Sample records for animals newborn

  1. Physical Exercise Restores the Generation of Newborn Neurons in an Animal Model of Chronic Epilepsy (United States)

    Mendonça, Fabricio N.; Santos, Luiz E. C.; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Arida, Ricardo M.; da Silveira, Gilcélio A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G.


    Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group. Notably, a larger number of newborn granule cells exhibiting morphological characteristics indicative of correct targeting into the hippocampal circuitry and the absence of basal dendrite projections was also observed in the epileptic animals subjected to physical exercise compared to the epileptic animals. The results described here could represent a positive interference of the physical exercise on the neurogenesis process in subjects with chronic epilepsy. The results may also help to reinterpret the benefits of the physical exercise in alleviating symptoms of depression and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:28298884

  2. Animal Models of Cerebral Palsy: Hypoxic Brain Injury in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel WILSON


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Wilson MD. Animal Models of Cerebral Palsy: Hypoxic Brain Injury in the Newborn. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring2015; 9(2:9-16.AbstractObjectiveHypoxic insults are implicated in the spectrum of fetal disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP. In view of the major contribution of intrapartum risk factors and prematurity to subsequent neurological morbidity and mortality in humans, this study aimed to clarify the pathophysiology of brain injury, especially periventricular white matter damage (WMD, that occur in utero to the immature and near-term fetal CNS.Materials & MethodsAn evaluation of the resulting neurological and behavioural phenotype in the newborn was performed by utilising a battery of neurobehavioural tests, including the Morris water-maze and the open-field test, followed by cerebral MRI and histopathology.ResultsThis study used a murine model to examine the deleterious effects of WMD brought about by cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI and the characteristic features of CP in mice. Murine models have proven themselves valuable in the area of experimental neuroscience.Conclusion Hypoxia-treated mice were observed to demonstrate a significant neurofunctional deficit compared with sham mice on two behavioral measures. Indeed, different brain regions, including the sensorimotor cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus were noticeably damaged after HI insult, as determined by both MRI and histopathology. These results, albeit qualitative in nature, appear to support the pre-existing finding that the long-term neurofunctional outcome in animal subjects with CP is strongly associated with the anatomical extent and pattern of cerebral damage as determined by both delayed neuroimaging and histopathology.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. A piglet with surgically induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency as an animal model of newborns to study fat digestion. (United States)

    Goncharova, Kateryna; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Grujic, Danica; Kirko, Siarhei; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Wang, Jing; Kovalenko, Tetiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Ushakova, Galyna; Shmigel, Halyna; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Majda, Blanka; Prykhodko, Olena


    The maldigestion and malabsorption of fat in infants fed milk formula results due to the minimal production of pancreatic lipase. Thus, to investigate lipid digestion and absorption and mimic the situation in newborns, a young porcine exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) model was adapted and validated in the present study. A total of thirteen EPI pigs, aged 8 weeks old, were randomised into three groups and fed either a milk-based formula or a milk-based formula supplemented with either bacterial or fungal lipase. Digestion and absorption of fat was directly correlated with the addition of lipases as demonstrated by a 30% increase in the coefficient of fat absorption. In comparison to the control group, a 40 and 25% reduction in total fat content and 26 and 45% reduction in n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) content in the stool was observed for lipases 1 and 2, respectively. Improved fat absorption was reflected in the blood levels of lipid parameters. During the experiment, only a very slight gain in body weight was observed in EPI piglets, which can be explained by the absence of pancreatic protease and amylase in the gastrointestinal tract. This is similar to newborn babies that have reduced physiological function of exocrine pancreas. In conclusion, we postulate that the EPI pig model fed with infant formula mimics the growth and lipid digestion and absorption in human neonates and can be used to elucidate further importance of fat and FA in the development and growth of newborns, as well as for testing novel formula compositions.

  5. Anemia in the Newborn (United States)

    ... Doctor About Emotional Struggles Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, ... of Prematurity Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  6. Sleep and Newborns (United States)

    ... 12-Month-Old Bed-Sharing All About Sleep Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Growth Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Flat Head Syndrome ( ...

  7. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)


    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  9. Sleep and Newborns (United States)

    ... AAP introduced this recommendation in 1992. Use a firm sleep surface. Cover the mattress with a sheet ... Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn ...

  10. Feeding Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  11. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  12. Low blood sugar - newborns (United States)

    ... Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  13. Communication and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn A A A What's in ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  14. Communication and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn Print A A A What's ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  15. Multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Silva


    Full Text Available A case of multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal is reported. The animal showed hypoplasia of the left pelvic limb bones, uterus unicornis, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and unilateral renal and ureteral agenesis. This report includes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed in the case.

  16. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers. (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette


    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  17. Hemothorax in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Wille, L.


    Twenty cases of hemothorax in newborns are reviewed in detail. This unusual cause of acute respiratory distress within the neonatal period was observed in 14 males and 6 females. Most of the patients were fullterm newborns. As causal factors hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (vitamin K deficiency), disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformations and pleural/vascular rupture are considered. The time of occurrence of bleeding symptoms ranged from 1 to 28 days of life. Sixteen out of 20 patients survived without sequelae, but in 4 cases the outcome was lethal.

  18. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... common condition in newborns, refers to the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes ...

  19. Transient tachypnea - newborn (United States)

    ... lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... The mother's pregnancy and labor history are important to make the diagnosis. Tests performed on the baby may include: Blood count ...

  20. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  1. Approach to the bleeding newborn



    Bleeding in the newborn can lead to serious cardiovascular and neurological effects. Routine administration of vitamin K has reduced the incidence of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, but abnormal bleeding can occur in babies from many causes. A practical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding in the newborn is described in this article.

  2. Newborn Black Holes (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005


    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  3. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan


    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  4. Newborn screening tests (United States)

    ... for the newborn heel prick blood sample include pain and possible bruising at the site where the blood was obtained. ... Morrow C et al. Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures. ... Last updated 3/3/15. Accessed 6/18/2015. Sahai I, ...

  5. Gingival Cyst of Newborn. (United States)

    Moda, Aman


    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  6. [Bednar's aphthae in newborn]. (United States)

    Fariñas Salto, Mercedes; Menéndez Hernando, Cristina; Martín Molina, Raquel; Galán Gómez, Víctor; García de Pedro, Fernando J


    The description of the Bednar's ulcer is uncommon in the current literature. It has been associated with the traumatic effect of the bottle's nipple and/or no orthodontic soothers while breastfeeding. We present a newborn of 20 days of life attended at the emergency room for irritability, with the only finding on physical examination of two oral ulcers. We describe the clinical presentation, evolution and treatment. The normality of the diagnostic test, clinical characteristics and evolution lead to the diagnosis of Bednar´s ulcer.

  7. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns (United States)

    ... Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... recién nacidos Newborns with symptoms of conjunctivitis (pink eye) should see a doctor right away. Neonatal ...

  8. Medical Care and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your Newborn A A A What's ... doctor of the birth. If you had any medical problems during pregnancy, if your baby might have ...

  9. Screening of Newborn Saturation

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    Senem Ozgur


    Full Text Available In terms of the incidence, congenital heart diseases ranks first among congenital problems in the neonatal period. Although some of those diseases are with significant clinical findings, they might be insignificant in most cases. Standardization methods have been studied in variety of points, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry is thougt to be a good alternative to physical examination. In several studies, it is mentioned that some of congenital heart diseases are diagnosed by saturation screening. However, the benefits of this method are marred with the false negative and false positive rates. Therefore, in 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics has revised its saturation algorithm for scanning. It was aimed to have a standardization in saturation detecting time and evaluation of achieved saturation in newborns. Despite all efforts, some newborns with congenital heart disease are not diagnosed before discharging. We beleive that the details of saturation measurements are needed to be carefully evaluated because although these measurements are widely used their details are not well known. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 587-604

  10. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (United States)

    ... about 120 days in the body. In this disorder, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal. ... Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN); Erythroblastosis fetalis; ... - HDN; ABO incompatibility - HDN; Rh incompatibility - HDN

  11. Intraventricular Hemorrhage of the Newborn



    Intraventricular hemorrhage IVH of the premature newborn is an important complication which determines its prognosis Intravascular vascular and extravascular factors should be considered in its etiology Cranial ultrasonography is the most suitable medical imagery technique IVH is graded from 1 to 4 according to its severity Prevention is the most crucial point in its management The literature and the management of IVH is reviewed Key words: Newborn Premature Intraventricular Hemorrhage

  12. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing


    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  13. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  14. NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening (United States)

    Alexander, Duane; Hanson, James W.


    Recent changes in genetics research have created new opportunities to improve the scope and quality of newborn screening services. Changes in newborn screening should be supported and directed by an organized program of research. The NICHD Research Initiative in Newborn Screening includes the development of systematic methods to identify…

  15. Hyperoxia Exposure Alters Hepatic Eicosanoid Metabolism in Newborn Mice (United States)



    Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure. Greater levels of glutathione disulfide and nitrotyrosine were detected in lung tissues but not liver tissues from newborn mice exposed to hyperoxia than in room air-exposed controls. However, early increases in 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenases-2 protein levels and increases in total hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and prostaglandin levels were observed in the liver tissues of hyperoxia-exposed pups. These studies indicate that free radical oxidation occurs in the lungs of newborn pups exposed to hyperoxia, and alterations in lipid metabolism could be a primary response in the liver tissues. The findings of this study identify possible new mechanisms associated with hyperoxic lung injury in a newborn model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and thus open opportunities for research. PMID:19809377

  16. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca


    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  17. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn. (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba


    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  18. [Pain in newborns and children]. (United States)

    Plaja, Francesca; Alesi, Mt


    Pain is a mechanism of defense in response to damaged tissue in order to determine a response to remove the cause of damage. Attention to pain control is considered a quality index in the pediatric care newborn infants react to pain with changes in cardiac and respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood gas, grimace, palm sweating, crying, sleep/awake rythm. Measuring pain in child is based on: history of the child, changes in behaviour adn vital parameters. Being able to explain pain depends on cognitive and language ability of the child. The role of the nurse who attend the newborn infant in the neonatal intensive care unit is to help baby to cope with acute pain by means of simple manoeuvres like wrapping, non nutritive suction, massage, tactile stimulation.

  19. Congenital epulis of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mahesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Congenital epulis, a benign tumor of the oral cavity, is an extremely rare condition in newborn. It may lead to mechanical obstruction, therefore resulting in respiratory distress and difficulty in feeding. Addressing the problem may need a multidisciplinary team approach at the time of birth. Antenatal ultrasonography and perinatal magnetic resonance imaging are an adjunct to treatment planning. Prenatal diagnosis remains difficult as the findings are nonspecific due to the late development of the tumor. Surgical excision is, therefore, the treatment of choice. Our report discusses this condition and the treatment thereafter on a newborn, with an epulis originating from the upper alveolar ridge discovered at birth. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of large polygonal granular cells. The mass was excised under general anesthesia, and the outcome was good after surgery allowing regular feeds on the second postoperative day.

  20. [Congenital ranula in a newborn]. (United States)

    Bernhard, M K; Hückel, D; Hamala, D


    Ranulas are cystic lesions in the floor of the mouth. They are either retention cysts of the excretory duct of the sublingual gland or pseudocysts formed by excretory duct rupture followed by extravasation and accumulation of mucus in the surrounding tissue. We report the case of a premature newborn with a congenital ranula in the floor of mouth. The ranula caused no discomfort or complications, so that immediate intervention was not necessary. The cyst resolved completely by the age of 4 months. Complications in newborns especially include airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. Surgical treatment options are needle aspiration, excision of the ranula, marsupialization, cryosurgery, and--in addition to excision of the cyst--removal of the ipsilateral sublingual gland. Sclerotherapy has shown good results as well. As many congenital cysts resolve or rupture spontaneously, they should be observed for potential resolution for several months in uncomplicated cases.

  1. Newborn healthcare in urban India (United States)

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S


    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  2. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette


    Several previous studies, suggesting the potential use of embryonic xenografts in the treatment of neurological disorders, indicate that neural growth and axonal guidance factors may function across species. In this light, blocks of fetal porcine neocortex were grafted into small cortical lesion...... cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  3. Enteral Nutrition and Care of Risky Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Kilicarslan Toruner


    Full Text Available Making appropriate and effective enteral feeding is decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of risky newborns. Most important problems during enteral feeding in risky newborns are realizing the enteral feeding needs late, not following enteral feeding protocols and errors in medical practices (misconnections etc.. The aim of this review article is to describe the gastrointestinal development, nutrition requirements, enteral nutrition, feeding intolerance and care of risky newborns. Increasing the awareness of health care professionals about this topic is promoted the quality of care in risky newborns. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 227-233

  4. Validation of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement in a pediatric animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, J.; Boode, W.P. de; Hopman, J.C.W.; Singh, S.K.; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to validate the transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement (CO(TPTD)) in a controlled newborn animal model under various hemodynamic conditions with special emphasis on low cardiac output. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental, pediatric animal study. S

  5. Unusual osteopathy in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Nogrady, M.B.; Wesenberg, R.L.


    A newborn baby presented with hyaline membrane disease, interstitial pneumonia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual bone manifestations with lytic and sclerotic bone lesions and virtually absent periosteal reaction. He subsequently developed intracranial calcifications and mental retardation. The pneumonia and hepatosplenomegaly resolved. At the time of the delivery, a sibling was suffering from a severe undetermined viral infection. The clinical evolution of the disease and the radiologic findings led us to believe that this patient has a prenatal viral infection. The laboratory tests and the histologic picture of the bone biopsy supported the diagnosis.

  6. Newborn with severe epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Martin Lehmann; Bygum, Anette; Hertz, Jens Michael


    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited skin disease with four main subtypes that cannot be distinguished clinically at birth. All subtypes may present with widespread life-threatening blisters and fragile skin, making treatment and handling of the newborn with EB challenging. The prognosis...... of EB depends on the subtype, and therefore maximum treatment is necessary until the final diagnosis is known. In this case, it took 2 weeks before a final diagnosis was reached. In the meantime, we had several ethical discussions on the treatment level. The most important issues were management of pain...

  7. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs. (United States)

    White, R D


    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  8. Fasting plasma hormones and metabolites in feral and domestic newborn pigs. (United States)

    Kasser, T R; Martin, R J; Gahagan, J H; Wangsness, P J


    Newborn Yorkshire and Ossabaw (feral) pigs were examined under thermoneutral conditions to determine whether survival rate during fasting differs between these breeds and whether any blood-borne factors are associated with improved survival. Newborn pigs were removed from the sow before suckling. Body composition was determined on 10 newborn Ossabaw and 12 newborn Yorkshire pigs. Another group of animals (eight Ossabaw, 12 Yorkshire) was fasted for 72 hr, with blood samples drawn at birth and 12 and 24 hr into fasting. Glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), growth hormone (GH), insulin, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), cortisol and glucagon concentrations were measured in plasma of fasted pigs. Concentrations of carcass lipid, dry matter and ash were higher in newborn Ossabaw pigs than in newborn Yorkshire pigs. Survival through 72 hr of fasting was lower among Yorkshire pigs. Yorkshire and Ossabaw pigs had similar concentrations of metabolites and hormones at birth, with the exceptions of lower plasma GH and higher T3 concentrations in Ossabaw pigs. Higher plasma T3 concentrations would indicate a greater potential for fatty acid oxidation. During fasting, Ossabaw pigs had lower plasma GH and T4 concentrations and higher glucagon and FFA concentrations. Increased survival among newborn Ossabaw pigs may have been due to increased availability of FFA during fasting, and to a greater potential for gluconeogenesis through increased oxidation of fatty acids and higher plasma glucagon concentrations. This would suggest that maternal treatments that would increase storage of fat and(or) increase the capacity for oxidation of fat in utero would improve survival of newborn pigs.

