices of the asphalt-rubber mixture were improved significantly. Furthermore, compaction parame-ters had a significant influence on the high-temperature stability of the asphalt-rubber mixture. The rolling times for compacting the asphalt-rubber mixture should be controlled to within 18-20 round-trips at a molding tem-perature at 180 ?C;if the rolling time is a 12 round-trip, the compaction temperature of the asphalt-rubber mixture should be controlled between 180 and 190 ?C.

  7. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R -1 4 -3 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al...2014 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements Mariely Mejías-Santiago, Jesse D. Doyle, and John F... asphalt (WMA) mixtures designed for airfield pavements. Three WMA mixtures were evaluated and compared to a control hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. Data

  8. The Silurian Reservoir Bed—Differentiated Asphalts in Tarim Basin and Modeling Experiments on Their Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫; 刘宏江; 等

    2002-01-01

    There is a type of asphalt that originated from differentiation from reservoir bed (named reservoir bed-differentiated asphalt)in the Silurian asphaltic sandstones of the Tarim Basin.These asphalts are the result of second-time charging of hydrocarbons into the Silurian reservoir,which were derived from Lower Paleozoic source rocks.Asphalt was differentiated from the reservoir bed in the hydrocarbon gathering area of secondary migration.The different-tiation is caused by changes in reservoir physical properties when pearl or chain hydrocarbons migrating through and gathering in the reservoir bed,and light components are lost and heavy ones are involved in the formation of asphalt or heavy oil.There are two kinds of occurrence of these asphalts in the Silurian system of the Tarim Basin.One is the poor heavy oil layer with lower oil saturation in trap and the other is scattered hydrocarbon distributed along the trans-port layer and unconformity surface.Reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts have two characteris-tics:total hydrocarbon content is high in extractable organic matter and the ratio of saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon is usually greater than unity.The physically modeling experiment has confirmed these characteristics and the genesis of the reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts.

  9. An atomistic-based chemophysical environment for evaluating asphalt oxidation and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tongyan; Sun, Lu; Yu, Qifeng

    2012-12-01

    Asphalt binders in service conditions are subject to oxidative aging that involves the reactions between oxygen molecules and the component species of bulk asphalt. As a result, significant alterations can occur to the desired physical and/or mechanical properties of asphalt. A common practice to alleviate asphalt aging has been to employ different chemical additives or modifiers as antioxidants. The current state of knowledge in asphalt oxidation and antioxidant evaluation is centered on determining the degradation of asphalt physical properties, mainly the viscosity and ductility. Such practices, although meeting direct engineering needs, do not contribute to the fundamental understanding of the aging and anti-oxidation mechanisms, and thereby developing anti-aging strategies. From this standpoint, this study was initiated to study the chemical and physical bases of asphalt oxidation, as well as the anti-oxidation mechanisms of bio-based antioxidants using the coniferyl-alcohol lignin as an example. A quantum chemistry (QC) based chemophysical environment is developed, in which the various chemical reactions between asphalt component species and oxygen, as well as the incurred physical changes are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to validate the modified and unmodified asphalt models.

  10. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  11. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Hot Storage Stability of Asphalt Modified by Waste Polyethylene Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changqing Fang; Ying Zhang; Qian yu; Xing Zhou; Dagang Guo; Ruien Yu; Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Waste polyethylene packaging (WPE) was used to modify asphalt,and hot storage stability of the modified asphalt was studied in this paper.The morphological change and component loss of WPE modified asphalt were characterized by fluorescence microscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),thermogravimetry (TG) and isolation testing.In addition,the mechanism of the hot storage stability of WPE modified asphalt was discussed.The results showed that the modification of asphalt with WPE was a physical process.It was found that the filament or partly network-like structure formed in the modified asphalt system was beneficial to improving the hot storage stability.Moreover,the addition of WPE resulted in a decrease in both the light components volatilization and the macromolecules decomposition of asphalt.It was demonstrated that when the content of WPE in matrix asphalt was less than 10 wt%,the service performances of modified asphalt could be better.

  13. The Effect of Thermal Stress on Asphalt Workers’ Function and Their Physiological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAZAN MIRZAEI; ROOHALAH HAJIZADEH; KEYKAOUS AZRAH; MOHAMMADHOSEIN BEHESHTI

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress effects on physical and mental health of workers and decreases human function. Asphalt workers are both exposed to the heat of their working process and to the sun heat. This study aimed at evaluating thermal stress and its following function fall and the effect of asphalt work on the degree of heat stress and asphalt workers’ physiological parameters. The present study was done at the work location of 29 asphalt workers in Qum City,  central  Iran.  The  degree  of  thermal stres...

  14. ENHANCING ASPHALT RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND AGING SUSCEPTIBILITY USING BIO-CHAR AND NANO-CLAY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster, which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact of bio-char and nano-clay of asphalt rheological properties. Two nano scale materials were used for this study were nano-clay and bio-char. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mine...

  15. Evaluation of rheological and thermic properties of neat and modified asphalt with a waste of LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Castro López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The asphalt technology and modified asphalt mixtures has been widely used and studied, worldwide. Adding polymers to asphalt modifies mechanical, chemical and rheological properties, trying to improve behavior of the mixtures subjected to different environmental and load conditions. The paper report results from rheological and thermal characterization on conventional 60-70 asphalt cement and 60-70 asphalt cement modified by introducing a waste of low density polyethylene (LDPE. Method: Modification of the asphalt was performed by wet way in a proportion of LDPE/CA=5% with respect to the mass. Rheological (using DSR, Thermogravimetry (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques were performed. Results and Conclusions: The modified asphalt develops a remarkable increase in stiffness and improvement of the performance grade at high temperatures of service. Additionally, the modified asphalt is more resistant to oxidation and aging processes due to heat. However, the asphalt modified showed a decrease in crack resistance at low and intermediate temperatures of service.

  16. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  17. Protein hydrolysates produced from rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) Head: emulsifying capacity and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Nguyen, Trung T; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Lobster protein hydrolysates (LPH) were produced by an enzymatic process using a proteinase Alcalase, and a chemical process at strong alkaline condition (pH of 14), from rock lobster head (RLH), respectively. The chemical process recovered about 30% more protein than the enzymatic process (84.9% recovery of total protein in RLH by the chemical process and 54.5% recovery of total protein in RLH by the enzymatic process). The emulsifying capacity of LPH produced by the chemical process (69.7 m(2)/g) was significantly higher than the emulsifying capacity of the LPH produced by the enzymatic process (20.7 m(2)/g), and also exceeds the emulsifying capacity of cow gelatine (50.3 m(2)/g), a commercial emulsifier in the food industry. LPH produced by the chemical process possess 30.3% essential amino acids. This content is comparable with the essential amino acid content of fish protein, a commonly recognized food resource for essential amino acid supplement for human. The content of heavy metals, including inorganic arsenic, of LPH is lower than the standard levels regulated by Food Standard Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). These results demonstrated the potential value of LPH used as a safe emulsifier with significant nutritional value for the food industry.

  18. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control, 1 (E1 and 2 (E2 % of added fat (saturated palm oil. Live weight gain (<.07 and feed conversion ratio (<.05 in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (<.05. Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (<.05 and liver fat content decreased (<.05 linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (<.001 leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (<.06 in the E1 group (quadratic response. Metabolizable intake of N (<.1 and fat (<.05 increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance.

  19. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  20. Effectiveness of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin as a food emulsifier: Comparison to whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingfeng; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Liping; Luo, Shunjing; Wu, Lixin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-15

    The emulsifying properties of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin (H-RG, 2% degree of hydrolysis) were compared to those of whey isolate protein (WPI), a commonly used protein-based emulsifier. The surface load of WPI (1% emulsifier, d32=167.5nm) was 2.8 times lower than that of H-RG (3% emulsifier, d32=159.0nm). Emulsions containing WPI-coated lipid droplets had better stability to pH changes (2-8), NaCl addition (0-500mM) and thermal processing (30-90°C, 0 or 200mM NaCl). Nevertheless, H-RG emulsions were stable over a range of conditions: pH 6-8; NaCl≤200 (pH 7); temperatures≤90°C in the absence of salt (pH 7); and temperatures≤50°C in the presence of 200mM NaCl (pH 7). This study indicates that H-RG may be utilized as a natural emulsifier in the development of label-friendly emulsion-based food products, but that further work is needed to increase the range of applications.

  1. Self-emulsifying excipient platform for improving technological properties of alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Paolo; Segale, Lorena; Giovannelli, Lorella; Bonda, Andrea Foglio; Pattarino, Franco

    2016-02-29

    In this work, alginate, alginate-pectin and alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose pellets were produced by ionotropic gelation and characterized. Ibuprofen was selected as model drug; it was suspended in the polymeric solution in crystalline form or dissolved in a self-emulsifying phase and then dispersed into the polymeric solution. The self-emulsifying excipient platform composed of Labrasol (PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides) and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), able to solubilize the drug was used to improve the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of the alginate pellets. The pellets had diameters between 1317 and 2026 μm and a high drug content (>51%). DSC analysis showed the amorphous state of drug in the pellets containing the self-emulsifying phase. All the systems restricted drug release in conditions simulating the gastric environment and made the drug completely available at a pH value typical for the intestine. Only alginate-HPC systems containing the drug solubilized into the self-emulsifying phase showed the ability to partially control the release of ibuprofen at neutral pH. The self-emulsifying excipient platform is a useful tool to improve technological and biopharmaceutical properties of alginate-HPC pellets.

  2. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of hot mix asphalt with high contents of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Clinton Isaac

    Currently in Iowa, the amount of RAP materials allowed for the surface layer is limited to 15% by weight. The objective of this project was to develop quality standards for inclusion of RAP content higher than 15% in asphalt mixtures. To meet Superpave mix design requirements, it was necessary to fractionate the RAP materials. Based on the extensive sieve-by-sieve analysis of RAP materials, the optimum sieve size to fractionate RAP materials was identified. To determine if the higher percentage of RAP materials than 15% can be used in Iowa's state highway, three test sections with 30.0%, 35.5% and 39.2% of RAP materials were constructed on Highway 6 in Iowa City. The construction of the field test sections was monitored and the cores were obtained to measure field densities of test sections. Field mixtures collected from test sections were compacted in the laboratory in order to test the moisture sensitivity using a Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. The binder was extracted from the field mixtures with varying amounts of RAP materials and tested to determine the effects of RAP materials on the PG grade of a virgin binder. Field cores were taken from the various mix designs to determine the percent density of each test section. A condition survey of the test sections was then performed to evaluate the short-term performance.

  4. 高渗透乳化沥青技术的实践与认识%The practice and understanding of high-permeability technology for emulsified asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎增福

    2009-01-01

    对国内应用高渗透乳化沥青技术进行简单分析,介绍了RPS-2型高渗透性乳化沥青的开发与应用,提出国内应用高渗透乳化沥青技术存在的一些值得探讨的问题.

  5. Fluorocarbon emulsion modified bentonite emulsified asphalt water proofing paint%氟碳乳液改性膨润土乳化沥青防水涂料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彤; 许超

    2005-01-01

    采用氟碳乳液与膨润土乳化沥青混合,对膨润土乳化沥青进行改性,制成氟碳乳液改性膨润土乳化沥青防水涂料,并对其性能进行测试.结果表明,改性膨润土乳化沥青防水涂料的抗裂性、低温柔韧性、延伸率、粘结性等均有提高.

  6. 乳化沥青冷再生混合料疲劳性能研究%Study on Fatigue Performance of Emulsified Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之怡; 郝培文; 柳浩; 王真

    2015-01-01

    采用目前工程上常用的两档沥青路面铣刨旧料对RAP掺量为80%和100%的乳化沥青冷再生混合料进行材料组成设计.通过击实试验和劈裂试验分别确定其最佳流体含量和最佳乳化量用量.在配合比设计基础上采用控制应变加载模式对乳化沥青冷再生混合料疲劳性能进行试验研究,确定了加载较为合理的应变水平,即300,250,200με和150με.试验结果表明,在应变水平较高时,两种RAP掺量下乳化沥青冷再生混合料能承受有限的荷载作用次数,当应变水平降低到150 μe时,两种RAP掺量混合料在150万次荷载作用下仍未破坏,采用劲度模量与荷载作用次数预估的方法确定了疲劳寿命.通过对4种应变水平-荷载作用次数进行疲劳曲线拟合,提出两种RAP掺量下乳化沥青冷再生混合料的应变控制指标.

