WorldWideScience

Sample records for animals zoo

  1. Animal Welfare Law Implementations in Zoos : Case: Korkeasaari Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research the phenomenon of animal welfare in tourism as a response to rising national concerns for animals under human domain. The objective of the research was to observe the organization of Korkeasaari Zoo and the aim was to assess if their operations and activities were in compliance with the existing animal welfare legislation of Finland. Furthermore the objective of the research was to assess the state of the animals and their enclosures in the zoo, and ...

  2. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  3. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  4. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN ZOO ANIMALS IN SELECTED ZOOS IN MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, h...

  5. OCCUPATIONAL AND ANIMALS SAFETY IN ZOOS: A LEGAL NARRATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Halili Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal position of human and animal safety in zoos. The risk of injury or even death is high in zoos. Such risk can occur either to the people in charge of zoos, visitors or even to the animals themselves. As such, there are regulations enacted to safeguard people and animals from such risk. Tort is the primary law that governs liability of owner or management of a premise such as a zoo. Negligence and occupier’s liability is the main branch of tort law which is the most relevant to accidents in zoos. Preventive law such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Factories and Machinery Act are also used in ensuring safety at the work place (zoos. For the welfare and safety of animals captivated in zoos, the Wildlife Conservation legislation is enacted to ensure that animals or wildlife are treated well. Such is the scope of the article. The hypothesis of the study is that an effective law will ensure safety to human employed in and people visiting zoos and animals captivated in the zoos. The management of zoo differs from the management of other organizations. The methodology adopted is legal narrative and analysis with reference to legal instrument such as statutes passed by Parliament (legislative body. This article uses Malaysian law as a point of reference. The study finds that Malaysian law governing safety management in zoos is still inadequate.

  6. Histopathological identification of aspergillosis in animals at Dhaka Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Ahasan, S.A.; Chowdhury, E.H.; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Dhaka Zoo with 2000 animal heads of 184 species from significant genetic diversity and five million visitors’ influx round the year is placing it a public health important spot. This study was conducted to investigate aspergillosis in animals at Dhaka Zoo to ascertain animal health, welfare and public health safety standard. One hundred and two necropsied tissue samples preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin at necropsy from 36 animals of 25 different species were collected from Dhaka Zoo...

  7. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  8. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  9. The longevity legacy: the problem of old animals in zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchener, Andrew; Macdonald, Alastair A

    2002-01-01

    Zoos once demonstrated their skill in keeping wild mammals in captivity by longevity records. However, as our knowledge of animal husbandry in zoos has increased and breeding in most species has become commonplace, so the emphasis has shifted to continued breeding success and the management of sustainable zoo populations. There has also been undoubtedly an increase in the maximum and mean longevities of most species. For example, in a period of 30 years, the maximum longevities of gorillas (G...

  10. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Linhart†; Adams, David B.; Thomas Voracek

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transp...

  11. Distressed animal behaviors and some recommendations for improvements at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Amber

    2006-01-01

    The artificial living conditions of captive animals present numerous challenges for animal caretakers. In this study I explored abnormal behaviors in certain caged animals at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo. Findings obtained from observations of animals and interviews of the zoo staff are followed by recommendations: including the development of standards and manuals, licensing of zoos and animals, and increased budgets from governments or alternative sources. Such interventions should bring considerable improvements in animal welfare at the zoos in the region. PMID:17209757

  12. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Cottle, L.; Tamir, D.; Hyseni, M; Bühler, D; Lindemann-Matthies, P

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequ...

  13. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...

  14. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Linhart†

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  15. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  16. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  17. When zoo became nature. Copenhagen zoo and perceptions of animals and nature around 1900. I: Tidsskrift for Kulturforskning (NORSK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    of the Danish capital. During this period though, it also became possible for the Zoo to stage itself as a kinder place for animals, than "real" nature. In the early 20th century, the Zoo attracted attention from animal rights movements, wherefore the debates came to be structured around two...

  18. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  19. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Samantha J.; Vicky Melfi

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different rel...

  20. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper; William Browne

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...

  1. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  2. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ward

    Full Text Available Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI. The aims of this study were to (1 investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2 determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3 explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii, and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93. A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated

  3. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed. PMID:12096401

  4. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  5. The Development of Animal Welfare in Finland and How People Perceive Animal Welfare : Case Study: Animals in Tourism: Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Laatu, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study how Finnish people perceive animal welfare in general and how they feel about animals in tourism purposes, more specifically in zoos. The thesis also contains information about Finnish animal legislation and how animal welfare has developed over time. The target group for the research was people who have visited zoos recently. The interviewed people were from different age groups. The theoretical framework consists of the following topics: people’s relations...

  6. States of exemption: the legal and animal geographies of American zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Irus Braverman

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the interconnections between legal and animal geographies as manifested in American zoos. On the one hand, law shapes not only the zoo’s physical facilities, but also the very identity of zoo animals. On the other hand, the peculiarity of zoo animals—and of zoos as public spaces that display such animals—also translates into an anomalous state of zoo laws. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part demonstrates that, despite the numerous official laws that pertai...

  7. Book review: Fowler's zoo and wild animal medicine (volume 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one that the editors have accomplished well. The chapters were well written and are beautifully illustrated with high-quality images and generally well referenced. Much of the information is summarized in tabular format, which I found both a blessing and a curse. Tabulation of hematologic variables and anesthetic doses is helpful; however, tabulation of information regarding infectious and parasitic diseases results in a loss of detail. For example, methods of diagnosis for some diseases are omitted from some tables. The need for succinctness results in trade-offs, and statements such as “Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis … is one of the most well described pathogens of anurans” with no further information leaves readers unsated. In addition, the book does not have any chapters on fish or invertebrates, which are notable omissions given the importance of these species. Those quibbles aside, this is a must-have book for all zoo and wild animal medicine students and practitioners. However, perhaps it is time to recognize that, during the 36 years since the first volume was published, this discipline has become too large to be contained in 1 book. This is largely because of the success of this book series, and it is a nice problem to have.

  8. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005–2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors’ assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors’ reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83% were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9% as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24% were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  9. Are we ignoring neutral and negative human-animal relationships in zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal interactions (HAI), which may lead to human-animal relationships (HAR), may be positive, neutral, or negative in nature. Zoo studies show that visitors may be stressful, may have no effect, or may be enriching. There is also evidence that good HARs set up between animals and their keepers can have positive effects on animal welfare. However, we need to know more about negative HARs, and as a first step we attempt to do this here by considering cases where animals attack people in the zoo. Due to the sensitivity and rarity of these events data appear sparse and unsystematically collected. Here, information available in the public domain about the circumstances of these attacks has been collated to test hypotheses about negative HAIs derived from a model of zoo HARs. The limited data presented here broadly support the zoo HAR model, and suggest that attacks usually happen in unusual circumstances, where there may be a failure by the animal to recognise the HAR, or where the relationship, if there is one, does not hold; and give some support to the prediction that exposure to many keepers may impair the development of a positive HAR. This study may provide useful information for the zoo community to proactively collect systematic standardised records, which will enable a fuller understanding of zoo HARs, upon which appropriate measures might be adopted to build better zoo HARs, which are likely to positively impact zoo animal welfare, and reduce these rare incidences further. PMID:25328013

  10. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed two consecutive inspection reports for each of 136 British zoos made by government-appointed inspectors between 2005 and 2011 to assess how well British zoos were complying with minimum animal welfare standards; median interval between inspections was 1,107 days. There was no conclusive evidence for overall improvements in the levels of compliance by British zoos. Having the same zoo inspector at both inspections affected the outcome of an inspection; animal welfare criteria were more likely to be assessed as unchanged if the same inspector was present on both inspections. This, and erratic decisions as to whether a criterion applied to a particular zoo, suggest inconsistency in assessments between inspectors. Zoos that were members of a professional association (BIAZA did not differ significantly from non-members in the overall number of criteria assessed as substandard at the second inspection but were more likely to meet the standards on both inspections and less likely to have criteria remaining substandard. Lack of consistency between inspectors, and the high proportion of zoos failing to meet minimum animal welfare standards nearly thirty years after the Zoo Licensing Act came into force, suggest that the current system of licensing and inspection is not meeting key objectives and requires revision.

  11. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  12. Science learning at the zoo: Evaluating children's developing understanding of animals and their habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of new ideas about animals, habitats and the zoo amongst a sample of pupils attending ZSL London Zoo. Results indicate the potential of educational presentations based around zoo visits, for enabling conceptual transformations relating to environmental...... science. At the same time, the research highlights the vital role of existing cultural representations of different animals and habitats which are confronted by the new ideas introduced during educational visits to the zoo. Zoos
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  13. The impact of zoo live animal presentations on students' propensity to engage in conservation behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, Mandy L.

    Zoos frequently deploy outreach programs, often called "Zoomobiles," to schools; these programs incorporate zoo resources, such as natural artifacts and live animals, in order to teach standardized content and in hopes of inspiring students to protect the environment. Educational research at zoos is relatively rare, and research on their outreach programs is non-existent. This leaves zoos vulnerable to criticisms as they have little to no evidence that their strategies support their missions, which target conservation outcomes. This study seeks to shed light on this gap by analyzing the impact that live animals have on offsite program participants' interests in animals and subsequent conservation outcomes. The theoretical lens is derived from the field of Conservation Psychology, which believes personal connections with nature serve as the motivational component to engagement with conservation efforts. Using pre, post, and delayed surveys combined with Zoomobile presentation observations, I analyzed the roles of sensory experiences in students' (N=197) development of animal interest and conservation behaviors. Results suggest that touching even one animal during presentations has a significant impact on conservation intents and sustainment of those intents. Although results on interest outcomes are conflicting, this study points to ways this kind of research can make significant contributions to zoo learning outcomes. Other significant variables, such as emotional predispositions and animal-related excitement, are discussed in light of future research directions.

  14. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare. PMID:26960022

  15. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee;

    2012-01-01

    occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...

  16. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

  17. Sarcocystosis among Wild Captive and Zoo Animals in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Baha; Vellayan, Subramaniam; Omar, Effat; Abdullah, Suliman; Mat Desa, Noryatimah

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. infection was investigated in 20 necropsied captive wild mammals and 20 birds in 2 petting zoos in Malaysia. The gross post-mortem lesions in mammals showed marbling of the liver with uniform congestion of the intestine, and for birds, there was atrophy of the sternal muscles with hemorrhage and edema of the lungs in 2 birds. Naked eye examination was used for detection of macroscopic sarcocysts, and muscle squash for microscopic type. Only microscopically visible cysts were d...

  18. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Y H; van der Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J H; Chung, B H; Choe, N. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonell...

  19. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  20. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals of Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Kumar Thawait; Maiti, S. K.; Aditi A. Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zoological gardens exhibit wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases constitute one of the major problems causing morbidity and even mortality in captive wild animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in captive wild animals belonging to Nandan Van Zoo, Raipur district, Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 faecal samples were screened from apparently normal/healthy captiv...

  1. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, C. R.; Alfellani, M. A.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis isolates from 56 Danish synanthropic and zoo animals, 62 primates primarily from United Kingdom (UK) collections and 16 UK primate handlers were subtyped by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A new subtype (ST) from primates and artiodactyls was identified and designated as...

  2. Our Zoo to You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David W.; Abuloum, Amjad; Mancuso, Brian; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.; Mayo, Lois

    2003-01-01

    An innovative zoo outreach program, Our Zoo to You, places zoo animals in local classrooms for extended observation periods. With guidance and support from zoo staff, students are able to safely experience a variety of animals, including geckos, snakes, legless lizards, horned toads, ringneck doves, ferrets, hedgehogs, African brown millipedes,…

  3. "Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…

  4. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  5. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. PMID:26897404

  6. Ectoparasites of free-roaming and captive animals in South Carolina zoos and an assessment of their threat to animals welfare and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectoparasites were collected from free-roaming and captive animals in zoos to document the species present and to determine if they were associated with vertebrate pathogens. We examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites. Fifty-five species of ectoparasi...

  7. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  8. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    A. Q. Mir; Dua, K; Singla, L. D.; Sharma, S.; Singh, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiac...

  9. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26934585

  10. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  11. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  12. Sensitivity of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes to Serum Complement of Regular Zoo Animals: Potential Reservoir Competence of Some Exotic Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Lucie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Reaction of vertebrate serum complement with different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species is used as a basis in determining reservoir hosts among domesticated and wild animals. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii were tested for their sensitivity to sera of exotic vertebrate species housed in five zoos located in the Czech Republic. We confirmed that different Borrelia species have different sensitivity to host serum. We found that tolerance to Borrelia infection possessed by hosts might differ among individuals of the same genera or species and is not affected by host age or sex. Of all zoo animals included in our study, carnivores demonstrated the highest apparent reservoir competency for Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We showed that selected exotic ungulate species are tolerant to Borrelia infection. For the first time we showed the high tolerance of Siamese crocodile to Borrelia as compared to the other studied reptile species. While exotic vertebrates present a limited risk to the European human population as reservoirs for the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, cases of incidental spillover infection could lead to successful replication of the pathogens in a new host, changing the status of selected exotic species and their role in pathogen emergence or maintenance. The question if being tolerant to pathogen means to be a competent reservoir host still needs an answer, simply because the majority of exotic animals might never be exposed to spirochetes in their natural environment. PMID:26783940

  13. Zoo Visit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The San Francisco Zoo in the United States is not as big as the Beijing Zoo or Guangzhou Zoo in China, but it has its own charms and attractions. It is like a beautiful park. The air there is fresh and the place is clean. You can hardly smell the

  14. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park, Patiala, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. Mir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park, Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha, Porcupine (Hystrix indica, Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus, Spotted deer (Axis axis, Black buck (Antelope cervicapra, Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, Hog deer (Axis porcinus, and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique. Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%, Strongyloides spp. (14%, coccidia (38%, Trichuris spp. (19%, ascarid (10%, and Capillaria spp. (10%. Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67% followed by coccidia (38%. Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals.

  15. Ethics and code of conduct in zoo management

    OpenAIRE

    Bahne, Rita

    2015-01-01

    There are around 1 million wild animals living in the 10,000-12,000 zoos worldwide. They include zoological parks, biological parks, safari parks, public aquariums, bird parks, reptile parks and insectariums. Zoo tourism is both domestic and international. The purpose of this research thesis is to clarify the ethics and codes of conduct in present day zoo management by presenting the current nature of zoos, ethics behind zoo business and the current codes of conduct. Zoo management i...

  16. Assessment of PCR-DGGE for the identification of diverse Helicobacter species, and application to faecal samples from zoo animals to determine Helicobacter prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Soud, W.; Bennedsen, M.; On, Stephen L.W.;

    2003-01-01

    in highly heterogeneous species, sequence divergence was observed and more than one PCR-DGGE profile was obtained. Application of the PCR-DGGE method to DNA extracted from faeces of zoo animals revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in 13 of 16 samples; a correlation was seen between the mobility of PCR...... on purified amplicons. Sixteen DGGE profiles were derived from 44 type and reference strains of 20 Helicobacter species, indicating the potential of this approach for resolving infection of a single host by multiple Helicobacter species. Some more highly related species were not differentiated whereas...... products in DGGE analysis and DNA sequencing. In combination, this indicated that zoo animals are colonized by a wide range of different Helicobacter species; seven animals appeared to be colonized by multiple Helicobacter species. By this approach, presumptive identifications were made of Helicobacter...

  17. Visit of the Zoo with preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of pre-school children about animals is quite inadequate. Because of misconceptions and lack of direct contact with animals, their representation of animals isn’t correct. Zoo allows us direct contact with animals and to observe those species that are difficult to be seen in nature. Zoo has a significant role in creating conceptions and gaining knowledge about the animals. The thesis consist of theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part describes the history of world Zoos,...

  18. Environment Enrichment and Animal Welfare Management at Zoos%动物园环境丰容与动物福利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢绪昌; 范志强

    2012-01-01

    环境丰容是我国动物园近十几年来新接触的概念。近年来,环境丰容逐渐地被引入到我国动物园的建设和管理中,我国动物园相继开展丰容的相关工作,并取得了一定的成效,是动物园工作中的一个热门话题。动物福利是动物的一种康乐状态。开展动物福利,对于人类、自然及社会的和谐发展有着重要的作用。要强化和完善我国的动物福利保护,必须明确动物福利的管理,确定有关的强制性法律规范,提高民众的动物福利意识。本文简要介绍了丰容原则、内容和动物福利的管理,为动物园今后更好地开展环境丰容的相关工作和如何提高动物福利的问题提供借鉴。%Environment enrichment is a new concept for zoos in China in recent decades. In recent years, environment enrich- ment is increasingly used in the construction and management of zoos. Related work has been done in many zoos with some suc- cess~ and environment enrichment is a popular topic in zoo management. Animal welfare is the well - being of animals and it plays an important role in the harmonious development of people, nature and society. We should strengthen and complete animal welfare in China, ensure animal welfare management, develop laws, and enhance the consciousness of animal welfare. In this paper, we introduce the principles and content of environment enrichment and animal welfare management, and provide a refer- ence for environment enrichment and animal welfare management in zoos.

  19. Human-Animal Relations beyond the Zoo: The Quest for a More Inclusive Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Hanna; Gyberg, Per; Henriksson, Malin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates human-animal relations in sustainability education. To understand what educational relationships and boundaries are challenged and/or strengthened in education promoting future sustainable societies, we argue that educational theory and practice must move beyond the anthropocentric framework's sole focus on relationships…

  20. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  1. Salon: Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    A seminar organised by artists Andrea Roe, Lucy Powell and Sara Barnes to discuss issues around The Zoo, with presentations by Chloë Brown (artist), Ines Lechleitner (artist) and Dr. Olivia Judson (evolutionary biologist and writer). Guests: Dr. Frieder Mayer (Curator of Mammals at Naturkundemuseum, Berlin), Laura Schleusser (Independent Art Curator), Nora Lange (Mammal Collection Manager at Naturkundemuseum, Berlin) and Anne Hoelck (Scenographer - researching the design of zoo enclosures...

  2. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing. PMID:27010291

  3. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  4. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The leve...

  5. Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney Russell W; Hedberg Gail

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in classic control...

  6. At the Zoo: Kindergartners Reinvent a Dramatic Play Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowne, Mary; Brokmeier, Sue

    2008-01-01

    In a South Dakota early childhood program, children and adults in the kindergarten classroom collaborated to build a "classroom zoo" in support of the children's pretend play. Creation of the zoo incorporated information about animals and zoos that the children and their families and teachers located in secondary sources such as nonfiction books…

  7. Zoo and Wildlife Libraries: An International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose

    2010-01-01

    The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted…

  8. Zoos, Aquariums, and Expanding Students' Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Jan; Wright, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Zoo and aquarium educators are increasingly providing educationally rigorous programs that connect their animal collections with curriculum standards in mathematics as well as science. Partnering with zoos and aquariums is a powerful way for teachers to provide students with more opportunities to observe, collect, and analyze scientific data. This…

  9. The Brief Discussion of the Working Thoughts at the Animal Hospital of the Zoo%浅谈动物园兽医工作的思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勉; 植广林

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the reality of The Animal Hospital of Gnangzhou Zoological Garden, it discusses the aspects of means of diagnosis and therapy, the idea of work and method of management etc. And finds out the innovation point. Courage and great effort would also been pay. In the conditions of improving animal welfare and protecting animal diversity, passive medical treatment would be changed to initiative medical treatment and immunity. Animal scientific knowledge education, medical treatment, health care and animal exhibition are integrated in order to promote the brand value of the zoo.%本文从广州动物园兽医院的实际工作出发,对诊疗手段、工作思路、管理模式等方面进行阐述,从中找准创新点。在提高动物福利、保护动物多样性的前提下,变被动治疗为积极治疗和主动防疫,使科普教育、医疗保健、动物展示有机地结合起来,提升动物园的品牌价值。

  10. Zoos, éducation et malentendus: Essai d'anthropologie des émotion du visiteur de zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Servais, Véronique

    1999-01-01

    In the current debate about the zoo's educational role it s usually assumed that the emotional aspect of the zoo experience impairs the scienfic knowledge that people can gain from their visit. First we briefly describe four human-animal interactionnal patterns that can be observed in a zoo, and we recognise that indeed, in that context, the emotion experienced by the public impairs its knowledge of the animals. then we persent the Hediger's distinctin between an object and a subject animal a...

  11. Bring the Zoo to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2008-01-01

    This hands-on, minds-on zoo project provides a fun and safe opportunity for students to experience the world of animals and nature right in their own classroom. Students have the chance to work individually or in small groups to explore, observe, and discover answers to their questions about the natural world. In addition, it provides numerous…

  12. ZOO BUILDINGS – HERALDIC ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Štancl, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Cílem zadání byl návrh heraldické zoo v areálu bývalého zámeckého parku a sadů Horního Hradu, který se nachází několik kilometrů od Karlových Varů. Heraldika je věda, zabývající se rodovými znameními. Konkrétně se tedy bude jednat o zoo zaměřenou na zvířata, které se na českých erbech v minulosti znázorňovala. Návrh vychází z okolních vztahů členitého terénu a je ovlivněn kontextem historické památky hradu, který je mohutnou dominantou veškerých výhledů do krajiny. The main idea of project...

  13. The neutron star zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

  14. The Neutron Star Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

  15. 野生动物园空间布局与动物展示方式--兼谈新会石涧公园动物园景区概念规划%Discuss on Zoo Display Space Layout and Animals Exhibition:Taking the Concept Planning of Shijian Zoo Scenic in Xinhui for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宜斌

    2013-01-01

    How to organize the reasonable spatial layout is the key point wildlife park concept planning. The zoo space layout is closely related to animals display, how to choose the centralized caged or natural grazing? Different ways of showing park space have different ways of organization. Combine Xinhui Shijian park zoo concept planning of the scenic spot, this article tries to discussed to the main problem of the concept planning from two aspects:the zoo Space layout and animals display mode.%如何进行合理的空间布局是野生动物园概念规划要解决的核心问题。动物园空间布局与动物展示方式密切相关,是集中式笼养还是自然式放养?不同的展示方式对园区空间的组织方式有不同的要求。文章试以新会石涧公园动物园景区概念规划为例,从动物园空间布局、动物展示模式选择等方面论述动物园景区概念规划所要解决的主要问题。

  16. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    Full Text Available Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  17. MRI zoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard proced...

  18. Free-Choice Learning at a Metropolitan Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Tofield, Sara; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contextualized within the zoo's environmental enrichment program - an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behavior for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate…

  19. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the small percentage of endangered species actually exhibited in zoos, disappointing success of reintroduction programs), the paper explains why the ‘Noah’s Ark’ paradigm is being replaced by an alternative ...

  20. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers. PMID:27540508

  1. Marketing and Promotional Materials for Helsinki Zoo Business Services : Producing a Sub-brand from an Established Corporate Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Helsinki Zoo (Korkeasaaren eläintarha) is known for its location on an island and for being one of the oldest zoos in the world, having been established in 1889. The public can visit Helsinki Zoo all year round and besides normal zoo entrances and educational programmes run for schools, the zoo offers services for business clients, such as conference room facilities, various programmes about the zoo’s work and animals, and cafeteria services. The objective of this thesis was t...

  2. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a Zoo education setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hydeskov, H. B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives...... of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective...... department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser...

  3. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received. PMID:27010290

  4. The Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Education for a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums today consider education to be a central role. The vision of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (2005, p. 35) is that "Zoos and aquariums with their unique resource of live animals, their expertise, and their links to field conservation will be recognized as leaders and mentors in formal and informal education for…

  5. Do Zoo Visitors Come to Learn? An Internationally Comparative, Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Zoo visitors go to see animals, but are they there to learn? This mixed-methods study examines visitor learning from both zoos' and visitors' perspectives using qualitative and quantitative data. Five hundred and forty zoo visitor interviews from nine case studies provide insight into visitor intentions, which indicate that the majority of…

  6. The Influence of an Interactive Educational Approach on Visitors' Learning in a Swiss Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Kamer, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    A new but costly approach to providing visitors of zoos with information on conservation is the presentation of small exhibits by zoo professionals or volunteers. At these "touch tables" visitors can find out about the biology, ecology, and conservation of animals kept in the zoo. We studied the effect of a touch table on visitors' learning in a…

  7. Zoo School for Preschoolers: Laying the Foundation for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose; Hakverdi, Meral; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Johnson, Courtney

    The traditional approach to education in zoo settings operated under the premise that meaningful learning and improved attitudes toward environmental education would occur by simply exposing children to wild animals. This study was a preliminary evaluation of an innovative environmental education program at a medium-sized Florida zoo. The study…

  8. The Designs and Practices on Ecological Environmental Enrichment of Animal Cages in Chongqing Zoo%重庆动物园笼舍生态丰容设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勋; 王俊; 向力; 戴岗; 王佳; 廖琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对重庆动物园涉禽馆、两爬馆、熊猫馆、金鱼馆等动物笼舍的生态化丰容改造,改善了动物圈养生存的环境质量,提高了其生殖率和适应性等生物学功能,增强了福利水平。是动物笼舍自然化、生态化发展做有益的探索。有助于动物的健康和繁殖,也为游客提供良好的视觉享受,提高展出与观赏效果。具有重要的推广应用价值。%the animal cages of wader pavilion, two climbed pavilion, panda enclosure and the goldfish pavilion in Chongqing zoo, has been designed and reformed for several years. The practice shows that, it is enhanced greatly for animal's living environment of captive, reproductive rate as well as welfare level. On the other hand, it is still good exploration for improving the ornamental effect and good visual enjoyment to visitors. In brief, it has very important popularization and application value for optimizing present animal cages in zoos.

  9. Who's in the Zoo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Amy

    2010-01-01

    To make the concept of biomes fresh for high school students and help them achieve more conceptual depth, the author Amy Slack created the "Who's in the Zoo?" project. Working in groups, students design a zoo that represents five of Earth's biomes and the climate found in their respective habitats. These groups prepare a proposal and a poster of…

  10. The Musical Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristen S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the experience a collegiate Music Educators National Conference (MENC) chapter had when running a musical petting zoo, which is an exhibit of musical instruments that passersby, under the guidance of "zookeepers" (the MENC students), are allowed to touch, handle, and attempt to play. Considers the success of the musical petting zoo. (CMK)

  11. Reducing Stress to Improve Welfare of Captive Animals at Guangzhou Zoo%动物园动物的应激行为与动物福利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小青; 吴其锐; 王静; 彭建宗

    2012-01-01

    Stress of animals in captivity at Guangzhou Zoo was increased by zookeepers, visitors, and environments in cages. We analyzed animal stress behaviors and made recommendations for improving animal welfare at Guangzhou Zoo. We recommend to establish set times for visits by zookeepers and to standardize feeding. Animals should be housed in separate cages during breeding season and special rooms should be designated for birthing and rearing of neonates. By using animal behavior enrichment programs and improving the environments in animal cages we can improve animal health, reduce disease, increase longevity and ensure proper breeding.%动物园动物是人工驯养的动物,动物的应激行为表现是动物与饲养管理人员、游人之间和与笼舍环境的应激,是人为造成的。分析广州动物园动物应激行为表现,与广州动物园动物的福利水平,提出动物园动物福利管理思路和方法。减少动物园动物的应激行为,在饲养管理中定人、定点、定时、定量。在动物繁殖期分笼,设立专门的产房和育幼室。应用动物行为丰容技术和动物园笼舍建设生态化。让动物康乐生活,防疫好,疾病少,寿命长,合理繁殖。

  12. Occupational zoonoses in zoo and wildlife veterinarians in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Chethan Kumar; K. M. Lokesha; C. B. Madhavaprasad; Shilpa, V. T.; N. S. Karabasanavar; Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Zoos and biological parks are considered as a hub for public ecreation and education. This is highlighted by the fact that visitors to the zoos are increasing year by year and they generate sizeable revenue. Veterinary professionals play a pivotal role in health management of wild animals in zoos and biological parks. Since veterinarians work in close contact with wild animals, there is a potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases from wild animals to humans and vice versa. There are...