  9. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  10. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman


    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  11. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı


    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  12. [Premature newborn: a case presentation]. (United States)

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara


    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord.

  13. Citrobacter freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). (United States)

    Fernández, Antonio; Vela, Ana Isabel; Andrada, Marisa; Herraez, Pedro; Díaz-Delgado, Josue; Domínguez, Lucas; Arbelo, Manuel


    Citrobacter freundii, a gram-negative enterobacterium, may cause fatal septicemia in humans and animals. Its potential pathogenic role in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales) has been hypothesized. Here we describe fatal C. freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

  14. Radial localization of odors by human newborns. (United States)

    Rieser, J; Yonas, A; Wikner, K


    To study sensitivity to radial location of an odor source, 20 human newborns, ranging from 16 to 130 hours of age, were presented with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide. The odor source was placed near the nose slightly to the left or right of midline, with its position randomized over repeated trails. Direction of headturn with respect to the odor location and diffuse motor activity were scored from the videotape recordings of the newborns' behavior. It was found that as a group, the newborns turned away from the odor source more frequently than they turned toward it. The tendency to turn away from the odor was stronger in infants who displayed less motor activity after the response. Newborns also exhibited a right bias in the direction of the head movements. It is concluded that a spatially appropriate avoidance response is present in the neonate and that the newborn is innately sensitive to the radial location of an odor.

  15. Citric Acid Cycle Metabolites Predict the Severity of Myocardial Stunning and Mortality in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz;


    , which so far are undetermined. DESIGN: A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals. Stunning was induced by 10 cycles...... animals (n = 8), concentrations of succinate (p citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolites reflects...... the presence of myocardial stunning and predicts mortality in acute noninfarct right ventricular heart failure in newborn pigs. This phenomenon occurs independently of the type of inotrope, suggesting that citric acid cycle intermediates represent potential markers of acute noninfarct heart failure....

  16. Respiratory distress in the newborn. (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle


    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  17. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

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    Meenakshi Wadhwani


    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  18. No priming of the immune response in newborn Brown Norway rats dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Pilegaard, Kirsten


    Background: Other researchers have reported that the specific immune response to subsequent antigen challenge is primed in newborn mice or rats dosed orally by gavage. We wanted to investigate if priming of a subsequent specific IgE response could be achieved by dosing newborn rats orally...... with ovalbumin and if this method could be used in an animal model for food allergy. Methods: Newborn Brown Norway rats were dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth (100 mug or 6 mg). As young adults, the animals were dosed by gavage for 35 days with 1 mg ovalbumin/day or once intraperitoneally with 100 mug. Control...... groups were dosed by gavage or intraperitoneally but not as neonates. Additionally, young adult rats were dosed with 1 mg ovalbumin/day in the mouth for 35 days. Sera from individual animals were analysed for specific IgE and specific IgG. Results: In all experiments with neonatal rats the specific Ig...

  19. MTBVAC vaccine is safe, immunogenic and confers protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in newborn mice. (United States)

    Aguilo, Nacho; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzon, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos


    Development of novel more efficient preventive vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to achieve TB eradication by 2050, one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for the current century. MTBVAC is the first and only live attenuated vaccine based on a human isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed as BCG-replacement strategy in newborns that has entered first-in-human adult clinical trials. In this work, we characterize the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MTBVAC in a model of newborn C57/BL6 mice. Our data clearly indicate that MTBVAC is safe for newborn mice, and does not affect animal growth or organ development. In addition, MTBVAC-vaccinated mice at birth showed enhanced immunogenicity and better protection against M. tuberculosis challenge in comparison with BCG.

  20. Recurrence plot analyses suggest a novel reference system involved in newborn spontaneous movements. (United States)

    Assmann, Birte; Thiel, Marco; Romano, Maria C; Niemitz, Carsten


    The movements of newborns have been thoroughly studied in terms of reflexes, muscle synergies, leg coordination, and target-directed arm/hand movements. Since these approaches have concentrated mainly on separate accomplishments, there has remained a clear need for more integrated investigations. Here, we report an inquiry in which we explicitly concentrated on taking such a perspective and, additionally, were guided by the methodological concept of home base behavior, which Ilan Golani developed for studies of exploratory behavior in animals. Methods from nonlinear dynamics, such as symbolic dynamics and recurrence plot analyses of kinematic data received from audiovisual newborn recordings, yielded new insights into the spatial and temporal organization of limb movements. In the framework of home base behavior, our approach uncovered a novel reference system of spontaneous newborn movements.

  1. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns. (United States)

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L


    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns.

  2. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

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    Filippo Spadola


    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  3. Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns (United States)

    ... page: Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns Cause isn' ... 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus has already been linked to serious birth ...

  4. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm


    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  5. Newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia

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    Avramović Lidija


    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of epidural anaesthesia in delivery with the purpose to reduce pain and fear in a pregnant woman has the influence on the physiological status of the woman in childbirth and the course of delivery. From the epidural space of the pregnant woman, one part of free anaesthetic comes in the foetal circulation through the mother's circulation and placenta and connects with the foetal proteins. A lower value of albumins and serum proteins in the foetal circulation give bigger free fraction of anaesthetic which is accumulated in the foetal liver, brain and heart full of blood. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of epidural anaesthesia on the newborn. Methods. Retrospective study of 6,398 documents of newborns was performed in our Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 'Narodni front' during 2006. The first group was made of 455 newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia and the second was the control group of 5,943 remaining newborns. In both groups we analysed the following: sex, week of gestation, weight, Apgar score, measure of care and resuscitation, perinatal morbidity and then the obtained results were compared. Results. Most of deliveries were vaginal without obstetric intervention (86.6%. The number of deliveries finished with vacuum extractor (4.6% was statistically significantly bigger in the group with epidural anaesthesia than in the control group. Most of the newborns in the first group were born on time (96.5% in 39.0±1.0 week of gestation and with foetal weight 3448±412 grammes. There was no statistical significance in Apgar score between both groups. Epidural anaesthesia does not increase the degree of the newborn's injury. Lower pH of blood was found in the newborns from deliveries with vacuum extractor or operated on (the Ceasarean section. Conclusion. Application of epidural anaesthesia decreases duration of delivery and has no adverse effects on the newborn and hypoxic

  6. [General vitamin K prevention in newborn infants]. (United States)

    Muntean, W


    Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of active forms of some coagulation factors. Bleeding due to low levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn) is most frequently seen in newborns with a low intake of breast milk, who are not fed supplemental formula, since transplacental transfer of vitamin K seems to be small and breast milk is relatively deficient in vitamin K. Severe bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency is also observed in 4-12 weeks old infants. The reason for the deficiency in otherwise healthy infants of this age is unclear. Classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is not existent in infants given vitamin K intramuscularly at birth. Also, the late manifestation of vitamin K deficiency has been observed virtually exclusively in infants, who had not been given vitamin K parenterally at birth. Since most newborns will be breast fed and supplemental formula feeding will not be required in most healthy full term newborns, all newborns should be given a dose of vitamin K intramuscularly immediately after birth. Whether it is safe to administer vitamin K to the mother or orally to the child requires further investigation.

  7. Adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn. (United States)

    Abdu, Arebu T; Kriss, Vesna M; Bada, Henrietta S; Reynolds, Eric W


    Sometimes in the course of care in a neonatal intensive care unit, there may be a rush to intervene in cases where limited intervention is actually the correct course. One such example is that of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We present the case of a male term neonate with shock, metabolic acidosis, distended abdomen, and falling hematocrit. His prenatal and delivery histories were uneventful except for a nuchal cord. Apgar scores were 9 and 9. Because of his dramatic presentation, certain members of the medical team suggested immediate surgical intervention. However, a calm and careful evaluation revealed the true diagnosis and course of action. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed a mass between the liver and kidney, but the origin was difficult to identify. A computed tomography scan supported the diagnosis of right adrenal hemorrhage. His serum cortisol level was normal. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged home after a 1-week stay in the hospital. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage with minimal calcification. A review of the pertinent literature is presented. Physicians should remember adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating a newborn infant with shock, acidosis, abdominal distention, and falling hematocrit and that conservative management is usually indicated.

  8. The use of peritoneal dialysis in newborns

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    Stojanović Vesna


    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute renal failure is a common complication in critically ill newborn infants. The therapy of acute renal failure is conservative and etiological. Patients not responding to this kind of therapy require peritoneal dialysis. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 6 newborn infants undergoing peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 2004 to June 2006, at the Nephrology Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. All patients presented with complications of acute renal failure including hypercalemia and uremic encephalopathy. Results. Complete restoration of kidney function was evident in four patients on peritoneal dialysis. Three patients are still alive, but in one patient acute renal failure progressed to chronic renal failure. One patient died in the third month of life due to multiple organ dysfunction, after just two days of dialysis. Several complications were reported: intra-abdominal hemorrhage, dialysate leakage, peritonitis and dialysis catheter obstruction. Discussion. Periotoneal dialysis catheter placement is a great problem due to the size of the newborn. If it is estimated that it will be a long-lasting dialysis, Tenckhoff catheter is recommended. In very low birth weight newborn infants, in poor overall condition, general anesthesia is too risky, and acute peritoneal dialysis catheter should be placed (i.v. cannula, venous catheter. Conclusion. Peritoneal dialysis is the method of choice in newborns with acute renal failure, and it is used in the treatment of neonatal asphyxia till the restoration of kidney function is achieved. .

  9. Newborn Analgesia Mediated by Oxytocin during Delivery. (United States)

    Mazzuca, Michel; Minlebaev, Marat; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Tyzio, Roman; Taccola, Giuliano; Janackova, Sona; Gataullina, Svetlana; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khazipov, Rustem


    The mechanisms controlling pain in newborns during delivery are poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin, an essential hormone for labor and a powerful neuromodulator, exerts analgesic actions on newborns during delivery. Using a thermal tail-flick assay, we report that pain sensitivity is two-fold lower in rat pups immediately after birth than 2 days later. Oxytocin receptor antagonists strongly enhanced pain sensitivity in newborn, but not in 2-day-old rats, whereas oxytocin reduced pain at both ages suggesting an endogenous analgesia by oxytocin during delivery. Similar analgesic effects of oxytocin, measured as attenuation of pain-vocalization induced by electrical whisker pad stimulation, were also observed in decerebrated newborns. Oxytocin reduced GABA-evoked calcium responses and depolarizing GABA driving force in isolated neonatal trigeminal neurons suggesting that oxytocin effects are mediated by alterations of intracellular chloride. Unlike GABA signaling, oxytocin did not affect responses mediated by P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors. In keeping with a GABAergic mechanism, reduction of intracellular chloride by the diuretic NKCC1 chloride co-transporter antagonist bumetanide mimicked the analgesic actions of oxytocin and its effects on GABA responses in nociceptive neurons. Therefore, endogenous oxytocin exerts an analgesic action in newborn pups that involves a reduction of the depolarizing action of GABA on nociceptive neurons. Therefore, the same hormone that triggers delivery also acts as a natural pain killer revealing a novel facet of the protective actions of oxytocin in the fetus at birth.

  10. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer (United States)

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes


    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  11. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

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    Yasemin Ozsurekci


    Full Text Available We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases.

  12. Cyclooxygenase (COX Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney

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    Wei Qi


    Full Text Available This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2 plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function.

  13. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant. (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh


    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  14. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter


    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  15. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival. (United States)

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel


    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs.

  16. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

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    Đorđević Momčilo


    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  17. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST cohort

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    Soubry Adelheid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2 gene. Methods We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR, and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR. Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Results Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003. At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among

  18. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.


    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian DNA...... was observed in CpG island promoters. We extended the study to a larger cohort of newborn and nonagenarian samples using a 450,000 CpG-site DNA methylation microarray that reinforced the observation of more hypomethylated DNA sequences in the advanced age group. WGBS and 450,000 analyses of middle-age...

  19. Candida infections in newborns: a review. (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V


    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  20. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions (United States)

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia


    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  1. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam


    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  2. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ


    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  3. Congenital lower limb enlargement in a newborn. (United States)

    Perez-Crespo, María; Betlloch, Isabel; Martinez-Miravete, Maria Teresa; Ballester, Irene; Lucas, Ana; Mataix, Javier


    A full-term newborn presented with swelling of his right leg soon after birth. There was no alteration in Doppler. The grandmother and other relatives were said to have shown a similar history at birth. Milroy's disease was then diagnosed and compressive massage was advised.

  4. Nasogastric Tube Placement in Newborns Before Discharge. (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdulrahman M; Saeed, Anjum; Assiri, Asaad M


    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical staff (physicians) at different levels about insertion or placement of nasogastric tube (NGT) in a normal newborn before discharge. It was a survey-based, observational study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital. Atotal of 103 doctors were sent text message; among those 81 (78.6%) responded. Among the respondents, 27, 16, 11 and 27 were neonatologists, general physicians, obstetricians/ ENT/pediatric surgeons, and senior registrars neonatology (SRN), respectively. Majority of physicians, 57 (70.3%) rejected the idea of insertion of NGTin a normal newborn but in 24 (29.6%), answer was to insert NGTin all the newborns before discharge to check the patency of nasal cavities. Regarding the position, region of doctors and their response, majority from Center said ‘No’(not in favour of insertion) but from South, 17/18 (94.4%) said ‘Yes’(in favour of insertion). Regarding other specialties, majority of them showed rejection of this idea. In conclusion, most of the healthcare professionals, directly involved with neonatal care, rejected the idea of routine insertion of NGTin normal newborn examination before discharge; rather, some non-invasive technique could be opted.

  5. Iatrogenic esophageal perforation in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Park, Won Soon; Choi, Jung Hwan [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Esophagus and pharyngeal structures of newborn are very week and so vulnerable. When a parallel longitudinal tubular structure around (especially behind) the esophagus is seen, traumatic esophageal perforation must be differentiated. We report a case of esophageal perforation in a premature twin baby by nasogastric tube insertion.

  6. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca


    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  7. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.


    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunovskaya L. M.


    Full Text Available The role and value of the bacterial factor in development pre-natal infection of newborns is studied. It is considered microflora of patrimonial ways of pregnant women, as basic pathogenesis factor of an ascending way infection of newborns. On an example of the spent bacteriological researches correlation communication between microflora of patrimonial ways, placenta and an ascending way infection of newborns is shown. At crops gastric swallowing at newborn children with pre-natal infection of newborns it is ascertained growth aerobic and аanaerobic microflora in the majority (87,7 % supervision in the form of microbes associations gramme-positive coccus Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Candida. The inclusion in the treatment of Saccharomyces boulardіi contributes to the restoration of intesti­nal microflora in 90 % of newborns. Found significant growth of the colonies of Bifidobacterium spp. (3.7-4,9 lg CFU/ml and Lactobacillus spp. (7.2 lg CFU/ml.