  7. Mixing design of cement-emulsified-asphalt-cold-recycled-mixture(CEACRM)%水泥-乳化沥青冷再生混合料配合比设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿九光; 陈忠达; 李龙; 戴经梁

    2009-01-01

    为了研究水泥-乳化沥青冷再生混合料(CEACRM)中各材料对其初期强度及后期残留强度的影响,选用2种回收沥青混合料(RAP)的质量分数,按正交试验方法选取水泥用量、乳化沥青用量和拌和水用量3个影响因素,在3个水平条件下进行CEACRM的配合比设计试验,并对试验结果进行了极差分析.结果表明:水泥和乳化沥青对再生混合料强度的影响程度随RAP质量分数不同而异,RAP质量分数较低时,乳化沥青对CEACRM的初期和后期强度均起主导作用;在RAP质量分数较高时,水泥对CEACRM的初期强度起主导作用,乳化沥青对CEACRM的后期强度起主导作用;拌和水用量是对强度影响最弱的因素.因此,建议RAP质量分数较低时选用2%(质量比)的水泥用量;在RAP质量分数较高时,水泥用量应综合成本因素来考虑.

  8. 乳化沥青冷再生沥青混合料配合比设计%Gradation Composition of Cold Recycling Mixture with Emulsified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡紫艳

    2013-01-01

    沥青路面冷再生技术可重复利用旧沥青路面材料.对回收沥青路面材料样品进行抽提,评价了RAP的级配组成和回收沥青的老化程度.借鉴国内外再生沥青混合料配合比设计的经验,得出了本研究的乳化沥青冷再生混合料的级配组成,并对最佳含水率和最佳乳化沥青用量进行了研究.

  9. Evaluation of asphalt enhanced with locally made nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELAL EZZAT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work focused on the investigation of the properties of asphalt binder modified with different percentages of nanoclay (NC and nanosilica. The nanosilica was manufactured from two different sources: silica fume (NSF and rice husk (NSH. Results showed that NSF tends to decrease the penetration and increase the softening point temperature (SFT and rotational viscosity (RV. However, NC content more than 3% was found to increase the penetration and decrease both RV and SFT. Using smaller percentages of NC increased both SFT and RV and decreased the penetration. Up to 3% of NSH exhibited improvement in penetration, SFT, and RV, however slight or no improvement was observed at higher contents. The Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR results showed obvious improvement in the Superpave performance grade. Both NSF and NC were found to improve Marshall stability of the asphalt mixtures.

  10. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  11. New method to quantitatively evaluate the homogeneity of asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-liang; ZHANG Xiao-ning; WANG Duan-yi; LI Zhi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the homogeneity of asphalt mixtures, the images of sections obtained by cutting the as-phah mixtures specimen horizontally or vertically were analyzed with digital image processing techniques, and the particle area ratio was achieved by applying sector scan for horizontal specimen and vertical scan for vertical one. The research result indicates that the influence of random distribution of aggregates in cutting the specimen can be eliminated by using colored aggregates to distinguish coarse and fine aggregates and using color threshold to segment the images. Choosing three typical gradations, proving particle area ratio obeying normal distribution and using the variability of particle area ratio as an index, it is feasible to quantitatively evaluate the homogenei-ty of asphalt mixtures.

  12. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  13. Viscoelastoplastic constitutive model for creep deformation behavior of asphalt sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A uniaxial viscoelastoplastic model that can describe whole creep behaviors of asphalt sand at different temperatures was presented.The model was composed of three submodels in series,which describe elastoplastic,viscoelastic and viscoplastic characteristics respectively.The constitutive equation was established for uniaxial loading condition,and the creep representation was also obtained.The constitutive parameters were determined by uniaxial compression tests under controlled-stress of 0.1 MPa with five different test temperatures of 20,40,45,50 and 60 ℃.Expressions of the model parameters in terms of temperatures were also given.The model gave prediction at various temperatures consistent with the experimental results,and can reflect the total deformation characterization of asphalt sands.

  14. Evidence of Multi-Stage Hydrocarbon Charging and Biodegradation of the Silurian Asphaltic Sandstones in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫

    2002-01-01

    Asphalts distributed widely in the Silurian sandstones of the Tarim Basin include dry asphalt, soft asphalt and heavy oil. These asphaltic sandstones underwent multi-episodic sedimentary and tectonic events, and their occurrence is diverse and complex, being mixed with normal oil usually. So far, very little work has been done on the asphaltic sandstone origin and hydrocarbon charging ages. After detailed study on the Silurian sandstones, the following highlights were obtained from the analytical results: distribution of the mixed asphalt, heavy oil and normal oil in the Silurian sandstones is the result of multi-stage hydrocarbon charging from the Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks; the characters of asphalts formed from oils of different charging ages are of difference; the most important process constraining.the asphaltic sandstone origin is thought to be biodegradation.

  15. Possibilities of preparation asphalt concrete by oil sands of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Erbol Tileuberdi; Yerdos Ongarbayev; F. Behrendt; Schneider, I.; Yerzhan Imanbayev; B. Tuleutayev; Yerlan Doszhanov; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In the paper physicochemical properties of oil sands of Munayli-Mola deposits and efficient ways to use them for preparing asphalt concrete were represented. For determination of organic part of oil sands the extraction methods were used in Soxhlet apparatus by variety of solvents. It has been established 16 wt.% content of natural bitumen in oil sands, which compared with results of ash content determination. According to results of experiment, the natural bitumen is heavy oil and its charac...

  16. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  17. The Research on the Cracks of the Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OuYangZiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The cracking is one of the common diseases of the asphalt pavement. According to the shape and the forming reasons, the cracks can be divided into two categories. Each categories can be divided into several types. Through the comparison and the analysis of the causes of different cracks, the prevention and the treatments are proposed in the respects of the structural design, material design and construction

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  19. Bound anionic states of adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  20. Influence of emulsifying component composition on creams formulated with fractionated milkfat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lisa L; Duncan, Susan E; Sumner, Susan S; Waterman, Kim M; Kaylegian, Kerry E

    2003-09-24

    Dairy systems formulated with fractionated milkfat and milk-derived components have compositional differences that may affect functionality and nutritional aspects as compared to natural dairy products. The composition of 20% milkfat creams formulated with emulsifying components (skim milk, sweet buttermilk, and butter-derived aqueous phase) and low- or medium-melt fractionated butteroil was compared with natural cream. Cream separation temperatures (49 and 55 degrees C) and processing conditions (commercial and pilot plant) in obtaining emulsifying components were examined for effect on content of surface active agents. Individual fatty acids, lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, protein levels, and types varied with components. Separation temperature influenced the cholesterol level in the aqueous phase. A commercially produced aqueous phase contained less total lipid, protein, cholesterol, and phospholipid than aqueous phase obtained in the pilot plant. Milkfat globule membrane concentration of emulsifying components affected phospholipid and cholesterol content of formulated creams. Butteroil type affected cholesterol levels and cream formulations.

  1. Advance in application of emulsified wax%乳化蜡的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国琳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了乳化蜡的生产应用现状。综述了乳化蜡在农业、汽车工业、造纸工业、纺织工业、皮革工业以及人造板工业等各领域的应用研究进展,展望了乳化蜡的发展前景。%The production and application situation of emulsified wax was introduced. The progress in the research and application of emulsified wax in agriculture, automotive industry, papermaking industry, textile industry, leather industry, wood-based panel industry, etc. , were summarized. The future application and development prospect of the emulsified wax were proposed.

  2. Improvement of Solubility and Emulsifying Properlies of Soy Protein Isolates by Glucose Conjugation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Shaojun; Liu Dongmei

    2002-01-01

    Soy Protein Isolate(SPI)was modified withglucose(G-)through the amino-carbonyl reaction (Maillard Reaction). Solubility and emulsifying properties of themodified proteins were investigated.G-SPI conjugate was highly soluble at wide pHwhile untreated SPI was hardly soluble especially at PH4-PH6.Solubility of modifiedSPI showed the resistance to heat treatment and high ionic concentration.Emulsifyingactivity and emulsion stability of G-SPI conjugate was much higher than those of native SPI were. Comparing with some commercial emulsifiers,the G-SPI conjugate showed as good or better emulsifying properties in high salt concentration and in neutral pH.SDS-PAGE was also used to confirm the formation of G-SPI conjugate.

  3. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  4. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of asphalt (bitumen) paving exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D; Meeker, John D; Zwack, Leonard; Hanley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of asphalt (bitumen) fume and vapor in hot mix asphalt roadway paving operations. Area and personal air samples were taken using real-time equipment and extractive sampling and analytical methods to determine worker asphalt exposure, as well as to characterize the properties of the particulate and vapor phase components. Analysis of personal inhalation and dermal samples by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy showed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile is dominated by compounds with molecular weights below 228, and that substituted and heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised approximately 71% of the detectable mass concentration (vapor and particulate combined). Principal components analysis shows that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights greater than 190 are the driving force behind the polycyclic aromatic compound exposures measured for the dermal and particulate phases; there was no clear trend for the vapor phase Most of the aerosol particles are fine (mass median aerodynamic diameter 1.02 microm; count median diameter 0.24 microm).

  6. Application of High Permeability Emulsified Asphalt in the Construction of Asphalt Priming%高渗透性乳化沥青在沥青路面透层施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵靓

    2007-01-01

    结合青银高速公路施工工程,介绍了高性能乳化沥青在沥青混凝土路面透层施工中的应用,工程应用表明,采用高性能乳化沥青具有渗透性高、经济性好、环保性好的优点,既保证了施工质量又经济快捷.

  7. 乳化沥青冷再生混合料路用性能试验研究%Experimental Study on Road Performance of Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture with Emulsified Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超凡; 曾梦澜; 赵明华; 钟梦武

    2009-01-01

    为了探讨乳化沥青冷再生混合料全面的性能参数,对0%~100%的6种不同RAP含量的乳化沥青冷再生混合料进行了室内试验研究与回归分析.结果表明:抗压回弹模量与抗压强度、劈裂抗拉强度与破坏劲度模量、弯拉应变与弯拉强度都随RAP用量的增加而呈线性减少;动稳定度随RAP用量的增加而呈指数函数减少;渗水系数随RAP用量的增加呈二次多项式减少;冻融劈裂强度比TSR随RAP用量的增加变化不大,但远低于规范的技术要求;同温下的抗压回弹模量与劈裂抗拉强度有较好幂函数关系.根据材料的抗压回弹模量与劈裂抗拉强度,把乳化沥青冷再生材料分主四类.

  8. 乳化沥青冷再生硫磺沥青混合料的路用可行性研究%Feasibility of cold recycled sulphuric asphalt mixture with emulsified asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海臣; 孙立军; 刘黎萍; 徐海铭; 贾璐

    2011-01-01

    为了分析乳化沥青冷再生硫磺沥青混合料在路面中应用的可行性,采用旧路面回收的硫磺沥青混合料和普通沥青混合料两材料进行冷再生混合料配合比设计,采用冻融劈裂试验、车辙试验、剪切试验、低温弯曲试验以及单轴压缩试验分别检测冷再生混合料的水稳定性、高温稳定性、抗剪切性能、低温抗裂性能以及抗压回弹模量,并对使用硫磺沥青混合料RAP和普通沥青混合料RAP两种类型的冷再生混合料性能进行对比,对不同RAP含量下的冷再生性能进行对比.结果表明,乳化沥青冷再生硫磺沥青混合料和乳化沥青冷再生普通沥青混合料路用性能相当,各项性能随着RAP含量的增加而出现不同程度的降低.

  9. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  10. Interactions between iron, phenolic compounds, emulsifiers, and pH in omega-3-enriched oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Haahr, Anne-Mette; Becker, E.M.;

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of antioxidants in emulsions is influenced by several factors such as pH and emulsifier type. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between selected food emulsifiers, phenolic compounds, iron, and pH and their effect on the oxidative stability of n-3 polyunsaturated lipids in ...