  13. Zoo - en oplevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Kron, Linnea; Vallentin, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Zoo – an experience? In this project we have chosen to focus on the experience economy. We selected the Danish attraction, “Zoologisk have” or “Zoo”, which is placed in central Copenhagen, as our case study. We wondered about why Zoo doesn’t have any student discount, and why they, as a business, seem to be very focused on one specific target group; families with small children. Based on the idea that Zoo as a business has a lot of untapped potential, compared to the target group of young ...

  14. Captivity for Conservation? Zoos at a Crossroads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    This paper illuminates a variety of issues that speak to the question of whether ‘captivity for conservation’ can be an ethically acceptable goal of the modern zoo. Reflecting on both theoretical disagreements (animal protectionists vs. wildlife conservationists) and practical challenges (the sma

  15. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  16. Enviromental ethics and the educational function of the zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Pruščević, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Animal rights and protection organisations have become very popular. As zoos are the oldest of such organisations, I was interested in their function, contemporary perception, as well as polemics surrounding this institution. In the theoretical part of my thesis, I examine various theories of environmental ethics and the history of zoos. The methodology used in conversation with the interviewees is unstructured interview. My interlocutors deal with the issue of animal rights on a daily bas...

  17. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Andrew William

    2012-01-01

    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. PMID:22253799

  18. Apache ZooKeeper essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Haloi, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a novice to ZooKeeper or already have some experience, you will be able to master the concepts of ZooKeeper and its usage with ease. This book assumes you to have some prior knowledge of distributed systems and high-level programming knowledge of C, Java, or Python, but no experience with Apache ZooKeeper is required.

  19. Reflexión general en torno a la bioética clínica animal y presentación del término zooética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Roa-Castellanos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La bioética es un campo del conocimiento construido en el diálogo de saberes. Sin embargo, para el caso del análisis sobre los hechos y costumbres del humano en relación con el ser animal, la ausencia de la práctica clínica veterinaria es notoria. La medicina veterinaria es un interlocutor científico plenamente válido para hacer los aportes necesarios a una bioética demasiado humana en sus consideraciones ético-médicas. En el presente artículo, se hace un recuento de algunos de los principales autores y puntos de vista sobre lo que ha sido estructurada la bioética animal, reflexionando sobre la necesidad de abordar el tema clínico. Es propuesto el término zooética como concepto que incluya los estudios éticos sobre la vivencia animal en la bioética. Se hace un llamado a recordar la historia, la medicina de los animales, la espiritualidad, y los médicos veterinarios como profesionales a quienes más les preocupa el animal, diariamente conocido, como ser que siente e interactúa en sociedad.

  20. Zoos et cause animale

    OpenAIRE

    Joulian, Frédéric; Abegg, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Cet article, rédigé dans un contexte de débats sur les fonctions des zoos, a été repris et actualisé au regard des avancées du terrain et des réformes des zoos. Nous interrogeons les discours des zoos sur un aspect crucial, celui de leur légitimation de l’enfermement d’animaux sauvages, et cela en examinant les différents arguments avancés : conservation d’espèces rares, recherche scientifique, éducation du public. Nous discutons également la question de la réintroduction d’animaux en milieu ...

  1. Galaxy Zoo Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A M; Sullivan, M; Lintott, C J; Nugent, P E; Botyanszki, J; Kasliwal, M; Quimby, R; Bamford, S P; Fortson, L F; Schawinski, K; Hook, I; Blake, S; Podsiadlowski, P; Joensson, J; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Howell, D A; Bloom, J S; Jacobsen, J; Kulkarni, S R; Law, N M; Ofek, E O; Walters, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results from a new citizen science project: Galaxy Zoo Supernovae. This proof of concept project uses members of the public to identify supernova candidates from the latest generation of wide-field imaging transient surveys. We describe the Galaxy Zoo Supernovae operations and scoring model, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel method using imaging data and transients from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We examine the results collected over the period April-July 2010, during which nearly 14,000 supernova candidates from PTF were classified by more than 2,500 individuals within a few hours of data collection. We compare the transients selected by the citizen scientists to those identified by experienced PTF scanners, and find the agreement to be remarkable - Galaxy Zoo Supernovae performs comparably to the PTF scanners, and identified as transients 93% of the ~130 spectroscopically confirmed SNe that PTF located during the trial period (with no false positive iden...

  2. The Galazy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    When the Galaxy Zoo website calling for citizen scientists around the world to help classify galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was launched, it brought down the servers hosting the images. The Galaxy Zoo tapped into the incredible desire of the public to get involved in and contribute to scientific research. With the he help of over a quarter million citizen scientists, we were able to map out the evolution of galaxy populations from star formation to quiescence and how this "quenching" is related to changes in morphology. Citizen scientists also discovered unusual objects in public data, such as "Hanny's Voorwerp", a quasar light echo which can constrain black hole accretion on timescales of 10-100 kyr. Finally, the work of citizen scientists taking part in Galaxy Zoo points to a future where machine learning and humans both contribute to systems capable of analyzing extremely large data sets.

  3. The particle zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Hesketh, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    What is everything really made of? If we split matter down into smaller and infinitesimally smaller pieces, where do we arrive? At the Particle Zoo - the extraordinary subatomic world of antimatter, neutrinos, strange-flavoured quarks and yetis, gravitons, ghosts and glueballs, mindboggling eleven-dimensional strings and the elusive Higgs boson itself. Be guided around this strangest of zoos by Gavin Hesketh, experimental particle physicist at humanity's greatest experiment, the Large Hadron Collider. Concisely and with a rare clarity, he demystifies how we are uncovering the inner workings of the universe and heading towards the next scientific revolution. Why are atoms so small? How did the Higgs boson save the universe? And is there a theory of everything? The Particle Zoo answers these and many other profound questions, and explains the big ideas of Quantum Physics, String Theory, The Big Bang and Dark Matter...and, ultimately, what we know about the true, fundamental nature of reality.

  4. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  5. ZOO: la piattaforma WPS libera

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Delluchi; Cristina Castellani; Markus Neteler

    2010-01-01

    ZOO: WPS serverZOO is a WPS server with powered calculus abilities on geospatial data directly in the web, deriving from the international collaboration of French and Japaneseresearchers. ZOO is composed by three main parts: the Kernel, i.e. the core of the software, the Services, i.e. program processes allowing to connect the differentZOO libraries, and the API, Javascript based libraries for creating and managing WPS services. While an exhaustive description of ZOO is beyond the scope of th...

  6. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  7. Zoos as a Source of Free Choice Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofield, Sara; Coll, Richard K.; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contexualised within the zoo's environmental enrichment programme (an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behaviour for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate animal interest). Visitor perceptions and actual use of the zoo were investigated using structured interviews based on an interview protocol that elicited their perspectives of the nature and character of zoo settings including the use of photographs of selected exhibits to induce stimulated recall. These data were triangulated with unobtrusive observation at the same exhibits (Bitgood et al., 1988). The visitors spent little time at a given exhibit, and rated the more naturalistic or enriched exhibits more favourably, but older visitors seemed less concerned with naturalness of exhibits. The zoo considers that it has an important role in education and provides many opportunities for learning for both general visitors and school groups. Both general visitors and school groups reported that the prime purpose of their visit was for entertainment. It appears learning of science at the zoo is limited for general visitors, however, the learning of science for school children is enhanced by pre- and post-visit activities and strong curricula links.

  8. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  9. A Zoo of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org); starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  10. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    OpenAIRE

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson,Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Richard L Pyle; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker,Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts ( International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medic...

  11. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to

  12. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare

  13. Fruit Bats, Cats, and Naked Mole Rats: Lifelong Learning at the Zoo. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara S.; Diem, Jason J.

    An informal study found that zoo visitors want to know not just the name, weight, and age of animals in a collection, but also about diet, reproduction, life span, and behavioral characteristics. What kinds of learning opportunities, beyond enhanced signage, can be offered to the sophisticated new breed of visitors in zoos, aquariums, and nature…

  14. Unsilencing Voices: A Study of Zoo Signs and Their Language of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by…

  15. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  16. Ecological status of soils in Moscow Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkova, N. E.; Yurkov, A. M.; Smagin, A. V.

    2009-03-01

    The quantitative assessment of the status of soils in Moscow Zoo was performed using traditional and original methods based on the differentiated system of indices. The studies were conducted in animal open-air cages and on plots available for visitors. The dynamics of the temperature and water-air regimes in the root-inhabited layer, the density, the acidity, and the salinity of the soils were studied. The level of the biological activity was assessed according to the intensity of the organic matter decomposition and the substrate-induced respiration. In the background of the rather satisfactory status of the soils, negative factors were found: a periodic excess or deficit of moisture and, for the most part, low biological activity (low respiration and decomposition of the lignin-cellulose test material). Recommendations for the improvement of the status of the soil cover in Moscow Zoo are proposed.

  17. An Interactive Zoo Guide: A case Study of Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Real Industry Projects and team work can have a great impact on student learning but providing these activities requires significant commitment from academics. It requires several years planning implementing to create a collaborative learning environment that mimics the real world ICT (Information and Communication Technology industry workplace. In this project, staff from all the three faculties, namely the Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Faculty of Arts, Education and Human Development, and Faculty of Business and Law in higher education work together to establish a detailed project management plan and to develop the unit guidelines for participating students. The proposed project brings together students from business, multimedia and computer science degrees studying their three project-based units within each faculty to work on a relatively large IT project with our industry partner, Melbourne Zoo. This paper presents one multimedia software project accomplished by one of the multi-discipline student project teams. The project was called ‘Interactive ZooOz Guide’ and developed on a GPS-enabled PDA device in 2007. The developed program allows its users to navigate through the Zoo via an interactive map and provides multimedia information of animals on hotspots at the ‘Big Cats’ section of the Zoo so that it enriches user experience at the Zoo. A recent development in zoo applications is also reviewed. This paper is also intended to encourage academia to break boundaries to enhance students’ learning beyond classroom.

  18. An Interactive Zoo Guide: A Case Study of Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Real Industry Projects and team work can have a great impact on student learning but providing theseactivities requires significant commitment from academics. It requires several years planningimplementing to create a collaborative learning environment that mimics the real world ICT (Informationand Communication Technology industry workplace. In this project, staff from all the three faculties,namely the Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Faculty of Arts, Education and HumanDevelopment, and Faculty of Business and Law in higher education work together to establish a detailedproject management plan and to develop the unit guidelines for participating students. The proposedproject brings together students from business, multimedia and computer science degrees studying theirthree project-based units within each faculty to work on a relatively large IT project with our industrypartner, Melbourne Zoo. This paper presents one multimedia software project accomplished by one of themulti-discipline student project teams. The project was called ‘Interactive ZooOz Guide’ and developedon a GPS-enabled PDA device in 2007. The developed program allows its users to navigate through theZoo via an interactive map and provides multimedia information of animals on hotspots at the ‘Big Cats’section of the Zoo so that it enriches user experience at the Zoo. A recent development in zoo applicationsis also reviewed. This paper is also intended to encourage academia to break boundaries to enhancestudents’ learning beyond classroom.

  19. It's a Zoo out There!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Zoos can provide exciting educational opportunities for students to learn about a wide range of science subject matter. Zoos and similar nonschool sites have the added advantage of getting students out of school and into another environment, demonstrating that science learning can take place anywhere--not only in formal school settings. Through…

  20. ZOO: la piattaforma WPS libera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Delluchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ZOO: WPS serverZOO is a WPS server with powered calculus abilities on geospatial data directly in the web, deriving from the international collaboration of French and Japaneseresearchers. ZOO is composed by three main parts: the Kernel, i.e. the core of the software, the Services, i.e. program processes allowing to connect the differentZOO libraries, and the API, Javascript based libraries for creating and managing WPS services. While an exhaustive description of ZOO is beyond the scope of this paper, we do hope to stimulate discussion bout possibilities and challenges of webbased analysis of geospatial data.

  1. Interpretive signs designed to trigger naturalist intelligence at two American zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Martha

    An investigation of interpretive graphics was conducted in 2005 at two mid-sized AZA-accredited zoos, Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida and Knoxville Zoo, Knoxville, Tennessee. The Lowry Park Zoo study investigated signs at a red-tailed hawk and sandhill crane exhibit. Combination signs and wordless signs were more effective helping visitors see animals, increasing holding time, and number of engagements than treatments of no signs, or signs with words only. A second study, at Knoxville Zoo, tested combination and wordless signs in a children's zoo, investigating 31 signs at a 3.5-acre exhibit. Comparisons of visitors seeing the animals/using interactive exhibit elements, holding time, and engagement activities, showed wordless signs were more effective than combination signs. Differences in gender ratio, age, group size, and other demographics were not significant. Visit motivation differed between zoos, with visitors from Lowry Park Zoo more often articulating reason for a visit as wanting to see animals. Visitors at Knoxville Zoo most often said they wanted to spend time with family and friends. Differences in potential for naturalist intelligence were probably related to local practices rather than to innate differences in naturalist intelligence. The number of communities in Florida that regulate pet ownership and provide lawn service could account for the lower number of people who have pets and plants. At both institutions, behaviors supported educational theories. The importance of signs as advanced organizers was shown where signs were removed at the bird exhibit at Lowry Park Zoo, with fewer visitors seeing the animals. Social interaction was noted at both zoos, with intra- and inter-group conversations observed. If naturalist intelligence is necessary to see animals, visitors run a continuum. Some are unable to see animals with signs and assistance from other visitors; others see animals with little difficulty. The importance of honing naturalist

  2. Pathways for Success in Developing a Nature Trail at a Zoo: A Mixed-Methods Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Modern zoos serve as tourist attractions and recreational facilities, while providing educational outreach programs in ecology, conservation, and animal needs. However, in the 21st century, there has been a negative backlash of people associating zoos with animals being shut away in cages or pits. This case study included an examination of the…

  3. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  4. Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduardo J; Timberlake, William

    2008-11-01

    Zoos focus on welfare, conservation, education, and research related to animals they keep. Academic institutions emphasize description, experimentation, modeling, and teaching of general and specific animal biology and behavior through work in both laboratory and field. The considerable overlap in concerns and methods has increased interest in collaborative projects, but there is ample room for closer and more extensive interactions. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of potential research collaborations in three areas: (1) control and analysis of behavior, (2) conservation and propagation of species, and (3) education of students and the general public. In each area, we outline (a) research in zoos, (b) research in academics, and (c) potential collaborative efforts. Zoo Biol 27:470-487, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360641

  5. Diversity of β-lactamase-encoding genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from food-producing, companion and zoo animals in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Lurdes; Correia, Ivone; Albuquerque, Teresa; Geraldes, Margarida; Matos, Filipa; Themudo, Patrícia; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    A rapid development of plasmid-mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has been observed in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide, predominantly due to the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (PMAB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extension of ESBL- and PMAB-producing E. coli strains isolated from different animal origins in Portugal. For surveillance purposes, 376 E. coli isolates identified at Natio...

  6. A Zoo of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org); starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our mode...

  7. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks

  8. Retrospective investigation of chronic wasting disease of cervids at the Toronto Zoo, 1973–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Caroline; Mehren, Kay G.; Barker, Ian K; Peart, Brian L.; Balachandran, Aru

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) at the Toronto Zoo was investigated retrospectively, based on an examination of management, animal health, and postmortem records, and immunohistochemical studies. Records of animal movements, clinical signs, and postmortem findings were examined for all cervids 1973–2003. All available samples of fixed, wax-embedded lymphoid or central nervous system tissue from cervids that died at the Toronto Zoo from 1973 to 2003, > 12 months of age, were te...

  9. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds. PMID:25932924

  10. Molecular Sex Determination of Captive Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis at Gembira Loka Zoo, Surabaya Zoo, and Ragunan Zoo, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species is often difficult, and may be hampered by many factors. Sexual monomorphism, in which males and females are not easily distinguishable, is one such factor and is a common problem in captive breeding of many avian and reptile species. Species-specific nuclear DNA markers, recently developed to identify portions of sex chromosomes, were employed in this study for sex determination of Komodo dragons (Varanus Komodoensis. Each animal was uniquely tagged using a passive integrated micro-transponder (TROVAN 100A type transponders of 13 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter. The sex of a total of 81 individual Komodo dragons (44 samples from Ragunan zoo, 26 samples from Surabaya zoo, and 11 samples from Gembira Loka zoo were determined using primers Ksex 1for and Ksex 3rev. A series of preliminary PCR amplifications were conducted using DNA from individuals of known sex. During these preliminary tests, researchers varied the annealing temperatures, number of cycles, and concentrations of reagents, in order to identify the best protocol for sex determination using our sample set. We thus developed our own PCR protocol for this study, which resulted in the amplification of band A in females and band C in males. Results from band B, however, turned out to be non-determinative in our study because, for females, band B was not always visible, and for males sometimes a similar, but lighter band was also amplified, making interpretation difficult. In this study, sex determination was based mainly on the difference in size between the female-specific 812 bp fragment and the homologous, longer fragment amplified for males.

  11. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  12. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

    2013-06-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n = 7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence. PMID:22835051

  13. Pilot project "The zoo goes to school", enriching the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education does not only occur in formal institutions, and yes has been widely disseminated among non formal spaces of education, which complements its ecological and social nature. Zoos are the institutions that play an important role in environmental education, raising awareness and preparing citizens to act in the critically and ethical society, committed to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental perception of students in 7th grade of elementary school in Municipal Elementary School Jardelino Ramos, in partnership with the Zoo, University of Caxias do Sul. Twenty-four questionnaires were applied in order to diagnose the environmental perception of students through four questions regarding activities at the zoo. After it was contextualized and discussed on the topics: zoos and their history, function, animals and their enclosures, technical education and environmental enrichment. To complement the enrichment technique discussed in class, the students sewed materials that were later added to the precincts of animals chosen for themselves. A week after the project is completed was held again the questionnaire to verify the results obtained from the project. These were analyzed, discussed and compared through graphs, which show that the objectives were achieved and the didactics used was efficient, as described in the article.

  14. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  15. Mental models students hold of zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  16. Pulmonary anthracosis in Dhaka Zoo collections - a public health forecasting for city dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ahasan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthracosis is a lung disease associated with inhalation of coal dust and carbon particles. We tested for anthracosis symptoms in 36 captive animals in the Dhaka Zoo. Necropsy revealed 27 out of 36 animals to be affected by pulmonary anthracosis. The changes included minute black spots to blackish discoloration and congestion in the lungs. In some cases, the lungs showed yellow-white caseous nodules of variable size. Lung tissue samples were stored in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Fixed tissues were processed and stained as per standard procedure. Histopathological examination revealed deposition of carbon particles of varying sizes, shapes and amounts in the lung parenchyma, in the alveolar septa and in and around granuloma. Reptiles, newly arrived animals and animals less than one year of age were found free from anthracosis. This report confirms the occurrence of anthracosis in captive animals at Dhaka zoo indicating severe air pollution in and around the zoo.

  17. Zoos in Transition: Enriching Conservation Education for a New Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, Jean; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Children's Zoo Design Project, the purpose of which is to provide a central resource to which zoos contemplating design change might turn. Reports on surveys of zoos, site visits, and the thinking and conclusions of a workshop/seminar participated in by students, zoo professionals, and others involved in zoo design and education.…

  18. Zoo and wildlife medical education: a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.; Grabitzky, S E; Walzer, C; Delahay, R J; Dorrestein, G. M.; Hatt, J M

    2006-01-01

    Europe has a long and distinguished history in veterinary science and education, and it was here that the first professional investigations of pathological conditions in zoo animals took place. However, despite an increasing number of veterinarians working with wildlife, education in zoological and wildlife medicine has only recently become part of formal veterinary training at the undergraduate level. Consequently, current educational opportunities in zoological and wildlife medicine vary wi...

  19. Room Air Quality for Wild Animals in Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo%动物园部分野生动物馆内空气质量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍清林; 金兰梅; 李明杰; 邓长林; 周正凯; 陆松兵; 杨飞; 丁娇娇; 田红艳

    2012-01-01

    In order to collect the data of the air quality, control the disease in animals, and provide the scientific basis for protecting animals' health, the air quality of animals' houses in Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo was continuously detected. The air was collected from rooms of parrots, peacocks and kangaroos. The ammonia concentrations in spring, summer, autumn and winter were as following: 2.69, 4.61, 3.07 and 5.48 mg/m3 in the parrots' room; 1.66, 0.98, 0.66 and 1.15 mg/m3 in the peacocks' room; 1.66, 2.51,1.47 and 2.20 mg/m3 in the kangaroos' room, respectively. The hydrogen sulphide concentrations in spring, summer, autumn and winter were: 0.015 9, 0.016 3, 0.017 0 and 0.027 3 mg/m3 for parrots; 0.029 4, 0.077 6, 0.050 7 and 0.036 1 mg/m3 for peacocks; 0.004 2, 0.0051, 0.0095 and 0.0074 mg/m3 for kangaroos, respectively. The bacteriual counts in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 15.40×103, 21.53×103, 20.91×103 and 7.73×103 cfu/m3 for parrots; 25.20×103, 42.61×103, 42.18×103 and 29.40×103 cfu/m3 for peacocks; 10.70×103, 19.8×103, 2.86×103 and 4.34×103 cfu/m3 for kangaroos, respectively. These founding indicated that the air quality was influenced by temperature, humidity, and wind speed, but also by feeding practice, animal density and feed quality.%为向动物园预防动物疾病、保障动物健康提供科学依据,采用环境检测方法对南京红山森林动物园的鹦鹉馆、孔雀馆和袋鼠馆进行空气质量检测.结果显示,氨气(NH3)的含量,鹦鹉馆内春、夏、秋、冬分别为2 69、4 61、3.07、5.48 mg/m3,孔雀馆内分别为1.66、0.98、0.66、1.15 mg/m3,袋鼠馆内分别为1.66、2.51、1.47、2.20 mg/m3;硫化氢(H2S)的含量,鹦鹉馆内春、夏、秋、冬分别为0.015 9、0.016 3、0.017 0、0.027 3 mg/m3,孔雀馆内分别为0.029 4、0.077 6、0.050 7、0.0361 mg/m3,袋鼠馆内分别为0.004 2、0.0051、0.009 5、0.007 4 mg/m3;细菌总数,鹦鹉馆内春、夏、秋、冬分别为15.40×103、21

  20. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience. PMID:25653198

  1. The impact of curiosity on learning during a school field trip to the zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Kerry Ann

    1999-11-01

    This study was designed to examine (a) differences in cognitive learning as a result of a zoo field trip, (b) if the trip to the zoo had an impact on epistemic curiosity, (c) the role epistemic curiosity plays in learning, (d) the effect of gender, race, prior knowledge and prior visitation to the zoo on learning and epistemic curiosity, (e) participants' affect for the zoo animals, and (f) if prior visitation to the zoo contributes to prior knowledge. Ninety-six fourth and fifth grade children completed curiosity, cognitive, and affective written tests before and after a field trip to the Lowery Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida. The data showed that students were very curious about zoo animals. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest curiosity levels. The trip did not influence participants' curiosity levels. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, curiosity, and the independent variables, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. No significant differences were found. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest cognitive scores. The field trip to the zoo did not cause an increase in participants' knowledge. However, participants did learn on the trip. After the field trip, participants identified more animals displayed by the zoo than they did before. Also, more animals were identified by species and genus names after the trip than before. These differences were significant (alpha = .05). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, posttest cognitive performance, and the independent variables, curiosity, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. A significant difference was found for prior knowledge (alpha = .05). No significant differences were found for the other independent variables. Chi-square tests of significance indicated significant differences

  2. The Zoo, Benchmarks & You: How To Reach the Oregon State Benchmarks with Zoo Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document aligns Oregon state educational benchmarks and standards with Oregon Zoo resources. Benchmark areas examined include English, mathematics, science, social studies, and career and life roles. Brief descriptions of the programs offered by the zoo are presented. (SOE)

  3. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  4. Unsilencing voices: a study of zoo signs and their language of authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by applying critical discourse analysis, I discovered subtle institutional power on zoo signs. This may influence visitors through dominant ideological discursive formations and emergent discourse objects, adding to the paradox of "saving" wild animals while simultaneously oppressing them. Signs covering a variety of species from two different United States-accredited zoos were analyzed. Critical Theory looks to emancipate oppressed human populations; here I apply it zoo animals. As physical emancipation is not practical, I define emancipation in the sociological sense—in this case, freedom from silence. Through this research, perhaps we can find a way to represent animals as living beings who have their own lives and voices, by presenting them honestly, with care and compassion.

  5. Marketingový mix - ZOO Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Bělíčková, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis deals with tools of the marketing mix of the most visited Czech zoo - The Prague Zoo. The aim of the thesis is a description and an evaluation of the marketing mix of the Prague Zoo. I want to find out what has been behind the success of the Prague Zoo in the few last years. The theoretical part defines important terms refering to marketing, service marketing and marketing mix. The explanation of the sence of zoological gardens, the history and the presence of the Prague Z...

  6. It's All Happening at the Zoo: Children's Environmental Learning after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason A.; Katz, Cindi

    2009-01-01

    Pairing dynamic out-of-school-time (OST) programs with zoos can encourage young people's relationships with and sense of responsibility for animals and the environment. The project presented in this article, Animal Rescuers, gave the authors the opportunity to examine how such a pairing can work. OST programs enable learning in settings that are…

  7. San Diego Zoo:Success in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Giant pandas have become very popular in U.S.zoos. One in particular, the San Diego Zoo, has been extremely successful at making the pandas feel at home and getting them to breed. In 1999, it became home tothe first surviving panda cub born in the United States.

  8. Technology Goes Wild at the Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Delynn; Cavagnol, Richard M.

    1996-01-01

    Explains the Wildlife Interpretive Gallery developed at the Detroit Zoo to portray nature and wildlife in their natural environments through displays on touchscreen interactive kiosks. Highlights include multimedia software development; focus group meetings; a virtual tour of the zoo; and graphics, sound, text, and video components used to create…

  9. Rain forest area with regenerative capability. Gondwanaland tropical experience in Zoo Leipzig; Regenwaldraum mit Regenerationskraft. Tropenerlebniswelt Gondwanaland im Zoo Leipzig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    More than a decade after the project start, at 1st July, 2011, the giant tropical hall of the Leipzig Zoo opened its doors. In order to provide an adequate rain forest habitat to the more than 17,000 tropical plants and 40 mostly seriously endangered types of animals, logistical services were in demand. This all the more because the theme hall was to meet stringent criteria issues in terms of sustainability and animal husbandry. A combination of renewable heating systems, ventilation systems and air humidifiers produce a real primary forest climate in the middle of Europe.