  9. Frequency of Spontaneous BOLD Signal Differences between Moderate and Late Preterm Newborns and Term Newborns. (United States)

    Wu, Xiushuang; Wei, Luqing; Wang, Nan; Hu, Zhangxue; Wang, Li; Ma, Juan; Feng, Shuai; Cai, Yue; Song, Xiaopeng; Shi, Yuan


    Little is known about the frequency features of spontaneous neural activity in the brains of moderate and late preterm (MLPT) newborns. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to investigate the frequency properties of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in 26 MLPT and 35 term newborns. Two frequency bands, slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), were analyzed. Our results showed widespread differences in ALFF between the two bands; differences occurred mainly in the primary sensory and motor cortices and to a lesser extent in association cortices and subcortical areas. Compared with term newborns, MLPT newborns showed significantly altered neural activity predominantly in the primary sensory and motor cortices and in the posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus. In addition, a significant interaction between frequency bands and groups was observed in the primary somatosensory cortex. Intriguingly, these primary sensory and motor regions have been proven to be the major cortical hubs during the neonatal period. Our results revealed the frequency of spontaneous BOLD signal differences between MLPT and term newborns, which contribute to the understanding of regional development of spontaneous brain rhythms of MLPT newborns.

  10. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  11. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  12. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew


    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  13. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.


    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  14. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora


    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  15. Exercise promotes axon regeneration of newborn striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons in rats after ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Wan Zhang

    Full Text Available Newborn striatal neurons induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO can form functional projections targeting into the substantia nigra, which should be very important for the recovery of motor function. Exercise training post-stroke improves motor recovery in clinic patients and increases striatal neurogenesis in experimental animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise on axon regeneration of newborn projection neurons in adult rat brains following ischemic stroke. Rats were subjected to a transient MCAO to induce focal cerebral ischemic injury, followed by 30 minutes of exercise training daily from 5 to 28 days after MCAO. Motor function was tested using the rotarod test. We used fluorogold (FG nigral injection to trace striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons, and green fluorescent protein (GFP-targeting retroviral vectors combined with FG double labeling (GFP(+ -FG(+ to detect newborn projection neurons. The results showed that exercise improved the recovery of motor function of rats after MCAO. Meanwhile, exercise also increased the levels of BDNF and VEGF, and reduced Nogo-A in ischemic brain. On this condition, we further found that exercise significantly increased the number of GFP(+ -FG(+ neurons in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex ipsilateral to MCAO, suggesting an increase of newborn striatonigral and corticonigral projection neurons by exercise post-stroke. In addition, we found that exercise also increased NeuN(+ and FG(+ cells in the striatum and frontal and parietal cortex, the ischemic territory, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunopositive staining cells in the substantia nigra, a region remote from the ischemic territory. Our results provide the first evidence that exercise can effectively enhance the capacity for regeneration of newborn projection neurons in ischemic injured mammalian brains while improving motor function. Our results provide a very important cellular mechanism

  16. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  17. Impact of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate on Newborn Leukocyte Telomere Length (United States)

    Liu, Han; Zhou, Guangdi; Chen, Qian; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Little, Julian; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Dan


    The newborn setting of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) likely has important implications for telomere dynamics over the lifespan. However, its determinants are poorly understood. Hormones play an important role during pregnancy and delivery. We hypothesized that exposure to hormones may impact the fetal telomere biology system. To test this hypothesis, cortisol, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in cord blood of 821 newborns from a prospective study. After accounting for the effects of potential determinants of newborn LTL, a 10-fold increase in DHEAS concentration was associated with a 0.021 increase in T/S ratio of newborn LTL (95% confidence interval: 0.009–0.034, P = 0.0008). For newborns who fell in the lowest quartile of DHEAS level, the mean newborn LTL was estimated to be approximately 2.0% shorter than the newborns in the highest DHEAS concentration quartile (P = 0.0014). However, no association was found between newborn LTL and cortisol or estradiol. As expected, newborns with higher ROS level (ROS > 260 mol/L) had lower LTL compared to that with lower ROS level (ROS ≤ 260 mol/L) (P = 0.007). There was also an inverse relationship between DHEAS and ROS (P programming” effect on the newborn telomere biology system. PMID:28186106

  18. [Congenital pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis in a newborn]. (United States)

    Sposito Cavallo, Sandra L; Macias Sobrino, Luciano A; Marenco Altamar, Luifer J; Mejía Alquichire, Andrés F


    Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis is a rare entity characterized by the proliferation of capillaries into alveolar walls, interlobular septa, pleura and pulmonary interstitium, without malignant characteristics, with almost constant association with pulmonary hypertension. Until now two cases of congenital presentation have been reported in the literature. This is the third case in a newborn; he has not followed the usual pattern associated with pulmonary hypertension as occurs in most patients with this pathology; the highest incidence is among 20-40 years old. We report a preterm newborn patient of 36 weeks of gestation with progressive respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation by constant desaturation during his clinical evolution without clinical, radiological or ultrasonographic signs of pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Innate intersubjectivity: newborns' sensitivity to communication disturbance. (United States)

    Nagy, Emese


    In most of our social life we communicate and relate to others. Successful interpersonal relating is crucial to physical and mental well-being and growth. This study, using the still-face paradigm, demonstrates that even human neonates (n = 90, 3-96 hr after birth) adjust their behavior according to the social responsiveness of their interaction partner. If the interaction partner becomes unresponsive, newborns will also change their behavior, decrease eye contact, and display signs of distress. Even after the interaction partner resumes responsiveness, the effects of the communication disturbance persist as a spillover. These results indicate that even newborn infants sensitively monitor the behavior of others and react as if they had innate expectations regarding rules of interpersonal interaction.

  20. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben


    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  1. Spontaneous Splenic Hemorrhage in the Newborn



    Spontaneous splenic hemorrhage in the newborn is a rare entity. The presentation is usually with a triad of bleeding, abdominal distension, and hemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis is essential as left untreated, death is inevitable. We present a case with an unusual initial presentation of a scrotal hematocele and ultrasonography suggesting an adrenal hemorrhage. At laparotomy, splenic preservation was unsuccessful, and therefore, splenectomy was performed. The child recovered well from the proce...

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum in a newborn - case report



    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, inflammatory, chronic and recurrent disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noninfectious, necrotizing and painful cutaneous ulcers. Usually it affects adults aged between 25 and 54 years old and rarely children (less than 4%), in which it mainly affects the head, face, buttocks, genital and perianal region. The disease presents a quick response to systemic corticosteroids. We report a case of a newborn with hemorrhagic and necrotic ulcers, distributed in...

  3. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney


    Wei Qi; Smith, Francine G.; Megan L. Lewis; Wade, Andrew W


    This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI) in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2) plays a more important role...

  4. Anaesthetic management of nesidioblastosis in a newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares A


    Full Text Available This report details the management of a newborn with nesidioblastosis who underwent a 95% pancreatectomy under general anaesthesia. The baby presented with hypoglycemic convulsions, due to hyperinsulinism, and was treated with 12.5% dextrose infusions, glucagon and anticonvulsants. Intraoperatively and postoperatively the baby remained hyperglycemic. A postoperative osmotic diuresis necessitated the use of insulin for brief period. The infant remained euglycemic and convulsion free, following discontinuation of the dextrose infusions and starting of oral feeds. Recovery was uneventful.

  5. [Intraventricular haemorrhage in premature newborn babies]. (United States)

    Nazar, N

    This work is the product of the checking of the pathogenesis, incidence, treatment, and prognostic of the intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn. In the revised publications, that include important series of following, this pathology is present in 25% of the infants weighing less than 1,500 g, in which the mortality and morbidity is greater than that of normal newborns, since the development of intraventricular hemorrhage can produce alterations of cerebral blood flow in the immature germinal matrix and in the microvascular net. In consequence the prevention of the intraventricular hemorrhage is directly related with its pathogenesis. It is said that the use of dexamethasone steroids in low doses in the prenatal period, and low doses of indomethacin in the postnatal period, can give better neuroprotection. The surgical treatment is exceptional and has very precise indications, when a progresive hydrocephalus of later apparition is proven. Therefore in premature newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage the best actual treatment is to use an appropiate pharmacological and medical following

  6. Genomic instability in newborn with short telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Moreno-Palomo

    Full Text Available Telomere length is considered to be a risk factor in adults due to its proved association with cancer incidence and mortality. Since newborn present a wide interindividual variation in mean telomere length, it is relevant to demonstrate if these differences in length can act also as an early risk indicator. To answer this question, we have measured the mean telomere length of 74 samples of cord blood from newborns and studied its association with the basal genetic damage, measured as the frequency of binucleated cells carrying micronuclei. In addition, we have challenged the cells of a subgroup of individuals (N = 35 against mitomycin-C (MMC to establish their sensitivity to induced genomic instability. Results indicate that newborn with shorter telomeres present significantly higher levels of genetic damage when compared to those with longer telomeres. In addition, the cellular response to MMC was also significantly higher among those samples from subjects with shorter telomeres. Independently of the causal mechanisms involved, our results show for the first time that telomere length at delivery influence both the basal and induced genetic damage of the individual.Individuals born with shorter telomeres may be at increased risk, especially for those biological processes triggered by genomic instability as is the case of cancer and other age-related diseases.

  7. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies. (United States)

    Hoppe, C C


    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  8. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  9. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  10. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg


    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  11. A Comprehensive Initiative to Prevent Falls Among Newborns. (United States)

    Ainsworth, Rose Mary; Summerlin-Long, Shelley; Mog, Cathy


    Our hospital experienced seven instances of newborns falling over a 7-month period. Until that time, there had been no reported newborn falls. We formed a committee to study the situation and make recommendations for change. Common factors observed were early morning hours and an exhausted parent, usually the mother, falling asleep while feeding the newborn. The committee developed a policy and procedure addressing falls among newborns, created staff education and tools, and posted signage in mothers' rooms. We also updated crib cards to include information about falls and safe sleep, and we revised newborn admission education for parents with additional information about falls. The incidence of newborns falling has decreased since we implemented these changes.

  12. Neuronal quantity and ultrastructure in extracorticospinal tract of newborn rabbits with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Li; Ying Yang; Zhimei Jiang; Lanrnin Guo; Jing Gao


    BACKGROUND: The liver enzyme system and blood brain barrier function of newborn rabbits are incomplete.High level of bilirubin can lead to cerebral palsy (CP) of newborn rabbits. The pathological and ultrastructural changes of brains of immature rabbits may differ from those of mature rabbits.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in dopaminergic neuron amount and ultrastructure in the extracorticospinal tract of animal models of CP induced by hyperbilirubinemia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Rehabilitation Medical College of Jiamusi University; Laboratory for Pediatric Neurology Rehabilitation of Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Thirty newborn 2- to 5- day inbred Japanese rabbits, weighing about 50 g, of either gender, were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Jilin University. Bilirubin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody were purchased from Sigma Corporation, USA.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory for children neuro-rehabilitation, Jiamusi University between September 2002 and December 2005. ①Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 2groups: control group (n =10) and model group (n =20). ②Bilirubin of 100 mg/kg was given to the rabbits of model group through intraperitoneal injection, once every other day, 3 times totally; The same amount of normal saline was given to the rabbits of control group. After injection, the newborn rabbits had been fed by maternal milk for 45 days. ③TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra and corpora striatum in each area of0.15 mm ×0.15 mm were counted. Uitrastructures of substantia nigra and corpora striatum were observed under the electron miscroscope. The concentration of bilirubin in brain tissue of CP rabbits of model group was measured with high performance liquid chromatogram.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative analysis results and ultrastructure of TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra and corpora striatum in two groups.RESULTS: Thirty newborn rabbits were involved, 6

  13. Comprehensive description of newborn distress behavior in response to acute pain (newborn male circumcision). (United States)

    Warnock, Fay; Sandrin, Dilma


    One of the most difficult challenges still facing researchers and clinicians is assessing pain in the newborn. Behaviors provide one of the most promising avenues for deepening our fundamental understanding of complex phenomenon like newborn pain, and are key to developing descriptive-level knowledge to further newborn pain assessment efforts. In this ethologically based research, we report on the duration and frequency of neonatal distress behavior to seven distinct noxious and non-noxious but distress-provoking events including baseline (diaper change, post-diaper change, application of arm and leg restraints, post-application of arm and leg restraints, circumcision, post-circumcision) associated with newborn surgical pain. Approximately 67 min of videotaped data, involving four neonates who had undergone newborn male circumcision, were coded at 1-s intervals (4010 s in total). A reliably established coding scheme was used to code behaviors as they were observed on videotape for the duration of the seven designated events. This led to the identification of (1) 40 distress behaviors as they occurred along the continuum of distress, (2) eight distress behaviors specific to surgery, (3) 11 classes of behaviors occurring within the five sub-phases of circumcision, and (4) a description of 25 distinct post-distress behaviors. Findings support the ability to distinguish distress behaviors specific to pain and the ability to detect prolonged distress as well as individual differences in distress-related pain expression. Findings also justify ongoing use of ethological approaches to further newborn pain assessment and to investigate poorly understood topics such as infant self-regulation within the context of pain (pain recovery).

  14. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn. (United States)


    Prevention of early vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) of the newborn, with onset at birth to 2 weeks of age (formerly known as classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn), by oral or parenteral administration of vitamin K is accepted practice. In contrast, late VKDB, with onset from 2 to 12 weeks of age, is most effectively prevented by parenteral administration of vitamin K. Earlier concern regarding a possible causal association between parenteral vitamin K and childhood cancer has not been substantiated. This revised statement presents updated recommendations for the use of vitamin K in the prevention of early and late VKDB.

  15. Hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (United States)

    Kaur, P; Tan, K K


    A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.

  16. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury


    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta


    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  17. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  18. Pain assessment and management in the newborn infant. (United States)

    Jorgensen, K M


    Managing the pain of a newborn is both complex and challenging because of the subtlety of pain expression in these patients and their vulnerability. This article provides an overview of the physiology of pain in the newborn, addresses pain assessment and pain-assessment tools, explores both nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches to pain management, and finally, lays the responsibility for pain management in the newborn squarely in the lap of the professional.