  11. Amide-based Fluorescent Macrocyclic Anion Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG, Zhen-Ya(曾振亚); XU, Kuo-Xi(徐括喜); HE, Yong-Bing(何永炳); LIU, Shun-Ying(刘顺英); WU, Jin-Long(吴进龙); WEI, Lan-Hua(隗兰华); MENG, Ling-Zhi(孟令芝)

    2004-01-01

    Two fluorescent anion receptors (1 and 2) based on amide macrocycle were synthesized and corresponding fluorescence quenching induced by anion complexation was observed in different degree. Receptors form 1: 1 complexes with anions by hydrogen bonding interactions. Receptor 1 bound anions in the order of F->Cl->H2PO4->CH3COO->>Br-, I- and receptor 2 showed high selectivity to F- over other anions.

  12. Influence of Addition of Polyols and Food Emulsifiers on the Retrogradation Rate of Starch

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The influence of polyols and emulsifiers on hardening of non-glutinous rice starch gels has been investigated. The polyols and emulsifiers were added at concentrations of 6% (w/w) and 0.2% (w/w), respectively , to starch gels (starch content, 30%). The hardening rate and the initial viscoelastic values of gels were computed by analyzing static linear viscoelastic parameters (creep compliance) of the gels stored at 0 C for up to 3,000 minutes. Hardening of gels, i.e., retrogradation of star...

  13. Effect of Salts on the Emulsifying Properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) Seed Flour

    OpenAIRE

    H.O. Adubiaro; O. Olaofe; Akintayo, E. T.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salts NaCl, CaCl2 KCl, CH3 CO2 Na and NaNO3 on the emulsifying properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) flour were investigated. Simple and objective means that allowed precise determination of the inversion point was used in investigating the capacity of the protein to emulsify fat. Its relative efficiency as emulsion stabilizer was also investigated. Results showed that the emulsion capacity decreased with increase in salt concentrations and also there was a decrease in emuls...

  14. Effect of Salts on the Emulsifying Properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab Seed Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Adubiaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salts NaCl, CaCl2 KCl, CH3 CO2 Na and NaNO3 on the emulsifying properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab flour were investigated. Simple and objective means that allowed precise determination of the inversion point was used in investigating the capacity of the protein to emulsify fat. Its relative efficiency as emulsion stabilizer was also investigated. Results showed that the emulsion capacity decreased with increase in salt concentrations and also there was a decrease in emulsion stability as time increased and increase in stability as concentration increased.

  15. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions is affected by the type of surfactant used as emulsifier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of real food emulsifiers as well as metal chelation by EDTA and pH on the oxidative stability of a 10% n-3...... to their ability to chelate iron, scavenge free radicals, interfere with interactions between the lipid hydroperoxides and iron as well as to form a physical harrier around the oil droplets....

  16. Emissions Reductions Associated with the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt as Compared to Hot-Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    processes generating greenhouse gases. The motivation was to meet strict emissions regulations set forth by the Kyoto Protocol (Prowell et al. 2012...estimating emissions during asphalt production, current protocols to measure and control emissions, and case studies where WMA emissions were measured and...Research Program (NCHRP) funded project 9-47a to update the Protocol for Documenting Emissions and Energy Reductions of WMA and Conventional HMA

  17. 乳化剂浓度和乳化时间对细微裂纹显示的影响%Emulsifier Concentration and Emulsifying Time Influence on Hairline Clack Indication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晶

    2012-01-01

    During post emulsifying penetrant inspection, parameter option of emulsifier concentration and emulsifying time will directly impact on sensitivity level of penetrant detection. The article mainly takes an example of chromium plating and grinding parts and HVOF parts, analyzes emulsifier concentration and emulsifying time impact on penetrant indication and performs instructions and demonstrations. The experiment indicates that we shall strictly control emulsifier concentration and emulsifying time during post emulsifying fluorescent penetrant inspection. If we select emulsifier concentration 15%, emulsifying time 10- 15 s after testing many times, it will reach optimum proportioning, make flaw indication clear. Detection sensitivity level will reach the largest.%后乳化渗透检验过程中,乳化荆浓度和乳化时间参数的选择直接影响渗透检测的灵敏度。以镀铬磨削件和超音速火焰喷涂零件为例,分析了乳化剂浓度和乳化时间对渗透显示的影响并进行了说明论证。试验表明,在进行后乳化荧光渗透检验的过程中,应严格控制乳化剂浓度和乳化时间。经多次试验,选取乳化剂浓度为15%,时间为10-15s,能达到最佳的配比,使缺陷的显示最清晰,检测灵敏度达到最大。

  18. 77 FR 50651 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Mix Asphalt Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA... Hampshire Hot Mix Asphalt Plant Rule at Env-A 2703.02(a). This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of...

  19. 77 FR 50608 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Hampshire; Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Mix Asphalt Plants AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... 2703.02 for hot mix asphalt plants. This rule establishes and requires limitations on visible emissions from all hot mix asphalt plants. This revision is consistent with the maintenance of all...

  20. Thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Amy Louise

    Thermal cracking is one of the primary forms of distress in asphalt concrete pavements, resulting from either a single drop in temperature to an extreme low or from multiple temperature cycles above the fracture temperature of the asphalt-aggregate mixture. The first mode described is low temperature cracking; the second is thermal fatigue. The addition of crumb-rubber, manufactured from scrap tires, to the binder in asphalt concrete pavements has been suggested to minimize both types of thermal cracking. Four experiments were designed and completed to evaluate the thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt-aggregate mixtures. Modified and unmodified mixture response to thermal stresses was measured in four laboratory tests. The Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) were used to compare mixture resistance to low temperature cracking. Modified mixtures showed improved performance, and cooling rate did not affect mixture resistance according to the statistical analysis. Therefore results from tests with faster rates can predict performance under slower field rates. In comparison, predicted fracture temperatures and stresses (IDT) were generally higher than measured values (TSRST). In addition, predicted fracture temperatures from binder test results demonstrated that binder testing alone is not sufficient to evaluate CRM mixtures. Thermal fatigue was explored in the third experiment using conventional load-induced fatigue tests with conditions selected to simulate daily temperature fluctuations. Test results indicated that thermal fatigue may contribute to transverse cracking in asphalt pavements. Both unmodified and modified mixtures had a finite capacity to withstand daily temperature fluctuations coupled with cold temperatures. Modified mixtures again exhibited improved performance. The fourth experiment examined fracture properties of modified and unmodified mixtures using a common fracture toughness test

  1. USING OF SBS TYPE POLYMERS AS ADDITIVE IN HOT MIX ASPHALT

    OpenAIRE

    NAMLI, Remzi

    2011-01-01

    Bitumen quality is the one of the major important factor which the achievement of asphalt mixtures. Using pore bitumen results in adequate performance from asphalt mixture. To improve the bitumen properties, additive materials are used. In this study, using of SBS type polymers as additive material in bitumen is researched. It is seen that using SBS effects bitumen positively in many aspects.

  2. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR–asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR–asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR–asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR–asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress. PMID:28182724

  3. Monitoring Hot Mix Asphalt Temperature to Improve Homogeneity and Pavement Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerne, ter H.L.; Doree, A.G.; Miller, S.R.; Santagata, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how controlled compaction practices lead to better quality asphalt. Therefore, it is important that during compaction operations the mixture is at a suitable temperature in order to achieve the specified degree of compaction. The University of Twente’s Asphalt Paving Research an

  4. Study on triaxial test method and failure criterion of asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlong Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt mixture is the most widely used pavement material all over the world. In China, more than 90% of service expressways are asphalt pavement. However, current asphalt pavement design method still has irrationality. Even though maximum tensile stress theory is used as failure criterion, pavement structure under the effects of wheel load is in three-dimensional complex stress state. Obviously, one-dimensional strength theory cannot reflect the failure characteristics and the resistance of pavement structure. So it is necessary to study the failure criterion of asphalt mixture under three-dimensional complex stress state. Due to limitations of test equipment, there are almost no studies in related area. Under this background, this paper develops a new triaxial test method, according to the investigation of strength characteristics of asphalt mixture under complex stress state through plane isobaric/axial tensile test, plane isobaric/axial compression test, plane tensile and compression/axial tensile test, to reveal the general rules of asphalt mixture's strength failure. The failure mode is divided into three types: tensile failure, shear failure and rheological failure. The tensile meridian and compression meridian in the stress space and strength envelope in the π plane where hydrostatic pressure is greater than zero are obtained, and the failure criterion of asphalt mixture under complex stress state is established, providing theoretical method and scientific basis for structure design as well as strength check of asphalt pavement under three-dimensional stress state.

  5. Reintroducing the intrinsic self-healing properties in reclaimed asphalt by rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Shirazi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) is one of the largest fractions of raw materials used in road construction today. Probably over 90% of the total RA in the Netherlands is being reused in new asphalt constructions. RA contains aggregates coated with very hard bitumen (penetration grade of 10-20). During servic

  6. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  7. ENHANCING ASPHALT RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND AGING SUSCEPTIBILITY USING BIO-CHAR AND NANO-CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldo C. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster, which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact of bio-char and nano-clay of asphalt rheological properties. Two nano scale materials were used for this study were nano-clay and bio-char. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn enhance asphalt flow properties and reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using Rotational Viscometer testing (RV and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Nano-clay is blended at 2 and 4% by weight, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass. Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22 at 2, 5 and 10% by weight. The study results showed that introduction of nano-clay could be effective in reducing temperature susceptibility of asphalt binder.

  8. Damage detection and artificial healing of asphalt concrete after trafficking with a load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M.; Arraigada, M.; Partl, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial healing of asphalt concrete by induction heating requires the addition of electrically conductive and/or magnetic materials into the asphalt mixture. Hence, bitumen can be heated up by an alternating electromagnetic field, decreasing therefore its viscosity and allowing it to flow for closing cracks and recover bonding among the mineral aggregates.

  9. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Characterizations and Road Performances of Flame Retardant Asphalt Mortars and Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiantao; ZHU Siyue; LI Zuzhong; CHEN Shuanfa

    2015-01-01

    To research the dynamic mechanical properties and road performances of flame retardant asphalt mortars and mixtures, four different asphalt mortars/mixtures were prepared: a reference group and three asphalt mortars/mixtures containing composite lfame retardant materials (M-FRs) of different proportions. Temperature sweep, frequency sweep, repeated creep test, force ductility test and bending beam rheological test were carried out to research the dynamic mechanical properties of asphalt mortars containing M-FRs; wheel-tracking test, low-temperature bending test and freeze-thaw split test were used to study the road performances of asphalt mixtures containing M-FRs. The results show that high-temperature performances of the three lfame retardant asphalt mortars improve greatly, while low-temperature cracking resistances decline. Both high-temperature performances and water stabilities of asphalt mixtures containing M-FRs are quite good and exceed the speciifcation requirements. However, their low-temperature performances decline in different degrees. In summary, besides their good lfame retardancy, the lfame retardant asphalt mortars and mixtures also exhibit acceptable road performance.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Matching Relationship between Asphalt Particle and Reservoir Pore in Profile Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified sulfonated asphalt particles have a bright application prospect of the profile control of thick reservoirs due to the low cost, extensive sources, and good compatibility with reservoir. Nevertheless, the matching relationship between asphalt particles and reservoir pore has seldom been investigated till now. Oversized particles always block the near-wellbore area, which causes high injection pressures, while undersized particles cannot plug large pores. We designed a core for this experiment which has a high permeability zone in front of it and many pressure measuring points. We could quantitatively assess the matching relationship by measuring the on-way resistance coefficient, residual resistance factor, and relative change of permeability of man-made cores after injecting asphalt. Experimental results indicate that asphalt particles with sizes of 0.02 mm, 0.02–0.06 mm, and 0.08–0.1 mm match with reservoir permeability of 500 mD, 1000 mD, and 2000 mD, respectively. Undersized or oversized particles can reduce the conformance control effect, and the concentration of asphalt particles in the injectant can limit their migration ability. When the concentration of asphalt particles increases to 3000 mg/L, accumulations of asphalt particles can be caused in the formation, in which a scheme with asphalt particles alternative water injection is proposed to avoid the accumulation.