  10. Epidemiology of leptospirosis at Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila S. Ullmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is considered a worldwide distributed zoonosis, caused by the bacteria Leptospira spp. Since several species of wildlife animals are reportedly reservoirs, the aim of the present study was to know the epidemiology of leptospirosis at the Sorocaba Zoo, Southern Brazil. Serum samples of wild mammals from Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, Perissodactyla, Pilosa, Primates, Proboscidea and Rodentia orders, kept in captivity as well as from zoological staff were assayed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Whole blood, urine and tissue samples from wild mammals and synanthropic animals were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. An epidemiological survey was applied to evaluate the risk factors for animal infection and staff level of knowledge on leptospirosis. A total of 13/229 (5.68%; CI95% 3.37-9.47% serum samples from wild mammals were reagent on MAT. Serology from synanthropic animals, zoo staff and molecular analysis of animal samples were all negative. Leptospirosis knowledge of zoo park staff was considered medium. In conclusion, leptospiral infection occurs at the studied zoo but due to the low occurrence found, the lowest reported in literature, wild captive mammals do not act as source of infection of leptospirosis to other animals and human beings.

  11. Occupational zoonoses in zoo and wildlife veterinarians in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Chethan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoos and biological parks are considered as a hub for public ecreation and education. This is highlighted by the fact that visitors to the zoos are increasing year by year and they generate sizeable revenue. Veterinary professionals play a pivotal role in health management of wild animals in zoos and biological parks. Since veterinarians work in close contact with wild animals, there is a potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases from wild animals to humans and vice versa. There are approximately 1415 infectious agents causing diseases in humans, out of which 868 (61% are known to be zoonotic in nature. It is also important to note that more than 70% of the emerging zoonotic diseases have wild animals as reservoir hosts. The major zoonotic diseases that are transmitted from wild animals to humans include rabies, anthrax, leptospirosis, Q-fever, psittacosis, hendra virus, nipah virus, herpes B encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, etc. Hence, it is imperative for veterinarians and zoo staff to be fully aware of the knowledge pertaining to the source, transmission, pathogenicity, treatment and control of zoonotic diseases. In this manuscript, we provide key information regarding zoonotic diseases and also recommend important measures for their control and prevention. The information provided here will be highly beneficial for personnel who work in close association with wild animals

  12. Moon Zoo: a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)[1] spacecraft and perform tasks such as measuring impact crater sizes and identifying morphologically interesting features. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. In addition to its potential in delivering high quality science outputs, Moon Zoo is also an important educator resource, providing information about the geology of the Moon and geophysical processes in the inner solar system.

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  15. DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS STEVEN BAEHR, ARUN VEDACHALAM, KIRK BORNE, AND DANIEL SPONSELLER Abstract. Collisions between pairs of galaxies usually end in...

  16. Design principles and typologies of zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Serap; Özbilen, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of natural areas for the sake of urbanization results in extinction of various species. Therefore, introduction and education become important in order to protect natural environment and natural life system. Research in this area revealed that the zoos designed like natural life areas have great importance and that they contribute to the introduction of natural life and help people become conscious about natural life. This study aims to reveal the development of zoos in histor...

  17. Aplikace marketingu v Zoo Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Šuhajová, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Aplication of marketing in Prague ZOO" is focused on research of marketing mix tools for services in this organisation. The first objective of this thesis was to analyse the aplication of these tools from the perspective of the ZOO marketing management. The second aim was to find out satisfaction and awareness of public based on survey research. Teoretic part defines basic terms which are services, marketing and marketing mix tools. Practical part is composed from information...

  18. An examination of environmental collective identity development across three life-stages: The contribution of social public experiences at zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John Robert

    This research breaks ground toward a revised theory of how collective environmental identity is associated with pro-environmental behaviors. My research comprises three activities that examined the experiences of three groups of people who claim zoo visiting as an important part of their life-story. The three studied groups were; conservation biologists who describe zoo experiences as having significant formative role in their childhood development of environmental values; parents who prioritize zoo visits as an important cultural experiences for their children; and a active zoo volunteers. This research also investigated whether the group experiences these participants had at zoos contributed to the value these people place on their current collective and environmental identities. Field conservationists' interest in learning from animals was validated by parents who also valued education and helped these children develop identities that included other animals in their scope of justice. Parents used zoos instrumentally to promote caring for others as a skill that will serve their children's socio-political future as part of human society. In both cases, these experiences appeared to be shaped around developing attitudes that would include animals in these children's scope of justice in later life. Zoo volunteers included animals in their scope of justice, believing that other species were also important sources of for their knowledge development. Shared positive attitudes toward animals were central to volunteers feeling part of a community and contributing to their collective self-esteem. The group may serve a restorative function in their lives, allowing them to take on a more activist role in society, seeking to promote social norms that are more inclusive of animal rights, and helping them to change their behaviors toward more environmentally responsible ends. This research contributes to the understanding of the theory of planned behavior and the values

  19. Macro and microscopic study of avian tuberculosis at Savannah´s Bogotá zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Neira Rairán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian tuberculosis diagnosis was made in captive wild birds (Burhinus bistriatus and Porphyrula martinica from a zoo park at Sabana de Bogotá (Colombia. Based on this diagnosis, a surveillance approach was designed in order to demonstrate whether or not a focus of tuberculosis infection caused by Micobacterium avium was present at this zoo with the purpose to identify a possible hazard to prevent the infection of other bird population, visitors and workers of the park. Clinical, morphological (gross and microscopic are described in this article, but microbiological (culture in specific media, epidemiological (DPP and molecular (PCR studies, will be shown in other journal. In this work animals were organized en three different groups as follow: Five Hy line Brown chicken tuberculosis free coming from a commercial farm (sentinel group. A mixed group birds (102 animals from the pens around the primary focus (28 dukes, 25 “guacamayas”, 26 parrots and 23 rapacious birds, (highest risk group. Five birds within the pen in which the diagnosis was made (contaminated birds group. It was demonstrated granulomatous lesions in animals from the sentinel group as well as in those from the pen in which the first diagnosis was made. Lesions were founded in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines and in one case in the white matter and leptomeniges of the spinal cord were affected. Ziehl – Neelsen positive rods were identified in all the affected tissues. No tuberculosis lesions were found in animals caged in neighborhood pens. It was concluded that there is an infectious focus of tuberculosis (micobacteriosis caused by M. avium in the zoo, but the focus is located only in one pen and this focus could represent a critical risk of infection with M. avium for some of the birds within the zoo, wild and eventually commercials birds and the human beings as well. It is recommended that prevention, control and eradication measurements have to be made to prevent

  20. Pulmonary anthracosis in Dhaka Zoo collections - a public health forecasting for city dwellers

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Ahasan; E.H. Chowdhury; S.U. Azam; R. Parvin; A.Z. Rahaman; A.R. Bhuyan

    2010-01-01

    Anthracosis is a lung disease associated with inhalation of coal dust and carbon particles. We tested for anthracosis symptoms in 36 captive animals in the Dhaka Zoo. Necropsy revealed 27 out of 36 animals to be affected by pulmonary anthracosis. The changes included minute black spots to blackish discoloration and congestion in the lungs. In some cases, the lungs showed yellow-white caseous nodules of variable size. Lung tissue samples were stored in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Fixed tiss...

  1. Zoo handlede helt korrekt ved at aflive Marius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabir, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Det syntes rimeligt at konkludere, at Zoo har handlet helt korrekt og etisk forsvarligt ved aflivningen af giraffen.......Det syntes rimeligt at konkludere, at Zoo har handlet helt korrekt og etisk forsvarligt ved aflivningen af giraffen....

  2. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  3. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Cerda Cuellar, Marta; Cabezón, Oscar; Almeria, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Cordoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu v...

  4. Freqüência de parasitas intestinais em felinos mantidos em zoológicos Frequency of intestinal parasites in felines kept in zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C.K. Müller

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The endoparasites occurrence in felines confined in two Zoos, between December 1999 and April 2000, was studied. Fecal samples of 18 felines (Panthera tigris, Panthera leo, Felis serval, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii were collected and the methods of Faust, modified Baermann and Hoffmann, were used for fecal analyses. Three genera were identified in the feces: Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. In the zoo of Pomerode, six animals (46% were infected by Trichuris spp. and/or Giardia spp. and all samples from the zoo of Brusque were infected by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp.

  5. Glanders outbreak at Tehran Zoo, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In December 2010 four, lions and one tiger died at the Tehran zoo. Out of all samples, Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of Glanders was isolated just from ulcer sample of the tiger which was imported to Iran from Russia.Materials and Methods: One nasal swab from a tiger and fifteen blood samples with anticoagulant belonging to one tiger and fourteen lions (four dead lions and eleven live lions were collected and were inoculated directly onto the selective media. The isolate was identified by morphological and biochemical and API BBL tests and PCR using specific primers (Bma-IS407-flip. The standard (Razi Type Culture Collection RTCC: 2375 and tiger isolates were inoculated into 2 guinea pigs. All residue solipeds and carnivores were checked by Malleination test and Complement Fixation (CF Test respectively.Results: One isolate of B. mallei was isolated from tiger’s nasal swab. Both of B.mallei strains were recovered from inoculated animals. All of solipeds were negative by malleination test, however, 11 lions including 4 dead and 7 live lions out of 14 lions were positive in CF test for Glanders and all were put down by the authorities.Conclusion: Active surveillance of Glanders is essential for solipeds, especially it’s more important while being used to feed valuable carnivores like lions and tigers. Therefore, a reliable test like malleination must be carried out twice (first before transferring and one month after quarantine. Both test results should be negative for use for feeding.

  6. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  7. Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

  8. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  9. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date. PMID:26115644

  10. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  11. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation. PMID:25042907

  12. Influences on visitor behavior at a modern immersive zoo exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Gillespie, Katie L

    2009-09-01

    Zoos serve as centers for both research and education. The challenge is to convey messages about their conservation projects while meeting visitor expectations, which often include recreation and entertainment. One way this can be achieved is through the design of immersive exhibits that draw visitors in and engage them with interactive educational elements. Regenstein African Journey (RAJ) opened at Lincoln Park Zoo in 2003 and was designed to take visitors on a simulated safari through Africa. Because visitor experience was a major design goal, we conducted a timing and tracking study to evaluate use of the building and educational components. For a 9-week period in 2003, we tracked 338 visitors to RAJ and recorded continuous data as they moved through the building. Data were collected on handheld computers that provided precise timing data. The median visit was 11.08 min, 41% of which was spent looking at animals and 9% of which was spent engaged with interpretive elements. We found significant differences in the way visitors used signage: those in groups without children spent more of their visit engaged with signage than those with children and visitors who spent more of their visit interacting socially spent less time engaged with signage. By understanding how visitors use the educational opportunities presented to them, we can better meet their expectations and more effectively achieve the goal of conservation education. PMID:19821504

  13. Marketing v pražské ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílková, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis analyzes marketing communication mix in Zoo in Prague. The thesis is divided into 5 main parts. First three parts are about theory of marketing - about history, about marketing of services, marketing communication and communications instruments. Forth part says about Zoo and about the instruments which they use. Last part is about Zoo in Dvůr Králové and about communication instruments which use in Zoo in Dvůr Králové and not in Zoo in Prague. Then the instruments are a...

  14. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

  16. Upper respiratory tract diseases in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus): prevalence in 20 European zoos and possible predisposing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic upper respiratory tract diseases are severe problems in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, P. pygmaeus), but the etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. This study recorded the prevalence of such diseases in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and investigated possible predisposing factors. Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs (13.8% of all animals) significantly more often than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and male animals more often (15.8%) t...

  17. Improving the Welfare of a Zoo-Housed Male Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) Aggressive Toward Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Olga; Vinyoles, Dolors; García-Galea, Eduardo; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Improving the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity and maintaining behavioral competence for future conservation purposes is of the highest priority for zoos. The behavior of an aggressive male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) was assessed in Barcelona Zoo. The 2-year study presented in this article examined the effects of introducing changes in the exhibit of the drill to improve his welfare by analyzing scan behaviors. First, a partial visual barrier was applied and proved to be insufficient to decrease the long-term stress indicators assessed. Next, a feeding enrichment program was implemented. The results supported the hypothesis that feeding and explorative activities would increase, whereas apathetic and stereotypic behaviors would decrease. However, visitor-directed aggression did not vary, indicating that more profound structural modifications were needed to reduce the negative impact of the agonistic interactions between the drill and the public. The study emphasized the usefulness of environmental enrichment evaluations in assessing captive animal welfare. PMID:26983783

  18. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia:Squamata:Varanidae) in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendyk, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    In zoos, life expectancy-the average lifespan of individuals within a population, and longevity-the maximum lifespan within a population, can be useful parameters for evaluating captive husbandry and animal welfare. Using life history and demographic data derived from regional studbooks, this study examined life expectancy and longevity in a total of 782 wild-caught (WC) and captive-bred (CB) varanid lizards of seven species maintained in North American zoos since 1926. The average lifespans for WC and CB animals were 6.3 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.4 years, respectively, with CB males living significantly longer than females (P = 0.009). A total of 26.4% of WC and 22.5% of CB animals experienced mortality during their first 2 years in captivity, with mortality during this period greatest among Varanus rudicollis and V. prasinus. A positive correlation was observed between life expectancy and adult body mass in captive-bred individuals (r = 0.981; P = 0.002). Wild-caught females with a history of successful reproduction had a significantly greater average lifespan than non-reproducing females (P zoos. In light of these findings, several husbandry-related factors which may be affecting the welfare and lifespans of varanids in zoos are identified and discussed. This study also highlights the utility of demographic and life history data in captive animal management, and offers a general framework for future herpetological studies of a similar nature. PMID:25503984

  19. Periodontal disease diagnosis in a group of captive native carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vásquez C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A diagnose of periodontal diseases was performed in 12 species of carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo. 23 animals were sampled under different general anesthesia protocols. A protocol of the oral cavity examination was designed and implemented, making emphasis in the periodontal anomalies. 16 of the 23 individuals presented periodontal disease. A microbiological culture was performed from the oral cavity of 9 individuals, this results indicated mostly normal bacterial flora.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Pneumococcal Isolates from Pets and Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mark van der Linden; Adnan Al-Lahham; Werner Nicklas; Ralf René Reinert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 2008 Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 41 pets/zoo animals (guinea pigs (n = 17), cats (n = 12), horses (n = 4), dogs (n = 3), dolphins (n = 2), rat (n = 2), gorilla (n = 1)) treated in medical veterinary laboratories and zoos, and 44 laboratory animals (mastomys (multimammate mice; n = 32), mice (n = 6), rats (n = 4), guinea pigs (n = 2)) during routine health monitoring in an animal facility. S. pneumoniae was isolated from nose, lung and respiratory tr...

  1. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195

  2. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Rushen, Jeff; de Passillé, Anne Marie; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44) and Asian (n = 28) elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1) than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P zoo elephant welfare. PMID:27414809

  3. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Miller, Lance J.; Rushen, Jeff; de Passillé, Anne Marie; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44) and Asian (n = 28) elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1) than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P zoo elephant welfare. PMID:27414809

  4. A horizon scan for species conservation by zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusset, Markus; Fa, John E; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first horizon scan for zoos and aquariums to identify the 10 most important emerging issues for species conservation. This involved input from more than 100 experts from both the wider conservation community and the world zoo and aquarium community. Some of the issues are globally important: diseases, zoonoses, and biosecurity issues; new (communication) technologies; global water shortage and food insecurity; developing economies and markets for wildlife consumption; changes in wildlife population dynamics; and political instability and conflicts. Other issues are more specific to zoos and aquariums: need for extractive reserves; space shortage in zoos and aquariums; need for metapopulation management; and demand for caring of more species in zoos and aquariums. We also identified some broad approaches to these issues. Addressing the emerging issues identified in our horizon scan will further increase the contribution of the world zoo and aquarium community to global biodiversity conservation. PMID:25065560

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11,000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science project. Results show that volunteers' primary motivation is a desire to contribute to scientific research. We encourage other citizen science projec...

  6. Glanders outbreak at Tehran Zoo, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khaki, P.; Mosavari, N.; S Khajeh Nasiri; Emam, M.; Ahouran, M; Hashemi, S.; M Mohammad Taheri; D Jahanpeyma; S Nikkhah

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In December 2010 four, lions and one tiger died at the Tehran zoo. Out of all samples, Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of Glanders) was isolated just from ulcer sample of the tiger which was imported to Iran from Russia.Materials and Methods: One nasal swab from a tiger and fifteen blood samples with anticoagulant belonging to one tiger and fourteen lions (four dead lions and eleven live lions) were collected and were inoculated directly onto the selective medi...

  7. First report on Aonchotheca annulosa Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Capillariidae) in a Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) from a zoo in northern Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umur, S.; Moravec, František; Gurler, A.; Bolukbas, C.; Acici, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 384-387. ISSN 0047-2565 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aonchotheca annulosa * baboon * Capillariidae * Turkey * zoo Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine; GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmp.12020/abstract

  8. Visitors or visits? An examination of zoo visitor numbers using the case study of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Usually cited in reference to the potential reach of zoo education, one of the popular figures for global zoo visitation is that 600 million people visit zoos annually. However, this number needs clarification on two fronts. First, there are many zoo visitors who are not included in the calculation because they visited a zoo that was not included in the count. Second, it does not take into consideration the people visit either the same or different zoos more than once annually. Using data collected from several sources, including zoo visitors themselves, this article focuses on one country--Australia--that contributes 15.6 million to the visitation total, and contends that the correct number of unique annual zoo visitors to Australian zoos is likely to be between 8 and 10 million. However, rather than suggesting an overemphasis on the potential of zoos for educating visitors, having regular repeat visitors represents a distinct advantage for zoos, allowing for progressive education opportunities. PMID:22674839

  9. Conservation and Education: Prominent Themes in Zoo Mission Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Ayers, David Franklin; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the mission statements of 136 zoos in the United States that the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has accredited, and report on the predominant themes of education and conservation in the statements. To explore the relation between these two themes, the authors present a literature review of the roles…

  10. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  11. Volunteers as Products of a Zoo Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Robert D.; Joseph, Stephanie L.; Searles, Vicki M.

    2014-01-01

    Zoos embrace docents/volunteers as a means of interpreting the threats to wildlife and biodiversity to visitors. To accomplish this, zoos provide docents' education, training, and work experience. Docents themselves also engage in solitary and social wildlife experiences outside of their volunteer obligations. This study examined what…

  12. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  13. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century. PMID:23904531

  14. Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan Kay; Passmore, Cynthia; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated the interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators during a class field trip to a zoo. The study reports on findings of the analysis of two case classes of students and their perceptions of their learning experiences during the field trip. The…

  15. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis. (GHT)

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortson, Lucy; Masters, Karen; Nichol, Robert; Borne, Kirk D.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Lintott, Chris; Raddick, Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Wallin, John

    2012-03-01

    We provide a brief overview of the Galaxy Zoo and Zooniverse projects, including a short discussion on the history of, and motivation for, these projects as well as reviewing the science these innovative Internet-based citizen science projects have produced so far. We briefly describe the method of applying en-masse human pattern recognition capabilities to complex data in data-intensive research. We also provide a discussion on the lessons learned from developing and running these community-based projects including thoughts on future applications of this methodology. This review is intended to give the reader a quick and simple introduction to the Zooniverse.

  17. Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science

    CERN Document Server

    Fortson, Lucy; Nichol, Robert; Borne, Kirk; Edmondson, Edd; Lintott, Chris; Raddick, Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Wallin, John

    2011-01-01

    We provide a brief overview of the Galaxy Zoo and Zooniverse projects, including a short discussion of the history of, and motivation for, these projects as well as reviewing the science these innovative internet-based citizen science projects have produced so far. We briefly describe the method of applying en-masse human pattern recognition capabilities to complex data in data-intensive research. We also provide a discussion of the lessons learned from developing and running these community--based projects including thoughts on future applications of this methodology. This review is intended to give the reader a quick and simple introduction to the Zooniverse.

  18. Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11,000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science project. Results show that volunteers' primary motivation is a desire to contribute to scientific research. We encourage other citizen science projects to study the motivations of their volunteers, to see whether and how these results may be generalized to inform the field of citizen science.

  20. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  1. Safety Management and Scientific Prevention of Zoo--Taking Taiyuan Zoo as an Example%动物园安全管理与科学防范--以太原动物园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金邦

    2015-01-01

    从安全管理制度、人为原因、笼舍设施、动物原因方面阐述了动物园安全事故发生的原因,总结了太原动物园安全管理经验。%In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of safety accidents in zoo were described from safety management system, artificial cause, cage facilities and animal reasons. And specific jobs on safety management in Taiyuan zoo in re-cent years were taken as considered. In order to sum up the experience and lessons, aiming at providing a reference for animal management practitioners.

  2. The Phenomenology of Animal Life

    OpenAIRE

    Lestel, Dominique; Bussolini, Jeffrey; Chrulew, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-constructivist approach to the study of animal life, which is opposed to the realist-Cartesian paradigm in which most ethology operates. The method is elaborated through the examples of a knot-tying orangutan in a Paris zoo and chile-eating cats in a New York apartment. We show that, when grounded in the operational framework of the phenomenological approach, the interpretation of animal life acquires a much more robust character than is usually supposed.

  3. Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Three Zoo Elephants and a Human Contact - Oregon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlot, Amy; Vines, Jennifer; Nystrom, Laura; Lane, Lindsey; Behm, Heidi; Denny, Justin; Finnegan, Mitch; Hostetler, Trevor; Matthews, Gloria; Storms, Tim; DeBess, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, public health officials in Multnomah County, Oregon, started an investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among elephants and humans at a local zoo. The investigation ultimately identified three bull elephants with active TB and 118 human contacts of the elephants. Ninety-six (81%) contacts were evaluated, and seven close contacts were found to have latent TB infection. The three bulls were isolated and treated (elephants with TB typically are not euthanized) to prevent infection of other animals and humans, and persons with latent infection were offered treatment. Improved TB screening methods for elephants are needed to prevent exposure of human contacts. PMID:26741355

  4. Do animals have an interest in liberty?

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Alasdair

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of justice for animals often argue that non-human animals have an interest in liberty. Furthermore, they usually claim that this animal interest in liberty is intrinsic rather than instrumental; that is to say, liberty is regarded to be good for animals in itself, irrespective of its contribution to the achievement of other goods, such as pleasure. For this reason they argue that legislating to improve welfare standards in zoos, circuses, laboratories and agriculture is inadequate....

  5. DISEASE RISK ANALYSIS--A TOOL FOR POLICY MAKING WHEN EVIDENCE IS LACKING: IMPORT OF RABIES-SUSCEPTIBLE ZOO MAMMALS AS A MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Matt; Roberts, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Disease control management relies on the development of policy supported by an evidence base. The evidence base for disease in zoo animals is often absent or incomplete. Resources for disease research in these species are limited, and so in order to develop effective policies, novel approaches to extrapolating knowledge and dealing with uncertainty need to be developed. This article demonstrates how qualitative risk analysis techniques can be used to aid decision-making in circumstances in which there is a lack of specific evidence using the import of rabies-susceptible zoo mammals into the United Kingdom as a model. PMID:26352958

  6. AGN Zoo and Classifications of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-07-01

    We review the variety of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) classes (so-called "AGN zoo") and classification schemes of galaxies by activity types based on their optical emission-line spectrum, as well as other parameters and other than optical wavelength ranges. A historical overview of discoveries of various types of active galaxies is given, including Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, Starbursts, LINERs, etc. Various kinds of AGN diagnostics are discussed. All known AGN types and subtypes are presented and described to have a homogeneous classification scheme based on the optical emission-line spectra and in many cases, also other parameters. Problems connected with accurate classifications and open questions related to AGN and their classes are discussed and summarized.

  7. The Radio Meteor Zoo: a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calders, S.; Verbeeck, C.; Lamy, H.; Martínez Picar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the BRAMS radio meteor network have started a citizen science project called Radio Meteor Zoo in collaboration with Zooniverse in order to identify meteor reflections in BRAMS spectrograms. First, a small-scale version of the Radio Meteor Zoo was carried out with a sample of meteor identifications in 12 spectrograms by 35 volunteers. Results are presented here and allowed us to define a method that reliably detects meteor reflections based on the identifications by the volunteers. It turns out that, if each spectrogram is inspected by 10 volunteers, hit and false detection percentages of 95% respectively 6% are expected. The Radio Meteor Zoo is online at https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/radio-meteor-zoo. Citizen scientists are kindly invited to inspect spectrograms.

  8. Galaxy Zoo: Outreach and Science Hand in Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) is familiar to many as a hugely successful public engagement project. Hundreds of thousands of members of the public have contributed to Galaxy Zoo which collects visual classifications of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images. Galaxy Zoo has inspired a suite of similar Citizen Science projects known as ``The Zooniverse`` (www.zooniverse.org) which now has well over half a million participants. Galaxy Zoo has also shown itself, in a series of peer reviewed papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this invited talk I described how that public engagement via citizen science is not only an effective means of outreach from data intensive surveys, but if done right can and must also increase the scientific output of the survey.

  9. Identification of Plasmodium relictum causing mortality in penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Lopez, Rodrigo Pinho Gomez; de Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Araújo, Radamés Abrantes de Sousa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2010-10-11

    This study reports avian malaria caused by Plasmodium relictum in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo. The disease was highly infective among the birds and was clinically characterized by its acute course and high mortality. The penguins of São Paulo Zoo were housed for at least 2 years without malaria; however, they had always been maintained in an enclosure protected from mosquito exposure during the night period. When they presented pododermatitis, they were freed at night for a short period. São Paulo Zoo is located in one of the last forest remnants of the city, an area of original Atlantic forest. In the winter, the space destined for Zoo birds is shared with migratory species. Hence the possibility exists that the disease was transmitted to the penguins by mosquitoes that had previously bitten infected wild birds. Avian malaria parasites are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex, common vectors in the Atlantic forest. In this study, one Culex (Cux.) sp. was found, infected with P. relictum. There are diverse problems in housing distinct species of animals in captivity, principally when occupying the same enclosure, since it facilitates the transmission of diseases with indirect cycles, as is the case of Plasmodium spp., because certain species that cause discrete infections in some bird species can become a serious danger for others, especially penguins, which do not possess natural resistance. Thus, serious implications exist for periodically testing and administrating malaria therapy in captive penguins potentially exposed to mosquitoes during the night period, as well as other captive birds from São Paulo Zoo. PMID:20638795

  10. An analysis of zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubarek-Sandor, Joy

    Informal science institutions are a significant provider of science teacher professional development. As pressure continues to critically analyze the work of teachers and their effectiveness in the classroom, it is important to understand how informal science institutions contribute to effective change in teacher science content knowledge and pedagogy. This research study analyzed zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development to respond to the research questions: How do zoos and aquaria determine and assess their goals for teacher professional development? How do these goals align with effective teacher change for science content knowledge and pedagogy? Theoretical frameworks for high quality teacher professional development, effective evaluation of teacher professional development, and learning in informal science settings guided the research. The sample for the study was AZA accredited zoos and aquariums providing teacher professional development (N=107). Data collection consisted of an online questionnaire, follow-up interviews, and content analysis of teacher professional development artifacts. Analysis revealed that by and large zoos and aquariums are lacking in their provision of science teacher professional development. Most professional development focuses on content or resources, neglecting pedagogy. Assessments mismatch the goals and rely heavily on self-report and satisfaction measures. The results demonstrate a marked difference between those zoos and aquariums that are larger in capacity versus those that are medium to small in size. This may be an area of research for the future, as well as analyzing the education resources produced by zoos and aquariums as these were emphasized heavily as a way they serve teachers.