  19. High compliance with newborn community-to-facility referral in eastern opportunity to improve newborn survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kayemba Nalwadda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seventy-five percent of newborn deaths happen in the first-week of life, with the highest risk of death in the first 24-hours after birth.WHO and UNICEF recommend home-visits for babies in the first-week of life to assess for danger-signs and counsel caretakers for immediate referral of sick newborns. We assessed timely compliance with newborn referrals made by community-health workers (CHWs, and its determinants in Iganga and Mayuge Districts in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: A historical cohort study design was used to retrospectively follow up newborns referred to health facilities between September 2009 and August 2011. Timely compliance was defined as caretakers of newborns complying with CHWs' referral advice within 24-hours. RESULTS: A total of 724 newborns were referred by CHWs of whom 700 were successfully traced. Of the 700 newborns, 373 (53% were referred for immunization and postnatal-care, and 327 (47% because of a danger-sign. Overall, 439 (63% complied, and of the 327 sick newborns, 243 (74% caretakers complied with the referrals. Predictors of referral compliance were; the newborn being sick at the time of referral- Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.3, and 95% Confidence-Interval (CI of [1.6 - 3.5], the CHW making a reminder visit to the referred newborn shortly after referral (AOR =1.7; 95% CI: [1.2 -2.7]; and age of mother (25-29 and (30-34 years, (AOR =0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8] and (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8] respectively. CONCLUSION: Caretakers' newborn referral compliance was high in this setting. The newborn being sick, being born to a younger mother and a reminder visit by the CHW to a referred newborn were predictors of newborn referral compliance. Integration of CHWs into maternal and newborn care programs has the potential to increase care seeking for newborns, which may contribute to reduction of newborn mortality.

  20. Kindergarten Animation (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig


    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  1. Animal Detectives (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly


    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  2. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  3. Microglia engulf viable newborn cells in the epileptic dentate gyrus. (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji


    Microglia, which are the brain's resident immune cells, engulf dead neural progenitor cells during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The number of newborn cells in the SGZ increases significantly after status epilepticus (SE), but whether and how microglia regulate the number of newborn cells after SE remain unclear. Here, we show that microglia rapidly eliminate newborn cells after SE by primary phagocytosis, a process by which viable cells are engulfed, thereby regulating the number of newborn cells that are incorporated into the DG. The number of newborn cells in the DG was increased at 5 days after SE in the adult mouse brain but rapidly decreased to the control levels within a week. During this period, microglia in the DG were highly active and engulfed newborn cells. We found that the majority of engulfed newborn cells were caspase-negative viable cells. Finally, inactivation of microglia with minocycline maintained the increase in the number of newborn cells after SE. Furthermore, minocycline treatment after SE induced the emergence of hilar ectopic granule cells. Thus, our findings suggest that microglia may contribute to homeostasis of the dentate neurogenic niche by eliminating excess newborn cells after SE via primary phagocytosis. GLIA 2016;64:1508-1517.

  4. [Pain in the newborn: a challenge for nursing practice]. (United States)

    Seixas Silva, Ana Maria


    Literature review with the objective of searching nurses' articles concerning non-pharmacological strategies for pain relief in Newborns. Being a pain relief a right of Newborn and nurses' responsibility, it's necessary to know how to do it, like the following forms: non-nutritive sucking as administration of glucose, massages, the reduction of stimuli, among others. The research was done in January of 2013 with the following keywords: "pain", "newborn", "non-pharmacological strategies", "nursing". All of the selected studies are unanimous in affirming the efficacy of glucose in pain control. We suggest the development of protocols to assist in the decision of the pain's process of the newborn.

  5. Animal experimentation. (United States)

    Kolar, Roman


    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  6. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L


    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  7. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  8. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects). (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B


    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  9. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region. (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L


    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  10. Omeprazole Attenuates Pulmonary Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Potentiates Hyperoxia-Induced Developmental Lung Injury in Newborn Mice (United States)

    Shivanna, Binoy; Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula


    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in human preterm infants and a similar lung phenotype characterized by alveolar simplification in newborn mice. Omeprazole (OM) is a proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat humans with gastric acid related disorders. OM-mediated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation attenuates acute hyperoxic lung injury (HLI) in adult mice. Whether OM activates pulmonary AhR and protects C57BL/6J newborn mice against hyperoxia-induced developmental lung (alveolar and pulmonary vascular simplification, inflammation, and oxidative stress) injury (HDLI) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will activate pulmonary AhR and mitigate HDLI in newborn mice. Newborn mice were treated daily with i.p. injections of OM at doses of 10 (OM10) or 25 (OM25) mg/kg while being exposed to air or hyperoxia (FiO2 of 85%) for 14 days, following which their lungs were harvested to determine alveolarization, pulmonary vascularization, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular injury, and AhR activation. To our surprise, hyperoxia-induced alveolar and pulmonary vascular simplification, inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular injury were augmented in OM25-treated animals. These findings were associated with attenuated pulmonary vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression and decreased pulmonary AhR activation in the OM25 group. We conclude that contrary to our hypothesis, OM decreases functional activation of pulmonary AhR and potentiates HDLI in newborn mice. These observations are consistent with our previous findings, which suggest that AhR activation plays a protective role in HDLI in newborn mice. PMID:26272953

  11. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn (United States)

    Moralioğlu, Serdar; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah; Şahin, Ceyhan


    Paraurethral or Skene's duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene's duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene's duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage. PMID:24049387

  12. Neonatal occipital alopecia in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac


    Full Text Available A newborn, male gender, born at term, APGAR 10, was addressed to us for occipital alopecia observed since birth (Fig. 1. Mother was a young health person of 25 years old, primipara and the birth was non-Caesarian delivery. Alopecia was confirmed in the occipital area, with no signs of inflammation or other dermatological problems on the whole body. A diagnosis of frictional/pressure occipital alopecia was admitted and the family was reassured of the absence of any inquiry.

  13. Idiopathic esophagopleural fistula in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannaccone, G.; Cozzi, F.; Roggini, M.; Capocaccia, P.


    Idiopathic rupture of the esophagus in the neonate is a rare event, probably related to the same mechanism of ischemic necrosis responsible for other 'spontaneous' g.i. tract perforations in the newborn. The laceration is usually located on the right aspect of the distal esophagus and is complicated by esophagopleural fistula and hydropneumothorax. Plain chest film and esophagography are diagnostic. The condition is an emergency one and usually carries a bad prognosis without prompt surgical repair. A typical case is reported in a baby who survived without early surgery; a residual tiny blind pouch and a small hiatal hernia required surgery at 1 year of age.

  14. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  15. Newborn care practices and home-based postnatal newborn care programme – Mewat, Haryana, India, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Nath Sinha


    Full Text Available Background: In India, the Home Based Postnatal Newborn Care programme by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs under the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in 2011 to reduce neonatal mortality rates (NMRs. ASHAs get cash incentives for six postnatal home visits for newborn care. We studied newborn care practices among mothers in Mewat, Haryana, having a high NMR and determined risk factors for unsafe practices and described the knowledge and skills of ASHAs during home visits. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers who had delivered a child during the previous seven months using cluster sampling. We interviewed mothers and ASHAs in the selected subcentres using semi–structured questionnaires on the six safe newborn care practices, namely safe breastfeeding, keeping cord and eyes clean, wrapping baby, kangaroo care, delayed bathing and hand washing. Results: We interviewed 320 mothers, 61 ASHAs and observed 19 home visits. Overall, 60% of mothers adopted less than three safe practices. Wrapping newborns (96% and delayed bathing (64% were better adopted than cord care (49%, safe breastfeeding (48%, hand washing (30%, kangaroo care (20% and eye care (9%. Cultural beliefs and traditional birth attendants influenced the mother’s practices. The lack of supervision by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM, delayed referral and transportation were the other challenges. Conclusion: Knowledge–practice gaps existed among mothers counselled by ASHAs. Poor utilization of reproductive and child health services decreased opportunities for ASHA–mother dialogue on safe practices. Recommendations included training ANMs, training TBAs as ASHAs, innovative communication strategies for ASHAs and improved referral system.

  16. Responses to converting-enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage in newborn lambs and adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J.C.; Block, S.M.; Flowe, K.; Morris, M.; South, S.; Sundberg, D.K.; Zimmerman, C.


    The authors compared the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage of 20% of blood volume in chronically instrumented unanesthetized newborn lambs and adult sheep. Administration of the nonsulfhydryl-containing converting-enzyme inhibitor enalapril reduced mean arterial pressure in the newborn but not in the adult animals. Blood pressure fell in both age groups after hemorrhage, and the hemorrhage-induced fall in blood pressure, integrated over the period of hypovolemia, was more pronounced when converting-enzyme inhibition was present in the lambs. This was not observed in the adults. Cardiac output fell following hemorrhage in both age groups, and the fall was greater when enalapril was present in the lambs, but this was not the case in the adults. Hemorrhage increased plasma renin activity in both groups, and enalapril augmented this increase. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, measured by radioimmunoassay, and catecholamines measured by radio enzymatic assay, increased following hemorrhage within and between groups. Taken together these data suggest that the renin-angiotensin systems plays a more important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in newborn lambs than it does in adult sheep, and catecholamine and vasopressin responses to volume loss can occur in the presence of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

  17. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations. (United States)

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  18. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A. (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  19. Genetic susceptibility of newborn daughters to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decordier, Ilse; De Bont, Kelly; De Bock, Kirsten


    of a newborn as compared to his mother for oxidative DNA damage. We compared the in vitro genetic susceptibility for H2O2 in PBMC of 17 mother-newborn daughter pairs taking into account genotypes for relevant DNA repair (hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD) and folate metabolism (MTHFR) polymorphisms. After in vitro...

  20. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene


    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  1. Discomfort and pain in newborns with myelomeningocele: A prospective evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Ottenhoff (Myrthe); R. Dammers (Ruben); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin); D. Tibboel (Dick); T.H. Rob De Jong (T.)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: In a worldwide debate on deliberately terminating the lives of newborns, proponents point at newborns with very severe forms of myelomeningocele (MMC) and their assumed suffering, claiming there are no effective means of alleviating their distress. Nevertheless, the degree of

  2. Radiological diagnostics of birth trauma in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Анатолійович Коломійченко


    Full Text Available Aim of the work. To analyze indices of the different radiological methods and to compare it.Materials and methods. The newborns with spinal trauma (n=33 were analyzed, the children who have been excluded this diagnosis (n=27 formed the control group. All children underwent the radiography of cervical spine, the part of them – MRT and USG. There was carried out the visual assessment and analysis of metrical indices.Results. Patients were separated into groups of heaviness, 16 patients with slight degree, 10 with middle one and 7 with heavy degree of injury. At all methods the width of the Cruveilhier joint fissure in children with an injury of upper cervical spine reliably (р<0,001 differs from the one in the control group, and was detected the moderate correlation (r>0,4.When using radiology and MRT in children with traumatic injures the width of prevertebral soft tissues was reliably more and the degree of reliability was higher at radiology (р<0,001, than at MRT (р<0,01. The correlations between the width of soft tissues and the degree of heaviness were detected at all levels at radiography and only at the level C1 at MRT.Conclusions. An analysis demonstrated the different degree of importance of some indices for detecting injuries of the upper cervical spine in newborns. There was also proved that the metrical data of the different methods not reliably differ

  3. Screening of the hearing of newborns - Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus


    Full Text Available Introduction: Permanent congenital bilateral hearing loss (CHL of moderate or greater degree (≥40 dB HL is a rare disease, with a prevalence of about 1 to 3 per 1000 births. However, it is one of the most frequent congenital diseases. Reliance on physician observation and parental recognition has not been successful in the past in detecting significant hearing loss in the first year of life. With this strategy significant hearing losses have been detected in the second year of life. With two objective technologies based on physiologic response to sound, otoacoustic emissions (OAE and auditory brainstem response (ABR hearing screening in the first days of life is made possible. Objectives: The objective of this health technology assessment report is to update the evaluation on clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs. Universal newborn hearing screening (UHNS (i, selective screening of high risk newborns (ii, and the absence of a systematic screening program are compared for age at identification and age at hearing aid fitting of children with hearing loss. Secondly the potential benefits of early intervention are analysed. Costs and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs are determined. This report is intended to make a contribution to the decision making whether and under which conditions a newborn hearing screening program should be reimbursed by the statutory sickness funds in Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment report updates a former health technology assessment (Kunze et al. 2004 [1]. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, based on a documented search and selection of the literature using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and a documented extraction and appraisal of the included studies. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the different screening strategies in Germany the decision analytic Markov state model which had been developed in

  4. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants. (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P


    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  5. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  6. A method for the immortalization of newborn mouse skin keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna O Hammiller


    Full Text Available Isolation and culture of mouse primary epidermal keratinocytes is a common technique that allows for easy genetic and environmental manipulation. However, due to their limited lifespan in culture, experiments utilizing primary keratinocytes require large numbers of animals, and are time consuming and expensive. To avoid these issues, we developed a method for the immortalization of primary mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Upon isolation of newborn epidermal keratinocytes according to established methods, the cells were cultured long-term in keratinocyte growth factor-containing medium. The cells senesced within a few weeks and eventually, small, slowly growing colonies emerged. After they regained confluency, the cells were passaged and slowly refilled the dish. With several rounds of subculture, the cells adapted to culture conditions, were easily subcultured, maintained normal morphology, and were apparently immortal. The immortalized cells retained the ability to differentiate with increased calcium concentrations, and were maintained to high passage numbers, while maintaining a relatively stable karyotype. Analysis of multiple immortalized cell lines as well as primary keratinocyte cultures, revealed increased numbers of chromosomes, especially in the primary keratinocytes, and chromosomal aberrations in most of the immortalized cultures and in the primary keratinocytes. Orthotopic grafting of immortalized keratinocytes together with fibroblasts onto nude mouse hosts produced skin while v-rasHa infection of the immortalized keratinocytes prior to grafting produced squamous cell carcinoma. In summary, this method of cell line generation allows for decreased use of animals, reduces the expense and time involved in research, and provides a useful model for cutaneous keratinocyte experimentation.

  7. Bluetongue: control, surveillance and safe movement of animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose


    The performance of different bluetongue control measures related to both vaccination and protection from bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors was assessed. By means of a mathematical model, it was concluded that when vaccination is applied on 95% of animals even for 3 years, bluetongue cannot...... it was highlighted that under the current surveillance policy bluetongue circulation might occur undetected. For the safe movement of animals, newborn ruminants from vaccinated mothers with neutralising antibodies can be considered protected against infection, although a protective titre threshold cannot...... be identified. The presence of colostral antibodies interferes with the vaccine immunisation in the newborn for more than 3 months after birth, whereas the minimum time after vaccination of animal to be considered immune can be up to 48 days. The knowledge about vectors ecology, mechanisms of over...

  8. Animal house


    Turka, Laurence A.


    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  9. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  10. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of human newborns' B lymphocytes. (United States)

    Durandy, A; Thuillier, L; Forveille, M; Fischer, A


    It has been demonstrated two major facts concerning human newborns' B lymphocytes: 1) they differentiate poorly into Ig-producing cells and 2) they express CD5 and CD1c membrane proteins. We have further analyzed human newborns' B cell characteristics and found that approximately half of them express activation Ag, i.e., 4F2 and IL-2R, both associated in significant proportions with CD23 and Bac-1. These membrane Ag were found both on CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. Newborns' B cells do not exhibit other activation markers because they express surface IgD, and because their size, RNA, and DNA contents do not differ from those of adults' B cells, indicating that they are in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Newborns' B cell proliferation can be induced by rIL-2, rIL-4, low m.w. B cell growth factor, and by Staphylococcus aureus protein A. It is presently difficult to build a hypothesis accounting for all the specific findings made on newborns' B cells. It is not known for instance whether CD5(+) and (-) B cells belong to distinct subsets as suggested by the fluorescence intensity curve obtained with an anti-CD5 antibody or to distinct stages in a unique pattern of B cell maturation during fetal and newborn life. This may indicate that partially activated B cells actually produce natural polyspecific autoantibodies of the IgM isotype found in newborns' human serum.