  12. The Study of Water Stability for SBS and Polyacrylate Composite Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Qiusheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylate (Polyacrylate, called PAE is a kind of thermoplastic polymer latex, which is easy to form a waterproof membrane and has greater adhesion ,always be used in concrete to enhance its ability to resist water corrosion.SBS is an inorganic modifier for modified asphalt mixture will help to improve the high and low temperature stability and other road performance, ect.However,its ability to enhanced asphalt mixture’s resistance for water damage is not obvious. In order to research the two composite modified asphalt mixture’s resistance effects to water damage , the Marshall Stability Test and Fort Kentucky Flooding Scattering Experiments were used on asphalt mixtures, SBS modified asphalt mixture and composite modified asphalt mixture and the effect of different composite modified PAE content were studied. The results showed that: PAE can significantly improve the water stability of asphalt mixture, what’s more, with the increase use of PAE,the mass loss rate of asphalt mixture decreases steadily.

  13. Feasibility of using 100% Recycled Asphalt Pavement mixtures for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Russell Edgar, IV

    Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is the largest recycled good in the United States and 80 million tons are recycled yearly, saving taxpayers about $1.5 billion dollars. This paper explores the possibility of utilizing 100% RAP materials in asphalt pavement. Asphalt mixtures are produced at 135°C in a typical asphalt plant. However, at 135°C, not all binder from RAP materials may not become effective for coating aggregates. The main objective of the study is to determine the amount of effective binder available from RAP in the asphalt plant. The 100% RAP mixes have aged binder that can alter mix designs and interaction with virgin binder. In this study, to determine low temperature cracking resistance and fatigue performance, samples were prepared using a 100% RAP mix with no virgin binder and a 100% RAP mix with virgin asphalt binder to achieve the optimum binder content of the mix. Second, to determine the effectiveness of binder from RAP materials, compaction tests were performed by heating RAP materials at various temperatures. It was found that 100% RAP mixes cannot be feasible for field use if additional virgin binder is added to reach the optimum asphalt content. Based on limited test results, the low temperature grade was not within proper limits but the beam fatigue testing results were acceptable. Based on compaction test results, additional heating is needed to increase the effectiveness of asphalt binder from RAP materials.

  14. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  15. Anions in Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid crystallization buffers contain a large variety of chemicals fitting specific needs. Among them, anions are often solely considered for pH-regulating purposes and as cationic co-salts while their ability to directly bind to nucleic acid structures is rarely taken into account. Here we review current knowledge related to the use of anions in crystallization buffers along with data on their biological prevalence. Chloride ions are frequently identified in crystal structures but display low cytosolic concentrations. Hence, they are thought to be distant from nucleic acid structures in the cell. Sulfate ions are also frequently identified in crystal structures but their localization in the cell remains elusive. Nevertheless, the characterization of the binding properties of these ions is essential for better interpreting the solvent structure in crystals and consequently, avoiding mislabeling of electron densities. Furthermore, understanding the binding properties of these anions should help to get clues related to their potential effects in crowded cellular environments.

  16. Airborne Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Among Workers in Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, David C; Osborn, Linda V; Johnson, Kathleen A; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    We studied exposure of 151 workers to polycyclic aromatic compounds and asphalt emissions during the manufacturing of asphalt roofing products-including 64 workers from 10 asphalt plants producing oxidized, straight-run, cutback, and wax- or polymer-modified asphalts, and 87 workers from 11 roofing plants producing asphalt shingles and granulated roll roofing. The facilities were located throughout the United States and used asphalt from many refiners and crude oils. This article helps fill a gap in exposure data for asphalt roofing manufacturing workers by using a fluorescence technique that targets biologically active 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds and is strongly correlated with carcinogenic activity in animal studies. Worker exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds were compared between manufacturing plants, at different temperatures and using different raw materials, and to important external benchmarks. High levels of fine limestone particulate in the plant air during roofing manufacturing increased polycyclic aromatic compound exposure, resulting in the hypothesis that the particulate brought adsorbed polycyclic aromatic compounds to the worker breathing zone. Elevated asphalt temperatures increased exposures during the pouring of asphalt. Co-exposures in these workplaces which act as confounders for both the measurement of total organic matter and fluorescence were detected and their influence discussed. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities were lower than or similar to those reported in hot-mix paving application studies, and much below those reported in studies of hot application of built-up roofing asphalt. These relatively low exposures in manufacturing are primarily attributed to air emission controls in the facilities, and the relatively moderate temperatures, compared to built-up roofing, used in these facilities for oxidized asphalt. The exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds was a very

  17. Mechanical evaluation of asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with fly ash as a filler replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapkin, T. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-01-15

    This paper examined methods of introducing fly ash waste products as a filler in asphalt concrete mixtures. A literature review of studies involving fly ash and asphalts was conducted. The effect of fly ash filler replacements on the mechanical properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures was investigated. A dense bituminous calcareous aggregate was used as a reference mixture for a series of tests. Three types of fly ash were investigated, notably (1) portland cement; (2) lime; and (3) control specimens. Changes in elastic strain, elastic modulus, and permanent strain properties of the asphalt mixtures were determined through a series of fatigue tests. The behaviour of the asphalt concrete pavements were analyzed under applied loads. Results of the tests showed that the fatigue life of the fly ash specimens was higher than the calcareous aggregate specimens. It was concluded that fly ash can used as a filler replacement for dense-graded wearing courses. 35 refs., 17 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Use of X-ray diffraction in assessing the aging pattern of asphalt fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, M.N.; Ali, M.F.; Shirokoff, J. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Chemistry and The Research Institute

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was employed to investigate and compare some of the crystallite parameters and aromaticity of asphaltenes obtained from fresh and aged Arabian asphalts, procured from Ras Tanura (RT) and Kuwait (KW) refineries. A new crystallite parameters in the polar aromatics, naphthene aromatics and saturate fractions of these Arabian asphalts were also determined. The results obtained by XRD method for both the types of asphaltenes and other fractions were evaluated and compared. Significant differences were observed between the structure and the aging patterns of fresh and aged asphaltenes of RT and KW asphalt. The results indicate that the source and chemistry of asphalt are responsible for the aging behavior of its components. The rolling thin-film oven and the pressurized aging vessels tests were used to simulate asphalt aging in this research. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. The buoyancy, capillarity, and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids properties such as water saturation and solid properties such as porosity and permeability due to trapping the fine-particles.

  20. Experimental evaluation on high temperature rheological properties of various fiber modified asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筝; 吴少鹏; 朱祖煌; 刘杰胜

    2008-01-01

    High temperature rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders and impact of the type and content on such properties were studied.Three types of fiber,including polyester(PET),polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and cellulose(CEL),a control content(0%) and four levels of fiber content(2%,4%,6% and 8% by total asphalt binder mass) were used with asphalt binders.The high temperature rheological properties,consisting of complex modulus(G*) and phase angle δ,were measured using SHRP’s dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) between 46-82 ℃.Experimental results indicate that the changes of G* and tan δ of fiber modified asphalt binders with the increase of test temperature tend to slow down,and the temperature susceptibility is improved obviously compared to that of original asphalt binder.Fiber modification results in the increase of rutting parameter(G*/sin δ) at high temperatures,the decrease of temperature susceptibility,and further improved high temperature performance of asphalt binder.An excellent correlation exhibits between fiber content and high temperature performance of asphalt binder.Moreover,fiber type also has different influences on the improvement of G*/sin δ,G*/sin δ of PET and PAN fiber asphalt binders are both higher than that of CEL fiber,but G*/sin δ of CEL fiber is still higher than that of original asphalt.However,there is a critical fiber content when fibers start to interact with each other.Therefore,based on the critical fiber content and economic consideration,the optimum fiber contents for various fiber-modified asphalt binders are obtained.

  1. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  2. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

  3. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  5. Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Gumus, Cansu Ekin

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing consumer pressure for commercial products that are more natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, including foods, cosmetics, detergents, and personal care products. Industry has responded by trying to identify natural alternatives to synthetic functional ingredients within these products. The focus of this review article is on the replacement of synthetic surfactants with natural emulsifiers, such as amphiphilic proteins, polysaccharides, biosurfactants, phospholipids, and bioparticles. In particular, the physicochemical basis of emulsion formation and stabilization by natural emulsifiers is discussed, and the benefits and limitations of different natural emulsifiers are compared. Surface-active polysaccharides typically have to be used at relatively high levels to produce small droplets, but the droplets formed are highly resistant to environmental changes. Conversely, surface-active proteins are typically utilized at low levels, but the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Certain phospholipids are capable of producing small oil droplets during homogenization, but again the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Biosurfactants (saponins) can be utilized at low levels to form fine oil droplets that remain stable over a range of environmental conditions. Some nature-derived nanoparticles (e.g., cellulose, chitosan, and starch) are effective at stabilizing emulsions containing relatively large oil droplets. Future research is encouraged to identify, isolate, purify, and characterize new types of natural emulsifier, and to test their efficacy in food, cosmetic, detergent, personal care, and other products.

  6. Novel self-emulsifying formulation of quercetin for improved in vivo antioxidant potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Jain, Amit K; Pohekar, Milind;

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin (QT) was formulated into a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve its oral bioavailability and antioxidant potential compared to free drug. Capmul MCM was selected as the oily phase on the basis of optimum solubility of QT in oil. Tween 20 and ethanol were selected...

  7. Molecular modelling and multisimplex optimization of tocotrienol-rich self emulsified drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayoubi, Alaadin; Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami

    2012-04-15

    The objective of this study was to optimize a novel tocotrienol (TRF)-rich self emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS). In the first part, an unusual phenomenon was investigated. It was observed that by substituting Tween 80 with Cremophor EL in the SEDDS it was possible to emulsify>55% TRF (by weight of the formulation) into submicron (emulsified into crude emulsion. The superiority of Cremophor was attributed to the special arrangement of the surfactant at the oil/water interface, which was confirmed by modelling and docking studies. In the second part of this study, the composition of the secondary ingredients in the TRF-rich SEDDS were optimized by the modified Multisimplex approach. SEDDS were manufactured at pre-defined step-size and tested for their dissolution behavior. Testing was performed sequentially until the optimum composition that can emulsify 50% of the loaded TRF into a stable<150 nm submicron emulsion was obtained. Optimization end-point was identified when the "membership value" approached 1, which was confirmed by a second Multisimplex run. Overall, this study demonstrated the utility of docking studies and the Multisimplex approach in product development when little is known about the experimental "design space".

  8. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of va

  9. Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein.

  10. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  11. The properties of some emulsifiers in the digestive fluids of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    1. 1. Curves for surface tension vs. concentration of emulsifiers from the intestinal juice of several invertebrates and their dependence on the salt concentrations have been determined. 2. 2. In Cancer pagurus L. the composition of the intestinal contents is favourable for a low critical micellar c

  12. Peroxidase mediated conjugation of corn fibeer gum and bovine serum albumin to improve emulsifying properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum (CFG), a naturally-occurring polysaccharide protein complex, were improved by kinetically controlled formation of hetero-covalent linkages with bovine serum albumin (BSA), using horseradish peroxidase. The formation of hetero-crosslinked CFG-BSA conjugate...

  13. The many ways of making anionic clays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; Grace S Thomas; P Vishnu Kamath

    2001-10-01

    Together with hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides, bivalent and trivalent metal hydroxides and their hydroxy salts are actually anionic clays consisting of positively charged hydroxide layers with anions intercalated in the interlayer region. The anionic clays exhibit anion sorption, anion diffusion and exchange properties together with surface basicity making them materials of importance for many modern applications. In this article, we discuss many different ways of making anionic clays and compare and contrast the rich diversity of this class of materials with the better-known cationic clays.