  11. Is wounding aggression in zoo-housed chimpanzees and ring-tailed lemurs related to zoo visitor numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky; Formella, Isabel; Ward, Samantha J; Tokarski, Marina; Brunger, Dave; Brice, Sara; Hill, Sonya P

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees in laboratory colonies experience more wounds on weekdays than on weekends, which has been attributed to the increased number of people present during the week; thus, the presence of more people was interpreted as stressful. If this were also true for primates in zoos, where high human presence is a regular feature, this would clearly be of concern. Here we examine wounding rates in two primate species (chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta) at three different zoos, to determine whether they correlate with mean number of visitors to the zoo. Wounding data were obtained from a zoo electronic record keeping system (ZIMS™). The pattern of wounds did not correlate with mean gate numbers for those days for either species in any group. We conclude that there is no evidence that high visitor numbers result in increased woundings in these two species when housed in zoos. Zoo Biol. 35:205-209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928968

  12. Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

    As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J Kottwitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4 to 6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species.

  14. Detection of resistance genes and evaluation of water quality at zoo lakes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silva de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The investigation of the presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in aquatic environments is important to identify possible reservoirs of resistant microorganisms that could be a threat to human and animal health. The aims of this study were to analyze the presence of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobials in the aquatic environment and to assess the quality of water in zoo lakes. Results showed a pattern of genes conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics and turbidity, which was expected to be due to the presence of contaminants. The most frequent genes were sul I and sul II (sulfonamides, which were present in all the lakes, followed by genes encoding β-lactamases such as blaPSE I (77.8% and ampC (66.7%. However, tet(K, tet(M, and ermC genes were not detected. There was a positive correlation between the number of Enterobacteriaceae and resistance genes. In conclusion, the source of contamination of all lakes was probably the neighboring urban sewage or wastewater that increased the frequency of the total coliforms and resistance genes, which in turn posed a threat to the conservation of the animal life inhabiting the zoo.

  15. Predomination and new genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive nonhuman primates in zoos in China: high genetic diversity and zoonotic significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Robiul Karim

    Full Text Available To appreciate the genetic diversity and zoonotic implications of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in nonhuman primates (NHPs in zoos, we genotyped E. bieneusi in captive NHPs in seven zoos located at six major cities in China, using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based PCR and sequence analyses. A total of 496 fecal specimens from 36 NHP species under nine families were analyzed and E. bieneusi was detected in 148 (29.8% specimens of 25 NHP species from six families, including Cercopithecidae (28.7%, Cebidae (38.0%, Aotidae (75.0%, Lemuridae (26.0%, Hylobatidae (50.0% and Hominidae (16.2% (P = 0.0605. The infection rates were 29.0%, 15.2%, 18.2%, 37.3%, 29.2%, 37.7% and 44.8% in Shijiazhuang Zoo, Wuhan Zoo, Taiyuan Zoo, Changsha Wild Animal Zoo, Beijing Zoo, Shanghai Zoo and Shanghai Wild Animal Park, respectively (P = 0.0146. A total of 25 ITS genotypes were found: 14 known (D, O, EbpC, EbpA, Type IV, Henan-IV, BEB6, BEB4, Peru8, PigEBITS5, EbpD, CM1, CM4 and CS-1 and 11 new (CM8 to CM18. Genotype D was the most prevalent one (40/148, followed by CM4 (20/148, CM1 (15/148, O (13/148, CM16 (13/148, EbpC (11/148. Of them, genotypes D, EbpC, CM4 and O were widely distributed in NHPs (seen in 9 to 12 species whereas genotypes CM1 and CM16 were restricted to one to three NHP species. In phylogenetic analysis, 20 genotypes (121/148, 81.8%, excluding genotypes BEB4, BEB6, CM9, CM4 and CM18, belonged to group 1 with zoonotic potential. New genotype CM9 clustered in group 2 with BEB4 and BEB6. The remaining two genotypes CM4 and CM18 formed new cluster (group 9 in between two other genotypic clusters found in primates. The findings of high diversity in E. bieneusi genotypes and their zoonotic potentiality concluded the importance of captive NHPs as reservoir hosts for human microsporidiosis.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Bosma, A; Bell, Eric F; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Lintott, Chris; Melvin, Thomas; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Willett, Kyle W

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that there is a connection between the presence of a bar and the properties of a galaxy. In a parallel effort, simulations have shown that this connection is consistent with the theory of bar-driven secular evolution. But observational evidence of bar-driven secular evolution has been sparse. In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to look for evidence of this secular evolution. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 +/- 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. We characterize bars by the bar likelihood, the likelihood a bar is present in a given galaxy, and the bar length. These two bar properties show interesting correlations with the specific star formation rate and the inner central structure of galaxies. Comparing these observations to state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution, which include live halos and ...

  17. The BRAMS Zoo, a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calders, S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the BRAMS network comprises around 30 receiving stations, and each station collects 24 hours of data per day. With such a large number of raw data, automatic detection of meteor echoes is mandatory. Several algorithms have been developed, using different techniques. (They are discussed in the Proceedings of IMC 2014.) This task is complicated because of the presence of parasitic signals (mostly airplane echoes) on one hand and the fact that some meteor echoes (overdense) exhibit complex shapes that are hard to recognize on the other hand. Currently, none of the algorithms can perfectly mimic the human eye which stays the best detector. Therefore we plan to collaborate with Citizen Science in order to create a "BRAMS zoo". The idea is to ask their very large community of users to draw boxes around meteor echoes in spectrograms. The results will be used to assess the accuracy of the automatic detection algorithms on a large data set. We will focus on a few selected meteor showers which are always more fascinating for the large public than the sporadic background. Moreover, during meteor showers, many more complex overdense echoes are observed for which current automatic detection methods might fail. Finally, the dataset of manually detected meteors can also be useful e.g. for IMCCE to study the dynamic evolution of cometary dust.

  18. The public face of zoos: Images of entertainment, education, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, N; Cohen, SA

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary justification for zoos is based on their ability to act as sites of wildlife conservation. Alongside this is the reality that zoos have historically been defined as sites for the entertainment of the general public and continue to be dependent on the revenue raised through visitor receipts. Consequently, zoos are, today, identified as sites of conservation, research, education, and entertainment. In recognition of this, the aim of our research was to assess the image that zoo...

  19. Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Blagoderov; Irina Brake; Teodor Georgiev; Lyubomir Penev; David Roberts; Simon Ryrcroft; Ben Scott; Donat Agosti; Terry Catapano; Vincent Smith

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We describe a method to publish nomenclatural acts described in taxonomic websites (Scratchpads) that are formally registered through publication in a printed journal (ZooKeys). This method is fully compliant with the zoological nomenclatural code. Our approach supports manuscript creation (via a Scratchpad), electronic act registration (via ZooBank), online and print publication (in the journal ZooKeys) and simultaneous dissemination (ZooKeys and Scratchpads) for nomenclatorial acts...

  20. [Analysis of the effect of phenamine, L-DOPA and parachlorophenylalanine on the zoo-social behavior of isolated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poshivalov, V P

    1979-04-01

    Abnormal changes in the structure of the individual and zoo-social behaviour of isolated mice due to phenamine (amphethamine), L-DOPA or PCPA were shown. Several elements of the "pathological syndrome of isolation" in mice were found to increase under the action of the drugs studied. The extension or reduction of contacts between animals of the same species was used as an integrative indicator of recovering (resocializing) or aggravating (desocializing) effect of psychotropic drugs on the pathology of animal behaviour. PMID:155479

  1. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: Crowdsourced Morphologies for 169,944 Galaxies at 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle; Galloway, Melanie; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Cheung, Edmond; Schawinski, Kevin; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project uses crowdsourced visual classifications to create large and statistically robust catalogs of detailed galaxy morphology. We present initial results for the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble dataset, which includes 169,944 images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. The galaxies span a redshift range of 0Zoo: Hubble catalog.

  2. Monkeying Around: Examining the Effects of a Community Zoo on the Science Achievement of Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the efficacy of a model of integrated science and literacy instruction situated at a community zoo. Three intact cohorts of third grade urban students received instruction via different treatments: inquiry-based instruction at a zoo; inquiry-based instruction at school; and activity-based instruction at a zoo. All three…

  3. Zoo visitor perceptions, attitudes, and conservation intent after viewing African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Charlotte E; Miller, Lance J

    2016-07-01

    Elephants in the wild face several conservation issues. With the rebranding of zoos as conservation and education pioneers, they have the ability to both educate and inspire guests to action. The purpose of this research was to analyze visitor perceptions and attitudes toward elephant conservation and outcomes post-exhibit visit. A one-page survey was randomly administered to assess perceptions of elephant behavior, attitudes about elephant conservation, and intended conservation-related outcomes from September 2013 to January 2014. Principle component analysis identified three major components: concern for elephants in zoos, importance of elephants in the wild, and modification of nature. Visitors who scored highly on conservation intent were those with positive attitudes towards elephants in the wild and negative attitudes regarding the modification of nature. The greatest changes in conservation intent were a result of a self-reported up-close encounter and the ability to witness active behaviors. Providing guests with the opportunity to witness or experience such occurrences may aid in a more successful delivery of the zoo's conservation message. Further research into guest emotions and affective states in relation to viewing elephants in a zoological institution would provide greater insight into improving the guest experience and helping zoos meet their conservation mission. Zoo Biol. 35:355-361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27291643

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lintott, Chris [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skibba, Ramin A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Willett, Kyle W., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  6. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa; María Isabel Moreno Orozco

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl) was of 6.39% (17/266). Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, usi...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers

    CERN Document Server

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers had made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this paper, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and demographics of Galaxy Zoo volunteers, and define a technique to determine motivations from free responses that can be used in larger multiple-choice surveys with similar populations. Our categories form the basis for a future survey, with the goal of determining the prevalence of each motivation.

  8. Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-09-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

  9. Haplotype variation in founders of the Mauremys annamensis population kept in European Zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Somerova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Annam leaf turtle Mauremys annamensis faces extinction in nature. Because of that, the conservation value of the population kept in European zoos becomes substantial for reintroduction programmes. We sampled 39 specimens of M. annamensis from European zoos and other collections (mainly founders, imports and putatively unrelated individuals, and also four specimens of Mauremys mutica for comparison. In each animal, we sequenced 817 bp of the mitochondrial ND4 gene and 940 bp of the nuclear R35 intron that were used as phylogenetic markers for Mauremys mutica-annamensis group by previous authors. The sequences of the R35 intron, which are characteristic for M. annamensis and which clearly differ from those characteristic for M. mutica and/or other Mauremys species, were mutually shared by all of the examined M. annamensis. They also possessed mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to the annamensis subclades I and II, distinctness of which was clearly confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Thus, both nuclear and mitochondrial markers agreed in the unequivocal assignment of the examined individuals to M. annamensis. Although no obvious hybrids were detected within the founders of the captive population, further careful genetic evaluation using genom-wide markers is required to unequivocally confirm this result.

  10. Student cognitive growth and attitudinal changes through conducting authentic research in the Young Scientist Program at Zoo Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, La Tanya Danielle

    This purpose of this study was to determine if authentic research conducted by students in the Young Scientist Program: (a) enhanced scientific research skills, (b) increased cognitive growth in the areas of animal behavior and characteristics, and (c) affected attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo-related issues. During the nine-week program, 18 students from Liberty High School completed program-related activities in their classrooms, and at Zoo Atlanta. Here, students completed authentic research in the form of animal behavior research projects. Research-based activities included forming hypotheses based on animal behavior, creating and maintaining ethograms, and making behavioral observations. This was a mixed method study, in which, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed in an attempt to answer the following research questions: (1) How does conducting authentic research within the Young Scientist Program enhance student scientific research skills? (2) How does participation in the Young Scientist Program increase student knowledge of animal behavior and characteristics? (3) How does the Young Scientist Program affect student attitudes? Data were collected pre, mid, and post program. Data sources included: (a) surveys, (b) interviews, (c) student research papers, and (d) researcher field notes. The data were analyzed through a framework of four methodological lenses: (a) knowledge of scientific research, (b) knowledge of animals, (c) attitudes toward scientific research, and (d) attitudes toward science and zoo-related issues. Surveys included knowledge tests and attitude scales. Overall, knowledge test results implied that as students progressed through the Young Scientist Program, their research skills, knowledge of scientific research, and knowledge of their animal were enhanced. Attitudinal data obtained from the attitude scales suggested that students' attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Observing Secular Evolution Through Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, L.; Masters, K.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Zoo, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I use the Galaxy Zoo 2 dataset to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR), and inner galactic structure, i.e., the prominence of the bulge as parameterized by Sérsic index and central surface stellar mass density. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall bar fraction of 23.6 ± 0.4%, of which 1,154 barred galaxies also have bar length measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in disk galaxy evolution. I find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anti-correlated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. I find that the trends of bar likelihood with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR, i.e., in star-forming galaxies, bulges are more prominent in galaxies more likely to host bars, while in quiescent disk galaxies, bars are less frequent where there are prominent bulges. Our observations of bar length reveal a complex picture. In star-forming disks, longer bars are found where the bulges are more prominent, while in quiescent disks there is a maximum in the average bar length as a function of bulge prominence. I interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution which include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. I suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks; a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. I interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution, and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies, but are a critical evolutionary driver of their

  12. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Pamela L.; Bracey, G. L.; Raddick, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project involving over 180,000 volunteers who have classified the morphologies of nearly one million galaxies. In this study, we examine the motivations of Galaxy Zoo 1 participants - what reasons do they give for offering their time classifying galaxies? In the initial phase of this study, interviews were conducted with randomly-chosen participants in order to discover their motivations for participation. The methodology and results for this phase are outlined in in a poster presented at the 2009 AAS Winter Meeting. A list of 14 motivation categories was agreed upon by the researchers. In the second phase, we created an online survey to further explore participant motivation with a larger sample. We looked at the relationship between motivation and age, education, and geographic location; how classification history and motivation are linked; and how involvement in other citizen science projects relates to involvement in Galaxy Zoo 1. This survey is presented here along with an analysis of the survey data. We find that data from the survey supports the original classification scheme developed from the interviews. We then present some possible implications of these results on other citizen science projects, including upcoming extensions to Galaxy Zoo. Finally, we outline plans for our own future research in this area.

  13. Beyond Borders: Zoo as Training Location for Wildlife Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Leah M.; Bergren, Rachel; Santymire, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The role of institutions such as zoos in global conservation efforts is critical. In addition to serving as informal learning centers for the general public, these institutions are well-positioned to provide training and professional development for the next generation of conservation scientists. And while many organizations traditionally have…

  14. Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers have made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this article, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and…

  15. It's a Zoo out There!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Amy Larrison; Hebert, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The People Learning Urban Science (PLUS) program creates partnerships and coordinates efforts involving a local zoo, university, and school district, seeking to instill within students a sense of the natural environment. Even though the majority of students live among concrete and metal structures, their eyes and ears can be trained to make…

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Science and Public Engagement Hand in Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Feldt, Julie; Keel, Bill; Skibba, Ramin

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) is familiar to many as a hugely successful citizen science project. Hundreds of thousands of members of the public have contributed to Galaxy Zoo which collects visual classifications of galaxies in images from a variety of surveys (e.g. the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hubble Space Telescope surveys, and others) using an internet tool. Galaxy Zoo inspired the creation of "The Zooniverse" (www.zooniverse.org) which is now the world's leading online platform for citizens science, hosting a growing number of projects (at the time of writing ~30) making use of crowdsourced data analysis in all areas of academic research, and boasting over 1.3 million participants.Galaxy Zoo has also shown itself, in a series of (now ~60) peer reviewed papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. Participation in citizen science is also fantastic public engagement with scientific research. But what do the participants learn while they are involved in crowdsourced data analysis?In this talk I will discuss how public engagement via citizen science can be an effective means of outreach from data intensive astronomical surveys. A citizen science project (if done right) can and should increase the scientific output of an astronomical project, while at the same time inspiring participants to learn more about the science and techniques of astronomy.

  17. Využívání obohaceného prostředí a jeho vliv na kvalitu chovu šimpanze učenlivého Pan troglodytes ve vybraných ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Šuchmanová, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    In modern ZOOS breeding of animals involves an enriched environment, which tries to help animals kept in captivity to behave as much as possible according to the formulas of their natural behavior. Proper use of enriched environment leads to improving of mental and physical condition of the animals. Chimpanzees are very similar to people, so they can often turn out to depressive states associated with the daily routine, regular feeding and inability to play. Enriched environment has many f...

  18. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. Zoo Biol. 35:147-156, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26741794

  19. Surveillance for an outbreak of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits housed at a zoo and biosecurity countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Furuya, Koji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Nakaoka, Yuji; Kosuge, Masao; Murata, Koichi

    2013-01-31

    An outbreak of encephalitozoonosis occurred in a rabbit colony at a zoo in Japan. Throughout the two years after the onset, all 42 rabbits were investigated clinically, pathologically and serologically for prevention and control of the disease. Eleven rabbits (11/42, 26.2%) showed clinical symptoms. Of 38 rabbits examined to detect specific antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 71.1% (n=27) were found seropositive; 20 out of 30 clinically healthy rabbits (except for 8 clinical cases) were seropositive. The infection rate was 76.2% (32/42), including 5 pathologically diagnosed cases. The results of serological survey revealed that asymptomatic infection was widespread, even among clinically healthy rabbits. However, encephalitozoonosis was not found by pathological examination in any other species of animals kept in the same area within the zoo. Isolation and elimination of the rabbits with suspected infection based on the results of serological examination were carried out immediately; however, encephalitozoonosis continued to occur sporadically. Therefore, all the remaining rabbits were finally slaughtered. Then, the facility was closed, and all the equipment was disinfected. After a two-month interval, founder rabbits were introduced from encephalitozoonosis-free rabbitries for new colony formation. Since then, encephalitozoonosis has not been seen in any animals at the zoo. In this study, biosecurity countermeasures including staff education, epidemiological surveillance and application of an "all-out and all-in" system for rabbit colony establishment based on serological examination were successfully accomplished with regard to animal hygiene and public health for the eradication of E. cuniculi. PMID:22971563

  20. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade; Thais Oliveira Morgado; Paulo Ricardo Mallmann; Paulo Roberto Spiller; Lianna Ghisi Gomes; Matias Bassinello Stocco; Andresa de Cássia Martini; Deise Cristine Schroder; Sandra Helena Ramiro Correa; Roberto Lopes Souza

    2015-01-01

    Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae) between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua), three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), s...

  1. Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cox-Witton

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.

  2. Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

  3. Genetic variability and structure of jaguar (Panthera onca) in Mexican zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Zozaya, Pilar; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán D; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Godoy, José Antonio; Sunny, Armando; Palomares, Francisco; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Herrera-Haro, José

    2016-02-01

    Genealogical records of animals (studbook) are created to avoid reproduction between closely related individuals, which could cause inbreeding, particularly for such endangered species as the Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758). Jaguar is the largest felid in the Americas and is considered an important ecological key species. In Mexico, wild jaguar populations have been significantly reduced in recent decades, and population decline typically accompany decreases in genetic variation. There is no current census of captive jaguars in Mexico, and zoos do not follow a standardized protocol in breeding programs based on genetic studies. Here, we emphasise the importance of maintaining an adequate level of genetic variation and propose the implementation of standardised studbooks for jaguars in Mexico, mainly to avoid inbreeding. In addition, achieving the aims of studbook registration would provide a population genetic characterisation that could serve as a basis for ex situ conservation programmes. PMID:26790662

  4. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was o...

  5. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  6. Weather sensitivity for zoo visitation in Toronto, Canada: a quantitative analysis of historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Gough, William A.

    2016-03-01

    Based on a case study of the Toronto Zoo (Canada), multivariate regression analysis, involving both climatic and social variables, was employed to assess the relationship between daily weather and visitation. Zoo visitation was most sensitive to weather variability during the shoulder season, followed by the off-season and, then, the peak season. Temperature was the most influential weather variable in relation to zoo visitation, followed by precipitation and, then, wind speed. The intensity and direction of the social and climatic variables varied between seasons. Temperatures exceeding 26 °C during the shoulder season and 28 °C during the peak season suggested a behavioural threshold associated with zoo visitation, with conditions becoming too warm for certain segments of the zoo visitor market, causing visitor numbers to decline. Even light amounts of precipitation caused average visitor numbers to decline by nearly 50 %. Increasing wind speeds also demonstrated a negative influence on zoo visitation.

  7. 公益性城市动物园再现活力的探讨--以广州动物园为例%Study on Reappearing the Non-profit City Zoo Dynamic:A Case Study of Guangzhou Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅飚

    2013-01-01

      公益性城市动物园多建于上世纪50~70年代,由政府投资建设,是我国主要的动物迁地保护基地和科普教育基地,体现着一个城市的文明程度和发展水平。随着社会经济发展,公益性城市动物园由于建设资金缺乏、观念落后、产品老化等原因,逐渐缺乏动物主题公园的活力和魅力。文章以广州动物园为例,深入分析公益性城市动物园存在的问题,提出通过淘汰消极印象、展示动物精品、丰富体验项目、提升品牌价值等方法,改善公益性城市动物园的品牌形象、产品质量和经营状况,从而再现动物园活力,吸引更多市民关注并从中受益。%  Most of the non-profit city zoos were built in 1950s to 1970s, invested by the government. They are China’s major ex-situ conservation and science education base, which embody the civilization and development of a city. With social and economic development, non-profit city zoos are gradually lack of animal theme park vitality and charm because of the lack of funds, backward ideas, aging products and other reasons. This paper takes Guangzhou Zoo as a case study and deeply analyzes the existing problems of the non-profit city zoo, according to which give the idea of improving the brand image, product quality and operating conditions of the non-profit city zoo by the ways of eliminating the negative impression, showing the animal boutique, enriching the experience programs and enhancing brand value, thereby reappearing the zoo vitality so that more citizens can give their concerns and benefit from the zoos.

  8. Molecular Sex Determination of Captive Komodo Dragons (Varanus komodoensis) at Gembira Loka Zoo, Surabaya Zoo, and Ragunan Zoo, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SRI SULANDARI; MOCH SAMSUL ARIFIN ZEIN; EVY AYU ARIDA; AMIR HAMIDY

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding of endangered species is often difficult, and may be hampered by many factors. Sexual monomorphism, in which males and females are not easily distinguishable, is one such factor and is a common problem in captive breeding of many avian and reptile species. Species-specific nuclear DNA markers, recently developed to identify portions of sex chromosomes, were employed in this study for sex determination of Komodo dragons (Varanus Komodoensis). Each animal was uniquely tagged us...

  9. Rozvojová strategie v oblasti cestovního ruchu pro ZOO Chleby

    OpenAIRE

    Panušová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the formulation of tourism development strategy for ZOO Chleby. After an evaluation of importance of zoos in the Czech Republic, the theoretical part follows, relating mainly to the issue of marketing of tourism services. The work also focuses on a comprehensive analysis of external and internal environment of ZOO Chleby, especially on the evaluation of competition and importance within the tourist area of Polabí. The key part of the analysis is represented by a...

  10. Změna vizuálního stylu Zoo Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This Master's Thesis thoroughly introduces the new logo and corporate design of the Prague Zoo. The main goal of the Thesis is to judge the logo as well as the corporate design based on the graphic design, corporate identity, corporate design and corporate image theoretical principles and on the comparison with other Czech and worldwide zoo logos. A monitoring of the new corporate design implementation inside the zoo and of chosen marketing campaigns as well as souvenirs and merchandising wit...

  11. BIAZA statistics guidelines: toward a common application of statistical tests for zoo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Amy B

    2008-05-01

    Zoo research presents many statistical challenges, mostly arising from the need to work with small sample sizes. Efforts to overcome these often lead to the misuse of statistics including pseudoreplication, inappropriate pooling, assumption violation or excessive Type II errors because of using tests with low power to avoid assumption violation. To tackle these issues and make some general statistical recommendations for zoo researchers, the Research Group of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) conducted a workshop. Participants included zoo-based researchers, university academics with zoo interests and three statistical experts. The result was a BIAZA publication Zoo Research Guidelines: Statistics for Typical Zoo Datasets (Plowman [2006] Zoo research guidelines: statistics for zoo datasets. London: BIAZA), which provides advice for zoo researchers on study design and analysis to ensure appropriate and rigorous use of statistics. The main recommendations are: (1) that many typical zoo investigations should be conducted as single case/small N randomized designs, analyzed with randomization tests, (2) that when comparing complete time budgets across conditions in behavioral studies, G tests and their derivatives are the most appropriate statistical tests and (3) that in studies involving multiple dependent and independent variables there are usually no satisfactory alternatives to traditional parametric tests and, despite some assumption violations, it is better to use these tests with careful interpretation, than to lose information through not testing at all. The BIAZA guidelines were recommended by American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) researchers at the AZA Annual Conference in Tampa, FL, September 2006, and are free to download from www.biaza.org.uk. PMID:19360620

  12. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  13. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  14. Pilot project "The zoo goes to school", enriching the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Mendes; Marcia Maria Dosciatti de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education does not only occur in formal institutions, and yes has been widely disseminated among non formal spaces of education, which complements its ecological and social nature. Zoos are the institutions that play an important role in environmental education, raising awareness and preparing citizens to act in the critically and ethical society, committed to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental perception of students in 7th grade of el...

  15. Alienation in The Zoo Story by Edward Albee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜利霞

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a study of the theme of alienation and isolation in The Zoo Story by Edward Albee. From this study, we can see that, Edward Albee presented us with the freezing aloofness in modern society in such a short one-act play. In modern society, everyone lives in a cage, big or small, luxurious or shabby, like Peter and Jerry in the play.

  16. The dynamic of stellar wind accretion and the HMXB zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland; Manousakis, Antonios

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic of the accretion of stellar wind on the pulsar in Vela X-1 is dominated by unstable hydrodynamical flows. Off-states, 10^{37} erg/s flares, quasi-periodic oscillations and log normal flux distribution can all be reproduced by hydrodynamical simulations and reveal the complex motion of bow shocks moving either towards or away from the neutron star. These behaviors are enlightening the zoo of HMXB and suggest new phenomenology to be detected.