  11. [Increased incidence of developmental hip dysplasia in hypertrophic newborn infants]. (United States)

    Peschgens, T; Skopnik, H; Casser, H R; Rauschning-Sikora, K; Heimann, G


    "Lack of space" in utero is considered to be a major factor in the aetiology of the congenital dislocation of the hip. This study tries to answer the question whether hypertrophy of a newborn has to be regarded as a risk factor on the basis of the principle mentioned above. The results of postnatal clinical and sonographical examination performed on 98 large-for-gestational-age (LGA-) newborn were compared to those performed on 310 newborn children during a non selective screening program. Among the LGA-newborn pathological hip joints were found more often mainly female LGA-newborn infants were affected. It seemed that the birth weight did not correlate to the extent of the retardation of the hip joint development. It was again confirmed that the restriction to only clinical diagnostic procedures in the neonatal period is not effective in the early diagnosis of the malformation. Hypertrophy of a newborn has to be considered as a risk factor behind the development of congenital dislocation of the hip. It is recommended to examine all LGA-newborn infants post partum by clinical and most importantly also by sonographical means to recognize a retardation of hip joint development.

  12. Newborn infants detect the beat in music. (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan


    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  13. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar


    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  14. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho


    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  15. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hissa


    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  16. Systematic review: intravenous Ibuprofen in preterm newborns. (United States)

    Aranda, J V; Thomas, Ronald


    Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, widely used as antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and analgesic agent and for therapy of arthritis, exerts a dose-dependent constriction of the ductus arteriosus in newborn lambs. Two intravenous preparations, namely ibuprofen lysine and ibuprofen-THAM, have been studied in preterm newborns with patent ductus arteriosus. Clinical trials have compared IV ibuprofen to placebo, or to indomethacin. Pharmacodynamic effects of this drug before and after its administration have also been evaluated. Compared with placebo, IV ibuprofen effectively closed PDA with minimal effect on renal function. One study using intravenous ibuprofen-THAM showed decreased renal function and increased risk of NEC and PPHN. Compared with indomethacin, IV ibuprofen lysine exerted similar efficacy (75% to 93% closure). However, indomethacin increased abnormal renal function and decreased mesenteric and cerebral blood flow and bio-energetics. Two clinical trials showed that ibuprofen did not reduce the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage compared with placebo. The drug has prolonged elimination (plasma half-life = ca 23 hours), suggesting that once daily dosing is appropriate. Dose finding studies indicate that a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by 5 mg/kg/d for 2 more days provides optimal efficacy with the least adverse effects. Neonatal data on ibuprofen and indomethacin indicate that, on the first day of life when IVH prevention is desired, indomethacin and not ibuprofen should be used since ibuprofen has no effect on IVH risk. On or after the second day of postnatal life, when early or therapeutic PDA closure is needed, ibuprofen and not indomethacin is probably the first choice due to its better adverse event profile.

  17. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants. (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R


    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  18. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  19. VIP and PACAP 38 modulate ibotenate-induced neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex. (United States)

    Gressens, P; Arquié, C; Hill, J M; Marret, S; Sahir, N; Robberecht, P; Evrard, P


    Intracerebral administration of ibotenate produces, through activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex: high doses of ibotenate induce periventricular and subcortical neuronal heterotopias, while low doses of ibotenate produce intracortical heterotopias and molecular layer ectopias. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are closely related peptides with neurotrophic properties. They share common VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, which use cAMP as a second messenger. Previous studies have shown that VIP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and exacerbates glutamate-induced c-fos neuronal expression. In order to gain new insight into the molecular control of neuronal migration, the present study examined the effects of VIP and PACAP on ibotenate-induced heterotopias in the newborn hamster. Co-treatment with VIP and a high dose of ibotenate produced a pattern of neuronal heterotopias similar to the one observed in animals treated with low doses of ibotenate alone. Pups co-injected with a low dose of ibotenate and a VIP antagonist displayed cortical dysgeneses similar to those observed in animals treated with high doses of ibotenate alone. The modulating effects of VIP on excitotoxin-induced heterotopias were mimicked by forskolin, PACAP, and by a specific VPAC2 receptor agonist but not by a VPAC1 agonist, and were blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that VIP and PACAP can attenuate ibotenate-induced heterotopias in newborn hamster and that this effect is mediated by the VPAC2 receptor utilizing the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  20. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: Su Recien Nacido. (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn). (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  1. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns. (United States)

    Ditzenberger, Georgia


    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns.

  2. Multifocal Group B Streptococcal Infection in a Newborn: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Öztekin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Group B streptococci cause sepsis and other infections in newborns very early in life (early-onset sepsis and also later (late-onset sepsis in the newborn period.Case Report: A case of multifocal group B streptococcal infection with sepsis, meningitis, ventriculitis, osteomyelitis and abscesses in a newborn infant was reported. Ventriculitis is often thought of as a secondary complication of acute group B streptococcal meningitis.Conclusion: Multifocal group B streptococcal infection is rare and group B streptococcal ventriculitis should be suspected in cases that are refractory to treatment or in patients who later develop hydrocephalus. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 141-4

  3. [Complex etiology of acute renal failure in a newborn]. (United States)

    Krzemień, Grazyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Bieroza, Iwona; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria


    Acute renal failure (ARF), which is diagnosed in 3.4-20% of newborns, is polyetiological in most cases. We present a newborn with non-oliguric ARF diagnosed in the first day of life, and caused by asphixia, intrauterine infection (IUI) and nephrotoxic effects of metotrexate treatment during pregnancy. Antibiotics, including netilmicin and vankomycin, were given because of IUI and infected central venous catheter. Dosage of drugs was adjusted to renal failure parameters, but monitoring of their serum levels was not available. It could cause augmented acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Analysis of ARF risk factors in newborns helps in early diagnosis of renal damage and in prompt implementation of therapy.

  4. [Functional state feature of erythrocytes in healthy term newborn infants]. (United States)

    Evsiukova, I I; Iakushenko, N S; Andreeva, A A; Shevel'kova, A A; Kolesova, T A; Katiukhin, L N; Dobrylko, I A; Mandukshev, I V


    Hematological parameters and functional status of erythrocytes were studied by the osmotic and ammonium loads in healthy newborns and in adults. Mean erythrocyte volume of newborns more than in adults. Significant difference index of osmotic fragility of neonates were observed in the transition from swelling to hemolysis. Kinetic of erythrocyte's hemolysis in the ammonium load was studied by low-angle light scattering (LaSca-analyzer). The percentage of erythrocyte hemolysis is lower and the velocity of hemolysis is 2.5 times slower in newborns than in adults.

  5. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron


    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  6. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971? (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold J.


    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  7. Sun protection in newborns. A comparison of educational methods. (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Berwick, M; Fine, J A; Simpson, P; Jasmin, M


    We investigated the effect of education on the sun exposure of newborns. Mothers of healthy newborns (n = 275) were enrolled in the spring of 1989 and interviewed by telephone in the fall of 1989. The mothers were divided into a control group, a low-level intervention group, and a high-level intervention group. Both the low-level and high-level interventions succeeded in reducing the amount of time the newborns were allowed to spend in direct sunlight. Both types of intervention also resulted in reduced sun exposure time for the mothers. Although the number of mothers who used sunscreen was approximately the same in all three groups, when sunscreen use was controlled for, the intervention groups spent significantly less unprotected time in the sun than the control group. The mothers and newborns in both intervention groups simply spent less time outdoors.

  8. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and large ovarian cyst in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derinkuyu, Betul E.; Boyunaga, Oznur [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Sezin; Ergenekon, Ebru [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Ucar, Murat [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)


    We report a case of a newborn girl with neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and a large ovarian cyst. She also had melanocyte deposition in the filum terminale. The ultrasound and the magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows (United States)

    ... page: Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  10. Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn (United States)

    ... page: Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn Baby ... birth defect linked to fetal exposure to the Zika virus, state health officials say. According to a ...

  11. Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The article, Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs, 2002-2009, Implications For the Future, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of Medicare and Medicaid...

  12. Values of fathers for themselves and their newborns. (United States)

    Minton, Judith; Shell, Juanita; Solomon, Linda Zener


    The paternal role has been neglected in parenting research. The present study focused on the values of fathers of newborns. Values of fathers of newborns drawn from the inner-city lower-class were compared with values of fathers of newborns drawn from the middle class. Highest goals of fathers from both groups for themselves were economic ('family security'); values for their children were morally focused ('honest'). Inner-city fathers placed a higher value on a clean and obedient child, whereas middle-class fathers placed a higher value on a loving and imaginative child. When values of these fathers were compared with values of a similar sample of mothers of newborns, socioeconomic status remained an important predictor of values. Sex of parent was significant in the inner-city sample as these fathers placed a higher valuation on goals associated with autonomy than did inner-city mothers.

  13. Animal Testing (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  14. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción


    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  15. [intensive Phototherapy Treatment For Severe Haemolytic Disease Of The Newborn


    Facchini, F P; BIANCHI, M. de O.; Silva, B A


    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the use of alternative treatment methods in hemolytic disease of newborn to replace common early exchange transfusion. METHODS: Case report of newborn with intensive Rh incompatibility treated with intensive phototherapy, plus phenobarbital instead of traditional early exchange transfusion.RESULTS: The neonatés cord blood showed 9.2 mg/dL of total bilirubin and 39% hematocrit. He was medicated with phenobarbital and intensive phototherapy at once. There was a rapid growi...

  16. [Hyperlipidemias as a coronary risk factor in the newborn]. (United States)

    Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S


    This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.

  17. Nurses' attitudes and knowledge of their roles in newborn abandonment. (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K


    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to "abandon" her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.

  18. Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Critically Ill Mexican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-González Isabel MSc


    Full Text Available Inborn errors of intermediary metabolism (IEiM are complex diseases with high clinical heterogeneity, and some patients who have severe enzyme deficiencies or are subjected to stress (catabolism/infections actually decompensate in the neonatal period. In this study, we performed metabolic tests on 2025 newborns in Mexico admitted to 35 neonatal intensive care units or emergency wards (NICUs/EWs over a 6-year period, in whom a metabolic disorder was clinically suspected. Of these 2025 newborns with sickness, 11 had IEiM, revealing a prevalence of 1:184. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the newborns with confirmed IEiM are shown. Of these 11 patients, 4 had isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 3 had maple syrup urine disease, 2 had urea cycle disorders, 1 had 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia, and 1 had isovaleric acidemia. During the first week of life (average 3 days, all of these newborns presented with impaired alertness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and vomiting along with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia. Of the 11 newborns with IEiM, 7 died, leading to a mortality rate of 64%. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of newborns admitted to the NICU/EW must include IEiM, requiring systematic screening of this population.

  19. Septic arthritis in the newborn and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe R.


    Full Text Available Introduction Septic arthritis represents an intra-articular infection caused by pyogenic bacteria. During the earliest childhood it is considered to be a systemic septic condition and demands early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients with septic arthritis treated at the Department of Orthopedics of the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad, over a 10-year period. We are also presenting a case of a 12-day-old newborn baby, with clear radiological signs of osteoarthritis of the right knee. Results A retrospective study included the period 1991-2000, and showed that 15 patients, aged 10 days - 12 months were treated for osteoarthritis. The most common localization was the hip, in 60% of cases. In 11 patients the causative agent was Staphylococcus aureus while in the 4 remaining patients the bacteriologic finding was negative. One patient died of generalized sepsis. Discussion In neonates and infants septic arthritis is characterized by atypical clinical picture, often causing delayed diagnosis. In the initial phases of the disease ultrasonographic findings were of greater use compared to radiological imaging, due to relatively late appearance of radiological signs of disease. Conclusions Due to possible development of serious and irreversible damage, even lethal outcome, septic arthritis requires early diagnosis, prompt administration of antibiotics and early surgical treatment. It is a quite unique area in Pediatric Orthopedics where missed or delayed diagnosis may have serious consequences.

  20. Magistral drugs in hospitalized newborns and children (United States)

    Pereira, Agueda Cabral de Souza; Miranda, Elaine Silva; de Castilho, Selma Rodrigues; Futuro, Débora Omena; Teixeira, Lenise Arneiro; de Paula, Geraldo Renato


    Abstract Objective: Study the use of magistral oral solutions and suspensions in infants and children at a university hospital. Methods: This is a descriptive study based on the analysis of the assessed hospital's magistral drug request forms regarding the patients in the neonatal ICU, Obstetrics, Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency from January 2012 to December 2013. The frequency of drug requests and dispensation was evaluated and the consumption of each active ingredient of the preparations was expressed as number of “infant defined daily dose” (iDDD) and of iDDD/100 bed-days. Results: A total of 657 forms were analyzed - a monthly average of 27 pediatric preparations. The neonatal ICU accounted for 69.6% of these requests. Twenty-one drug items were used, of which the most common were folinic acid (88 requests), sulfadiazine (85) and captopril (73). The consumption of the active principle in these preparations varied in number of iDDD, from 7.5 (hydralazine) to 16,520.0 (folic acid), and in number of iDDD/100 bed-days in the neonatal ICU, from 0.1 (zinc sulfate) to 146.1 (folic acid). Conclusions: The constant consumption of magistral oral solutions and suspensions by newborns and children of the assessed hospital indicates the need for such preparations as a pediatric therapeutic alternative in this hospital. PMID:27131897

  1. Newborn Screening for Krabbe’s Disease (United States)

    Orsini, Joseph J.; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Gelb, Michael H.; Caggana, Michele


    Live newborn screening for Krabbe’s disease (KD) was initiated in New York on August 7, 2006, and started in Missouri in August, 2012. As of August 7, 2015, nearly 2.5 million infants had been screened, and 443 (0.018%) infants had been referred for followup clinical evaluation; only five infants had been determined to have KD. As of August, 2015, the combined incidence of infantile KD in New York and Missouri is ~1 per 500,000; however, patients who develop later-onset forms of KD may still emerge. This Review provides an overview of the processes used to develop the screening and followup algorithms. It also includes updated results from screening and discussion of observations, lessons learned, and suggested areas for improvement that will reduce referral rates and the number of infants defined as at risk for later-onset forms of KD. Although current treatment options for infants with early-infantile Krabbe’s disease are not curative, over time treatment options should improve; in the meantime, it is essential to evaluate the lessons learned and to ensure that screening is completed in the best possible manner until these improvements can be realized. PMID:27638592

  2. Relationship between Notch Receptors and Hyperoxia-induced Lung Injury in Newborn Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To investigate role of Notch1-3 in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in newborn rat exposed to 85% O2, SD rat litters born on the 22th day were randomly divided into two groups: room air group and hyperoxia group. The animals were sacrificed 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after continued exposure to oxygen (n=40, oxygen>0.85) or room air (n=40). 6 rats each group were used to assess lung histological changes by HE staining and expression of Notch in lungs by immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was extracted by Trizol reagent from frozen lung tissues. Notch mRNA were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that 7, 14 and 21 days after O2 exposure, hyperoxia group showed lung injury characterized by pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and lung development arrest. Positive staining for Notch1,Notch 2 in hyperoxia group was much lower than those in room air group at all time points (P<0.01, P<0.05), but compared with the controls, the hyperoxia group showed higher expression of Notch3 (P>0.05). Immunostained cells were typically airways epithelia, alveolar epithelial and inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts in hyperoxia group (P<0.01). Notch mRNA levels showed similar change as protein level (P< 0.01). It is concluded that the prolonged exposure to 85 % O2 resulted in abnormal expression of Notch receptors, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in newborn rats. The decreased inhibition of Notch1 might be one of the protective reaction and major mechanisms for proliferation/differentiation of type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells. The up-regulation of Notch3 activity might result in the lung development arrest of the newborn rats.