  14. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  15. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  16. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  17. Assessment of porous asphalt pavement performance: hydraulics and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. F.; Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to focus on the water quality treatment and hydraulic performance of a porous asphalt pavement parking lot in Durham, New Hampshire. The site was constructed in October 2004 to assess the suitability of porous asphalt pavement for stormwater management in cold climates. The facility consists of a 4-inch asphalt open-graded friction course layer overlying a high porosity sand and gravel base. This base serves as a storage reservoir in-between storms that can slowly infiltrate groundwater. Details on the design, construction, and cost of the facility will be presented. The porous asphalt pavements is qualitatively monitored for signs of distress, especially those due to cold climate stresses like plowing, sanding, salting, and freeze-thaw cycles. Life cycle predictions are discussed. Surface infiltration rates are measured with a constant head device built specifically to test high infiltration capacity pavements. The test measures infiltration rates in a single 4-inch diameter column temporarily sealed to the pavement at its base. A surface inundation test, as described by Bean, is also conducted as a basis for comparison of results (Bean, 2004). These tests assess infiltration rates soon after installation, throughout the winter, during snowmelt, after a winter of salting, sanding, and plowing, and after vacuuming in the spring. Frost penetration into the subsurface reservoir is monitored with a frost gauge. Hydrologic effects of the system are evaluated. Water levels are monitored in the facility and in surrounding wells with continuously logging pressure transducers. The 6-inch underdrain pipe that conveys excess water in the subsurface reservoir to a riprap pad is also continuously monitored for flow. Since porous asphalt pavement systems infiltrate surface water into the subsurface, it is important to assess whether water quality treatment performance in the subsurface reservoir is adequate. The assumed influent water quality is

  18. Protective effects of emulsified isoflurane after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Yan; WANG Yan-lin; CHEN Yong-quan; ZHANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effects of 8% emulsified isoflurane after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism in rabbits.Methods: Twenty-four male adult New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized with intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg pentobarbital followed by 5 mg·kg-1·h-1 infusion. All rabbits were subjected to 30 minutes of left anterior de-scending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion and 3 hours of subsequent reperfusion. Before LAD occlusion, the rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups for precondi-tioning treatment (eight for each group). The control group (C group) received intravenously 0.9% NaCl for 30 minutes. The emulsified isoflurane group (EI group) received 8% emulsified isoflurane intravenously till 0.64% end-tidal con-centration for 30 minutes that was followed by a 15-minute washout period. The Intralipid group (IN group) received 30% Intralipid for 30 minutes. The infarcted area, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and nitrite concentration after 3-hour myo-cardial perfusion were recorded simultaneously.Results: For the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in-jury animals, the infarcted size in the EI group was signifi-cantly reduced (91.9%±8%) as compared with control group (39%±6%,t=5.19, P<0.01). The plasma SOD activity and nitrite concentration in EI group were significantly higher than those in control group (t=2.82, t=8.46, P<0.05), but MDA content was lower in EI group than that in control group (t=2.56, P<0.05).Conclusions: The results indicate that emulsified isoflurane has a cardioprotection effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This beneficial effect of emulsified isoflurane is probably through NO release and consequently by increase in autioxidation of myocardium.

  19. Test of Microstructur Permeable Asphalt Pavement Used Domato Stone (Quarsite Dolomite As Course Agregate for Surface Layer of Road Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Chairuddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment works was dividing into two phases, for phase one was developed to investigate the properties of aggregates and straight asphalt qualities. The experiment work for phase two was developed to design the porous asphalt mix. In this phase Japan’s method and Binamarga’s method was used to define optimum asphalt content. In this phase, has result cantabro loss weight 77.10 for asphalt quality 3% and loss weight 9.70 for asphalt quality 5%. asphalt flow down, air void and density values. The experiment work for phase two was developed to investigate the qualities of porous asphalt. In this phase, wheel tracking machine test was used to investigate the dynamic stability of mixes.

  20. Asphalts and asphaltenes: Macromolecular structure, precipitation properties, and flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassamdana, Hossein

    Depending on rock and fluid properties, more than 50% of reservoir oil in place is normally produced by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. Among the EOR techniques, miscible flooding is one of the most efficient and widely-used methods. However, this method can suffer from the formation and precipitation of asphalt aggregates. In addition, asphalt deposition is also a major hindrance to heavy oil production, and even primary recovery operations. Asphalt deposition can alter the reservoir rock properties, fluid saturation distribution, fluid flow properties, and eventually the ultimate oil recovery. The shortage of studies on the macromolecular structure and growth mechanisms of asphalt particles is the main reason for the unsuccessful modeling of their precipitation properties. The equivocal behavior of asphalt under some specific conditions could be the other reason. In this research we look at the problem of asphalt formation, flow, and precipitation from three different angles. We analyze extensive small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data, precipitation data, and molecular weight distribution measurements, and show that they all suggest conclusively that asphalts and asphaltenes are fractal aggregates, and their growth mechanisms are diffusion-limited particle (DLP) and diffusion-limited cluster-cluster (DLCC) aggregation processes. These results lead us to development of a scaling equation of state for predicting asphalt precipitation properties, such as its onset and amount of precipitation. Another result of our study is an analytical equation for modeling the molecular weight distribution of asphalt and asphaltene aggregates. In addition, asphalt phase behavior in miscible and immiscible injections is studied. The effect of the governing thermodynamic factors, such as the pressure, temperature, and composition of the oil and precipitation agents, on the asphalt aggregation and disaggregation processes are investigated. Finally, a model is developed to

  1. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  2. Microstructural characterization of the chemomechanical behavior of asphalt in terms of aging and fatigue performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Grover

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model---which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter---it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP's) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model

  3. TORBED process reactor technology for asphalt paving recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellwood, G. A. [Torftech Limited, Reading (United Kingdom); Laughlin, R. G. [Torftech Canada Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Fundamental principles underlying the TORBED reactor technologies are reviewed. Advantages, limitations, and the experience gained in applying the reactor to a range of material processing needs, particularly reprocessing asphalt paving waste, are discussed. The TORBED reactor consists of a compact shallow packed bed of particles suspended above an annular ring of stationary blades through which a process gas stream is passed at high velocity. Unlike fluidized beds, the process gas mass flow can be set to suit the process, i. e. a smaller gas mass flow can be used at a higher velocity at exit from the blades to keep the bed in proper motion. Advantages are: (1) smaller reactor size with rapid start-up and program change, (2) faster and more precise processing of particles, resulting in a consistent product or process, (3) low process stream pressure losses which facilitate process gas recirculation, (4) ability to process widely graded and irregularly shaped feed stocks, and (5) simplicity of operation through real time control. The 'expanded' version of the TORBED reactor also permits fuel injection to generate process gas temperatures in excess of 1600 degrees C, and allows high gas flow rates with low pressure drop. When used to reprocess asphalt paving waste, the coal tar, used in some 25 per cent of existing roads in the Netherlands, can be easily removed and destroyed and the cleaned stone and the energy generated form the destruction of the coal tar, can be reused in creating new bitumen- containing asphalt paving. Excellent results are reported to have been obtained in pilot studies. Pilot trial also have been conducted on the combustion of wood waste for power generation, with encouraging results. Other pilot projects addressed alternative cementitious materials. 5 refs.

  4. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  5. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. The Use of Polyethylene in Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Awwad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in road traffic during the last two decades in combination with an insufficient degree of maintenance due to shortage in funds has caused an accelerated and continuous deterioration of the road network in Jordan. To alleviate this process, several types of measures may be effective, e.g., securing funds for maintenance, improved roadway design, use of better quality of materials and the use of more effective construction methods. The use of polymer in asphalt mixture as a modifier started in the 80s of the last century and has been tested in a number of countries around the World. In this research, polyethylene as one sort of polymers is used to investigate the potential prospects to enhance asphalt mixture properties. The objectives also include determining the best type of polyethylene to be used and its proportion. Two types of polyethylene were added to coat the aggregate [High Density Polyethylene (HDPE and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE]. The polymers were introduced to the mixture in two states (Grinded and not Grinded. Marshall mix design was used, first to determine the optimum bitumen binder content and then further to test the modified mixture properties. In total, 105 samples were prepared (21 samples were used to determine the binder content and the remaining samples were used to investigate the effect of modifying the asphalt mixtures. The optimum asphalt content was 5.4%. Seven proportions of polyethylene of each type and state by weight of the optimum binder content were selected to be tested (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18%. The tests include the determination of bulk density, stability and flow. Marshall mix design requires the determination of the percentages of air voids and air voids of mineral aggregate. The results indicated that grinded HDPE polyethylene modifier provides better engineering properties. The recommended proportion of the modifier is 12% by the weight of bitumen content. It is found to increase the

  7. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman,; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  8. 乳化剂及助乳化剂提高生物油/柴油乳化性能%Improving emulsifying performance of bio-oil/diesel by emulsion and co-emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文英; 许勇; 王述洋

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil is easy to extract,transport and storage. It is a kind of potential clean and renewable energy and can be used as fuel in oil burning boiler and turbine engine directly. Furthermore, Bio-oil can be blended with gasoline, diesel in certain percentage through using advanced emulsion process to produce clean, environment-friendly bio-oil/disel mixed emulsification fuel. It not only improves the calorific value of fuel and the combustion performance, the emulsified oil also can be directly applied to ordinary diesel engine with or without modification. Bio-oil is a mixture with high percentage of water and acid, the stability of the emulsion products is an important factor for its large-scale application. Meanwhile, the choice of emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifier is important for the stability of bio-oil. In this paper, the impact of emulsifier types, HLB value, dosage of emulsifier, types of auxiliary emulsifier and dosage of auxiliary emulsifier on the stability of the emulsified bio-oil/diesel oil were studied using non-ionic compound surfactants. The stability of the emulsified oil and absorbance ratio K was used as observation object at the macroscopic level. the average particle size of emulsified oil and the distribution of emulsified oil droplets were used as observation objects at the micro level. The experimental results showed that the stabilization time of the emulsified oil reached up to 17 days using Tween80 and Span80 as mixed emulsifier when B-oil content was blended with 5%, 90% of diesel fuel, and 5% of emulsifier. The absorbance ratio K was 1.11, which means the stability is best with the particle size of 1.56 um in the microscopic observation. The best HLB value range was 5.0-5.8, the peak curve is higher on the particle size distribution, and there was more number of small oil droplets. The highest peak and the most number of droplets were reached when the HLB value was set as 5.4. As the HLB value increase, the oil droplets number was

  9. Study on the Optimization of Bio-emulsifier Production by Geobacillus sp.XS2 Based on Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the optimization of bio-emulsifier production by Geobacillus sp.XS2 based on response surface methodology.[Method] Firstly,single factor experiment was conducted to find out the main medium components influencing bio-emulsifier production by Geobacillus sp.XS2,and then response surface model was established by using response surface methodology and Design-Expert 7.0,so as to optimize the fermentation medium for bio-emulsifier production by Geobacillus sp.XS2.[Result] Glucose...

  10. Function Mechanism and Application Study of Emulsifier%乳化剂的作用机理及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇

    2012-01-01

    介绍了乳化剂的作用机理及其在食品、材料合成、养殖行业及日用化学等行业的应用,指出复合乳化剂和环保型乳化剂应是今后乳化剂研发的重点和方向。%The function mechanism of emulsifier was introduced. The application study of emulsifier was illuminated, especially in the industry of food, material, breeding, cosmetic. Moreover, it was pointed that compound and environmental emulsifier should be the core of application study.

  11. Advances in Emulsified Wax for Leather Finishes%皮革涂饰乳化蜡的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国琳

    2012-01-01

    The preparation method and action principle of emulsified wax for leather finishes were introduced,and then the research advances in emulsified wax for leather finishes at home and abroad were reviewed.Finally,some suggestions for developing emulsified wax for leather finishes were provided.%介绍了皮革涂饰乳化蜡的制备方法及作用原理,综述了国内外皮革涂饰乳化蜡的应用研究进展,对国内皮革涂饰乳化蜡的发展提了几点参考意见。

  12. Influence of Diatomite and Mineral Powder on Thermal Oxidative Ageing Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of asphalt affects the performances of asphalt pavement significantly. Therefore, effects of diatomite and mineral powder on ageing properties of asphalt were investigated systematically in order to improve the antiageing property of mixture. Thin film oven test (TFOT was used to conduct the short term ageing in laboratory. Softening points, penetrations, force ductility, low temperature creep properties, and viscosities of asphalt mastics were tested before and after TFOT, respectively. Results indicated that percent retained penetration (PRP increased with the increasing of fillers. Increment of softening point (ΔT, ductility retention rate (DRR, deformation energy ageing index (JAI, and viscosity ageing index (VAI of asphalt mastics nonlinearly decreased with the increasing of fillers. Ageing of asphalt was reduced by diatomite and mineral powder. And the antiageing effect of diatomite was better than that of mineral powder as a result of its porous structure. It is suggested that the mineral powder could be reasonably replaced by diatomite in order to reduce thermal oxidative ageing of asphalt mixture. The optimal content of diatomite 12.8% is also suggested for engineering.