  17. Especificació i disseny d'una aplicació pel ZOO de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Àngel Torras, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Aquest TFG es basa en el disseny i l'especificació d'una aplicació pel Zoo de Barcelona. Es tracta d'una app enfocada a millorar la visita al parc, oferint funcionalitats i informació que permetin a l'usuari gaudir més de la visita al Zoo de Barcelona. This TFG is based on design and especification of an app for Barcelona Zoo. It aims to enhance the visitor's experience, by offering functionality and wider information so that the visit to the Zoo may be better appreciated by anyone using t...

  18. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl was of 6.39% (17/266. Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, using direct drop technique, Woo, extended of central blood and capillary dyed with Giemsa and Knott, The most sensible technique was extended of central blood dyed with Giemsa. The statistical program used was Epi info 6.1, to determinate prevalence by sex, age, species, zoo, technique and altitude, with a significance level of (P = 0.05. The Saguinus leucopus showed high quantities of microfilaremias with sickness signs, so they were considered reservoirs and / or porter of the microfilarias.

  19. Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Papini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (=63 and zoo (=83 birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (=75, molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds, including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%, Ascaridia (6.8%, Strongyles (5.5%, G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%, Coccidia (4.1%, Cryptosporidium (4%, Porrocaecum (2.7%, Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%, and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%. The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR = 14.81 and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR = 4.72. Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds.

  20. Vliv podaných enrichmentových prvků na změny v chování v průběhu roku u slonů v ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Špalková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT ELEMENTS ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGES OF ELEPHANTS IN ZOO SUMMARY To behave naturally, respectively in certain way as „social etiquette“ of the species, is not common in animals which live in capture. However, there is an effort to create an environment with specific stimuli, which motivate the animals to behave according their natural „social etiquette.“ Nowadays the enrichment has an irreplaceable role in elephant breeding and each enrichment type has a...

  1. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  2. Use of enclosure space by captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapur, Avanti; Waran, Natalie; Sinha, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    Captive nonhuman animals use enclosure space differentially. Enclosure features strongly influence this. This study recorded both the enclosure space used by 47 captive lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India and the behavior of the macaques. The exhibition of abnormal behaviors, food-related behaviors, and social interactions correlated significantly with the use of the edge zone (the part of the enclosure closest to the visitor area). Animals housed in barren enclosures used the edge zone to a significantly greater percentage than did those housed in complex exhibits. Percentages of autogrooming, social interactions, and food-related behaviors significantly correlated with the use of the enrich zone. Space use studies assist in recognizing areas within the enclosure, which captive animals actively use. Conversely, the studies can identify areas infrequently used and show how to make maximum use of these enclosure areas. Further studies targeting both the increase in percentages of natural behaviors exhibited and use of the enrich zone used the current study on captive lion-tailed macaques for their design. PMID:16468946

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species. PMID:24063119

  4. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul;

    2013-01-01

    may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos...

  5. Assessment of the Effect of Participation in the Moon Zoo Citizen Science Project on Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, S.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Lintott, C.; Gay, P.; Raddick, J.

    2011-03-01

    The Moon Zoo project affords volunteers the opportunity to contribute to scientific research in a meaningful way by interacting with actual scientific data. We created a survey to measure the impact that participation in Moon Zoo has on user conceptual knowledge.

  6. The educational claims of zoos: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Zoos exude a certain self-confidence regarding their roles as education providers. Indeed, the education outputs of zoos are, at face value, pretty impressive, with most investing in learning opportunities for leisure visitors, education groups and in some cases, as part of their in situ programs. However, these outputs are not necessarily reliable indicators of the educational achievements of zoos. Quantity does not necessarily equate to quality, just as outputs do not necessarily lead to outcomes. Zoo-accreditation organizations such as the AZA and EAZA offer us clear insight into the strategic vision underpinning the education goals for zoo visitors; a heightened appreciation of the value of biodiversity and a connectedness with the natural world. Unsurprisingly, most zoos have educational goals that ally neatly with the vision of their respective accreditation body. Consequently, we are left with fairly narrow, top-down educational goals. This does not necessarily sit well with what we know about the unpredictability of "free choice" learning in environments such as zoos and aquariums, or what is known about public science communication. Research that seeks to explore the impacts of zoo visits often focuses on evaluating performance based on educational goals and the findings are used as a means of providing evidence of institutional achievement. However, any visitor outcome that falls outside of this narrow range could well be missed by the research. In this article, we propose that research that takes unpredictable and unexpected outcomes into account is necessary and overdue. PMID:22674295

  7. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Trent A.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other…

  8. 77 FR 43167 - Safety Zone; Electric Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall's Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Electric Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall... Zone; Electronic Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall's Island, NY. (a) Regulated Area. The...

  9. Marketingová strategie rozvoje cestovního ruchu v ZOO Chleby

    OpenAIRE

    Motejlková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    In the first chapter describes the Zoo Chleby in general. The second chapter describes the general marketing strategy in tourism. In the third chapter compares the zoo in Chelby and in Vyškov. In the fourth chapter carries out a practical application.

  10. Experiencing polar bears in the zoo: feelings and cognitions in relation to a visitor's conservation attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, M.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Brink, van den M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores which feelings and cognitions are involved in visitor experiences of zoo polar bears and how this experience relates to a visitor's conservation attitude. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with 30 visitors in two Dutch zoos. Most respondents believed that a pol

  11. ZooQuest: A mobile game-based learning application for fifth graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Veenhof; J.A.C. Sandberg; M.G. Maris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ZooQuest, a mobile game that supported fifth graders in the process of learning English as a second language. ZooQuest embedded the Mobile English Learning (MEL) application and was compared to MEL as a stand-alone application. Two groups were compared in a quasi-experimental pre

  12. Don't Forget the Social Responsibility to Explore Modem Transformation of the Zoo%毋忘社会责任探索动物园现代转型之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴金

    2012-01-01

    It's an important proposition in Chinese zoos that how to change from traditional to modem, which is the inevitable requirement of Chinese economic development, and brings new opportunities and challenges for Chinese zoos. Fun with animals is the main objective in the traditional zoo, but nature conservation and conservation education is an important mission in the modern zoo. In the modern zoo, the presentation is the pursuit of the nature and ecology, to show the main features of animal habitats to focus on animal welfare, which reflects the respect for life; to carry out scientific research for the zoo and wild animal protection to provide technical support; zoo should be the forerunner of environmental protection in planning, construction and operations. A modern zoo shows the relationship between animals and nature to make the public aware of the importance of protecting nature, it serves as the nature protector and educator. Guangzhou Zoo never forgets its social responsibility, and has initially got social, ecological, and economic benefits from the modernization transformation of the zoo.%从传统动物园向现代动物园转变已经成为我国动物园建设的重要命题,既是中国经济社会发展的必然要求,也为中国动物园的发展带来了新的机遇和挑战。传统动物园的主要特征是以动物为取乐的对象,而现代动物园则把自然保护和保护教育作为重要使命。现代动物园的特征有:动物展示方式追求自然和生态化,展示动物栖息地的主要特征;注重动物福利从而体现对生命的尊重;开展科学研究为动物园及野外动物保护提供技术支持;动物园在规划、建设、运营中应成为环境保护的先行者。通过这些,使公众感受到保护自然的重要性,自觉充当自然保护和教育者的角色。广州动物园不忘社会职责,在探索动物园现代转型中初步实现了社会效益、生态效益和经济效益的同步增长。

  13. 动物园兽医的使命及发展思路%New Approaches to Development of Veterinary Medicine in Zoos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴金

    2012-01-01

    Ex - situ conservation and conservation education are the main functions of a modern zoo. Veterinary medicine plays an important role in the health of wildlife held captive in zoos. Veterinary medicine in zoos is a special branch of medical science. Facing the limitations imposed by the capability and energy of veterinarians and the complexity of wildlife diseases, the fundamental way to guarantee the health of wild animals is to professionalize and specialize veterinarians in zoos. Stress is a threat to the health of captive animals and can be minimized by appropriate domestication. Establishing a regional zoo veterinary service network and information exchange among veterinarians are two basic methods for improving the professionalism of zoo veterinarians. Equally importance are accurate diagnosis, standardized prescriptions, awareness of animal needs, and pro - active epidemic prevention. Zoos should provide opportunities for veterinarians to become involved in the management of animals because veterinarians have firsthand knowledge of causes of mortality and the health conditions of animals.%野生动物的移地保护和保护教育是现代动物园的主要功能,兽医在保障野生动物健康方面承担着重要的使命。动物园兽医在本质上是医学的一个特殊分枝,由于野生动物及其疾病种类的复杂性和个人精力、能力的局限性,动物园兽医的职业化和专业化是提高野生动物健康保障能力的根本出路;应激因素对圈养动物的健康造成很大的威胁,而适度驯化则可以最大限度地减少应激的发生;在国内建立区域动物园兽医服务网络、建立兽医行业内部信息交流平台是提高动物园兽医行业整体水平的基本思路:正确的疾病诊断和规范的处方,以及全面关注动物的基本需求、积极主动的疾病防疫等在兽医日常工作中占有同等重要的地位。由于兽医掌握了动物发病和死亡的第一

  14. Mining the Galaxy Zoo Database: Machine Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Wallin, J.; Vedachalam, A.; Baehr, S.; Lintott, C.; Darg, D.; Smith, A.; Fortson, L.

    2010-01-01

    The new Zooniverse initiative is addressing the data flood in the sciences through a transformative partnership between professional scientists, volunteer citizen scientists, and machines. As part of this project, we are exploring the application of machine learning techniques to data mining problems associated with the large and growing database of volunteer science results gathered by the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. We will describe the basic challenge, some machine learning approaches, and early results. One of the motivators for this study is the acquisition (through the Galaxy Zoo results database) of approximately 100 million classification labels for roughly one million galaxies, yielding a tremendously large and rich set of training examples for improving automated galaxy morphological classification algorithms. In our first case study, the goal is to learn which morphological and photometric features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database correlate most strongly with user-selected galaxy morphological class. As a corollary to this study, we are also aiming to identify which galaxy parameters in the SDSS database correspond to galaxies that have been the most difficult to classify (based upon large dispersion in their volunter-provided classifications). Our second case study will focus on similar data mining analyses and machine leaning algorithms applied to the Galaxy Zoo catalog of merging and interacting galaxies. The outcomes of this project will have applications in future large sky surveys, such as the LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) project, which will generate a catalog of 20 billion galaxies and will produce an additional astronomical alert database of approximately 100 thousand events each night for 10 years -- the capabilities and algorithms that we are exploring will assist in the rapid characterization and classification of such massive data streams. This research has been supported in part through NSF award #0941610.

  15. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  16. Canadian Muskoxen in Central Europe - A Zoo Veterinary Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Seidel

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes 29 years of veterinary experience maintaining a herd of muskoxen at the Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Berlin, Germany. The transplanted muskoxen acclimated to the zoo enviroment without fatalities. However, a few striking changes were seen. They exhibit a high sensitivity to sudden changes in weather conditions (especially falling atmospheric pressure; there is a tendency for their qiviut to become sparser with time; rutting and subsequent calving occur later than in their native habitat. Details of medical conditions in both calves and adults ate given along with information on hematology and immobilization.

  17. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  18. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated. PMID:22742198

  19. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  20. A direct communication proposal to test the Zoo Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Whether we are alone in the universe is one of the greatest mysteries facing humankind. Given the >100 billion stars in our galaxy, many have argued that it is statistically unlikely that life, including intelligent life, has not emerged anywhere else. The lack of any sign of extraterrestrial intelligence, even though on a cosmic timescale extraterrestrial civilizations would have enough time to cross the galaxy, is known as Fermi's Paradox. One possible explanation for Fermi's Paradox is the Zoo Hypothesis which states that one or more extraterrestrial civilizations know of our existence and can reach us, but have chosen not to disturb us or even make their existence known to us. I propose here a proactive test of the Zoo Hypothesis. Specifically, I propose to send a message using television and radio channels to any extraterrestrial civilization(s) that might be listening and inviting them to respond. Even though I accept this is unlikely to be successful in the sense of resulting in a response from extrate...

  1. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  2. Application of synthetic pheromones on animals in captivity: A possibility on wild ungulates?

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Urgell, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster There is an increasing evidence proving the existence of diverse abnormal behaviours due to stress on captive animals. The growing awareness for animal welfare, specifically for those captive in zoos or similar centres accommodating wild animals, has triggered that numerous measures of environmental enrichment are being implemented all over the globe. A recent practice of environmental enrichment to reduce the stress of wild animals in captivity is the employment of different odours...

  3. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556

  4. Health assessment of free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in and around the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovicz, Laura; Bronson, Ellen; Barrett, Kevin; Deem, Sharon L

    2015-03-01

    Health data for free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore were analyzed. One hundred and eighteen turtles were captured on or near zoo grounds over the course of 15 yr (1996-2011), with recapture of many individuals leading to 208 total evaluations. Of the 118 individuals, 61 were male, 50 were female, and 7 were of undetermined sex. Of the 208 captures, 188 were healthy, and 20 were sick or injured. Complete health evaluations were performed on 30 turtles with physical examination records, complete blood counts (CBCs), and plasma biochemistry profiles. Eight animals were sampled more than once, yielding 40 total samples for complete health evaluations of these 30 individuals. The 40 samples were divided into healthy (N=29) and sick (N=11) groups based on clinical findings on physical examination. Samples from healthy animals were further divided into male (N=17) and female (N= 12) groups. CBC and biochemistry profile parameters were compared between sick and healthy groups and between healthy males and females. Sick turtles had lower albumin, globulin, total protein (TP), calcium, phosphorous, sodium, and potassium than healthy animals. Sick turtles also had higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratios. Healthy female turtles had higher leukocyte count, eosinophil count, total solids, TP, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorous than healthy males. Banked plasma from all 40 samples was tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One sample from a clinically healthy female was antibody positive for M. agassizii; none were positive for M. testudineum. This study provides descriptive health data for eastern box turtles and CBC and biochemistry profile information for T. carolina carolina at and near the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore. It also reports low serologic evidence of exposure to mycoplasmosis. PMID:25831575

  5. Comparative study on the growth of juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra) at the Charles Darwin Research Station (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Zoo Zurich (Zurich, Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer, S C; Hatt, J M; Snell, H; Marquez, C; Honegger, R E; A. Rübel

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the growth rates of a group of Galapagos giant tortoises raised in their natural habitat at the Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS; Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and a group of captive-bred specimens (Zoo Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland) were compared for the first time. A great discrepancy in growth rates was observed after the first year. When the animals were 4 years old, the carapace in the Zurich specimens was approximately twice as long as that in the CDRS tortoises, and t...

  6. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (pzoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  7. Coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in carnivores and small mammals at Dhaka zoo, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.R.U. Raja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using 94 faecal samples from different carnivores (n=32 and small mammals (n=15 was undertaken from January to May 2012 at Dhaka Zoo. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 78.72%, with a prevalence of 51.06% for helminths and 27.66% for protozoa. The identified parasites included—Toxascaris leonina (9.57%, Balantidium coli (25.53% Spirometra sp. (10.64%, Toxocara cati (12.76%, Hook worm (4.26%, unidentified strongyles (3.19%, Trichuris sp. (7.45%, Coccidia sp. (2.12%, Capillaria sp. (1.06%, Trichostrongylus sp. (1.06%, and Physaloptera sp. (1.06%. Mixed infection was observed in Indian Lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp., Royal Bengal Tiger (Balantidium coli and Toxocara cati, Spotted Hyena (Balantidium coli and hook worm, Leopard (Balantidium coli and Spirometra/I> sp., Rhesus Macaque (Trichuris sp. and Coccidia sp., Pig-tailed Macaque (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Hamadryas Baboon (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Golden Mangabey (Trichuris sp., Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Large Indian Civet (Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Torior Dog (Balantidium coli and Physaloptera, Rabbit (Balantidium coli and Hook worm, Hanuman Langur (Balantidium coli and Capillaria sp.. Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, the present study suggests to apply control measures against these parasites in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals, especially in case of threatened species.

  8. Galaxy Zoo: Quantifying Morphological Indicators of Galaxy Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Casteels, Kevin R V; Skibba, Ramin A; Masters, Karen L; Lintott, Chris J; Keel, William C; Schawinski, Kevin; Nichol, Robert C; Smith, Arfon M

    2012-01-01

    We use Galaxy Zoo 2 visual classifications to study the morphological signatures of interaction between similar-mass galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that many observable features correlate with projected pair separation; not only obvious indicators of merging, disturbance and tidal tails, but also more regular features, such as spiral arms and bars. These trends are robustly quantified, using a control sample to account for observational biases, producing measurements of the strength and separation scale of various morphological responses to pair interaction. For example, we find that the presence of spiral features is enhanced at scales 10^9.5 M_\\odot and mass ratio < 4, to be between 0.4 - 2.7 per cent.

  9. An Interactive Zoo Guide: A Case Study of Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Real Industry Projects and team work can have a great impact on student learning but providing these activities requires significant commitment from academics. It requires several years planning implementing to create a collaborative learning environment that mimics the real world ICT (Information and Communication Technology) industry workplace. In this project, staff from all the three faculties, namely the Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Faculty of Arts, Education and Human Development, and Faculty of Business and Law in higher education work together to establish a detailed project management plan and to develop the unit guidelines for participating students. The proposed project brings together students from business, multimedia and computer science degrees studying their three project-based units within each faculty to work on a relatively large IT project with our industry partner, Melbourne Zoo. This paper presents one multimedia software project accomplished by one of the multi-discipline...

  10. The Expanding Zoo of Calabi-Yau Threefolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Davies

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a short review of recent constructions of new Calabi-Yau threefolds with small Hodge numbers and/or nontrivial fundamental group, which are of particular interest for model building in the context of heterotic string theory. The two main tools are topological transitions and taking quotients by actions of discrete groups. Both of these techniques can produce new manifolds from existing ones, and they have been used to bring many new specimens to the previously sparse corner of the Calabi-Yau zoo, where both Hodge numbers are small. Two new manifolds are also obtained here from hyperconifold transitions, including the first example with fundamental group S3, the smallest non-Abelian group.

  11. [A case of influenza infection of zoo touracos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzis, C; Andral, B; Lernoud, J M

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory disease occurred in a colony of 14 touracos in a zoological garden. Birds developed signs of disease during a period of 2 weeks and three died. Gross lesions consisted of hyperaemia of lungs, liver and kidney. An avian orthomyxovirus serotype Hav3 (or H11) was isolated. Five and 11 months after the outbreak antibodies against this serotype were present in the previously affected birds. Disease signs were not observed in another group of 14 touracos housed at the exit to the Zoo, and these birds did not contract the disease when they were moved into the building where the outbreak had taken place 4 1/2 months before. Antibodies against influenza virus were not found in these birds. It is concluded that the disease was caused by the influenza virus isolated. PMID:18766906

  12. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  13. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  14. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs. PMID:26963741

  15. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  16. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

  17. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Boarato David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%; Entamoeba spp. (18%; Endolimax nana (4.5%; Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%; Oxyurid (4.5% and Strongylid (4.5%. Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1, Alouatta fusca (BA2 and Alouatta caraya (BA3. According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3 whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens.

  18. Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from nonhuman primates housed IN a Brazilian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Érica Boarato; Patti, Mariella; Coradi, Silvana Torossian; Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina Goulart; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Guimarães, Semíramis

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens. PMID:24553608

  19. Weighing the options for limiting surplus animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Cheryl

    2016-05-01

    The unsustainability of many animal programs managed by zoos and aquariums has brought renewed attention to unresolved questions about various management strategies. Solving the "sustainability crisis" for many species will require housing more adults and producing more offspring than there are existing spaces in accredited zoos and aquariums. Careful reproductive management is central to addressing this challenge, but opinions differ about which management strategies are best for an individual, for a species, for an institution, or for a country or region. The primary options for limiting the number of animals that would be surplus to the population are to prevent reproduction or to euthanize. However, there is much misunderstanding about methods for controlling reproduction, in particular about contraceptives and species differences in their effects. Careful weighing of all the options is called for. Lifetime Reproductive Planning may help increase breeding success through careful reproductive management but cannot eliminate production of surplus animals. Limiting reproduction does not address the problem of animals already in the population. Despite best efforts and planning, consistently hitting target numbers for a population may never be achieved. Increasing capacity provides a temporary patch when targets are exceeded, but is not a long-term solution, since each generation potentially produces even more individuals needing even more space. Welfare considerations should be included in discussions of management euthanasia and its alternatives. Such discussions will be most productive if based on full awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of all the options. Zoo Biol. 35:183-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27187931

  20. Jet set pets: examining the zoonosis risk in animal import and travel across the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Anthony R Fooks,1,2 Nicholas Johnson1 1Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, 2Department of Clinical Infection, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Ownership of companion animals or pets is popular throughout the world. Unfortunately, such animals are susceptible to and potential reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. Close proximity to and contact with pets can lead to human infections. The distribution of zoo...

  1. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44 and Asian (n = 28 elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1 than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P < 0.001. Nearly one-third of elephants were non-recumbent on at least one night, suggesting this is a common behavior. Multi-variable regression models for each species showed that substrate, space, and social variables had the strongest associations with recumbence. In the African model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-hard substrate were recumbent 0.6 hours less per day than those who were never on all-hard substrate, and elephants who experienced an additional acre of outdoor space at night increased their recumbence by 0.48 hours per day. In the Asian model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-soft substrate were recumbent 1.1 hours more per day more than those who were never on all-soft substrate, and elephants who spent any amount of time housed alone were recumbent 0.77 hours more per day than elephants who were never housed alone. Our results draw attention to the significant interspecific difference in the amount of recumbent rest and in the factors affecting recumbence; however, in both species, the influence of flooring substrate is notably important to recumbent rest, and by extension, zoo elephant welfare.

  2. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  3. Rates of inbreeding and genetic adaptation for populations managed as herds in zoos with a rotational mating system or with optimized contribution of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Komen, H

    2016-08-01

    This study compares two genetic management scenarios for species kept in herds, such as deer. The simulations were designed so that their results can be extended to a wide range of zoo populations. In the first scenario, the simulated populations of size 3 × 20, 6 × 40 or 20 × 60 (herds × animals in herd) were managed with a rotational mating (RM) scheme in which 10%, 20% or 50% of males were selected for breeding and moved between herds in a circular fashion. The second scenario was based on optimal contribution theory (OC). OC requires an accurate pedigree to calculate kinship; males were selected and assigned numbers of offspring to minimize kinship in the next generation. RM was efficient in restriction of inbreeding and produced results comparable with OC. However, RM can result in genetic adaptation of the population to the zoo environment, in particular when 20% or less males are selected for rotation and selection of animals is not random. Lowest rates of inbreeding were obtained by combining OC with rotation of males as in the RM scheme. RM is easy to implement in practice and does not require pedigree data. When full pedigree is available, OC management is preferable. PMID:26423022

  4. Motivations of Citizen Scientists Participating in Galaxy Zoo: A More Detailed Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G. L.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Our ongoing research program is examining the motivations of participants in the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. At the 2009 AAS summer meeting, we presented preliminary results from a survey taken by more than 10,000 participants of the original Galaxy Zoo. We are continuing to analyze data from this survey. Galaxy Zoo is an online citizen science project in which more than 230,000 participants have classified the morphologies of galaxies. The original Galaxy Zoo, in which participants classified galaxies as elliptical or spiral, has led to more than a dozen science journal papers published or in peer review. In our research, we have found that Galaxy Zoo participants are mostly male and represent a wide range of ages and educations. They are primarily motivated by a desire to contribute to scientific research (40%), interest in astronomy (13%), and looking at beautiful galaxy images (10%). In this poster, we present results from free response data. Each question about motivation included an "Other" response where participants could indicate that their motivation for participating was not included in the survey instrument. By analyzing these "Other" responses, we can ensure that we have a complete list of motivations present in the Galaxy Zoo participant population, and we can also gain insight into what other populations might be recruited to participate in Galaxy Zoo. We have had multiple raters analyze these "Other" responses. We have uncovered new motivations at a very low level in our sample - for example, a "religious/spiritual" motivation that was indicated by 5 of the 205 people who entered text in the "Other" field (from among the 10,000 survey respondents). In this poster, we will present results from this analysis of the "Other" motivations, as well as results from analyzing our full dataset.

  5. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Miller, Lance J.; Shepherdson, David J.; Morfeld, Kari A.; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M.; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants’ nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; pzoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses. PMID:27414654

  6. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (pcaptive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (pcaptive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  7. Zoo Animals as Reservoirs of Gram-Negative Bacteria Harboring Integrons and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ashraf M.; Motoi, Yusuke; Sato, Maiko; Maruyama, Akito; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Fukumoto, Yukio; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2007-01-01

    A total of 232 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were recovered from mammals, reptiles, and birds housed at Asa Zoological Park, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine isolates (21.1%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. PCR and DNA sequencing identified class 1 and class 2 integrons and many β-lactamase-encoding genes, in addition to a novel AmpC β-lactamase gene, blaCMY-26. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance g...

  8. Tasking Citizen Scientists from Galaxy Zoo to Model Galaxy Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, J.; Holincheck, A.; Borne, K.; Lintott, C.; Smith, A.; Bamford, S.; Fortson, L.

    2010-06-01

    The huge data volumes across the sciences require us to consider new approaches to data analysis and simulations. In this project, we investigate how citizen scientists from GalaxyZoo.org can be tasked to address this data flood by providing the human input to classify simulations of galaxy interactions. The primary science goal in the galaxy collision project is developing numerical models for hundreds of interacting systems. With these simulations, we will determine if these collisions are unique locations in the multi-parameter phase space that defines the input parameters to our simulations. We will also correlate these dynamical parameters with the star formation and nuclear activity in these systems. Further self-consistent, high resolution models will follow from these simple matches to compare simulations directly with the observations. A secondary goal of the galaxy collision project is to create a set of human-selected matches between simulations and models which can be used as a training set for machine learning algorithms. Analysis of this data set will allow the creation of a robust fitness function for evolutionary computing algorithms that can be used to model other interacting systems.

  9. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of $ 0.267 \\pm 0.009 $, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of $0.215 \\pm 0.013$. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of $0.584 \\pm 0.006$, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlo...

  10. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS Barred Disks and Bar Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, B D; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Willett, Kyle W; Keel, William C; Smethurst, R J; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Bell, Eric F; Casteels, Kevin R V; Conselice, Christopher J; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; McIntosh, Daniel H; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N A; Grutzbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Haussler, Boris; Jek, Kian J; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 bil...

  11. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  12. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare. PMID:27414411

  13. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Miller, Lance J.; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare. PMID:27414411

  14. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  15. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  16. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H; Grindrod, Peter M; Lintott, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASAs LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological features of interest. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the s...

  17. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  18. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

  19. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine. PMID:19434627

  20. Zoo U: A Stealth Approach to Social Skills Assessment in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Craig, Ashley B.; Sanchez, Rebecca P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of Zoo U, a novel computer game to assess children’s social skills development. Zoo U is an innovative product that combines theory-driven content and customized game mechanics. The game-like play creates the opportunity for stealth assessment, in which dynamic evidence of social skills is collected in real time and players’ choices during gameplay provide the needed data. To ensure the development of an engaging and valid game, we utilized an it...