  3. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights. (United States)

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  4. Animating Brains (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius


    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  5. Animal welfare: an animal science approach. (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T


    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  6. Congenital chylothorax in newborn with trisomy 21. (United States)

    Lomauri, Kh


    Neonatal chylothorax results from the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space and may be either congenital or an acquired condition. Congenital chylothorax is most likely due to abnormal development or obstruction of the lymphatic system. It is often associated with hydrops fetalis. It can be idiopathic or may be associated with various chromosomal anomalies including Trisomy 21, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and other genetic abnormalities. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia and generalized lymphangiomatosis have also been reported to be associated with congenital chylothorax. Several case reports indicate that congenital chylothorax can recur in subsequent offspring, suggesting a possible underlying genetic etiology. It is important to identify infants with chylothorax, as there are specific issues that need to be addressed in the management of these patients. We present a case of newborn with trysomy 21 (trisomy 21 was diagnosed antenatally by amniocentesis with support of Association "Perinatology"), who developed moderate Respiratory Distress Syndrome, chest X-ray and US reveal pleural effusion on right side rapid intervention was made before deterioration, requiring intensive life-saving measures. In the neonate, chylous effusion is not a common cause of pleural effusions. It is characterized as an exudate because of the high protein and lipid content once the infant is fed. The fluid will be clear/yellow to slightly cloudy in the unfed state and will quickly become milky following feeding, as chylomicrons appear in the fluid. Lymphocytes predominate in the differential cell count of chyle. The volume of fluid output can be high, and management can be challenging. We review the common manifestations of congenital chylotoraxes and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in preventing devastating outcomes from this condition.

  7. Off-label drug in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin


    Full Text Available The lack of specific drugs and labelling recommendations for the neonatal population is a long-standing problem throughout the world. With the introduction of the Paediatric Regulation in 2007, in Europe tangible steps have been made to increase clinical research in children, but only a limited number of clinical trials included neonates that remain therapeutic orphans. This leads to a widespread use of medicines outside the terms indicated in the product license (off-label as regards dose, route of administration, indication, age group or in an unlicensed manner (formulations modified, extemporaneous preparations, imported medicines, chemicals used as drugs. This use, often made on the basis of a consolidated clinical experience in absence of other authorized options, does not imply that a drug is contraindicated or disapproved, but simply means that insufficient data are available to grant approval status and the risks and benefits of using a drug in a particular situation have not been examined. Given the importance that neonatal population not be denied of drugs that are clearly beneficial, an updated overview of the worldwide situation of off-label and unlicensed drug use in the newborn will be presented, by analyzing also the impact of recent legislative initiatives and the well recognized problems (increased risk of ineffective or toxic treatments, adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Hypotension in Newborn Infants and Its Treatment

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    Fahrettin Uysal


    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension is a common complication of sick premature infants and may be associated with major adverse outcomes, including intraventricular hemorrhage, neuro-developmental morbidity, and mortality. There is no consensus among neonatologists regarding either the definition of hypotension or the lower threshold level of systemic arterial blood pressure in which neurological injury is inevitable. For this reason, there is a considerable variation in the reported prevalence of hypotension among different neonatal units. However, it is widely accepted by many of clinicians that early and aggressive treatment of hypotension in the neonates leads to improved neurologic outcome and survival. The goal of treatment of hypotension is to maintain adequate organ blood flow, particularly, cerebral blood flow. Because of difficulties in evaluating organ perfusion and adequacy of cerebral oxygen delivery, treatment decisions are based on statistically defined gestational and postnatal age-dependent normative blood-pressure values combined with clinical intuition. Current treatment of hypotension in the premature infant includes the use of volume expansions, inotropes, vasopressor agents and corticosteroids. It has been reported that dopamine, as a commonly used inotropic agents in the neonatal period, is more effective than dobutamine in the raising of blood pressure. Some hypotensive premature infants have low cortisol levels because of adrenocortical insufficiency, and corticosteroids are generally reserved for treatment of refractory hypotension of these infants; however, it is not recommended for prophylaxis or routine clinical use because of its potential serious side effects. This article aims to review some of the controversies about diagnosis and management of systemic hypotension in the newborn infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:68-76

  9. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil. (United States)

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza


    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  10. Vitamin D status of newborns in New Zealand. (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos A; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Thadhani, Ravi I; Silvers, Karen M; Epton, Michael J; Town, G Ian; Espinola, Janice A; Crane, Julian


    Recognition of the important non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D has focused attention on the vitamin D status of individuals across the lifespan. To examine the vitamin D status of newborns, we measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the cord blood of 929 apparently healthy newborns in a population-based study in New Zealand, a country at 41 °S latitude, with strong anti-skin cancer (sun avoidance) campaigns and without vitamin D food fortification. Randomly selected midwives in two regions recruited children. The median cord blood level of 25(OH)D was 44 nmol/l (interquartile range, 29-78 nmol/l). Overall, 19 % of newborns had 25(OH)D levels determinants of low vitamin D status were winter month of birth and non-European ethnicity. Other determinants of low cord blood 25(OH)D included longer gestational age, younger maternal age and a parental history of asthma. In summary, low levels of vitamin D are common among apparently healthy New Zealand newborns, and are independently associated with several easily identified factors. Although the optimal timing and dosage of vitamin D supplementation require further study, our findings may assist future efforts to correct low levels of 25(OH)D among New Zealand mothers and their newborn children.

  11. Newborns' cry melody is shaped by their native language. (United States)

    Mampe, Birgit; Friederici, Angela D; Christophe, Anne; Wermke, Kathleen


    Human fetuses are able to memorize auditory stimuli from the external world by the last trimester of pregnancy, with a particular sensitivity to melody contour in both music and language. Newborns prefer their mother's voice over other voices and perceive the emotional content of messages conveyed via intonation contours in maternal speech ("motherese"). Their perceptual preference for the surrounding language and their ability to distinguish between prosodically different languages and pitch changes are based on prosodic information, primarily melody. Adult-like processing of pitch intervals allows newborns to appreciate musical melodies and emotional and linguistic prosody. Although prenatal exposure to native-language prosody influences newborns' perception, the surrounding language affects sound production apparently much later. Here, we analyzed the crying patterns of 30 French and 30 German newborns with respect to their melody and intensity contours. The French group preferentially produced cries with a rising melody contour, whereas the German group preferentially produced falling contours. The data show an influence of the surrounding speech prosody on newborns' cry melody, possibly via vocal learning based on biological predispositions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟利; 钟美萍; 吴圣楣; 罗敏洁


    Objective To know the growth of the cerebellum in newborn infants. Methods The central vermian area (CVA) of the cerebellum was measured by head ultrasonography in 90 newborns including 65full- terms, 14 preterms and 11 small for gestational age infants (SGA). Results The average age of the newborn infants were 4.7d (3~7d). The mean CVA in full- terms was 5.8±0.8cm2, which was significantly greater than that in preterms (3.7±1.0cm2), and SGA (5.1±0.8cm2), respectively. However, when corrected for birth weight (BW), the ratio of CVA/BW in term SGA was 2.07, being significantly higher than the ratio of 1.72 in normal full-term newborns. There was no difference between male and female infants. Statistically significant relationships were found between CVA and BW (r=0.8129, P<0.01) and between CVA and gestational age (r=0.7450, P<0.01). Conclusion The study provide some understanding on the growth of the cerebellum, and the cerebellar measurement by cranial ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of neurological maturation in newborn infants.

  13. Newborn Body Indices in Housewives and Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Torabizadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare newborns anthropometric indices of housewives and employed women.Materials and Methods: This case control study compared newborns’ anthropometric indices (weight, length, head circumference and first minute APGAR between working women and housewives. Two hundred consecutive term pregnant women during active phase of labor without any pregnancy complications were evaluated. For each participant a questionnaire was filled by the researcher. Employed women according to their standing position during work time were divided into three groups: heavy, light and moderate jobs.   Results: The mean weight, length and head circumference of the newborns were higher in employed women (p=0.018, p<0.001, p=0.010, respectively. After eliminating effect of the interfering variables by using a general linear model, it was observed that the mother’s job has a direct influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight was similar in two groups (p=0.340. The newborn's anthropometric indices and first minute APGAR had not significant difference in subgroups of job difficulty.Conclusion: Maternal job has a direct positive influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight is not related to maternal job.

  14. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H


    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 µg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  15. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns. (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H


    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.

  16. Successful xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林乐岷; 宋一民; 宋纯; 许评; 宋春芳


    Objective To study the effect of xenotransplantation with pig parathyroid cells, which was prepared using cell microencapsulation technique, on the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats without immunosuppressor. Methods Parathyroid cells were isolated from 10 healthy newborn pigs and encapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) membranes. Thirty-two aparathyroid Wistar rats were randomly allocated to microcapsule, non-microcapsule, empty microcapsule, and control groups. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with encapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, free porcine parathyroid cells, empty capsules or 0.9% NaCl, respectively. Total serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were monitored continuously for 40 weeks. And then, the transplant beds were retrieved and subjected to morphologic and electron microscopic examination. Results In those animals xenotransplanted with microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, the calcium and PTH levels were consistently within the normal range during the 40 weeks. In contrast, no therapeutic effects were observed in rats in the non-microcapsule group. Furthermore, neither empty capsules nor 0.9% NaCl were shown to have any effect on the recipient's serum calcium or PTH levels. After 40 weeks, electron microscopic examination demonstrated that the parathyroid cells within the microcapsules had survived well in vivo. Conclusions Xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells can successfully treat hypoparathyroidism in rats without using immunosuppressive drugs. The results of this study show the possible clinical use of microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells.

  17. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells. (United States)

    Martin, Lee J; Katzenelson, Alyssa; Koehler, Raymond C; Chang, Qing


    The olfactory bulb (OB) periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC)/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs and NPCs suitable

  18. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J Martin

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs

  19. Influence of antepartum administration of immunopotentiators on reproductive efficacy of buffalo and viability of their newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Badr


    Full Text Available The authors determine the efficacy of prepartum immunopotentiators administered during late gestation on postpartum fertility, IgG levels and calf viability. Fifty buffalo were divided into five groups (10 animals in each group. Group I was the control group. Each animal in Group II received 30 ml intramuscularly of viteselen (1.7 mg sodium selenium and 150 mg vitamin E/ml. Each animal in Group III received a subcutaneous injection of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG at 0.5 ml. In Group IV, each animal received 12.5 ml of levamisole hydrochloride intramuscularly, while those in Group V received 10 ml of ultra-corn subcutaneously. The immunopotentiators were administered according to each group 60 days prior to the anticipated date of parturition. Postpartum fertility was assessed by close observation and rectal examination after parturition. Colostrum from the dams and sera from the newborn were collected to estimate the level of immunoglobulin (IgG. Body weight, growth rate and viability of the calves were recorded after parturition. Prepartum treatment with viteselen reduced the period of foetal membrane expulsion by 2 h compared to the other groups. Concomitantly, the uterine involution period was significantly shorter in animals treated with viteselen and ultra-corn than in the other groups. Injection of viteselen, BCG or ultra-corn significantly reduced the calving to the first oestrus interval and length of postpartum service period (by 57, 54, 48 days and 67, 57, 44 days, respectively than the levamisole group. The IgG level was significantly higher in both the colostrum of the dam and in newborn serum after administration of immunopotentiating agents. Furthermore, the viteselen injection resulted in a significantly higher level of IgG in both dam colostrum (at parturition and calf serum in comparison to the other groups. The calves from viteselen and ultra-corn treated dams showed a higher growth rate and better health condition than the

  20. Universal newborn hearing screening coming soon: "hear's" why. (United States)

    Knott, C


    Screening the hearing of all newborns, both NICU and well nursery, is rapidly becoming the standard of care. The impetus for universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has come from outside the domain of nursing and the newborn nursery. Because nursing will be involved in nearly all aspects of UNHS, nurses need a thorough knowledge base about permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) and UNHS. Technology exisits today that can objectively and physiologically screen for this condition at a cost comparable to metabolic screening. PCHL occurs more than twice as often as all the hemoglobinopathies and inborn errors of metabolism combined. Undiagnosed hearing loss often leads to permanent developmental delays. The ultimate goal of early diagnosis and intervention for a congenital hearing loss is to enable the child to develop language and communication skills that correspond to his chronological age and innate cognitive abilities.

  1. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to multiple maternal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B


    Full Text Available Haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN is a condition in which the lifespan of an infant’s red blood cells (RBCs is shortened by the action of specific maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody. Rhesus (Rh- D haemolytic disease of the newborn is a prototype of maternal isoimmunization and foetal haemolytic disease. Although rare, the other blood group antigens capable of causing alloimunization and haemolytic disease are c, C, E, Kell and Duffy. We report a case of HDFN due to anti-D and anti-C in the maternal serum as a result of anamnestic response to Rh-D and C antigens. This report highlights the importance of antibody screening in antenatal women which could assist in diagnosing and successfully treating the foetus and newborn with appropriate antigen negative cross-matched compatible blood.

  2. Pediatricians diagnosis in oral benign pathology of the newborn

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    Durán Gutiérrez Américo


    Full Text Available Knowledge of oral pathology of the newborn is important for the pediatric odontologist and also for pediatricians in order to diagnose and adequately approach it. The newborn oral cavity has specific anatomical features which health care team must know how to identify benign oral conditions. The more common are: Bohn nod- ules, Epstein pearls, Fordyce granules, Riga Fede ulcer, eruption hematoma, candidiasis, herpes simplex, difficult dental eruption, lymphangioma, natal and neonatal teeth. For those teeth whether or no they have carried or worn edges should be pulled out if they affect oral function or if they are the cause of Riga Fede ulceration. Surgical treatment is also indicated for congenital epulis, mucocele, ranula and hemangioma. A successful treatment, is based on a good diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment. This article briefly describes the most common oral conditions of newborns in order to orient the specialist (not the dentist with practical recommendations for early and timely treatment.

  3. Fatal Primary Capillary Leak Syndrome in a Late Preterm Newborn. (United States)

    Kulihova, Katarina; Prochazkova, Martina; Semberova, Jana; Janota, Jan


    Primary capillary leak syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by episodes of vascular collapse and plasma extravasation, which may lead to multiple organ failure. Primary capillary leak is extremely rare in children. The authors report a case of a late preterm newborn with fatal capillary leak syndrome of unknown etiology, manifesting as hypotension unresponsive to treatment, extravasation leading to generalised edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation and finally, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Aggressive volumotherapy and a combination of inotropes and high doses of terlipressin did not influence systemic vascular collapse and plasma extravasation. The newborn developed multiple organ failure and died on day 27 of life. Investigations performed failed to reveal any specific cause of capillary leak. This is the first report of a fatal primary capillary leak syndrome in a newborn.