  13. LABORATORY SIMULATION OF POROUS ASPHALT PARKING LOT SYSTEM AND MIX DESIGN FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. HAMZAH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt pavement was initially developed for the purpose of improving road safety, best candidate material for quiet pavement and to avoid aquaplaning and skidding in wet weather. However, from previous studies, porous asphalt is able to mitigate surface runoff. Porous asphalt parking lots with underlying reservoir course perform as additional temporary water storage matrix that enables reduction of flash flood. This paper elaborates the development of a new porous asphalt aggregate grading design for storm water mitigation using the Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS 20 mm. The properties of the mixes were quantified and evaluated in terms of air voids, permeability, abrasion loss and indirect tensile strength. It was found that the proposed gradation has the best permeability and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS values when compacted at 50 blows per face with a standard Marshal compactor. The porous asphalt slab was prepared using a slab compactor to simulate porous parking lot paving at site. The porous asphalt slab was finally placed inside a locally fabricated water flow simulator to simulate a porous asphalt pavement system for parking lots.

  14. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  15. Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

  16. Environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with electric arc furnace steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Oblak, Tina; Mladenovič, Ana; Ančar, Janez Šč

    2011-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag can be used as an alternative high-quality material in road construction. Although asphalts with slag aggregates have been recognized as environmentally acceptable, there is a lack of data concerning the potential leaching of toxic Cr(VI) due to the highly alkaline media of EAF slag. Leaching of selected water extractable metals from slag indicated elevated concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI). To estimate the environmental impacts of asphalt mixes with slag, leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using pure water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground asphalt composites with natural aggregates, and asphalt composites in which the natural aggregates were completely replaced by slag were prepared. The concentrations of total chromium and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 6 mo. After 1 and 6 mo, the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in the leachates. The results indicated that chromium in leachates from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. However, the concentrations were very low (below 25 μg L) and did not represent an environmental burden. The leaching of other metals from asphalt composites with the addition of slag was negligible. Therefore, the investigated EAF slag can be considered as environmentally safe substitute for natural aggregates in asphalt mixes.

  17. Size-dependent enrichment of waste slag aggregate fragments abraded from asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Gardner, Kevin; Kida, Akiko

    2011-10-30

    Authors consider the environmental prospects of using melted waste slag as the aggregate for asphalt pavement. In particular, the enrichment of slag-derived fragments in fine abrasion dust particles originated from slag asphalt concrete and its size dependency were concerned. A series of surface abrasion tests for asphalt concrete specimens, containing only natural aggregates as reference or 30 wt% of substituted slag aggregates, were performed. Although two of three slag-asphalt concretes generated 1.5-3.0 times larger amount of abrasion dust than the reference asphalt concrete did, it could not be explained only by abrasion resistance of slag. The enrichment of slag-derived fragments in abrasion dust, estimated on the basis of the peak intensity of quartz and heavy metal concentrations, had size dependency for all slag-asphalt concretes. Slag-derived fragments were enriched in abrasion dust particles with diameters of 150-1000 μm. Enrichment factors were 1.4-2.1. In contrast, there was no enrichment in abrasion dust particles with diameter less than 75 μm. This suggests that prior airborne-size fragmentation of substituted slag aggregates does not need to be considered for tested slag aggregates when environmental risks of abrasion dust of slag-asphalt pavement are assessed.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  19. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  20. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  1. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  2. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  3. Research on nonlinear constitutive relationship of permanent deformation in asphalt pavements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Miaojuan; XU; Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    To predict correctly the rut depths in asphalt pavements,a new nonlinear viscoelastic-elastoplastic constitutive model of permanent deformation in asphalt pavements is presented.The model combines a generalized Maxwell model with an elastoplastic one.Then from the creep theory,the linear and nonlinear constitutive equations of the generalized Maxwell model are obtained.From the nonlinear finite element method for the rutting of the asphalt pavement,the rut depths of 4 asphalt-aggregate mixtures are obtained.And the results are compared with the ones from the finite element method by SHRP and the experiments by SWK/UN.The results in this paper are better than the ones by SHRP,and agree with the ones of the experiment by SWK/UN.This shows that the nonlinear viscoelastic-elastoplastic constitutive model,which is presented in this paper for the rutting of the asphalt pavement,is effective.The properties,such as nonlinear elasticity,plasticity,viscoelasticity and nonlinear viscoelasticity,which affect the rutting of an asphalt pavement,can be shown in the model.And the characteristics of the permanent deformation of the asphalt pavement can be presented entirely in the model.

  4. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for occupational exposures to asphalt fumes during built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Mayfield, David B; Goodman, Julie E; Butler, Eric L; Nascarella, Marc A; Williams, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer qualitatively characterized occupational exposure to oxidized bitumen emissions during roofing as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). We examine chemistry, exposure, epidemiology and animal toxicity data to explore quantitative risks for roofing workers applying built-up roofing asphalt (BURA). Epidemiology studies do not consistently report elevated risks, and generally do not have sufficient exposure information or adequately control for confounders, precluding their use for dose-response analysis. Dermal carcinogenicity bioassays using mice report increased tumor incidence with single high doses. In order to quantify potential cancer risks, we develop time-to-tumor model methods [consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose-response analysis and mixtures guidelines] using the dose-time-response shape of concurrent exposures to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as concurrent controls (which had several exposure levels) to infer presumed parallel dose-time-response curves for BURA-fume condensate. We compare EPA relative potency factor approaches, based on observed relative potency of BURA to B[a]P in similar experiments, and direct observation of the inferred BURA dose-time-response (scaled to humans) as means for characterizing a dermal unit risk factor. We apply similar approaches to limited data on asphalt-fume inhalation and respiratory cancers in rats. We also develop a method for adjusting potency estimates for asphalts that vary in composition using measured fluorescence. Overall, the various methods indicate that cancer risks to roofers from both dermal and inhalation exposure to BURA are within a range typically deemed acceptable within regulatory frameworks. The approaches developed may be useful in assessing carcinogenic potency of other complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  5. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  6. Efficient Amide Based Halogenide Anion Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xing WU; Feng Hua LI; Hai LIN; Shou Rong ZHU; Hua Kuan LIN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis and anion recognition properties of the amide based phenanthroline derivatives 1, 2 and 3. In all cases 1:1 receptor: anion complexes were observed. The receptors were found to be selective for fluoride and chloride respectively over other putative anionic guest species.

  7. Binding Hydrated Anions with Hydrophobic Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkalingam, Punidha; Shraberg, Joshua; Rick, Steven W; Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-01-13

    Using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and quantum and molecular dynamics calculations, we demonstrate that relatively soft anions have an affinity for hydrophobic concavity. The results are consistent with the anions remaining partially hydrated upon binding, and suggest a novel strategy for anion recognition.

  8. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  9. Distribution characteristics and petroleum geological significance of the Silurian asphaltic sandstones in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jun; PANG; Xiongqi; LIU; Luofu; JIANG; Zhenxue; LIU

    2004-01-01

    The Tarim Basin is a typical superimposed basin in which there have occurred multiphase adjustment and destruction of the reservoirs. The widely distributed asphaltic sandstones of the Silurian are the very product after destruction of the reservoirs. Studies show that the Silurian asphaltic sandstones distributed in both the middle and western parts on the basin are controlled chiefly by the Caledonian oil source area and by the Tazhong, Tabei and Bachu uplifts, whereas the distribution of the asphaltic sandstones on local structural belts is controlled by the reservoir's sedimentary system. Vertically, most of the asphaltic sandstones are under the regional caprock of red mudstones and the upper sandstone section of compact lithology. Due to the difference of hydrocarbon destruction in the early stage and the influence of hydrocarbon recharge in the late stage, the asphaltic sandstones and oil-bearing sandstones in the Tazhong area can be vertically divided into the upper and lower sections and they have an interactive distribution relationship as well. Asphaltic sandstones exist not only in intergranular pores but also inside the grains of sand and between the crevices, proving the destruction of early reservoirs due to uplifting. The existence of asphaltic sandstones over a large area reveals that the large-scale migration and accumulation and the subsequent destruction of hydrocarbons in the Craton area. The destruction caused a loss of the reserve resources of the Palaeozoic amounting to nearly 13.3 billion tons. Asphaltic sandstones formed after the destruction of oil and gas may serve as an effective caprock which is beneficial to accumulation of hydrocarbons and formation of the pool sealed by asphaltic sandstones in the later stage. The destruction of the early Silurian hydrocarbons depends on the stratigraphic burial depth. The deep part under the northern slope of Tazhong is an area favorable to search of undestroyed Silurian oil reservoirs.

  10. Rheological evaluation of polymer-modified asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Romero Santos Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most used polymer for asphalt binder modification is the thermoplastic elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and aromatic oil is commonly added to the mixtures to improve their compatibly. This paper proposes the use of oil shale from sedimentary rock as a compatibilizer agent for polymer-modified asphalt binder (PMB. PMBs were produced by mixing a bitumen with a linear SBS copolymer (3.5% (w.w-1 using two oil shale contents (2 and 4% and petroleum aromatic oil to evaluate comparatively the effect of the compatibilizer agent on the SBS PMB properties. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analyzed in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and the morphology accessed by fluorescence optical microscopy. The viscoelastic behavior of the samples corroborated the results for the classical properties and varied according to the sample morphology and composition. The results indicate that the aromatic and shale oils have similar effects on the microstructure, storage stability and viscoelastic behavior of the PMBs. Thus, shale oil could be successfully used as a compatibilizer agent without loss of properties or could even replace the aromatic oil. Following the Superpave methodology it was observed that the linear- and radial-SBS PMBs and linear-SBS PMB with 2% of shale oil can be used up to 70 °C, and the linear-SBS PMBs with 4% of shale oil or 2% of aromatic oil can be used only up to 64 °C.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Asphalt Pavements under Moving Wheel Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The responses of the pavement in service are the basis for the design of the semi-rigid base course asphalt pavement.Due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel loads and the temperature loads,the dynamic response analysis is very significant.In this article, the dynamic analysis of asphalt pavement under moving wheel loads is carried out using finite element method coupled with non-reflective boundary method.The influences of the base modulus, thickness, the vehicle velocity, the tire pressure, and the contact condition at the interface are studied using parametric analysis.The results of numerical analysis show that it is not appropriate to simply increase the base modulus or thickness in the design.It would be beneficial if the base design is optimized synthetically.The increase of damping is also beneficial to the pavements because of the surface deflection and the stresses declination.Furthermore, the good contact condition at the interface results in good performance because it combines every layer of the pavement to work together.As overload aggravates the working condition of the pavement, it is not allowed.

  12. Survival Analysis of Fatigue and Rutting Failures in Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra Rajbongshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue and rutting are two primary failure mechanisms in asphalt pavements. The evaluations of fatigue and rutting performances are significantly uncertain due to large uncertainties involved with the traffic and pavement life parameters. Therefore, deterministically it is inadequate to predict when an in-service pavement would fail. Thus, the deterministic failure time which is known as design life (yr of pavement becomes random in nature. Reliability analysis of such time (t dependent random variable is the survival analysis of the structure. This paper presents the survival analysis of fatigue and rutting failures in asphalt pavement structures. It is observed that the survival of pavements with time can be obtained using the bathtub concept that contains a constant failure rate period and an increasing failure rate period. The survival function (S(t, probability density function (pdf, and probability distribution function (PDF of failure time parameter are derived using bathtub analysis. It is seen that the distribution of failure time follows three parametric Weibull distributions. This paper also works out to find the most reliable life (YrR of pavement sections corresponding to any reliability level of survivability.

  13. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  14. Sulfur extended asphalt pavement evaluation in the State of Washington: SR 270 highway pavement performance report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J. P.; Terrel, R. L.; Cook, J. C.