  1. Moon Zoo: Educating side-by-side with Doing Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project (http://www.moonzoo.org) engages individuals - primarily members of the public - in identifying geological (and sometimes technological) features on the lunar surface. Using a flash-based interface that runs in a web browser, users can mark craters, linear features, and even left-behind lunar landers on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images. These science tools are embedded in an environment designed to encourage learning and collaboration. On the main Moon Zoo site users can explore educational content, including video tutorials, articles, glossary terms, and flash interactive activities. Additionally, there is a blog and a forum to encourage collaboration and social learning, and a twitter feed for general communications. Through this suite of software Moon Zoo users can contribute to science while learning about the Moon and geology. The Moon Zoo educational content is designed with one purpose in mind: To make sure that a curious user can find information quickly, easily, and on (or within 1-click of) the Moon Zoo site. The Internet is filled with many excellent lunar educational products, and many high-quality digital products exist in offline archives. Finding desired resources, however, can sometimes be a challenge even for professional educators. In order to make finding content easier, we developed a glossary list and a basic concept map for our website that addresses geology, lunar exploration, observing, and the moon in history and culture, and then we populated these terms and concepts with already available materials. We also do things in a way that encourages both doing science tasks and learning at the same time! Specifically, we use pop-out audio and video players that allow users to listen, learn, and classify the lunar surface all at once. To try and understand our users better we are conducting both learning and motivations studies while also monitoring site usage. Our learning assessments use an assessment tool

  2. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  3. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  4. The Educational Role of Zoos: A Synthesis of the Literature (1928-1987) with Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, David

    Zoos generally claim their four purposes to be conservation, research, entertainment, and education. This paper is intended to synthesize the literature relevant to the educational function and provide an annotated bibliography of that literature. The first section of the synthesis, "Audiences," addresses staff, volunteers, outreach programs, and…

  5. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds. PMID:26677094

  6. Commons at the Intersection of Peer Production, Citizen Science, and Big Data: Galaxy Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Madison, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge commons research framework is applied to a case of commons governance grounded in research in modern astronomy. The case, Galaxy Zoo, is a leading example of at least three different contemporary phenomena. In the first place Galaxy Zoo is a global citizen science project, in which volunteer non-scientists have been recruited to participate in large-scale data analysis via the Internet. In the second place Galaxy Zoo is a highly successful example of peer production, sometimes known colloquially as crowdsourcing, by which data are gathered, supplied, and/or analyzed by very large numbers of anonymous and pseudonymous contributors to an enterprise that is centrally coordinated or managed. In the third place Galaxy Zoo is a highly visible example of data-intensive science, sometimes referred to as e-science or Big Data science, by which scientific researchers develop methods to grapple with the massive volumes of digital data now available to them via modern sensing and imaging technologies. This ...

  7. How Full Is Your Luggage? Background Knowledge of Zoo Visitors Regarding Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, João Pedro Correia; Monteiro, Rute Cristina Rocha

    2013-01-01

    For the general population, sharks have a reputation that does not really fit with their biological and ecological nature. Informal surveys often classify sharks as dangerous, aggressive and/or man-eaters. This apparent common knowledge seems difficult to detach from the conscience of many worldwide zoo visitors, even with the help of…

  8. Understanding and Engagement in Places of Science Experience: Science Museums, Science Centers, Zoos, and Aquariums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Stephan; Grajal, Alejandro; Lewalter, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Science museums, science centers, zoos, and aquariums (MCZAs) constitute major settings of science learning with unique characteristics of informal science education. Emphasis will be given to the analysis of four specific characteristics of MCZAs that seem relevant for educational research and practice, namely, conditions of mixed motives and…

  9. Conservation Learning in Wildlife Tourism Settings: Lessons from Research in Zoos and Aquariums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan; Hughes, Karen; Dierking, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have shifted their focus over recent years, taking a much more active role in wildlife conservation and in promoting conservation learning among their visitors. Research in these settings provides a valuable foundation for the emerging field of non-captive wildlife tourism. In particular, valuable lessons regarding the potential…

  10. The Effect of Visitor Motivation on the Success of Environmental Education at the Toronto Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, James G. W.; Joordens, Steve

    2014-01-01

    With the number and scope of environmental challenges continuing to increase, an understanding of the effectiveness of conservation programs is essential in order to allocate limited resources. This paper examines the effectiveness of environmental education within a zoo setting, focusing on the role of learners' identity-related motivation.…

  11. Das Harnspritzen als Markierungsverhalten der Sibirischen Tiger im Zürcher Zoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Scent marking of three Amur Tigers in the Zurich Zoo was observed. Distinct places, some of which highly preferred, are chosen for the urine marks. Some of the places were treated with scent mark of an African Civet, resulting in a tendency to increase scent marking.

  12. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. PMID:24420273

  13. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus] at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding, making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015. For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009, and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175, increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985, and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988. At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987 and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752 corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115 increased this risk. Overall, our results

  14. Dreamers, Poets, Citizens, and Scientists: Motivations for Engaging in GalaxyZoo Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S. J.; Mankowski, T.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research Caper Team

    2010-12-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone’s surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be classified multiple times, quicker than the project leader anticipated, and continues to boast a high hit count on the website (15 classifications per second). Within 24 hours of launch, the site was receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and more than 50 million classifications were received by the project during its first year, from almost 150,000 people. In a parallel effort, the Galaxy Zoo forum was created to handle the flood of emails that occurred alongside the flood of classifications, the team hoping that it would encourage the participants to handle each others' questions. By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. Although in the past citizen science has primarily been used as a data collection method, there are many new opportunities contained in citizen science motivations and methods that we can use in future applications. This new and innovative method of online citizen science creates data for researchers of galaxies, but there is a parallel set of underlying data that has not yet been deeply analyzed: the motivations and underlying themes within the population of citizen scientists that could lead us to improve future citizen science projects. To address this, we pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo

  15. A interpretação e animação ambiental como estratégias dos zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Maria Rita de Abreu Freire Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    A presente dissertação resultou de uma vivência experimentada enquanto responsável pelo departamento de educação ambiental de um zoo. Após a revisão de literatura no âmbito do turismo sustentável, turismo de natureza, estratégia mundial para zoos e aquários, turismo educacional e educação ambiental, chegamos à pergunta de partida que procurava caracterizar um dos públicos visitantes do Park & Zoo S. Inácio – as famílias. Para realizarmos qualquer proposta estratégica educati...

  16. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  17. Environmental enrichment for cougars (Puma concolor) in Lisbon Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, António Pedro; Ferreira, José D.; Tibério, L.; Pereira, Ana Paula; Carolino, N.

    2010-01-01

    Animals in captivity often show less active behaviors than in nature, compromising their health. So, it is necessary to have processes that can change this issue. Environmental enrichment is a tool that can improve the life quality of certain animals by stimulating their senses, natural instincts, physical activity and domination of its habitat. In order to improve the psychological and physiological well fare of a listless male and female Cougars (Puma concolor, Linnaeus, 1771), at the Li...

  18. A 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Els; Dorny, Pierre; Boomker, Joop; Vercammen, Francis; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2005-02-28

    Faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. The ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, the Antwerp Zoo and the Animal Park Planckendael. Artiodactylids involved were Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), bongos (Tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekii gratus), common eland (Taurotragus oryx), impala (Aepyceros melampus), slender-horned gazelles, (Gazella leptoceros), blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus taurinus), Kordofan giraffes (Giraffe camelopardalis antiquorum) and okapi (Okapia johnstoni). Nematode eggs were recovered from 586 of 1606 (36.5%) individual faecal samples, using flotation techniques. Infection levels were distinctly low at Antwerp Zoo, probably due to zero grazing and daily dung removal. At Planckendael, the herds of Arabian oryx, scimitar-horned oryx and slender-horned gazelles showed markedly higher egg counts than the other herds, with more than 10% of the faecal egg counts having more than 100 eggs per gram (epg) and maximum faecal egg counts of 600, 750 and 1350 epg, respectively. Faecal egg counts increased during the mid-grazing season (July) and peaked at the end of the grazing season (October). No clinical signs, such as loss of faecal consistency, could be correlated with faecal egg counts (P > 0.05). With the exception of significantly more Nematodirus spp. eggs that were present in juvenile eland, no differences in faecal egg counts could be found between the sexes and different age groups. Abomasa and intestines of 17 animals that died during the survey were available for total worm counts. In one Arabian oryx, four slender-horned gazelles and one sitatunga low burdens ranging from 200 to 14,300 were found. Nematode species recovered were Camelostrongylus mentulatus from

  19. Relationship between behavior, adrenal activity, and environment in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Fitzpatrick, Malcolm; Hartley, Andy; King, Andrew J; Lee, Tracey; Routh, Andrew; Walker, Susan L; George, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring adrenal activity through noninvasive fecal hormone sampling is rapidly gaining popularity as a tool to assess zoo animal welfare. However, few studies have sought to investigate the interrelationships between behavior, adrenal activity, and environment, and ask whether both behavioral and adrenal monitoring strategies are required to assess welfare sufficiently. We present the findings of a 9-month study of a small group (one male, two females) of Western lowland gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla. First, we examined the effect of environmental variables on gorilla behavior. Second, we examined the effect of environmental variables on the concentration of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGC) and the relationship between behavior and FGC. Environmental variables had similar effects on all three gorillas. Negative vigilance of visitors (NVV; staring, posturing, and charging at visitors) significantly increased in all subjects as environmental noise levels increased, and food-related behavior significantly decreased in all subjects as crowd size increased. Exhibit modifications had a number of positive effects on behavior. Notably, when privacy screens were used, NVV significantly decreased in two subjects. We found no significant effects of environmental variables on FGC. However, we did find significant relationships between behavior and FGC in one female. Specifically, her NVV was significantly higher one day before, and on the same day as, raised FGC. Also, hair plucking significantly increased in the two days following raised FGC. Overall, this study demonstrates how concurrent noninvasive fecal and behavioral monitoring can be used for gorilla welfare assessment. PMID:21563213

  20. Go Polar! Network: a Museum-Zoo-Aquarium Approach to Disseminate IPY Research to Children and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. D.; Horne, C.

    2006-12-01

    With proper programming, informal learning environments of children's museums, zoos and aquariums can be fertile frontiers for communicating the excitement, the significance and even the complexity of Polar scientific research to the public, including children under 12 old. These venues can also be effective in enhancing public understanding of the global dimensions of the issues facing the Polar Regions in the coming decades. We base these assertions not just on scholarly research in how children learn in informal environments but also from an experiential program we created in 2003-04 called Go Polar! Cool Science in the Arctic. Funded by the US National Science Foundation in 2003 (ESI-0336928), Go Polar! was a partnership between the EdVenture Children Museum, the largest children's museum in the southeastern US, and the University of South Carolina, the State's largest research university. Go Polar! involved active Arctic researchers, university undergraduate students, the EdVenture museum staff, family education specialists, and educational psychologists to disseminate on-going NSF funded research on the Arctic hydrologic cycle (ODP-0229737). The Go Polar program provided opportunities for South Carolina children and families to meet real scientists engaged in Arctic research with hands-on activities that introduced children and families not only to the scientific process but also to new science concepts and knowledge. The Go Polar! also resulted in the development and testing of new educational materials Arctic Discovery Boxes specially designed hands-on informal education activities on three themes #1 The Arctic and Global Change, #2 Arctic Cultures and #3 Animal Adaptations in the Arctic. In 2005 the Go Polar! partnership expanded the reach of their programming and materials to include the Antarctic. Using the theme "Exploring and Connecting the Opposite Ends of the Earth," the Go Polar! team created a Polar Festival featuring a giant floor puzzle of the

  1. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  2. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Frandsen, Peter; Børsting, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from...... the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos...... can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce...

  3. Comparative hematological variables of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) kept in Lahore Zoo and Lahore Wildlife Park, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    SAJJAD, Sumera; Farooq, Umer; MALIK, Husna; ANWAR, Maryah; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, a scant number of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) are being kept at various zoos or in certain wildlife sanctuaries, and there is a dearth of literature regarding the effect of captivity on their physiological parameters. The present study was hence conducted to determine and compare the hematological alterations in tigers of Bengal origin (Panthera tigris tigris) kept in captivity at Lahore Zoo (LZ) (n = 4) and in the seminatural environment of Lahore Wildlife Park (LWP) ...

  4. Integration of Two Newly Formed Couples of Canis lupus baileyi at Two Zoos in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alonso-Spilsbury; Daniel Mota-Rojas; Ramiro Ramirez-Necoechea; Lilian Mayagoitia; Isabel Escobar-Ibarra

    2009-01-01

    The study was done to determine when social integration occurs in newly formed Mexican gray wolf couples. Two wolf pairs, at Zacango Zoo (ZZ) and Leon Zoo (LZ) respectively, were observed daily from the time they were put together until 15 days after the breeding season was over. Social behavior frequencies were split out in five periods: Anterior, Previous, During, After and Posterior to the breeding season. The Binomial test was used to analyze the social interactions between the pair...

  5. Perceptions of animal welfare by children in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify children’s perceptions of the welfare of animals. The study sample consisted of 123 children aged 8 to 10, attending primary schools, who were interviewed. The questions were designed so as to generate both anthropocentric (centred on the interests of the human being and/or biocentric (centred on the interests of other beings arguments. Results showed a high incidence of biocentric arguments, associated with a contact with animals in places where nature is managed (zoos and other thematic places with animals, thus contradicting the idea that children have an exclusive utilitarian view of animals. Some of them even seem to understand the ecological role of animals, and produce reasons of an ecocentric character.

  6. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jen N.; Leighty, Katherine A.; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: pzoo transfers (pzoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate that factors related to the social environment are most influential in predicting elephant stereotypic behavior rates. PMID:27416071

  7. Use of various genetic markers in differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains from animals and humans and for studying epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Soolingen, D.; de Haas, P E; HAAGSMA, J.; Eger, T.; Hermans, P W; Ritacco, V.; A. Alito; van Embden, J D

    1994-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three Mycobacterium bovis strains from cattle, various animal species from zoos and wild parks, and humans were analyzed for three different genetic markers for use in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. M. bovis strains isolated from cattle were found to carry a single IS6110 element, whereas the majority of strains from other animals such as antelopes, monkeys, and seals harbored multiple IS6110 elements, suggesting that the reservoirs in cattle and wild animals are s...

  8. Spatio-temporal Constraints on the Zoo Hypothesis, and the Breakdown of Total Hegemony

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan H

    2011-01-01

    The Zoo Hypothesis posits that we have not detected extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) because they deliberately prevent us from detecting them. While a valid solution to Fermi's Paradox, it is not particularly amenable to rigorous scientific analysis, as it implicitly assumes a great deal about the sociological structure of a plurality of civilisations. Any attempt to assess its worth must begin with its most basic assumption - that ETIs share a uniformity of motive in shielding Earth from extraterrestrial contact. This motive is often presumed to be generated by the influence of the first civilisation to arrive in the Galaxy. I show that recent work on inter-arrival time analysis, while necessary, is insufficient to assess the validity of the Zoo Hypothesis (and its related variants). The finite speed of light prevents an early civilisation from exerting immediate cultural influence over a later civilisation if they are sufficiently distant. I show that if civilisation arrival times and spatial locations...

  9. Moon Zoo: Making the public part of a crater survey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, D.; Daus, C.; Lehan, C.; Robbins, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science website launched in May 2010 and invited the public to annotate images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Tasks included marking the edges of craters with an ellipse tool, indicating where linear features (e.g. scarps) and special types of craters (e.g. dark haloed) are located with a box, and rating the number of boulders in an image. The goal of this project is to create crater and feature catalogues for large areas of the moon. In addition to doing science, Moon Zoo also seeks to educate its audience through educational content, to engage them through social media, and to understand them through research into their motivations and behaviors.

  10. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including zoo... quarantine facility, for any animal or bird that requires a diet other than standard feed, including but...

  11. Publication and dissemination of datasets in taxonomy: ZooKeys working example

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubomir Penev; Terry Erwin; Jeremy Miller; Vishwas Chavan; Tom Moritz; Charles Griswold

    2009-01-01

    A concept for data publication and semantic enhancements proposed by ZooKeys and applied in the milestone paper by Miller et al. (2009) is described. For the fi rst time in systematic zoology, a unique combination of data publication and semantic enhancements is applied within the mainstream process of journal publishing, to demonstrate how: (1) All primary biodiversity data underlying a taxonomic monograph are published as a dataset under a separate DOI within a paper; (2) The occurrence dat...

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persi...

  13. AndroZoo: Collecting Millions of Android Apps for the Research Community

    OpenAIRE

    Allix, Kevin; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise; Klein, Jacques; Le Traon,Yves

    2016-01-01

    We present a growing collection of Android Applications collected from several sources, including the official Google Play app market. Our dataset, AndroZoo, currently contains more than three million apps, each of which has been analysed by tens of different AntiVirus products to know which applications are detected as Malware. We provide this dataset to contribute to ongoing research efforts, as well as to enable new potential research topics on Android Apps. By releasing our datas...

  14. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bamford, Steven; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.; Grindrod, Peter M.; Lintott, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASA's LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological 'features of interest'. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the statistical variability of multiple notations and the smoothness of local image structures. We compared different combinations of methods and parameters and assessed correlations between resulting crater summaries and the expert census. We derived the optimal data reduction steps and settings of the existing Moon Zoo crater data to agree with the expert census. Further, the regolith depth and crater degradation states derived from the data are also found to be in broad agreement with other estimates for the Apollo 17 region. Our study supports the validity of this citizen science project but also recommends improvements in key elements of the data acquisition planning and production.

  15. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Boarato David; Mariella Patti; Silvana Torossian Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla; Semiramis Guimaraes

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4...

  16. Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium genavense in birds kept in a zoo: 11-year survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Portaels, F; Realini, L.; BAUWENS, L.; Hirschel, B; Meyers, W. M.; de Meurichy, W

    1996-01-01

    We report on a disease in 27 birds (1 bird belonging to the order Coraciiformes, 3 to Piciformes, 4 to Galliformes, 7 to Psittaciformes, and 12 to Passeriformes) caused by fastidious mycobacteria. All birds were caged at the Antwerp Zoo and died suddenly between 1983 and 1994. Seventeen birds had no previous signs of disease, and 10 birds showed emaciation. Gross necropsy findings were generally nonspecific, but all the birds were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Histopathologic ev...

  17. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group ...

  18. The Galactic Club, or Galactic Cliques? Exploring the limits of interstellar hegemony and the Zoo Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan H

    2016-01-01

    The Zoo solution to Fermi's Paradox proposes that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) have agreed to not contact the Earth. The strength of this solution depends on the ability for ETIs to come to agreement, and establish/police treaties as part of a so-called "Galactic Club". These activities are principally limited by the causal connectivity of a civilisation to its neighbours at its inception, i.e. whether it comes to prominence being aware of other ETIs and any treaties or agreements in place. If even one civilisation is not causally connected to the other members of a treaty, then they are free to operate beyond it and contact the Earth if wished, which makes the Zoo solution "soft". We should therefore consider how likely this scenario is, as this will give us a sense of the Zoo solution's softness, or general validity. We implement a simple toy model of ETIs arising in a Galactic Habitable Zone, and calculate the properties of the groups of culturally connected civilisations established therein. We s...

  19. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Banfield, J K; Willett, K W; Norris, R P; Rudnick, L; Shabala, S S; Simmons, B D; Snyder, C; Garon, A; Seymour, N; Middelberg, E; Andernach, H; Lintott, C J; Jacob, K; Kapinska, A D; Mao, M Y; Masters, K L; Jarvis, M J; Schawinski, K; Paget, E; Simpson, R; Klockner, H R; Bamford, S; Burchell, T; Chow, K E; Cotter, G; Fortson, L; Heywood, I; Jones, T W; Kaviraj, S; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Maksym, W P; Polsterer, K; Borden, K; Hollow, R P; Whyte, L

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the first twelve months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170,000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses $1.4\\,$GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at $3.4\\,\\mu$m from the {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) and at $3.6\\,\\mu$m from the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is $>\\,75\\%$ consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and l...

  20. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre. The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  1. Use of cross-species in-situ hybridization (ZOO-FISH) to assess chromosome abnormalities in day-6 in-vivo- or in-vitro-produced sheep embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Gianfranco; Alexander, Basil; Di Berardino, Dino; St John, Elizabeth; Basrur, Parvathi K; King, W Allan

    2007-01-01

    Causes of chromosomal differences such as mosaicism between embryos developed in vivo and in vitro may be resolved using animal models to compare embryos generated in vivo with those generated by different production systems. The aims of this study were: (1) to test a ZOO-FISH approach (using bovine painting probes) to detect abnormal chromosome make-up in the sheep embryo model, and (2) to examine the extent of chromosome deviation in sheep embryos derived in vivo and in vitro. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on day 6 in-vivo and in-vitro derived sheep embryos using commercially available bovine chromosome painting probes for sex chromosomes X-Y and autosomes 1-29. A total of 8631 interphase and metaphase nuclei were analyzed from 49 in-vitro-derived and 51 in-vivo-derived embryos. The extent of deviation from normal ovine chromosome make-up was higher (p ZOO-FISH to domestic animal embryos is an effective approach to study the chromosome complement of species for which DNA probes are unavailable. PMID:17429747

  2. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    Conservation-breeding programs in zoos are essential for the management of threatened species. By moving animals amongst institutions for prescribed breeding, these programs aim to promote demographic stability and preserve genetic variation in the captive populations. Yet many breeding programs...... are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...

  3. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  4. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  5. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  6. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  7. Learning Achievement and Motivation in an Out-of-School Setting—Visiting Amphibians and Reptiles in a Zoo Is More Effective than a Lesson at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Stephanie; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian; Itzek-Greulich, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in out-of-school settings have been shown in previous studies to be effectively increase students' science knowledge and motivation, with mixed results on whether they are more effective than teaching at school. In this study, we compared an out-of-school setting in a reptile and amphibian zoo (Landau, Germany) with a sequence of classroom teaching and a control group without teaching on the topic. We compared learning at school (School) and out-of-school learning (Reptilium), which were tested in a randomized field setting with a focus on knowledge and motivation. Sixty-five elementary students participated in either the School group, Reptilium group or control group. We measured knowledge on the topics reptiles and amphibians with a newly developed two-factorial test, calibrated with item response theory, before the intervention, immediately afterwards (posttest) and 2 weeks later (follow-up). Motivation was measured immediately after the intervention. Data analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus. We conclude that the two interventions appeared highly superior to the control group and that the out-of-school setting in the Reptilium was more effective than the school-only program. Concerning motivation, perception of choice was higher in the Reptilium than in the School group. There were gender-by-treatment interaction effects for knowledge in the posttest and follow-up, for perceived competence and for pressure/tension. Concerning knowledge, boys performed better in the School group than girls but this gender gap was not significant in the Reptilium group. Boys perceived themselves as more competent in the School group while girls reported less pressure/tension in the Reptilium group. In conclusion, encountering living animals in a formal zoo learning arrangement is encouraged in primary school since it supports self-determination (free choice), leads to higher achievement and closes gender disparities in achievement.

  8. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  9. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  10. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  11. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  12. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  13. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  14. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  16. The zoo of solitons for curve shortening in Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a detailed description and classification of solutions to the curve shortening equation in Rn that are invariant under one-parameter symmetry groups of the equation. We pay particular attention to geometric properties of the curves and asymptotic properties of their ends. We find generalized helices, and a connection with curve shortening on the unit sphere Sn-1. Expanding–rotating solitons turn out to be asymptotic to generalized logarithmic spirals and the rotating–shrinking solitons are most complicated in terms of asymptotic properties of their ends. We find that almost all of the rotating–shrinking solitons are asymptotic to circles. Many of the curve shortening solitons we classify are either space curves, or evolving space curves. In addition to the figures in this paper, we have prepared a number of animations of the solitons, which can be viewed in the online supplementary data (stacks.iop.org/Non/26/1189/mmedia). (paper)

  17. Study of Avian Tuberculosis in a Zoo at the Bogota savannah through Tuberculin Testing and Active Epidemiologic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow of wild birds is a weakness in epidemiologic surveillance because of its unknown potential as a source of disease dissemination. The investigation focused on an epidemiological tracking of the mixed wild bird population in a zoo in the Bogota Savannah, where three birds died with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. In order to verify the presence of Mycobacterium avium and to plan the required measures to avoid risk factors, a control group of five poultry birds of the Hy Line Brown variety that had already been exposed was used, as well as a sentinel group of the poultry birds from the same batch as the control group, and an external control group of 102 birds from cages near the area of the problem. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out through histopathological, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular analysis. One hundred percent (100% of the birds from the original cages that died were genotypically diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium. Thirty-five percent (35.5% of the sentinel group was affected by Mycobacterium avium, 28.6% by Mycobacterium gordonae, 14.3% by Mycobacterium chelonae and 21.4% by a mycobacterium that is very difficult to classify. The other animals outside the cage showed no evidence of infection. It is concluded that the problematic enclosure is affected by avian tuberculosis, which is of high risk both for birds and for humans. The poultry used as sentinels are excellent infective agent detectors, particularly of mycobacteria present in the environment, and the tuberculin test is a good indicator of infection with this type of microorganisms in poultry.

  18. The birth of an infant decreases group spacing in a zoo-housed lowland gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtycz, Laura M; Shender, Marisa A; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Changes in group composition can alter the behavior of social animals such as gorillas. Although gorilla births are presumed to affect group spacing patterns, there is relatively little data about how these events affect gorilla group cohesion. We investigated how members of a western lowland gorilla group (n = 6) at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL, USA) spaced themselves prior to and after the birth of an infant, to investigate changes in group cohesion. Gorillas were housed in an indoor-outdoor enclosure in which access to the outdoors was permitted when temperatures exceeded 5°C. We recorded spatial locations of each group member using 30-min group scans on tablet computers with an electronic map interface, as well as noting their access to outdoor areas. Data from the 4 months following the birth was compared to a control period corresponding to early pregnancy. We measured distances between all possible group dyads for each scan and subsequently calculated a mean distance between all group members. An ANOVA revealed that access to the outdoors had no effect on group spacing (F(1,56) = 0.066, P = 0.799). However, the presence of an infant resulted in a significant reduction in inter-individual distance (F(1,56) = 23.988, P = 0.000), decreasing inter-individual spacing by 12.5%. This information helps characterize the behavioral impact of a new birth on captive gorilla social structure and could potentially inform future management of breeding gorilla groups. PMID:25130595

  19. Do free-ranging Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) play a role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the possible role of Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii within a zoo environment, a serological survey of a free-ranging population resident within Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia was undertaken using the modified agglutination tes...

  20. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  1. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  2. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  3. A comprehensive and precise quantification of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) for intensive live feed cultures using an automated ZooImage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh Thi Thuy; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2014-01-01

    ignored. In this study, we propose a novel method for highly precise classification of development stages and biomass of A. tonsa, in intensive live feed cultures, using an automated ZooImage system, a freeware image analysis. We successfully created a training set of 13 categories, including 7 copepod...... and 6 non-copepod (debris) groups. ZooImage used this training set for automatic discrimination through a random forest algorithm with the general accuracy of 92.8%. The ZooImage showed no significant difference in classifying solitary eggs, or mixed nauplii stages and copepodites compared to personal...... microscope observation. Furthermore, ZooImage was also adapted for automatic estimation of A. tonsa biomass. This is the first study that has successfully applied ZooImage software which enables fast and reliable quantification of the development stages and the biomass of A. tonsa. As a result, relevant...