  4. Multiple congenital epulis in newborn - A rare presentation

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    Sahu Sandeep


    Full Text Available A newborn infant with multiple congenital oral swellings can be a striking sight for both parents and healthcare professionals involved in neonatal care. Neumann first described congenital epulis of a newborn in 1871, hence it is also known as Neumann′s tumor. Congenital epulis occurs at birth and has a predilection for females. Congenital epulis clinically appears as a pedunculated protuberant mass. In cases with large lesions, mechanical, oral, and nasal obstruction can impair fetal deglutition or interfering with feeding and / or respiratory impairment. We are reporting a case of a six-day-old, 3.5 kg newborn female, who had reported to our institution with multiple congenital oral swellings arising from the maxilla and mandible.

  5. [Tracheal phospholipid composition and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn]. (United States)

    Obladen, M


    Tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates were collected in 50 newborn infants with and without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). After lipid extraction the phospholipids were analyzed with 2-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Surface-active are lecithin (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Newborn infants with RDS always have a complete lack of PG, which makes up to 11% of phospholipid-phosphors in mature newborns. In all infants with and without RDS, a sharp increase of PC occurs in the lung effluent after birth. The recovery from RDS is characterized by marked changes of PI: this phospholipid rises up to twice its initial value if the infants survive. The PI-increase parallels the clinical improvement and reaches its maximum usually on the 5th day of life. At the time of the PI-peak, the infants' surfactant function is sufficient to maintain alveolar stability with spontaneous breathing. In infants dying from RDS the PI-increase was not observed.

  6. Measurement of cardiac output in adult and newborn animals by ascorbic acid dilution. (United States)

    Smallwood, J K; Haselby, K A; Paradise, R R


    We have developed an ascorbic acid-dilution method for measuring cardiac output which requires minimal blood withdrawal. Ascorbate is injected into a central venous catheter. The indicator-dilution curve is obtained by drawing blood from an arterial catheter through an amperometric cell at 0.96 ml/min for 35 s. The current is measured by a picoammeter . A calibration curve is obtained in 15 s prior to each indicator-dilution curve. An on-line digital computer measures the curve areas and calculates the cardiac output. Cardiac outputs of heparinized dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and halothane measured by this method (AA) compared closely to cardiac outputs measured by the dye-dilution method (CG) (AA = 0.96 CG + 20 ml/min, r = 0.98). Both the cardiac output and the arterial blood pressure remained stable during replicate measurements of the cardiac output of 1-day-old piglets. This system allows cardiac output determinations of neonatal subjects without excessive blood removal and, with further development, should be practical in human neonates.

  7. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA


    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  8. Scrotal hematoma as a sign of adrenal hemorrhage in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Bluish discoloration and swelling of the scrotum in newborns can arise from a number of diseases, including torsion of the testes, orchitis, scrotal or testicular edema, hydrocele, inguinal hernia, meconium peritonitis, hematocele, testicular tumor and traumatic hematoma. Forty-two cases of scrotal abnormalities as signs of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage were found in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of scrotal hematoma due to adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn. Conservative treatment with clinical follow-up was adopted, with complete resolution within 10 days. The possible differential diagnoses are reviewed and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh


    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  10. [Cardiac arrest in newborn of mother treated with labetalol]. (United States)

    Sala, X; Monsalve, C; Comas, C; Botet, F; Nalda, M A


    The use of beta-adrenergic antagonists for the control of high blood pressure associated to pregnancy is frequent. Their use is related with the appearance of undesirable effects of the fetus. The case of neonatal cardiac arrest attributed, to the administration of labetalol to the mother is presented. The high transplacentary passage, the different pharmacokinetics of the drug in the newborn and the clinical evolution of the patient suggests its involvement. It is concluded that labetalol may cause severe undesirable effects in newborns and fetal heart rate of the mother and neonate should be monitored upon use of this drug.

  11. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Darius Samsudin


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  13. Sensory feedback modulates quipazine-induced stepping behavior in the newborn rat. (United States)

    Brumley, Michele R; Roberto, Megan E; Strain, Misty M


    Research has shown that sensory feedback modulates locomotor behavior in intact as well as spinal adult animals. Here we examined if locomotor activity ("stepping") in newborn rats is influenced by cutaneous and proprioceptive feedback. One-day-old rats were treated with the serotonergic receptor agonist quipazine (3.0mg/kg) to induce air-stepping behavior or with saline (vehicle control). During stepping, a substrate/floor (elastic, stiff, or none) was placed beneath their limbs so that the feet could make plantar surface contact with a substrate. Pups treated with quipazine showed significantly more alternated fore- and hindlimb steps and plantar paw contact with the substrate, compared to pups treated with saline. Pups also made proportionately less contact with the stiff substrate versus the elastic substrate during stepping. Different types of movements made on the substrate (paw pushes, taps, swipes, and stances) were also characterized. These results indicate that sensory feedback modulates locomotor mechanisms and behavior in perinatal rats.

  14. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad


    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  15. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease (United States)

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.


    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  16. Peering into the "Clouds of Glory": Explorations of a Newborn Child's Spirituality (United States)

    Surr, John


    This article seeks to understand spirituality in newborn children through an exploration of Wordsworth's clouds of glory. First the article explores adult reactions reflecting a newborn child's spirituality. Objective manifestations of spirituality in newborn children, such as love, presence and connection, wonder and meaning, and faith, are…

  17. The half-life and exposure of cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G.; Hyldig, N.; Joergensen, J.S.;


    Aim: No information was available on how fast intravenous cefuroxime administered to pregnant women before a Caesarean section was cleared in newborn infants. This study investigated the drug's half-life and the exposure of healthy newborn infants after their mothers received the drug. Methods....... Exposure to cefuroxime in newborn infants may influence the gut microbiota and should be investigated further....

  18. 75 FR 21645 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (United States)


    .... This notice is designed to review the issues facing State newborn screening programs related to the... ability of the State and local health agencies to provide for newborn and child screening, counseling and... art in newborn screening and a perspective on the future directions such programs should take....

  19. A mask for delivery of inhalation gases to small laboratory animals. (United States)

    Levy, D E; Zwies, A; Duffy, T E


    A mask was developed for the administration of volatile anesthetics and other gases to small, spontaneously breathing laboratory animals. A vacuum-powered venting system surrounding the inspiratory gas supply prevented potentially hazardous gases from escaping into the environment. This system was used to deliver nitrous oxide, halothane, and methoxyflurane to rats, gerbils, and newborn dogs. It was used to vary the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inspired by spontaneously breathing animals undergoing physiological experiments.

  20. Ethical aspects of care in the newborn surgical patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazebroek, F.W.J.; Tibboel, D.; Wijnen, R.M.H.


    This article places focus on three main subjects that are all related to the ethical aspects of care of newborns undergoing major surgical interventions. The first concerns the communication between the surgeon, as a representative of the treatment team, and the parents. The second is the way to han

  1. [A mobile reanimation model (reanimationmobile) for initial newborn infant care]. (United States)

    Lang, N; Hansmann, M; Niesen, M


    A mobile unit for reanimation of the newborn is reported to be used alternatively in the deliveryroom or in the surgical tract. The following adventages are achieved: a large working plate easily accessible from three sides, a complete and variable instrumentation, an efficent warmth supply and the possibility for easy cleaning and desinfection.

  2. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns (United States)

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.


    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  3. Patient characteristics in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roofthooft, M T R; Elema, A; Bergman, K A; Berger, R M F


    Objective. To assess the impact of PPHN on mortality, morbidity, and behavioural skills. Methods. A retrospective observational study of 143 newborns with PPHN, over an 11-year period, using objective health-status data from medical records and family doctors, and subjective health status data from

  4. Relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); E.J. Vedder (Lies); W. Murk; W.D. Bowen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractThe immune system of many mammalian species is not fully developed at birth, with newborns obtaining temporary immunological protection from maternal antibodies. Little is known of the immune system of the harbour seal, and developmental aspects of its immune system have not been systema

  5. Change of blood rheology in newborn and its cerebrovascular damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ming Chen; Chun-Hua Lai; Jun-Feng Lv; Bing-Yan Yang; Li Xing-Xi


    Objective:To explore the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage in newborn whose hematocritg (HCT) are among 60%-65%.Methods:A total of 100 cases newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% with blood routine examination were set as observation group, 100 cases newborn whose HCT <60% were set as control group, compared the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage between two groups.Results:The HCT, whole blood viscosity (high), whole blood viscosity (low shear), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, aspertate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, Vs, Vs and the abnormal rate of aEEG examination in observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference had statistical significance, RI in observation group were significantly lower than the control group, the difference had statistical significance.Conclusions:newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% but not with polycythemia have appeared and cerebrovascular lesions, it should cause clinical positive value.

  6. Head Position Preference in the Human Newborn: A New Look. (United States)

    Ronnqvist, Louise; Hopkins, Brian


    Studied head position preference in 20 newborns differing by Cesarean or vaginal delivery and sex. Found that neither factor accounted for differences. The head turned right more often and was maintained longer in this position during quiet wakefulness, regardless of scoring method. When using global scoring, duration of midline position was…

  7. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review. (United States)

    Franco, Bagnoli; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso


    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes--disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants.

  8. Histological analysis of trachea and lung of newborn dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva


    Full Text Available The neonatology science is, in Veterinary Medicine, studying the post-birth to the development of certain characteristics of resistance, which for canines occurs until the second week of life. The newborn requires a precise approach given the particularities of their physiology and immunology extremely immature. The histological study elucidates problems morphological and functional abnormalities, as it provides a reliable and microscopic analysis. Aimed to analyze trachea and lung of newborn dogs through techniques of basic histology. We used five neonates that died postpartum. These were weighed, measured and dissected. Proceeded to the extraction of the trachea, bronchus and lung for submitting these samples to histological routine. The tracheal tissue presents a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with globet cells, a small amount of glands in the lamina propria and hyaline cartilage not fully developed. As regards the bronchial tissue may be observed well defined layers, pulmonary pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the lamina propria several bundles of smooth muscle and thick vascularized tissue. Likewise, the signs of bronchial cartilage present under development. The bronchioles also feature the common pulmonary epithelium and lamina propria also normal pens without smooth muscle. The bags alveolar lung cells showed typical. The lung tissues of newborn dogs present is still in development stage. It is possible to understand patterns of histogenesis and morphogenesis in newborn dogs.

  9. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Schefer Cardoso


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. RESULTS: Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. CONCLUSION: Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units.

  10. Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants. (United States)

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette


    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter system is functional at this age. Here, we adapt the auditory-visual matching paradigm that previously revealed sensitivity to large numerosities to test sensitivity to numerosities spanning the range from 2 to 12. Across studies, newborns discriminated pairs of large numerosities in a 3:1 ratio, even when the smaller numerosity was 3 (3 vs. 9). In contrast, newborn infants failed to discriminate pairs including the numerosity 2, even at the same ratio (2 vs. 6). These findings mirror the dissociation that has been reported with older infants, albeit with a discontinuity situated between numerosities 2 and 3. Two alternative explanations are compatible with our results: either newborn infants have a separate system for processing small sets, and the capacity of this system is limited to 2 objects; or newborn infants possess only one system to represent numerosities, and this system either is not functional or is extremely imprecise when it is applied to small numerosities.

  11. [Early assessment of the hearing of newborns: a national challenge]. (United States)

    Jardin, Anne-Marie; Perrudin, Céline


    For the last five years, the maternity ward at the Robert-Debré hospital in Paris (AP-HP, 75) has been experimenting with an early testing system for newborn babies' hearing. This test makes it possible to determine whether an appointment at the deafness diagnosis and guidance centre is necessary. Development and language acquisition are thus facilitated.

  12. Ovarian cyst in a newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Caiulo


    Full Text Available The presence of ovarian cysts in the newborn is often a sign of an abnormal exacerbation of the physiologic process. In our case a large cyst caused symptoms related to gastroesophageal reflux: vomiting, poor weight gain, and respiratory disorders. Ultrasound examination enabled a correct diagnosis.

  13. Students as Technicians: Screening Newborns for Cystic Fibrosis (United States)

    Gusky, Sharon


    In this activity, freshman college students learn biotechnology techniques while playing the role of a laboratory technician. They perform simulations of three diagnostic tests used to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis. By performing an ELISA, a PCR analysis, and a conductivity test, students learn how biotechnology techniques can be used to…

  14. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welcy Cassiano de Oliveira Tobinaga


    Full Text Available Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2±1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3±437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p=0.004, heart rate (p=0.003, and respiratory rate (p=0.004 and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p>0.05. Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  15. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.


    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  16. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van


    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  17. Enhanced interpretation of newborn screening results without analyte cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquardt, Gregg; Currier, Robert; McHugh, David M. S.; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Magera, Mark J.; Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo; Rinaldo, Piero; Smith, Emily H.; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turgeon, Coleman T.; Lorey, Fred; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Greed, Lawrence C.; Lewis, Barry; Boemer, Francois; Schoos, Roland; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Sinclair, Graham; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Dymerski, Mark; Porter, Cory; Manning, Adrienne; Seashore, Margretta R.; Quesada, Jonessy; Reuben, Alejandra; Chrastina, Petr; Hornik, Petr; Mandour, Iman Atef; Sharaf, Sahar Abdel Atty; Bodamer, Olaf; Dy, Bonifacio; Torres, Jasmin; Zori, Roberto; Cheillan, David; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Ludvigson, David; Stembridge, Adrya; Bonham, Jim; Downing, Melanie; Dotsikas, Yannis; Loukas, Yannis L.; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Zacharioudakis, Georgios S. A.; Barath, Akos; Karg, Eszter; Franzson, Leifur; Jonsson, Jon J.; Breen, Nancy N.; Lesko, Barbara G.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Turner, Kimberley; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Scolamiero, Emanuela; Antonozzi, Italo; Carducci, Claudia; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Giordano, Giuseppe; Camilot, Marta; Teofoli, Francesca; Manos, Shawn M.; Peterson, Colleen K.; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Sevier, Darrin W.; Lee, Soo-Youn; Park, Hyung-Doo; Khneisser, Issam; Browning, Phaidra; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Watson, Michael S.; Eaton, Roger B.; Sahai, Inderneel; Ruiz, Consuelo; Torres, Rosario; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Hietala, Amy; McCann, Mark; Campbell, Carlene; Hopkins, Patrick V.; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Elvers, Bert; Morrissey, Mark A.; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Knoll, Detlef; Webster, Dianne; Frazier, Dianne M.; McClure, Julie D.; Sesser, David E.; Willis, Sharon A.; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; John, Catharine; Lim, James; Caldwell, S. Graham; Tomashitis, Kathy; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Inmaculada Rueda; Yahyaoui Macias, Raquel; Maria Egea-Mellado, Jose; Gonzalez-Gallego, Inmaculada; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Childs, Thomas; McKeever, Christine D.; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Queijo, Cecilia; Lemes, Aida; Davis, Tim; Hoffman, William; Baker, Mei; Hoffman, Gary L.