    1982-11-01

    The placement and performance of sulfur extended asphalt (SEA) paving mixtures at a highway test site (SR 270) near Pullman, Washington is summarized. The mixture and structural designs and construction details are included. This is followed by a discussion of the data collection and analysis accomplished over a three year evaluation period (1979-1982). A major experimental feature of the study was the use of 0.100 (conventional asphalt concrete), 30/70 and 40/60 SEA binder ratios (sulfur/asphalt ratios are expressed as weight percents in the experimental paving mixtures.

  15. Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Auburn, AL: National Center for Asphalt Technology. Cooley Jr., L. A. 2003. Evaluation of Pavement Permeability in Mississippi. Auburn, AL: National...ER D C/ G SL T R -1 2 -3 Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u ct...default. ERDC/GSL TR-12-3 February 2012 (Revised December 2013) Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

  16. Characteristics and applications of high-performance fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Philip

    Steel fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (SFRAC) is suggested in this research as a multifunctional high performance material that can potentially lead to a breakthrough in developing a sustainable transportation system. The innovative use of steel fibers in asphalt concrete is expected to improve mechanical performance and electrical conductivity of asphalt concrete that is used for paving 94% of U. S. roadways. In an effort to understand the fiber reinforcing mechanisms in SFRAC, the interaction between a single straight steel fiber and the surrounding asphalt matrix is investigated through single fiber pull-out tests and detailed numerical simulations. It is shown that pull-out failure modes can be classified into three types: matrix, interface, and mixed failure modes and that there is a critical shear stress, independent of temperature and loading rate, beyond which interfacial debonding will occur. The reinforcing effects of SFRAC with various fiber sizes and shapes are investigated through indirect tension tests at low temperature. Compared to unreinforced specimens, fiber reinforced specimens exhibit up to 62.5% increase in indirect tensile strength and 895% improvements in toughness. The documented improvements are the highest attributed to fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete to date. The use of steel fibers and other conductive additives provides an opportunity to make asphalt pavement electrically conductive, which opens up the possibility for multifunctional applications. Various asphalt mixtures and mastics are tested and the results indicate that the electrical resistivity of asphaltic materials can be manipulated over a wide range by replacing a part of traditional fillers with a specific type of graphite powder. Another important achievement of this study is development and validation of a three dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model that is capable of simulating both linear and nonlinear viscoelasticity of asphaltic materials. The

  17. Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -1 0 Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu...Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge Ernest S. Berney IV and Mariely Mejías-Santiago, Geotechnical and Structures...Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS validated the effectiveness of the Soil Density Gauge (SDG) and the Combined Asphalt Soil

  18. Epoxy asphalt concrete paving on the deck of long-span steel bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Gang; YANG Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is the first systematic research in the world on the composition design of epoxy asphalt concrete as pav- ing material. Material characteristics and service perform- ance of mixture, fatigue resistance characteristics of epoxy asphalt concrete by the fatigue test of complex beam have also been described. This research indicates that epoxy asphalt concrete is a good type of paving material. Research results have been applied successfully in the paving of steel deck of the Second Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (SNYRB). It provides a new paving type for long-span steel bridges of China and has a bright application prospect.

  19. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  20. Asphalt Volcanism and Chemosynthetic Life in the Campeche Knolls, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bohrmann, G.; Escobar, E.; Abegg, F.; Blanchon, P.; Blinova, V.; Brückmann, W.; Drews, M.; Eisenhauer, A.; Han, X.; Heeschen, K.; Meier, F.; Mortera, C.; Naehr, T.; Orcutt, B.; Bernard, B.; Brooks, J.; de Faragó, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the Campeche Knolls, in the southern Gulf of Mexico, lava-like flows of solidified asphalt cover more than 1 square kilometer of the rim of a dissected salt dome at a depth of 3000 meters below sea level. Chemosynthetic tubeworms and bivalves colonize the sea floor near the asphalt, which chilled and contracted after discharge. The site also includes oil seeps, gas hydrate deposits, locally anoxic sediments, and slabs of authigenic carbonate. Asphalt volcanism creates a habitat for chemosynthetic life that may be widespread at great depth in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Development of an asphalt aging procedure to assess long-term binder performance

    KAUST Repository

    Juristyarini, Pramitha

    2011-09-07

    Nine asphalts, including seven Strategic Highway Research Program asphalts and two Texas asphalts, were aged at several conditions of temperature and oxygen pressure to develop an aging test. Values for a dynamic shear rheometer function, a combination of both elastic and viscous properties that serves as an indicator of susceptibility to age-related pavement cracking, were measured for both aged and unaged samples. Each aging condition was ranked and calibrated against environmental room aging (60°C, 1 atm air), used to simulate road aging. PAV thin-film aging at 90°C, 20 atm air for 32 hr best represented environmental room aging. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    heavy traffic and severe weather conditions in Greenland. Based on the initial set of strain data collected under the slow-moving loader right after construction, the highest strain value was observed from the test section with the highest amount of SBS-based compound. The increased amount of SBS......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...... weather....

  3. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  4. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  5. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  6. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action.

  7. Rheological and droplet size analysis of W/O/W multiple emulsions containing low concentrations of polymeric emulsifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević, Dragana D.; JELENA V. PAROJČIĆ; Primorac, Marija M.; Vuleta, Gordana M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple emulsions are complex dispersion systems which have many potential applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and the food industry. In practice, however, significant problems may arise because of their thermodynamic instability. In this study, W/O/W multiple emulsion systems containing low concentration levels of lipophilic polymeric primary emulsifiers cetyl dimethicone copolyol and PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate were evaluated. The concentrations of the primary emulsifiers were set at...

  8. Determination of metals in used lubricating oils by AAS using emulsified samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, I M; Murillo, M; González, A M

    1998-11-01

    An efficient method was developed for the determination of metals in used lubricating oils, by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oil samples were treated with an acid mixture and then emulsified in water (10% w/w) using ethoxy nonylphenol (6% w/w) as surfactant. Emulsion characteristics (oil, surfactant content and acid mixture) were optimized to obtain the best AAS signal. Good agreement was found between calibration curves of aqueous and emulsified standard solutions when a peristaltic pump was used to introduce the solutions into the flame. The emulsion methodology was comparable, within 95% of confidence, to traditional ashing methodologies when a standard reference oil and a used lubricating oil were analyzed. Precision between 0.4 and 5% RSD was obtained when real sample was analyzed using emulsions.

  9. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    the emulsification process was achieved when using the emulsifier with the highest concentration of β-lactoglobulin, whereas during storage the best oxidative stability was observed in the emulsions with the highest concentration of α-lactalbumin. These differences were ascribed to the partitioning of α...... and cream cheese. Unexpectedly, results showed that a better oxidative stability was achieved when the fish oil was added as neat oil to the milk than as a 10% delivery emulsion. Furthermore, no difference was observed on the oxidative status of the milks dependent on the type of emulsifier used...... for preparing the delivery emulsions. Independent of the introduction method of fish oil to cream cheese (neat oil vs a 70% delivery emulsion), the fish oil enriched cream cheese oxidized during a 20 weeks storage period to a degree where the sensory quality of the product was significantly impacted. However...

  10. Study on degradation of nitrobenzene in groundwater using emulsified nano-zero-valent iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Wen, Chunyu; Liu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Jintong; Jiang, Hanjie; Qin, Chongwei; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Emulsified nano-zero-valent iron (EZVI) is a modified form of bare nanoiron with improved transportability and targetability for the remediation of organic-solvents polluted soil and groundwater. In this work, EZVI (50-150 nm) was prepared by coating an emulsified vegetable oil membrane on the surface of Fe nanoparticles. EZVI was well-dispersed and less aggregation was observed. Batch experiments were conducted in anaerobic conditions to investigate the kinetics of nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI and the influences of oil concentration, initial iron content, and initial pH. Results indicated that the kinetics of nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The observed rate constant of nitrobenzene is 0.0942 min-1. The oil concentration of 1 and 2 % tended to be preferred concentrations. The rate of nitrobenzene degradation and aniline formation increased with increasing iron content. The low pH is favorable to the nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI.

  11. The studies of phase equilibria and efficiency assessment for self-emulsifying lipid-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahba, Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab; Mohsin, Kazi; Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to build up a database for the evaluation of the self-emulsifying lipid formulations performance. A standard assessment method was constructed to evaluate the self-emulsifying efficiency of the formulations based on five parameters including excipients miscibility, spontaneity, dispersibility, homogeneity, and physical appearance. Equilibrium phase studies were conducted to investigate the phase changes of the anhydrous formulation in response to aqueous dilution. Droplet size studies were carried out to assess the influence of lipid and surfactant portions on the resulted droplet size upon aqueous dilution. Formulations containing mixed glycerides showed enhanced self-emulsification with both lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants. Increasing the polarity of the lipid portion in the formulation leaded to progressive water solubilization capacity. In addition, formulations containing medium chain mixed glycerides and hydrophilic surfactants showed lower droplet size compared with their long chain and lipophilic counterparts. The inclusion of mixed glycerides in the lipid formulations enormously enhances the formulation efficiency.

  12. Emulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Operation and Maintenance O.D. Outside diameter ORP Oxidation-reduction potential P&T Pump-and-treat PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PCE...relative degradation contributions of the zero-valent iron (ZVI) versus biodegradation promoted by the emulsifying agents (completed laboratory...The EZVI is composed of food-grade surfactant, biodegradable oil, water, and ZVI particles (either nano- or micro-scale iron), which form

  13. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K; Poole, Angela C; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host-microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects

  14. IN VITRO STUDY OF SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG SPIRONOLACTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irin Dewan et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of study was to formulate SEDDS of Spironolactone in order to achieve a better dissolution rate which would further help in enhancing oral bioavailability. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oils and surfactants, sometimes containing cosolvents. The present research work describes a Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS of Spironolactone using oils (Arachise oil, Oleic Acid, Castor oil, Soyabean Oil, Neobee M5, Migloyol, Capmul, surfactants (Tween-80, Cremophor RH40,Cremophor EL and adsorbents (Aerosil-200,Avicel PH101,Lactose, Dextrose, Mannitol and Talc. In case of SEEDS of Spironolactone, the release rates of all oils were very rapid in Avicel PH101(above 82% because it has the best flow property among the other absorbents. It Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System observed that the release pattern from Arachis oil (92.95%, Oleic acid (90.21% and Castor oil (97.54% were better in comparison to other oils. Besides, it can be comprehend that the release rate of the three oils were very rapid in Tween-80(above 85% because it has the best emulsifying property than Cremophor RH40 and Cremophor EL. Besides the solubility of Spironolactone in various oils was determined to identify the oil phase of SEDDS. Various surfactants and co-surfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify the selected oil. The formulation was found to show a significant improvement in terms of the drug release with complete release of drug within 60 minutes. Thus, Self microemulsifying formulation of Spironolactone was successfully developed.

  15. Toward a Block-Copolymer-Emulsified, Tough Blend of Isotactic Polystyrene and Polybutadiene: HIiPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-91-J-1045 R&T Code 4132047 --- 02-1 TECNICA RPORT NO. 2 Toward a Block-Copolymer-Emulsified, Tough Blend of... molecular weight polydispersities in the final materials (>6) due to the continuous restructuring of the catalytic sites; some chains break off and die...presented an opportunity to mix and match different molecular weight polystyrenes and polybutadienes so as to tailor-make diblock copolymers of varying

  16. Anion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vadivel Murugan

    2003-01-01

    . Its characterization is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The hybrid material presents predominantly high electronic conductivities of around 2.0 and 7.0 S cm-1 at 300 and 400K respectively.

  17. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  18. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  19. Rendering the loss of strength in dry concretes with addition of milled asphalt through microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sachet

    Full Text Available Milled asphalt removed from old pavement carpets requires tenable handling easily reachable through its incorporation within other paving materials. This work deals with the effects of such incorporation to dry compacted concretes. Fine, intermediate, coarse and whole portions of milled asphalts were blended to a reference concrete. Mechanical tests disclosed remarkable losses on its strengths and modulus of elasticity; for the stereoscope and scanning microscopy pointed out impaired transition zones between the cement paste and the milled aggregates involved by thin asphalt films. Nevertheless, the mechanical results shown that the concretes with incorporated milled asphalt aggregates are suitable for use in pavement layers as bases and sub-bases even with reduced mechanical parameters.