  4. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir Penev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504; (ii generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XML-tagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506; (iii generated from an author’s database(doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.485 and submitted as XML-tagged manuscript. XML tagging and semantic enhancements were implemented during the editorial process of ZooKeys using the Pensoft Mark Up Tool (PMT, specially designed for this purpose. The XML schema used was TaxPub, an extension to the Document Type Definitions (DTD of the US National Library of Medicine Journal Archiving and Interchange Tag Suite (NLM. The following innovative methods of tagging, layout, publishing and disseminating the content were tested and implemented within the ZooKeys editorial workflow: (1 highly automated, fine-grained XML tagging based on TaxPub; (2 final XML output of the paper validated against the NLM DTD for archiving in PubMedCentral; (3 bibliographic metadata embedded in the PDF through XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform; (4 PDF uploaded after publication to the Biodiversitry Heritage Library (BHL; (5 taxon treatments supplied through XML to Plazi; (6 semantically enhanced HTML version of the paper encompassing numerous internal and external links and linkouts, such as: (i vizualisation of main tag elements within the text (e.g., taxon names, taxon treatments, localities, etc.; (ii internal cross-linking between paper sections, citations, references, tables, and figures; (iii mapping of localities listed in the whole paper or within separate taxon treatments; (v taxon names autotagged, dynamically mapped and linked through the Pensoft Taxon Profile (PTP to

  5. Galaxy Zoo 2: A Detailed Morphological Catalog of 295,000 Galaxies from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle; Lintott, C. J.; Bamford, S. P.; Masters, K. L.; Simmons, B.; Fortson, L.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) citizen science project was designed to obtain detailed morphological classifications of roughly a quarter million bright galaxies in the SDSS North Galactic Cap. This was enabled by more than 16 million classifications of images by 80,000 volunteer citizen scientists. Galaxy Zoo 2 greatly extends the original classifications of the Galaxy Zoo project (which primarily identified spiral and elliptical galaxies) by adding quantification of details such as oblateness, bars, bulge strength and shape, spiral arm multiplicity and tightness, and the existence of rarer features such as mergers, lenses, and dust lanes. We present preliminary results on our debiasing methods, addressing both biases from individual citizen scientist classifiers and intrinsic biases as a function of redshift, size, and absolute magnitude. We compare the GZ2 data to catalogs produced by professional astronomers and by machine-learning algorithms. Citizen science results can be directly compared to these techniques by examining the galaxies that appear in both samples. The weighted vote fractions in GZ2 show good agreement with expert classifications for fine structure morphology, particularly in identifying galactic bars and prominent bulges. The bulge classification in particular is shown to be a reasonable proxy from which T-Types can be derived using GZ2 data. A notable strength of the final catalog will be its size, with more than an order of magnitude more galaxies than extant morphological catalogs. GZ2 will be a unique resource to establish the full panoply of galaxy morphologies, as well as a baseline for studying how galaxies evolve over cosmic timescales.

  6. Cele i zadania ogrodów zoologicznych = The objectives and tasks of zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Habel, Angelika; MROCZKOWSKI, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Habel Angelika, Mroczkowski Sławomir. Cele i zadania ogrodów zoologicznych = The objectives and tasks of zoos. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(8):521-528. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32287 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%288%29%3A521-528 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/657742 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011–2014 http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue...

  7. The use of zoo exhibits by family groups to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Loran Carleton

    In the last twenty years, research about science learning in informal contexts such as museums, science centers, zoos and aquariums has proliferated. Many studies have created detailed descriptions of learning as it occurs in informal contexts. Science education researchers have defined learning in several different ways. The selection of a conceptual framework through which to view science learning determines the questions that a researcher can explore. My study applied Roth and Lee's (2002) understanding of science learning as a collective praxis to the context of informal science learning at a community zoo. This conceptual framework is rooted in the view of learning as situated cognition as described by Lave and Wenger (1991). My research explored the interaction of the sociocultural and physical contexts for informal learning as defined by Falk (2000) and investigates how family groups collaborate to learn science at zoo exhibits and how they incorporate the physical features of the exhibit into their collaboration. My interpretations of each family's discourse yielded a variety of genres or accepted patterns used to learn science. All families engaged in highly parent-directed discourse during their visit. For one family parent-controlled, directed explanation was present in all science learning events; the other families' science learning events were a mixture of directed explanation and more collaborative genres of discourse. All the families in this study used exhibit text in two different ways: as a way of framing or guiding their interaction with the exhibit or as a resource in the context of the Family's own frame. For all of the families in this study, each exhibit was a separate learning event---none of the families applied or linked ideas or explanations created at one exhibit to ideas or explanations created at another exhibit. Implications of this study include more longitudinal research on the role of zoo visits on family learning and more

  8. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos, S.M.; R Carnevali

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 µm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with...

  9. Absurdity in Play, Reality in Life-on The Zoo Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; CHEN Da

    2015-01-01

    To most contemporary readers and audiences alike, The Zoo Story is an often-forgotten play;however, it is belongs to the category of the classics, which is mind-blowing, interesting and enjoyable. Considered as a representative work of“Theatre of the Absurd”, it explores seriously the significance in humanity’s spiritual, moral, and intellectual life. The failure to communicate is graphically illustrated in the story of Jerry and the Dog, which may happen to almost everyone in the modern society.

  10. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubomir Penev; Donat Agosti; Teodor Georgiev; Terry Catapano; Jeremy Miller; Vladimir Blagoderov; David Roberts; Vincent Smith; Irina Brake; Simon Ryrcroft; Ben Scott; Norman Johnson; Robert Morris; Guido Sautter; Vishwas Chavan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504); (ii) generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XML-tagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506); (iii) generate...

  11. Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples

    OpenAIRE

    Penev, L.; Agosti, D.; Georgiev, T.; Catapano, T.; Miller, J.; Blagoderov, V.; Roberts, D.; Smith, V.S.; Brake, I.; Ryrcroft, S.; Scott, B; Johnson, N. F.; Morris, R. A.; Sautter, G.; Chavan, V.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of semantic tagging and its potential for semantic enhancements to taxonomic papers is outlined and illustrated by four exemplar papers published in the present issue of ZooKeys. The four papers were created in different ways: (i) written in Microsoft Word and submitted as non-tagged manuscript (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.504); (ii) generated from Scratchpads and submitted as XMLtagged manuscripts (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.505 and doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.506); (iii) generated from an ...

  12. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma : case: Flowpark Ähtäri Zoo Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Hautamäki, Aaro

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin markkinointia sosiaalisessa mediassa. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä se on, mitä sosiaalisen median kanavia toimeksiantajani tulisi käyttää ja millä tavoin he saisivat osallistettua asiakkaan yrityksen sosiaalisen median markkinointiprosessiin. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Flowpark Ähtäri Zoo Oy, joka on vuonna 2014 avattu franchising-mallilla toimiva seikkailuhuvipuisto. Yrityksen sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen on vielä vähäistä, johon tämän työn tuotos, ...

  13. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  14. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Koene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry, recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  17. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  18. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  19. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela; Rogers, Lesley J.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them. PMID:25071994

  20. Integration of Two Newly Formed Couples of Canis lupus baileyi at Two Zoos in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alonso-Spilsbury

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to determine when social integration occurs in newly formed Mexican gray wolf couples. Two wolf pairs, at Zacango Zoo (ZZ and Leon Zoo (LZ respectively, were observed daily from the time they were put together until 15 days after the breeding season was over. Social behavior frequencies were split out in five periods: Anterior, Previous, During, After and Posterior to the breeding season. The Binomial test was used to analyze the social interactions between the pairs and the differences between genders. During the reproductive season both couples showed a significative increase in neutral behaviors-mainly by the females, all disappearing in the After period. In both groups, males were on the defensive and playful behavior, aggressive behavior was displayed almost exclusively by the bitches. Again, this last behaviour decreased in the After-breeding period. In conclusion, neither playful nor aggressive behavior observed indicate that wolves had socially integrated, since as in neutral interactions, these behaviors were only shown During the reproductive season and then disappeared afterwards.

  1. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story: Echo/es of Contemporary Subversive Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqibun Nabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-world war II American social and cultural setting was ambiguously featured with enforced conformity in the name of prosperity and Americanization of the nation. Despite of this fact, American writers, especially, dramatists conveyed their message against this fixation through variety and intellectuality. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story is one of those literary assets which dedicatedly cut through the illusions of contemporary American social and cultural ethos. Here, his characters are seen struggling constantly with their insecurities and existential angst in the society. He presents America, the so-called ‘Land of Free and Home of Braves’ (note 1, in such a portrayal that unveils the traps of cages and confinement underneath. The target of this paper is to trace Edward Albee’s heightened awareness about the post-war American socio-cultural reality evident in The Zoo Story. It also looks for the voice in which the text echoes out the anti-communist, materialistic, gender-coded boundaries, coupled with paradoxical media representations, religious bordering and how Albee challenges these issues with an anti-establishment tone.Keywords: subversive culture, anti-communism, media, religion and homosexuality

  2. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  3. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  4. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ANIMAL EFFECTIVES IN EU – 25 AND IN ROMANIA IN THE PERIOD 2002 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ANDA MILIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study will analyze the evolution of the animal production and the animal effectives in the period 2002 – 2004 in EU and in Romania. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the differences between the Romanian and EU zootechnics according to the in formation supplied by the EU and national statistics. We analyzed the zoo-technical production, its percentage from the total agricultural production, the evolution of the animal effectives comparing the present situation in EU – 15, EU – 25 and Romania.

  6. Helminths in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) from a zoo in Spain : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Garijo; Ortiz, J M; M.R. Ruiz de Ibanez

    2004-01-01

    A pregnant female Cape giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) died from an unknown cause in the Aitana Zoo, Alicante, Spain. Neither clinical signs nor macroscopic lesions were observed at necropsy. The alimentary tract was removed and examined for parasites. A total of 2 724 nematodes were found, including Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Marshallagia marshalli, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Tr...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  8. Measuring Zoo Visitor Learning and Understanding about Orangutans: Evaluation to Enhance Learning Outcomes and to Foster Conservation Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elissa L.; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the endangered status of the orangutan, very little research has sought to understand what people know about this species or the conservation challenges they face. As zoos are well placed to influence such understandings, the present study sought to explore knowledge following a visit to orangutan exhibits at three Australian zoos…

  9. Museums, Zoos, and Gardens: How Formal-Informal Partnerships Can Impact Urban Students' Performance. Working Paper #04-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Meryle; Whitesell, Emilyn Ruble; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide the first rigorous evidence of the impact of a partnership between public middle schools and informal science institutions (ISIs), such as museums and zoos, on student outcomes. This study focuses on Urban Advantage (UA), a program in New York City (NYC) that explicitly draws upon the expertise and resources of the city's…

  10. Complementary Expertise in a Zoo Educator Professional Development Event Contributes to the Construction of Understandings of Affective Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products--an Affective…

  11. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which

  12. Zhodnocení úspěšnosti chovu zástupců čeledi krokodýlovití v evropských zoo

    OpenAIRE

    KELÍŠKOVÁ, Radka

    2013-01-01

    I focused this work on finding of species diversity, the number of breeding species, subspecies and the number of breeds of crocodiles in european and Czech ZOOs. For this work I used the access to ZOO database ISIS and information from Ing. Miroslav Procházka from Protivín Crocodile ZOO. The results show which species are bred the most frequently and in what number of pieces. The result showed that number of bred species and subspecies of crocodiles is quite large both in Europe and in the C...

  13. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  14. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  15. Occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept in captivity at the zoo from Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Márcia Marques de Campos Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Control of oral lesions contributes directly to the health, survival and welfare of captive animals. In order to investigate the occurrence of oral diseases in neotropical wild carnivores kept at the zoo at the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Cuiabá, we evaluated 31 oral cavities from three families of carnivores (Felidae, Canidae and Procyonidae between July 2012 and June 2013. Twelve coatis (Nasua nasua, three raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, six crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, one hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus, three ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, one cougar (Puma concolor and three wild cats (Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii and Leopardus colocolo were reviewed. The most frequent lesions were dental absences 21/31 (67.7%, dental fractures 20/31 (64.5% and tooth wear 19/31 (61.3%, which were suggestive of trauma caused from stress. Of lesser importance, we also observed occurrence of dental calculus grade I in 18/31 (58%, caries 1/31 (3.2%, foreign bodies 2/31 (6.4%, orofacial fistulas 1/31 (3.2%, hyperplasia in the oral mucosa 1/31 (3.2%, dental dimming 3/31 (9.7% and chafing of the soft tissue 5/31 (16.1%. Therefore, it was concluded that environmental enrichment strategies and oral routine evaluation must be implemented to ensure the welfare of these animals, reducing local and systemic adverse effects of oral lesions. The diet has been successful in preventing periodontal disease, suggesting that this diet for the captive animals in the institution should be maintained.

  16. ["Artificial animals etc." Popular natural history and bourgeois curiosity around 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the 19th and early 20th century zoological gardens ranged among the most prominent places of popular natural history While aristocratic owners of earlier menageries installed animal collections mostly to symbolize their power over nature as well as to display their extensive diplomatic relations, the zoological gardens founded from the 1830s onwards all over Europe by members of the local bourgeois elites were supposed to mediate their social and political values by "enjoyably educating" a broader public. The new zoos were introduced as places at the antipodes of the frenzy, noise and motion of modern urban life, as spaces of pure, authentic nature whose observation would teach people a reasonable and responsible way of life in a civilised bourgeois community. Taking the Berlin Zoo as an example this paper questions these programmatic imaginations by showing how popular Naturkunde (natural history) was informed by cultures of urban entertainment and spectacle. It discusses the numerous relations and productive tensions that evolved out of the establishment of a "realm of nature" in the middle of the ever growing modern metropolis and investigates the consequences the zoo's rise as "the city's most important attraction" around the turn of the century had for the public perception of natural history as well as for the institution's scientific program. PMID:19227705

  17. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  18. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  19. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  20. FATAL ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN AN AFRICAN SAVANNA ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA) IN A FRENCH ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Joris, Antoine; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe. PMID:26056902

  1. Protozoan parasites of four species of wild anurans from a local zoo in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, K N; Badrul, M M; Mohamad, N; Zainal-Abidin, A H

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan fauna in sixty-six anurans comprising of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Phrynoidis juxtaspera, Hylarana erythraea and Polypedates leucomystax collected from Zoo Negara Malaysia was investigated. The distribution and prevalence rate of parasitic species in the digestive tract and blood were examined. Seven species of intestinal protozoa (Opalina ranarum, Cepedea dimidiata, Nycthetorus cordiformis, Entamoeba ranarum, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endamoeba blattae, and Tritrichomonas sp.) and two species of blood protozoa (Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp.) were recorded. Opalina ranarum was the most common protozoan found in the rectum and intestine (prevalence rate: 34.8%) infecting all host species, with P. juxtaspera heavily infected with the parasite, whereas Tritrichomonas sp. was the least prevalent intestinal species infecting only D. melanostictus. Both Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp. were found in the blood of H. erythraea. PMID:24522131

  2. Analýza komunikačního mixu Zoo Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Linhartová, Štěpánka Bc.

    2007-01-01

    Práce je rozdělena na teoretickou a praktickou část. V teoretické části jsou vysvětleny pojmy jako komunikační mix a jeho složky, hlavně pak reklama a public relations. Dále pak pojem vizuální styl a jeho tvorba. V praktické části je podroben analýze komunikační mix Zoo Praha z let 2002 - 2007, s důrazem na jednotný vizuální styl, který se komunikačním mixem prolíná.

  3. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Evidence for Diverse Star Formation Histories through the Green Valley

    CERN Document Server

    Smethurst, R J; Simmons, B D; Schawinski, K; Marshall, P J; Bamford, S; Fortson, L; Kaviraj, S; Masters, K L; Melvin, T; Nichol, R C; Skibba, R A; Willett, K W

    2015-01-01

    Does galaxy evolution proceed through the green valley via multiple pathways or as a single population? Motivated by recent results highlighting radically different evolutionary pathways between early- and late-type galaxies, we present results from a simple Bayesian approach to this problem wherein we model the star formation history (SFH) of a galaxy with two parameters, [t, \\tau] and compare the predicted and observed optical and near-ultraviolet colours. We use a novel method to investigate the morphological differences between the most probable SFHs for both disc-like and smooth-like populations of galaxies, by using a sample of 126,316 galaxies (0.01 < z < 0.25) with probabilistic estimates of morphology from Galaxy Zoo. We find a clear difference between the quenching timescales preferred by smooth- and disc-like galaxies, with three possible routes through the green valley dominated by smooth- (rapid timescales, attributed to major mergers), intermediate- (intermediate timescales, attributed to ...

  5. Exploring the Solar System: Ice Hunters, Mercury Zoo, and Planet Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Lehan, C.; Conti, A.; Deustua, S.; Mutchler, M.; Wong, M.; Higgins, J.; Buie, M. W.; Spencer, J.; Robbins, S.; Chapman, C.; Hirshon, R.; Lerner, T.

    2011-10-01

    A new suite of citizen science software, "Community Science Builder" (CSB) has been created to facilitate exploration and annotation of space images. First launched as the backbone of "Ice Hunters," this software is designed to facilitate planetary science that requires images to be annotated by users. Initial features include: marking objects with a set of predefined markers and an administration dashboard for expert review of incoming annotations. Beginning with the release of "Planet Investigators" and "Mercury Zoo" in late 2011, CSB will also allow moving objects to be matched between frames, linear features to be traced, and interesting features to be annotated with flags and comments. In this paper we discuss upcoming projects, and the software's features and flexibility for generating science.

  6. The Cosmic Zoo: The (Near) Inevitability of the Evolution of Complex, Macroscopic Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth provides a unique biological record from single-cell microbes to technologically intelligent life forms. Our evolution is marked by several major steps or innovations along a path of increasing complexity from microbes to space-faring humans. Here we identify various major key innovations, and use an analytical toolset consisting of a set of models to analyse how likely each key innovation is to occur. Our conclusion is that once the origin of life is accomplished, most of the key innovations can occur rather readily. The conclusion for other worlds is that if the origin of life can occur rather easily, we should live in a cosmic zoo, as the innovations necessary to lead to complex life will occur with high probability given sufficient time and habitat. On the other hand, if the origin of life is rare, then we might live in a rather empty universe. PMID:27376334

  7. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  8. Zoo U: A Stealth Approach to Social Skills Assessment in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. DeRosier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of Zoo U, a novel computer game to assess children’s social skills development. Zoo U is an innovative product that combines theory-driven content and customized game mechanics. The game-like play creates the opportunity for stealth assessment, in which dynamic evidence of social skills is collected in real time and players’ choices during gameplay provide the needed data. To ensure the development of an engaging and valid game, we utilized an iterative data-driven validation process in which the game was created, tested, revised based on student performance and feedback, and retested until game play was statistically matched to independent ratings of social skills. We first investigated whether the data collected through extensive logging of student actions provided information that could be used to improve the assessment. We found that detailed game logs of socially relevant player behavior combined with external measures of player social skills provided an efficient vector to incrementally improve the accuracy of the embedded assessments. Next, we investigated whether the game performance correlated with teachers’ assessments of students’ social skills competencies. An evaluation of the final game showed (a significant correlations between in-game social skills assessments and independently obtained standard psychological assessments of the same students and (b high levels of engagement and likeability for students. These findings support the use of the interactive and engaging computer game format for the stealth assessment of children’s social skills. The created innovative design methodologies should prove useful in the design and improvement of computer games in education.

  9. AsteroidZoo: A New Zooniverse project to detect asteroids and improve asteroid detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M.; Lewicki, C. A.; Smith, A.; Lintott, C.; Christensen, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new citizen science project: AsteroidZoo. A collaboration between Planetary Resources, Inc., the Zooniverse Team, and the Catalina Sky Survey, we will bring the science of asteroid identification to the citizen scientist. Volunteer astronomers have proved to be a critical asset in identification and characterization of asteroids, especially potentially hazardous objects. These contributions, to date, have required that the volunteer possess a moderate telescope and the ability and willingness to be responsive to observing requests. Our new project will use data collected by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), currently the most productive asteroid survey, to be used by anyone with sufficient interest and an internet connection. As previous work by the Zooniverse has demonstrated, the capability of the citizen scientist is superb at classification of objects. Even the best automated searches require human intervention to identify new objects. These searches are optimized to reduce false positive rates and to prevent a single operator from being overloaded with requests. With access to the large number of people in Zooniverse, we will be able to avoid that problem and instead work to produce a complete detection list. Each frame from CSS will be searched in detail, generating a large number of new detections. We will be able to evaluate the completeness of the CSS data set and potentially provide improvements to the automated pipeline. The data corpus produced by AsteroidZoo will be used as a training environment for machine learning challenges in the future. Our goals include a more complete asteroid detection algorithm and a minimum computation program that skims the cream of the data suitable for implemention on small spacecraft. Our goal is to have the site become live in the Fall 2013.

  10. Stress in the zoo: Tracking the impact of stress on memory formation over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Although stress is well known to modulate human memory, precisely how memory formation is altered by a stressful encounter remains unclear. Stress effects on cognition are mainly mediated by the rapidly acting sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamines, and the slower acting hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis secreting cortisol, which induces its effects on cognition through fast, non-genomic actions and delayed, genomic actions. Importantly, these different waves of the physiological stress response are thought to dynamically alter neural processing in brain regions important for memory such as the amygdala and the hippocampus. However, the precise time course of stress effects on memory formation is still unclear. To track the development of stress effects on memory over time, we tested individuals who underwent a stressful experience or a control procedure before a 2-h walk through a zoo, while an automatic camera continuously photographed the events they encoded. In a recognition memory test one week later, participants were presented with target photographs of their own zoo tour and lure photographs from an alternate tour. Stressed participants showed better memory for the experimental treatment than control participants, and this memory enhancement for the stressful encounter itself was directly linked to the sympathetic stress response. Moreover, stress enhanced memory for events encoded 41-65min after stressor onset, which was associated with the cortisol stress response, most likely arising from non-genomic cortisol actions. However, memory for events encoded long after the stressor, when genomic cortisol actions had most likely developed, remained unchanged. Our findings provide novel insights into how stress effects on memory formation develop over time, depending on the activity of major physiological stress response systems. PMID:27240149

  11. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Dennis, P M; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Lukas, K E

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas travel long distances while foraging and consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, gorillas in zoos typically consume a diet that is low in fiber and calorically dense. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are present at low levels in the natural diet of gorillas. Diet items high in simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity and heart disease in humans. Typical captive gorilla diets may also encourage undesirable behaviors. In response to these issues, we tested the behavioral impact of a diet that was biscuit-free, had low caloric density, and which was higher in volume at five institutions. We hypothesized that this diet change would reduce abnormal behaviors such as regurgitation and reingestion (R/R), decrease time spent inactive, and increase time spent feeding. The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced (and in the case of one zoo eliminated) R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior. However, an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change. The experimental diet caused a general increase in time the gorillas spent feeding, but this increase did not occur across all institutions and varied by individual. Interestingly, the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change. Future research will examine these behavioral changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. Additionally, future research will examine the physiological impact of this diet change. PMID:24391046

  12. Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources.However,its control has received little attention in past decades.Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo.China.Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005.The results showed that the two modes both improved runoff water quality and had high retention rates for water and pollutants.In the outflows,the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS),chemical oxygen demand (COD),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%,59%,46% and 71% for the online mode,and those were 77%,42%,50% and 66% for the offline mode.The annual retention rates of pollutant loads for the online mode were 94.9%-98.5% in the three study years;those for the offline mode were 70.59%-86.4%.Based on calculation.the online mode was able to store the runoff of 66.7 mm rainfall completely,and the offline mode could store that of 31.3 mm rainfall.In addition,the online mode can provide an effective way for rainwater utilization and good habitats for aquatic wildlives,and has an excellent aesthetics value for recreationsal pastimes.The offline mode can save land resources and may be an effective and economical measure for diffuse pollution control in urban areas.

  13. Dynamika populací škůdců v krmivech a chovech zvířat v Zoo Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Kotek, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on the species composition and population dynamics of storage pests in Prague Zoo. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most significant pests and find out, whitch pests occur in Prague Zoo, what are their abundances and dynamics. Warehouse (food) pests accompanied mankind for millennia. With the advent of modern civilization and new storage facilities of large volumes, their presence on stored food becomes very problematic. Pests can destroy or...

  14. Evaluating the conservation impact of an innovative zoo-based educational campaign: ‘Don't Palm Us Off’ for orang-utan conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Elissa L; Lowry, Rachel; Dorrian, Jillian; Carla A. Litchfield

    2014-01-01

    With significant biodiversity loss occurring presently, increased emphasis is being placed upon the capacity of zoos to contribute to species conservation. This paper evaluates an innovative conservation education campaign ‘Don't Palm Us Off’ implemented at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. This sought to address a lack of public awareness regarding palm oil (the product most threatening the survival of the orang-utan) and to create public support for mandatory labeling of palm oil on food products, ...

  15. Využití exkurzí do ZOO Ohrada v prvouce a přírodovědě.

    OpenAIRE

    KNÍŽOVÁ, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes various possibilities of utilization of Ohrada ZOO excursions in the primary school lessons of the Homeland study and Biology and reports a metodical instruction for their organization including potential aplication of acquired knowledges in intredisciplinary links. Excursion projects are designed according to obligatory standards of sheduled RVP documents and ivolve four ZOO excursions for primary school students (2., 3.and 4.year).

  16. Predomination and New Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Captive Nonhuman Primates in Zoos in China: High Genetic Diversity and Zoonotic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Md Robiul; Dong, Haiju; Li, Tongyi; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Dezhong; Zhang, Longxian; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Rongjun; Li, Shouyi; Li, Xiaofeng; Rume, Farzana Islam; Ning, Changshen

    2015-01-01

    To appreciate the genetic diversity and zoonotic implications of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in zoos, we genotyped E. bieneusi in captive NHPs in seven zoos located at six major cities in China, using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based PCR and sequence analyses. A total of 496 fecal specimens from 36 NHP species under nine families were analyzed and E. bieneusi was detected in 148 (29.8%) specimens of 25 NHP species from six families, including Cercopith...