  20. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  1. Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified by Supramolecular UV Resistant Material-LDHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinshan; WU Shaopeng; HAN Jun; LIU Xing

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic rheological properties of asphalt modified by Supramolecular UV resistant material-layered double hydroxides(LDHs) was studied by means of the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test.Two typical base asphalts were chosen and modified by 2 different LDHs contents.DSR tests were performed on the original samples,samples after exposed to outdoor and samples after the artificial accelerated UV aging tests respectively to analyze the rheological properties.It is found that when the LDHs content is between 3wt% and 5wt% of asphalt weight,the high temperature performance and fatigue resistant property of the modified asphalt become better,the UV aging resistance properties are improved.

  2. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  3. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  4. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Yerbol Tileuberdi; S. Kozbakarova; Yerdos Ongarbayev; B. Tuleutaev; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  5. The addition effects of macro and nano clay on the performance of asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the addition effect of macro and organically modified nanoclay on the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt binders. Both macroclay and modified nanoclay were blended in an asphalt binder in various percentages (starting from 2% to 8%. The blended asphalt binders were characterized using kinematic viscosity (C.st, softening point (°C, and penetration and compared with anunmodified binder. The tensile strength of the asphalt binders was also tested as a function of clay types and content%. The results of the study indicated an increase in softening point; kinematics viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. The tensile strength of modified clay binders was enhanced at all percentages by a comparison with both macroclay and unmodified binders. The best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 6% nanoclay.

  6. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol on Asphaltic Concrete for Cubical and Rod shaped Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principle material in pavement construction. Conventional road aggregates in India are natural aggregates obtained by crushing rocks. Aggregate characteristics such as particle size, shape, and texture etc.., influence the performance and serviceability of pavement. Pavements laid with polymer modified asphalt exhibits greater resistance to rutting, thermal cracking and fatigue damages and hence these were used at locations of higher stress. The present work concentrates on aggregate characteristics which include the shape indices. The particle shapes namely Cubical and Rod are being used in the study. The study shows the behavior of the two shapes of aggregate in terms of Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point and Marshall Stability tests with varying percentages of asphalt and also with varying the percentages of PEG. The results of unmodified asphalt mix are compared with the modified asphalt mix against some critical Marshall Mix parameters.

  7. Evaluation of steel slag coarse aggregate in hot mix asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedzade, Perviz; Sengoz, Burak

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents the influences of the utilization of steel slag as a coarse aggregate on the properties of hot mix asphalt. Four different asphalt mixtures containing two types of asphalt cement (AC-5; AC-10) and coarse aggregate (limestone; steel slag) were used to prepare Marshall specimens and to determine optimum bitumen content. Mechanical characteristics of all mixtures were evaluated by Marshall stability, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, creep stiffness, and indirect tensile strength tests. The electrical sensitivity of the specimens were also investigated in accordance with ASTM D257-91. It was observed that steel slag used as a coarse aggregate improved the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. Moreover, volume resistivity values demonstrated that the electrical conductivity of steel slag mixtures were better than that of limestone mixtures.

  8. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  9. Effect of Components on the Performance of Asphalt Modiifed by Waste Packaging Polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Maorong; FANG Changqing; ZHOU Shisheng; CHENG Youliang; YU Ruien; LIU Shaolong; LIU Xiaolong; SU Jian

    2016-01-01

    Waste packaging polyethylene (WPE) was used to modify raw asphalt by melt blending the components at 190℃ for 1 h in a simple mixer and subsequently machining them at 120℃ for 1 h in a high-speed shearing machine. The effect of modiifcation on the degree of the penetration, the softening point and the ductility of the asphalt was studied using lfuorescent microscopy, infrared spectrometry, component changes and various other techniques. The experimental results showed that no chemical reactions took place in the components themselves (saturate, aromatic, asphaltene and resin) during the modifications. The softening point and penetration of the asphalt were found to be closely related to the resulting contents of the asphaltene, saturate and resin components. In addition, aromatics were identified as having the greatest impact on the ductility of the asphalt.

  10. Field Performance of Asphalt Pavements with New Technologies in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Benjamin Michael

    The Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) of the Washoe Valley Area has been tasked to determine if three advanced asphalt pavement technologies and one modified aggregate gradation are suitable for implementation within Reno, Stead, and Sparks Nevada. This was accomplished through research and test roads and Intersections to determine if Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binder, and the Type 2-R aggregate gradation were succeeding in their design plans. Over the course of several years the streets being used by RTC to test the technologies are succeeding within their design lifespans, and the Intersections being used to test the Type 2-R aggregate gradation are showing significant resistance to rutting. Due to the roads and Intersections not being more than 10 years old, these conclusions are subject to change over time.

  11. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  12. The Effect of Different Factors on the Emulsibility and Emulsifying Stability of Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of different concentrations, pH, temperature and electrolytic on Emulsifying Activity (EA and Emulsifying Stability (ES of collagen extracted from Amiurus nebulosus skin. Method: centrifugation. The results showed that EA of Acid-Soluble Collagen (ASC and Pepsin-Soluble Collagen (PSC increase quickly with the increasing collagens concentration and became stable when collagen concentration was up to 0.3%. The EA was also affected by pH, EA of ASC reached the minimum at isoelectric point pH 4.0 and EA of PSC reached the minimum at isoelectric point pH 5.0; EA of collagen increased with addition of NaCl within lower concentration; EA of ASC reached the maximum 51.11% at 55°C and EA of PSC reached the maximum 55.56% at 60°C. Conclusion: it is closely related to the collagen concentration, pH, temperature and electrolyte of collagen from Amiurus nebulosus skin. The change of ES was complicated, sometimes emulsibility was good, emulsifying stability was poor and vice versa.

  13. Isolation and functional characterization of hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing factors produced by a Pseudomonas species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P.G.; Banuah, J.N.; Bhagat, S.D.; Pathak, M.G.; Singh, H.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pseudomonas PG-1 cultivated on pristane produced in good amount a heat-stable polymeric substance which showed strong hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing properties. The substance was isolated in crude form and was found to contain 34% protein, 16% carbohydrate, and 40% lipid. The hydrocarbon solubilizing activity of the isolate was strongly inhibited by EDTA but the chelating agent had no effect on the hydrocarbon emulsifying activity. Both activities of the isolate were strongly inhibited by chymotrypsin treatment indicating the importance of the protein moiety for its activity. Hydrocarbon solubilization by the isolate showed a certain degree of specificity to pristane in modest agitation generally used in microbial cultivation, but this specificity was lost by vigorous agitation in a Waring blender. It was proposed that in the first case, solubilization was effected by a solubilizing factor specific to pristane, whereas in the latter ease, nonspecific solubilization occurred due to the action of the emulsifying factor. The rate of pristane solubilization by heat-treated culture broth under the conditions of agitation used in cultivation (rotary shaker, 120 rpm) was found to be ca. 750 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ which was much larger than the maximal pristane uptake rate of 170 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ observed during microbial growth on the substrate. It was concluded that hydrocarbon solubilization could satisfactorily account for the substrate uptake and growth.

  14. Interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides with different degrees of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Mio; Taira, Toshiaki; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the degree of hydrolysis on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of soybean peptides were evaluated based on surface and interfacial tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) analyses. Of the five evaluated soybean peptides (SP95, SP87, SP75, SP49, and SP23), those with higher degrees of hydrolysis (SP95 and SP87) did not exhibit noticeable surface-active properties in water, whereas those with relatively low degrees of hydrolysis (SP75, SP49, and SP23) exhibited remarkable surface tension-lowering activity. The latter set (SP75, SP49, and SP23) also formed giant associates with average sizes ranging from 64.5 nm to 82.6 nm above their critical association concentration (CAC). Moreover, SP23 with the lowest degree of hydrolysis exhibited excellent emulsifying activity for soybean oil, and FF-TEM analysis demonstrated that the emulsions were stabilized by a lamella-like multilayer peptide structure on the oil droplets that prevented coagulation. The peptide with the lowest degree of hydrolysis (SP23) was effective not only for soybean oil emulsification, but also for the emulsification of liquid paraffin and silicon oil that are generally difficult to emulsify.

  15. Probing influence of mesophasic transformation on performance of self-emulsifying system: effect of ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil S; Venugopal, Edakkal; Bhat, Suresh; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2012-02-06

    Self-emulsifying systems are mixtures of oils and surfactants, ideally isotropic, sometimes including cosolvents, which emulsify under conditions of gentle agitation, similar to those which would be encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. The process of self-emulsification has remained the center of attraction for most researchers. Controlled hydration of self-emulsifying systems shows formation of an intermediate gel phase which upon rupture forms an emulsion. Current work was undertaken to understand and explore the microstructural properties of intermediate gel phase which are believed to influence the performance (droplet size) of the final formulation. The effect of additives on microstructural properties of intermediate gel phase has also been investigated. Microstructural elucidation of hydrated samples of intermediate regimes was done by using techniques such as small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and rheology. Samples from intermediate regimes showed formation of local lamellar structure which swelled with hydration. In the present work, the effect of addition of salt form of naproxen (sodium and potassium) and naproxen (base) on microstructural properties of intermediate regimes was investigated. Systems containing naproxen salts formed larger droplets whereas naproxen base formed smaller ones. Microstructural properties of intermediate lamellar structures were well correlated with performance of the final formulation. The current studies indicate that by controlling the properties of intermediate regimes optimized formulations with desired performance can be tailor-made.

  16. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stretchability. The apparatus was used to evaluate the effect of five types of emulsifier salts under different processing conditions. Results: It was found that by adding 0.2% (w/w Puromelt C1 or Monosodium phosphate to the brine of white brined cheese, higher levels of stretchability and meltability were induced after 2-4 weeks of storage. Conclusion: Addition of emulsifying salts was proved to be effective method in inducing meltability and stretchability of white brined cheese. Type of salt, its concentration, type of cheese and soaking time are factors that should be controlled to attain the optimum results.

  17. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Soy Protein Isolates with Covalent Modification by (--Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy Protein Isolates (SPI with covalent modification by (--Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG were prepared under the alkaline condition. The effects of covalent modification on the emulsifying and foaming properties of SPI were evaluated. The Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE profiles of the modified SPI revealed that EGCG treatment caused cross-linking of subunits. Emulsifying activity of modified SPI significantly increased when compared with that of control (p<0.05 at the concentration of 35 mg/mL. Modification of SPI by EGCG caused a decrease in the foam volume initially. In the range of 15 to 35 mg/mL, the foaming activities of modified SPI were found to be less than those of the control (p<0.05. The foaming stabilities of modified SPI were significantly higher when compared to those of control (p<0.05. The results obtained in this study indicated the modification by EGCG resulted in the enhancement of emulsifying activity and foaming stability of SPI. This modification may serve as a promising approach for improving functional properties of SPI.

  19. Removal of emulsified food and mineral oils from wastewater using surfactant modified barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shariff; Ang, Ha-Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2009-12-01

    Barley straw, an agricultural waste, was chemically modified and evaluated for the removal of emulsified oils from aqueous solution. The chemical modification was performed using NaOH and a cationic surfactant, hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC). The surface textural and chemical properties of the surfactant modified barley straw (BMBS) were characterized by N(2) adsorption, FT-IR, SEM and water soluble mineral content. The adsorption tests were carried out in batch adsorption system for removal of standard mineral oil (SMO) and canola oil (CO) from water. For both emulsified oils in wastewater, adsorption was found to be strongly related with solution pH. The isotherm study indicated that emulsified oil adsorption on BMBS could be fitted well with the Langmuir model other than Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity for CO and SMO at 25 degrees C determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 613.3 and 584.2 mg g(-1), respectively. Desorption tests in water solution show that oil is strongly bonded with adsorbent and desorption is only about 1-2% in 24 h.

  20. A STUDY OF FATIGUE LIFE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE BASED ON SHUNGITE MINERAL POWDER

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Chernousov; Vl. P. Podolsky; E. V. Trufanov; B. A. Bondarev

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. Shortage of mineral powder stimulates seeking of new materials and technologiesby which traditional ones can be replaced without deterioration of their operating properties. Thatis why a study of mineral powder from shungite and development of new technologies of arrangementof high quality and durable asphalt concrete pavement based on shungite is an actual problem.Results. Bearing capacity and service life of asphalt concrete pavement is most completely characterizedby mod...