  17. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  18. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  19. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  20. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  1. Attitudes of Australian and Turkish veterinary faculty toward animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C

    2012-01-01

    The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt. PMID:22718008

  2. History of the Animal Care Program at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; Bassett, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    NASA has a rich history of scientific research that has been conducted throughout our numerous manned spaceflight programs. This scientific research has included animal test subjects participating in various spaceflight missions, including most recently, Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The Animal Care Program at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is multi-faceted and unique in scope compared to other centers within the agency. The animal care program at JSC has evolved from strictly research to include a Longhorn facility and the Houston Zoo's Attwater Prairie Chicken refuge, which is used to help repopulate this endangered species. JSC is home to more than 300 species of animals including home of hundreds of white-tailed deer that roam freely throughout the center which pose unique issues in regards to population control and safety of NASA workers, visitors and tourists. We will give a broad overview of our day to day operations, animal research, community outreach and protection of animals at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  3. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  4. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  5. Two Cases of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bottle-nosed Dolphins (Tursiops Gillii) at the Seoul Zoo, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Yeon Eo and Oh-Deog Kwon1*

    2011-01-01

    Two bacterial pneumonia cases of bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops gillii) were found in Seoul Zoo. Firstly, severe fibrous pleuropneumonia was revealed in a 14-year-old male bottle-nosed dolphin on its necropsy. The clinical signs included anorexia, listing posture, and vertical submerging after the initial signs of low activity and avoiding trainers. White blood cell count increased up to 31.80 × 103/µl. Despite aggressive antibiotics therapy of intramuscular injection and nebulization it die...

  6. The range of local public services and population size: Is there a “zoo effect” in French jurisdictions?

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin Frère; Hakim Hammadou; Sonia Paty

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to the small literature on the relationship between the range of local public services and population size. Using new data on French local jurisdictions, we test the hypothesis that larger jurisdictions provide a broader range of public goods (the so-called “zoo effect”, Oates (1988)). We take advantage of the fact that, in France, many municipalities recently joined together, forming groups of municipalities (or communities) in order to achieve economies of scale. Us...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Are Bars Responsible for the Feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Edmond; Athanassoula, E; Bamford, Steven P; Bell, Eric F; Bosma, A; Cardamone, Carolin N; Casteels, Kevin R V; Faber, S M; Fang, Jerome J; Fortson, Lucy F; Kocevski, Dale D; Koo, David C; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  8. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    Five hundred and forty birds in three zoos were vaccinated twice against avian influenza with a 6-week interval using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Serological response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition test 4-6 weeks following the second vaccine administration. 84% of the birds serocon...... titres and seroconversion rates were seen in flamingos, ibis, rheas, Congo peafowl, black-winged stilts, amazon parrots, and kookaburras....

  9. Jaké faktory ovlivňují návštěvnost ZOO Praha?

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my work was to identify factors who affect the attendance of ZOO Praha. In my work I used data of daily attendance during the years 2010 -- 2012. The resulting model is subjected with regression analysis by the method of least squares. Results showed that most significantly affects the attendance weekend. The attendance during weekend is ceteris paribus higher by 146%. During the days of school holidays the attendance is increased by 25.7% ceteris paribus. Events as children's day ...

  10. Reduce the occurrence of abnormal behaviour of chimpanzees with the addition of gaming devices in Ljubljana ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Rozman, Maja

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of behavioural changes in chimpanzees whilst adding gaming aids to their living environment. At the beginning of the study, we encounter the spread of pneumonia in the Ljubljana zoo, where two younger chimpanzees and adult females lost their lives. The study included three female chimpanzees. After this tragic event we took a break in our research to give the chimpanzees some time to recover. We began recording a month later. After six months of observation, we...

  11. Prevalence and genotype of Chlamydia psittaci in faecal samples of birds from zoos and pet markets in Kunming, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Feng, Yue-mei; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Wu, Shao-xiong; Zhong, Du-bo; Liu, Chen-jian

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an important zoonotic pathogen in birds and may be transmitted to humans and result in severe respiratory disease. To assess the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in birds in Kunming, Yunnan, China, a total of 136 specimens of psittacine birds involving 8 species were collected from the city’s zoos (n=60) and pet markets (n=76). The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 19.9% (27/136) in the psittacine birds. The prevalence of C. psittaci was higher in pet birds (26.3%; 20/76) than in zoo birds (11.7%; 7/60) (P=0.034). In particular, among Agapornis fischeri, the C. psittaci infection (50%; 10/20) was significantly more frequent in the pet markets than in the zoos (P=0.006). In addition, the highest prevalence of 41.2% (7/17) was found in Ara ararauna. To determine the genotype of C. psittaci, 23 OmpA gene fragments (about 1.4 kb) in 27 positive samples were successfully amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 23 strains belonged to genotype A. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of C. psittaci genotype A infection in psittacine birds in Yunnan Province, suggesting a potential threat to human health in this area. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to prevent the spread of C. psittaci among psittacine birds, as well as among employees and customers.

  12. Helminth Parasites in Captive Wild Animals of Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Shrikhande

    Full Text Available The health status of Zoo animals varies with different factors such as management, feeding, environment, sanitation and season. The fecal sample of two male and three female white tiger, Four male and three female tiger and one female Wolf was examined for parasites as per standard technique. The faecal sample of one white tiger was found positive for Spirometra sp., Faecal sample of six tigers were positive for Toxoascaris sp. and fecal sample one wolf was positive for Paragonimus sp. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 207-207

  13. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  14. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  15. [Risks posed by venomous animals -- accidents due to snakebite envenomation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, K; Boecken, G

    2004-10-01

    In regions where poisonous animals are widely distributed, the management of injuries due to these animals is part of the routine medical care. Personnel e. g. deployed for humanitarian aid missions in these areas have to be prepared to face these challenges as well. Beside this group zoo personnel and snake charmers here in Europe are also endangered. The most common form of animal poisoning is due to snake bites. There are approximately 600 different species of poisonous snakes, commonly found in the warm climatic regions. But poisoning from spiders, scorpions and some marine animals can also be life threatening. There are different kinds of snake venoms, which result into different clinical presentations depending on the components of the venom. The venom may be cytotoxic, hematotoxic, neurotoxic, rhabdomyolytic, cardiotoxic, renotoxic or may cause an autoimmune reaction by complement activation. In the management of injuries following animal poisoning, besides the first aid measures taken, the injured is supposed to be managed according to the poison component in the venom with specific antivenin treatment and supportive therapeutic care. There are mono- and polyvalent antivenins available. Noneffective first-aid measures or measures which can cause further trauma must always be avoided. In general adapted behaviour in the field can prevent envenomation. Education on preventive measures with the aim of behaviour change are central components for pre-deployment preparations. PMID:15486801

  16. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  17. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies for large surveys from visual inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Kyle W

    2016-01-01

    We present early results from Radio Galaxy Zoo, a web-based citizen science project for visual inspection and classification of images from all-sky radio surveys. The goals of the project are to classify individual radio sources (particularly galaxies with multiple lobes and/or complex morphologies) as well as matching the continuum radio emission to the host galaxy. Radio images come from the FIRST and ATLAS surveys, while matches to potential hosts are performed with infrared imaging from WISE and SWIRE. The first twelve months of classification yielded more than 1 million classifications of more than 60,000 sources. For images with at least 75% consensus by the volunteer classifiers, the accuracy is comparable to visual inspection by the expert science team. Based on mid-infrared colors, the hosts associated with radio emission are primarily a mixture of elliptical galaxies, QSOs, and LIRGs, which are in good agreement with previous studies. The full catalog of radio lobes and their host galaxies will meas...

  18. ZOO Park Dvůr Králové - generel

    OpenAIRE

    Havlíková, Darina

    2011-01-01

    Diplomová práce řeší návrh generelu rozvoje stávajícího areálu zoologické zahrady akciové společnosti ZOO Dvůr Králové nad Labem. Součástí návrhu je dále architektonické řešení nových pavilónů expozic lvů, hyen, dravců (ptačí svět), africké pouště včetně terárií a dále návrh objektu občerstvení pro návštěvníky. U expozičních pavilonů jsou nově navrženy venkovní expoziční výběhy v modelované krajině. Řešení uvedených objektů je dokumentováno ve formě a podrobnostech architektonické studie. V r...

  19. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  20. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  1. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx < 1.1 10(exp 22)/sq cm) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (< 40 counts per nucleus; (sub -10) keV approx < 1.2 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  2. Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9 subtype isolated from desi and zoo birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Saleem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a viral infection which affects mainly the respiratory system of birds. The H9N2 considered as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI virus and continuously circulating in poultry flocks causing enormous economic losses to poultry industry of Pakistan. As these viruses have RNA genome and their RNA polymerase enzyme lacks proof reading activity which resulted in spontaneous mutation in surface glycoproteins (HA and NA and reassortment of their genomic segments results in escape from host immune response produced by the vaccine. Efforts made for the isolation and identification of avian influenza virus from live desi and zoo birds of Lahore and performed antigenic characterization. The local vaccines although gives a little bit less titer when we raise the antisera against these vaccines but their antisera have more interaction with the local H9 subtype antigen so it gives better protective immune response. Infected chicken antisera are more reactive as compare to rabbit antisera. This shows that our isolates have highest similarity with the currently circulating viruses. These results guided us to devise a new control strategy against avian influenza viral infections. The antigenic characterization of these avian influenza isolates helped us to see the antigenic differences between the isolates of this study and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses used in vaccines. Therefore, this study clearly suggests that a new local H9 subtype avian influenza virus should be used as vaccinal candidate every year for the effective control of influenza viral infections of poultry.

  3. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: First results of the redshift evolution of disk fraction in the red sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melanie; Willett, Kyle; Fortson, Lucy; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The transition of galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence is commonly linked to a morphological transformation from disk to elliptical structure. However, the correlation between color and morphology is not one-to-one, as evidenced by the existence of a significant population of red disks. As this stage in a galaxy's evolution is likely to be transitory, the mechanism by which red disks are formed offers insight to the processes that trigger quenching of star formation and the galaxy's position on the star-forming sequence. To study the population of disk galaxies in the red sequence as a function of cosmic time, we utilize data from the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble project, which uses crowdsourced visual classifications of images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We construct a large sample of over 10,000 disk galaxies spanning a wide (0 < z < 1.0) redshift range. We use this sample to examine the change in the fraction of disks in the red sequence with respect to all disks from z˜1 to the present day. Preliminary results confirm that the fraction of disks in the red sequence decreases as the Universe evolves. We discuss the quenching processes which may explain this trend, and which morphological transformations are most affected by it.

  4. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper. PMID:19367546

  5. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M☉ that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (NH ∼22 cm–2) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (2-10keV ∼–13 erg s–1 cm–2) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  6. Galaxy Zoo CANDELS Data Release I: Morphologies of ~50,000 Galaxies With z ≤ 3 in Deep Hubble Legacy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brooke; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Willett, Kyle; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Faber, Sandra M.; Galaxy Zoo Team, CANDELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48,000 galaxies in rest-frame optical to z ~ 3, using galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic And Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Each galaxy received an average of 43 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly errant classifications. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous human and machine classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; in some cases the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of "smooth" galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless disks at 1 ≤ z ≤ 2, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disk galaxies seen at later epochs.

  7. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  8. Molecular characterization of pneumococcal isolates from pets and laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van der Linden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 2008 Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 41 pets/zoo animals (guinea pigs (n = 17, cats (n = 12, horses (n = 4, dogs (n = 3, dolphins (n = 2, rat (n = 2, gorilla (n = 1 treated in medical veterinary laboratories and zoos, and 44 laboratory animals (mastomys (multimammate mice; n = 32, mice (n = 6, rats (n = 4, guinea pigs (n = 2 during routine health monitoring in an animal facility. S. pneumoniae was isolated from nose, lung and respiratory tract, eye, ear and other sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carriage of the same isolate of S. pneumoniae over a period of up to 22 weeks was shown for four mastomys. Forty-one animals showed disease symptoms. Pneumococcal isolates were characterized by optochin sensitivity, bile solubility, DNA hybridization, pneumolysin PCR, serotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen of the 32 mastomys isolates (56% were optochin resistant, all other isolates were optochin susceptible. All mastomys isolates were serotype 14, all guinea pig isolates serotype 19F, all horse isolates serotype 3. Rats had serotypes 14 or 19A, mice 33A or 33F. Dolphins had serotype 23F, the gorilla serotype 14. Cats and dogs had many different serotypes. Four isolates were resistant to macrolides, three isolates also to clindamycin and tetracycline. Mastomys isolates were sequence type (ST 15 (serotype 14, an ST/serotype combination commonly found in human isolates. Cats, dogs, pet rats, gorilla and dolphins showed various human ST/serotype combinations. Lab rats and lab mice showed single locus variants (SLV of human STs, in human ST/serotype combinations. All guinea pig isolates showed the same completely new combination of known alleles. The horse isolates showed an unknown allele combination and three new alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isolates found in mastomys, mice, rats, cats, dogs, gorilla and dolphins are most likely identical to human pneumococcal isolates. Isolates from

  9. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  13. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  14. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha;

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to...... reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  15. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. PMID:26768691

  16. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for diverse star formation histories through the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Bamford, S.; Fortson, L.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.; Melvin, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

    2015-06-01

    Does galaxy evolution proceed through the green valley via multiple pathways or as a single population? Motivated by recent results highlighting radically different evolutionary pathways between early- and late-type galaxies, we present results from a simple Bayesian approach to this problem wherein we model the star formation history (SFH) of a galaxy with two parameters, [t, τ] and compare the predicted and observed optical and near-ultraviolet colours. We use a novel method to investigate the morphological differences between the most probable SFHs for both disc-like and smooth-like populations of galaxies, by using a sample of 126 316 galaxies (0.01 Zoo. We find a clear difference between the quenching time-scales preferred by smooth- and disc-like galaxies, with three possible routes through the green valley dominated by smooth- (rapid time-scales, attributed to major mergers), intermediate- (intermediate time-scales, attributed to minor mergers and galaxy interactions) and disc-like (slow time-scales, attributed to secular evolution) galaxies. We hypothesize that morphological changes occur in systems which have undergone quenching with an exponential time-scale τ < 1.5 Gyr, in order for the evolution of galaxies in the green valley to match the ratio of smooth to disc galaxies observed in the red sequence. These rapid time-scales are instrumental in the formation of the red sequence at earlier times; however, we find that galaxies currently passing through the green valley typically do so at intermediate time-scales.†

  17. AVIAN POXVIRUS INFECTION IN A FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER) OF THE LISBON ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana M; Fagulha, Teresa; Duarte, Margarida; Ramos, Fernanda; Barros, Sílvia C; Luís, Tiago; Bernardino, Rui; Fernandes, Teresa L; Lapão, Narciso; da Silva, José Ferreira; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Avian poxviruses (APV) are very large viruses spread worldwide in a variety of hosts. They are responsible for a disease usually referred to as pox, mainly characterized by nodular lesions on feather-free regions of the body. On May 2010, a young American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) of the Lisbon Zoo (Portugal) developed a nodular lesion suggestive of poxvirus infection on its right foot. Avipoxvirus was isolated from the lesion and a fragment of the P4b-encoding gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence of the amplicon was determined and analyzed. A close relationship (100% identity) was observed between the flamingo poxvirus and isolates from great bustard (Hungary 2005), house sparrow (Morocco 2009), MacQueen's bustard (Morocco 2011), and Houbara bustard (Morocco 2010 and 2011), suggesting interspecies transmission as a possible source of infection. To strengthen the investigation, the 5' and 3' ends of genes cnpv186 and cnpv 187, respectively, were also analyzed. The cnpv186-187 fragment exhibited 100% identity with MacQueen's bustard and Houbara bustard isolates, both from Morocco 2011. Phylogenetic analyses based in both fragments grouped the flamingo isolate consistently within clade B2 of canarypox. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the different representatives of avian poxviruses were more comprehensive in the tree based on the concatenated coding sequences of the cnpv186-187 fragment, rather than on the P4b-coding gene. The clearer displacement and distribution of the isolates regarding their host species in this last tree suggests the potential usefulness of this genomic region to refine avian poxvirus classification. PMID:27010277

  18. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. PMID:25220050

  19. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  20. SPLETNO OGLAŠEVANJE S POUDARKOM NA SOCIALNIH OMREŽJIH: PRIMER SPLETNE TRGOVINE ZOO MARKET REX

    OpenAIRE

    Duh, Tjaša

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem seminarju z naslovom Spletno oglaševanje s poudarkom na socialnih omrežjih smo se osredotočili na metode spletnega oglaševanja, raziskali prednosti in slabosti ter teoretična izhodišča povezali s primerom spletne trgovine Zoo Market Rex. V današnjem sodobnem in konkurenčnem okolju postaja elektronsko poslovanje vse bolj razširjena oblika poslovanja. Najpogostejši obliki sta spletna trgovina in spletno oglaševanje. Internet je medij prihodnosti in prav s tega vidika je smiselna vz...

  1. Stezka v ZOO Ohrada - pracovní listy pro žáky 2. stupně

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the Czech ZOO´s education activities, concept of self-service worksheets for Ohrada Zoo and evaluation of these worksheets. Three tests (pre-test and two post-tests) and two groups of students were used for the evaluation. First group (experimental) passed the education activities and the tests and the second one (control group) just passed the tests. The self-service worksheets ?Our Fauna? create a practical output of the thesis. As a result of the evaluation we can s...

  2. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  3. Fatal influenza A (H5N1) virus Infection in zoo-housed Tigers in Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tingsong; Zhao, Huanyun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wendong; Kong, Qiang; Zhang, Zhixiao; Cui, Qinghua; Qiu, Wei; Deng, Bo; Fan, Quanshui; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, three cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection occurred in zoo-housed north-east China tigers (Panthera tigris ssp.altaica) and four tigers died of respiratory distress in succession in Yunnan Province, China. We isolated and characterized three highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses from these tigers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A/tiger /Yunnan /tig1404 /2014(H5N1) belongs to the provisional subclade 2.3.4.4e which were novel reassortant inf...

  4. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. PMID:26801595

  5. Pavilon savců a ptáků Asie - ZOO Dvůr Králové

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Konverze objektu bývalé slévárny na okraji areálu ZOO pro potřebu výstavního pavilonu drobných savců a ptáků s živou expozicí. Pavilon bude zaměřen v souladu se specializací ZOO, na faunu a flóru asijského kontinentu. Conversion object ex-foundry pavilion of mammalia and birds with live exposition. Exhibition pavilion is oriented at fauna and flora of asia. B

  6. A "How-To" Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    Robust methods to assess nonhuman animal emotion are essential for ensuring good welfare in captivity. Cognitive bias measures such as the judgment bias task have recently emerged as promising tools to assess animal emotion. The simple design and objective response measures make judgment bias tasks suitable for use across species and contexts. In reviewing 64 studies published to date, it emerged that (a) judgment biases have been measured in a number of mammals and birds and an invertebrate; (b) no study has tested judgment bias in any species of fish, amphibian, or reptile; and (c) no study has yet investigated judgment bias in a zoo or aquarium. This article proposes that judgment bias measures are highly suitable for use with these understudied taxa and can provide new insight into welfare in endangered species housed in zoos and aquariums, where poor welfare impacts breeding success and, ultimately, species survival. The article includes a "how-to" guide to designing judgment bias tests with recommendations for working with currently neglected "exotics" including fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. PMID:26440495

  7. 动物行为训练的意义和方法%Signification and Techniques of Animal Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赫; 张金国; 王泽重; 张恩权

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that animal training is an important aspect of animal welfare in zoo and aquarium. However,there are no relevant theory published in China. This paper described the new method from the significa-tion of animal training, facilities and tools for training, and animal training process.%动物行为训练是动物福利的一种表现方式,在动物园和水族馆中已经普遍认知,但国内尚无详细的理论介绍。本文主要从动物训练的含义、动物训练的设施和工具以及动物训练的流程几个方面阐述这一新的工作方法。

  8. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  9. Philosophy of Science: What are the ethical implications behind population control in Zoos?

    OpenAIRE

    Faur, Roxanna; Otteskov, Sam; Aighobahi, Elijah Osarumen; Hofmanas, Robertas; Hansen Marco, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Historical records show a long history of animals being kept in captivity: some of the first civilizations, like Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece, already carried out the practice of keeping animals, their reasons being mainly religious. The practice of animals being held in captivity is still practiced today, which is the main relevance of this project. Nowadays, and arguably since the environmental movement during the 1960s and the 1970s, the main purpose is not solely the one of recrea...

  10. Activity and enclosure use of a sand cat in Parken Zoo, Eskilstuna

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Linett

    2009-01-01

    The escalating extinction of wildlife puts a high pressure on the standard of ex situ conservation. Some animals may spend several generations in captivity which may affect their natural behaviors and also a future reintroduction into the wild. Observations of animal behavior among captive animals are crucial for the understanding of ex situ conservation effects on behavior and in order to introduce and improve environmental enrichment. This study investigates activity and enclosure use of a ...

  11. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  12. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  13. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  14. Galaxy Zoo: building the low-mass end of the red sequence with local post-starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, O. I.; Schawinski, K.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Lintott, C.; Keel, W. C.; Darg, D.; Bamford, S. P.; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Raddick, M. J.; Szalay, A.; Thomas, D.; Vandenberg, J.

    2012-02-01

    We present a study of local post-starburst galaxies (PSGs) using the photometric and spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results from the Galaxy Zoo project. We find that the majority of our local PSG population have neither early- nor late-type morphologies but occupy a well-defined space within the colour-stellar mass diagram, most notably, the low-mass end of the 'green valley' below the transition mass thought to be the mass division between low-mass star-forming galaxies and high-mass passively evolving bulge-dominated galaxies. Our analysis suggests that it is likely that local PSGs will quickly transform into 'red', low-mass early-type galaxies as the stellar morphologies of the 'green' PSGs largely resemble that of the early-type galaxies within the same mass range. We propose that the current population of PSGs represents a population of galaxies which is rapidly transitioning between the star-forming and the passively evolving phases. Subsequently, these PSGs will contribute towards the build-up of the low-mass end of the 'red sequence' once the current population of young stars fade and stars are no longer being formed. These results are consistent with the idea of 'downsizing' where the build-up of smaller galaxies occurs at later epochs. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 250 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at .

  15. Galaxy Zoo 2: detailed morphological classifications for 304,122 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Kyle W; Bamford, Steven P; Masters, Karen L; Simmons, Brooke D; Casteels, Kevin R V; Edmondson, Edward M; Fortson, Lucy F; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C; Raddick, M Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Robert J; Skibba, Ramin A; Smith, Arfon M; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We present the data release for Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2), a citizen science project with more than 16 million morphological classifications of 304,122 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Morphology is a powerful probe for quantifying a galaxy's dynamical history; however, automatic classifications of morphology (either by computer analysis of images or by using other physical parameters as proxies) still have drawbacks when compared to visual inspection. The large number of images available in current surveys makes visual inspection of each galaxy impractical for individual astronomers. GZ2 uses classifications from volunteer citizen scientists to measure morphologies for all galaxies in the DR7 Legacy survey with m_r>17, in addition to deeper images from SDSS Stripe 82. While the original Galaxy Zoo project identified galaxies as early-types, late-types, or mergers, GZ2 measures finer morphological features. These include bars, bulges, and the shapes of edge-on disks, as well as quantifying the relat...

  16. Using odor cues to elicit a behavioral and hormonal response in zoo-housed African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Michelle L; Santymire, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory enrichment, like odor cues, can positively affect behavior, reproductive success, and stress physiology in zoo-housed species. Our goal was to determine if odor cues were enriching to the African wild dog (AWD; Lycaon pictus), a species with a complex social structure and a highly developed sense of smell. Our objectives were to: (1) examine changes in activity levels and stress hormone physiology in response to fecal odor cues from natural competitor and natural/unnatural prey species; and (2) determine whether these odor cues could function as effective enrichment for zoo-housed AWDs. Over a 6-month period, fecal samples were collected from two males (AWD 1: dominant, AWD 2: subordinate), fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) were validated using an ACTH-challenge, and hormones were analyzed for FGMs by enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral observations were conducted using scan-sampling, and contact and proximity were recorded. AWDs were presented with three fecal odor cues: LION (competitor), CATTLE (unnatural prey), and GAZELLE (natural prey). Only the GAZELLE cue elicited an increase in activity (10.6%) in both individuals and increased positive social behaviors with higher frequencies of affiliative, submissive, and dominant behavior. AWD 1 demonstrated lower (P physiology in response to odor cues may be dependent on social rank in this species. PMID:24375480

  17. Plankton and seston size spectra estimated by the LOPC and ZooScan in the Abrolhos Bank ecosystem (SE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolin, Catarina da Rocha; Schultes, Sabine; Jackson, George A.; Lopes, Rubens M.

    2013-11-01

    The biomass size spectrum provides valuable information about the functioning of plankton systems. We evaluated hydrographic and bathymetric influences on biomass size spectra and on vertical distributions of plankton and seston above the Abrolhos Bank and in adjacent oceanic areas off Eastern Brazil. We used both in situ Laser Optical Particle Counter (LOPC) and preserved plankton samples analyzed with a ZooScan system to determine seston and plankton abundances, size distributions, and biomasses. Shelf stations, including those on the Abrolhos Bank, had higher particle concentrations and mesozooplankton biomasses than the vertically stratified oceanic stations. The latter were influenced by cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) below the mixed layer, particularly toward the south of the study area. Small particles (1 mm) had a more heterogeneous vertical distribution, but were more abundant above the pycnocline, especially at the oceanic stations. Calanoid copepods usually dominated the mesozooplankton biomass spectra, but were accompanied by cyclopoids, appendicularians, and ostracods, the latter being particularly abundant during nighttime stations on the Abrolhos Bank. Both LOPC and ZooScan data showed significant differences in NBSS slopes and intercepts between shelf and oceanic stations. The higher intercepts and steeper slopes over the shelf are characteristic of higher productivity. The shallower slopes and presence of more biomass in larger particles indicate a more important contribution of large organisms and higher energy transfer efficiencies at the open ocean stations. Our results highlight the importance of the Abrolhos Bank for pelagic production in an otherwise oligotrophic ocean.

  18. Evaluating the conservation impact of an innovative zoo-based educational campaign: 'Don't Palm Us Off' for orang-utan conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elissa L; Lowry, Rachel; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla A

    2014-01-01

    With significant biodiversity loss occurring presently, increased emphasis is being placed upon the capacity of zoos to contribute to species conservation. This paper evaluates an innovative conservation education campaign 'Don't Palm Us Off' implemented at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. This sought to address a lack of public awareness regarding palm oil (the product most threatening the survival of the orang-utan) and to create public support for mandatory labeling of palm oil on food products, allowing for informed consumer purchasing. Communication tools utilized included an educational video presentation played on-site, as well as You Tube video, celebrity ambassadors, and social media. Evaluation took place across four time-points: baseline, mid-point, conclusion (12 months), and follow-up. Zoo visitors (N = 403) were randomly selected whilst visiting the orang-utan exhibit, completing a questionnaire regarding knowledge about orangutans, attitudes toward orangutans, support for palm oil labeling, previous conservation behavior, and intentions for future behavior. Results revealed significant increases in palm oil awareness; attitudes toward orangutans; support for palm oil labeling; and indicating labeling would influence purchasing behavior, at all times relative to baseline (P zoo-based conservation education and practice (including the integration of emerging technologies with traditional on-site education) to maximize contributions to species conservation. PMID:24535962

  19. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

  20. Upper Secondary Students' Situational Interest: A Case Study of the Role of a Zoo Visit in a Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students' interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students' interest was investigated by a…