    Purpose: To improve quality of newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry with a novel approach made possible by the collaboration of 154 laboratories in 49 countries. Methods: A database of 767,464 results from 12,721 cases affected with 60 conditions was used to build multivariate pattern recog

  18. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn. (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos


    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems.

  19. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil]. (United States)

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves


    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program.

  20. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell


    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  1. Centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758 envenomation in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The first case of centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758 envenomation in a newborn is reported. When first examined, approximately 6 hours after the bite, the 28-day-old girl was irritable, with uncontrollable cry and intense local pain, oedema, local hyperthermia, and blood clots at punctures. Uncontrollable crying in neonates should rise the possibility of an insect or arachnid sting.

  2. Effect of Partial Occlusion on Newborns' Face Preference and Recognition (United States)

    Gava, Lucia; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara; de Schonen, Scania


    Many studies have shown that newborns prefer (e.g. Goren, Sarty & Wu, 1975 ; Valenza, Simion, Macchi Cassia & Umilta, 1996) and recognize (e.g. Bushnell, Say & Mullin, 1989; Pascalis & de Schonen, 1994) faces. However, it is not known whether, at birth, faces are still preferred and recognized when some of their parts are not visible because…

  3. Spontaneous oesophageal rupture with duodenal atresia in a newborn infant.



    A newborn infant with spontaneous oesophageal rupture associated with duodenal atresia is described. The diagnosis was established by the pattern of hydropneumothorax on the chest x-ray film and by the aspiration of gastric juice by thoracocentesis. Necropsy showed a tear, which extended from the oesophagogastric junction to the upper portion of the stomach.

  4. The Early Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Korean Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Kyoung Lee


    Full Text Available Background: The microflora hypothesis may be the underlying explanation for the growth of inflammatory disease. In addition to many known affecting factors, knowing the gut microbiota of healthy newborns can help to understand the gut immunity and modulate it. Objectives: This study examined the microbiota of healthy newborns from urban regions. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 128 full-term newborns, born at Seoul St. Mary and St. Paul hospital from January 2009 to February 2010. All 143 samples of feces were cultivated in six culture plates to determine the amounts of total bacteria, anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. The samples were evaluated with a bivariate correlation between coliforms and lactobacilli. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis with HhaI and MspI and a clustering analysis were performed for determination of diversity. Results: Bacteria were cultured in 61.5% of feces in the following order: anaerobes, gram-positive bacteria, lactobacilli, coliform, and bifidobacteria. The growth of total bacteria and lactobacilli increased in feces defecated after 24 hours of birth (P < 0.001, P = 0.008 and anaerobes decreased (P = 0.003. A negative correlation between the growth of lactobacilli and coliforms was found (r = -463, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study confirms that bacterial colonization of healthy newborns born in cities is non-sterile, but has early diversification and inter-individuality.

  5. Economic evaluation of newborn hearing screening: modelling costs and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus


    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of newborn hearing disorders is 1-3 per 1,000. Crucial for later outcome are correct diagnosis and effective treatment as soon as possible. With BERA and TEOAE low-risk techniques for early detection are available. Universal screening is recommended but not realised in most European health care systems.Aim of the study was to examine the scientific evidence of newborn hearing screening and a comparison of medical outcome and costs of different programmes, differentiated by type of strategy (risk screening, universal screening, no systematical screening. Methods: In an interdisciplinary health technology assessment project all studies on newborn hearing screening detected in a standardized comprehensive literature search were identified and data on medical outcome, costs, and cost-effectiveness extracted. A Markov model was designed to calculate cost-effectiveness ratios. Results: Economic data were extracted from 20 relevant publications out of 39 publications found. In the model total costs for screening of 100,000 newborns with a time horizon of ten years were calculated: 2.0 Mio.€ for universal screening (U, 1.0 Mio.€ for risk screening (R, and 0.6 Mio.€ for no screening (N. The costs per child detected: 13,395€ (U respectively 6,715€ (R, and 4,125€ (N. At 6 months of life the following percentages of cases are detected: U 72%, R 43%, N 13%. Conclusions: A remarkable small number of economic publications mainly of low methodological quality was found. In our own model we found reasonable cost-effectiveness ratios also for universal screening. Considering the outcome advantages of higher numbers of detected cases a universal newborn hearing screening is recommended.

  6. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  7. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  8. Speech therapy procedures in high-risk newborns

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    Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Júnior


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the speech therapy procedures performed in a neonatal ICU. Methods: A documental research based on registration records, comprised by a total of 34 newborns that required early stimulation by the speech therapy service in a neonatal ICU of a hospital with tertiary level of care. The study was held in the period between August, 2005 and January, 2006. From the sample, 14 children were female (41.2% and 20 were male (58.8%. The age of the newborns ranged from 3 to 57 life days. The studied variables included: risk conditions of the newborn, clinical assessment procedures, the intervention performed and the results obtained regarding weight. Results: The risk condition of preterm newborn (PTNB associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS was present in 25 (73.5% children. The initial weight of 15 (44.11% children ranged from 1170 to 1742 grams. The most widely discussed speech therapy procedures were the assessment of oral functions with identification of changes in sucking and swallowing in 25 (73.5% newborns and intervention by means of non-nutritive sucking in 18 (53% children. At the end of speech therapy, 19 (55.9% children weighed between 1742 to 2314 grams. Conclusions:The benefits of speech therapy performance were related to the identification of high-risk children who required intervention in oral functions and organization of the baby for feeding. It is assumed that the introduction of oral administration as quickly and safely as possible favored the improvement of the nutritional status of children and their clinical evolution

  9. Oxygen transport in newborns at different gestational ages. (United States)

    Granzotto, J; Estol, P; Piriz, H; Nieto, F; Fescina, R; Schwarcz, R


    Oxygen (O2) transport was assessed through the affinity between O2 and hemoglobin (Hb) in 123 newborns of 28 to 40 week gestational ge, with a minimum of 9 newborns for each gestational age group (see table). In order to assess the O2-Hb affinity, we studied the correlation between the pO2 and the Hb saturation for each gestational age, obtaining estimates of the oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curves corresponding to each gestational age (see fig. 3). The pO2 levels corresponding to the 50% saturation (P50) for each gestational age were estimated from there. All newborns were from single vaginal deliveries with no fetal distress before birth and with an adequate weight for gestational age. The latter was calculated according to the date of the last menstrual period (78% of the cases), echography (10.6% of the cases) or neonatal physical exam (11.4% of the cases). A P50 vs. gestational age linear regression showed a high determination rate (r2 = 0.957, p less than 0.00001) (see fig. 2) which supports the hypothesis of the P50 linear growth; decrease in the Hb-O2 affinity with increasive gestational age (Hb-O2 affinity is different in newborns of different gestational ages). With these results one may conclude that the Hb-O2 uptake varies according to gestational age (P50 changes linearly as gestational age increases) and that a single measurement of pO2 in a newborns, blood does not accurately evaluate the amount of O2 that is transported to the tissues, because the transport capacity depends, among other factors, upon gestational age. The Hb saturation better represents the amount of O2 that can get to the cell level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research]. (United States)

    Tal, H


    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  11. Antioxidant protects against increases in low molecular weight hyaluronan and inflammation in asphyxiated newborn pigs resuscitated with 100% oxygen.

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    Helene C D Østerholt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newborn resuscitation with 100% oxygen is associated with oxidative-nitrative stresses and inflammation. The mechanisms are unclear. Hyaluronan (HA is fragmented to low molecular weight (LMW by oxidative-nitrative stresses and can promote inflammation. We examined the effects of 100% oxygen resuscitation and treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, on lung 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, LMW HA, inflammation, TNFα and IL1ß in a newborn pig model of resuscitation. METHODS & PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newborn pigs (n = 40 were subjected to severe asphyxia, followed by 30 min ventilation with either 21% or 100% oxygen, and were observed for the subsequent 150 minutes in 21% oxygen. One 100% oxygen group was treated with NAC. Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, lung sections, and lung tissue were obtained. Asphyxia resulted in profound hypoxia, hypercarbia and metabolic acidosis. In controls, HA staining was in airway subepithelial matrix and no 3-NT staining was seen. At the end of asphyxia, lavage HA decreased, whereas serum HA increased. At 150 minutes after resuscitation, exposure to 100% oxygen was associated with significantly higher BAL HA, increased 3NT staining, and increased fragmentation of lung HA. Lung neutrophil and macrophage contents, and serum TNFα and IL1ß were higher in animals with LMW than those with HMW HA in the lung. Treatment of 100% oxygen animals with NAC blocked nitrative stress, preserved HMW HA, and decreased inflammation. In vitro, peroxynitrite was able to fragment HA, and macrophages stimulated with LMW HA increased TNFα and IL1ß expression. CONCLUSIONS & SIGNIFICANCE: Compared to 21%, resuscitation with 100% oxygen resulted in increased peroxynitrite, fragmentation of HA, inflammation, as well as TNFα and IL1ß expression. Antioxidant treatment prevented the expression of peroxynitrite, the degradation of HA, and also blocked increases in inflammation and inflammatory cytokines. These findings

  12. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade partially attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets: relationship with the nitrergic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, J.S. Jr. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Martins, A.R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Rosa, E. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SPBrasil (Brazil); Hehre, D.; Bancalari, E.; Suguihara, C. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Developmental Biology Laboratory, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)


    The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT{sub 1} receptor (AT{sub 1}-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO{sub 2} = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT{sub 1}-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT{sub 1}-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT{sub 2}-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT{sub 1}-R blockade. We suggest that AT{sub 1}-R blockade might act through AT{sub 2}-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets.

  13. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  14. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.R. Lyra


    Full Text Available Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days, and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g; mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days. When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028. All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  15. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Lyra, P P R; Vaz, F A C; Moreira, P E; Hoffmann, J W; Demello, D E; Diniz, E M A


    Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days), and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g); mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days). When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028). All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  16. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens. (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R


    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health.

  17. Animal Feeding Operations (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  19. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana


    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  20. Animals and Medicine


    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.


    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  2. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna


    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  3. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading. (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L


    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  4. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner


    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  5. [Advantage of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the newborn infant]. (United States)

    Menget, A; Mougey, C; Thiriez, G; Riethmuller, D


    The timing of umbilical cord clamping remains controversial. Although most maternity wards use the early clamping (5-15s), randomized studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefit of delayed clamping for term and preterm newborn infants over the past 10 years. Indeed, placentofetal transfusion of 20-30 ml/kg in 2-3 min improves the iron status of term infants and prevents infant hypochromic anemia. Infant anemia is a public health problem in many developing countries. For preterm newborns, placental transfusion for 45 s or milking the cord for 15 s improves cardiovascular adaptation, with better hemodynamic stability, as well as decreased intraventricular hemorrhages, need for transfusion, and late-onset sepsis. A new look at this symbolic act is needed and professionals need to be persuaded of the importance of the "wait a minute" policy for a better physiological delivery.

  6. [Clinical results and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in newborn infants]. (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S


    One full-term newborn infant and 2 premature ones were treated with cefotaxime for the treatment of suspected sepsis and umbilical suppurative inflammation. Pathogenic organisms could not be identified in all cases. A good result was obtained with the case of suspected sepsis. But the other 2 cases were not evaluable because underlying diseases such as massive pulmonary atelectasis or respiratory distress syndrome masked the effects of this agent. Serum levels of cefotaxime in 3 of the 4 cases were determined with bioassay. Time courses of the serum levels in 2 of them resulted in peculiar biphasic disappearance curves. This fact implies the possibility that desacetylation of cefroxime proceeds also in newborns as in adults and that desacetyl metabolite accumulates in the body owing to the premature function of the neonatal kidney.

  7. [Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit]. (United States)

    Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco


    This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anthropometric dimensions are the basis of evaluation of health of new-borns. MATERIALS AND METHOD Head length and Head Width of three hundred sixty normal new-borns (180 male and 180 female belonging to three different endogamous groups, i.e. Jat Sikhs, Banias and Majhbi Sikhs were recorded and Cephalic Index was calculated. RESULTS The difference in mean Cephalic index was found to be highly significant in the three endogamous groups (p<0.001, whereas it was just significant in males and females. CONCLUSION Cephalic index varies with heredity and also shows sexual dimorphism. This variation can be used in forensic practice for identification of skeletal remains. It is also useful in plastic surgery, facial reconstruction, pediatrics, oral surgery, dentistry and various other craniofacial surgeries.

  9. A laboratory cage for foster nursing newborn mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marques-de-Araújo


    Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.

  10. Multimodality evoked responses in the neurological assessment of the newborn. (United States)

    Mercuri, E; von Siebenthal, K; Daniëls, H; Guzzetta, F; Casaer, P


    In recent years increased attention has been devoted to evoked potentials (EP) in newborns. This paper reviews the literature and data from our research group in an attempt to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of evoked responses in the first weeks of life and their use in different age-specific clinical conditions. The results show that EP are a very sensitive measure of the integrity of the sensory pathways. They make it possible to follow normal physiological maturation and the abnormalities of development resulting from neurological lesions. Repeated measurements of visual evoked potentials and somatosensorial evoked potential are prognostically useful in term infants, but seem much more limited in preterm newborns in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  11. Evaluation and treatment of the newborn with epidermolysis bullosa. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes E


    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of inherited skin diseases characterized by increased skin fragility and variable degrees of extracutaneous involvement. The clinical spectrum ranges from localized skin disease to a life-threatening and disabling disease with extensive extracutaneous involvement. All four major types of EB, namely EB simplex, Junctional EB, Dystrophic EB and Kindler syndrome, can present with blistering and erosions at birth and cannot be distinguished clinically in the newborn period. The extensive differential diagnosis of blistering and erosions in the neonate must be considered and common etiologies ruled out. The diagnosis of EB can be confirmed via a skin biopsy for immunoflourescence mapping. This review discusses the four major subtypes of EB and their associated extracutaneous features. The evaluation of a newborn suspected of having EB, including diagnosis and management, is also reviewed.

  12. A newborn with duodenal atresia and a gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcora Bulent


    Full Text Available Congenital duodenal atresia complicated by gastric perforation (GP is a very rare and a very mortal condition. Only three newborns could be cured in the reported 13 cases. We report a successfully treated newborn with this complicated disease. A 2-day-old male was hospitalized with prediagnosis of duodenal obstruction. Twelve hours later, significant abdominal distention occurred promptly. At laparotomy, GP and preampullary duodenal atresia were detected. Gastrorrhaphy and duodenoduodenostomy were performed in the same operation. The patient was discharged on the 15th postoperative day. This complicated disease can be treated by early diagnosis and surgical intervention. We choose one-stage operation because of the clean peritoneal cavity. However, generalized peritonitis may require two-stage operation in delayed cases.

  13. Prevention of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihatsch, W. A.; Braegger, C P; Bronsky, J


    prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K 1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3×2 mg vitamin K 1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K......Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence...... 1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings...

  14. [Spinal sonography of a newborn infant with postpartal paraplegia]. (United States)

    Sauter, R; Klemm, T


    Cranial ultrasonography is a well established diagnostic procedure. In contrast ultrasonography of the spine and the spinal cord is less frequently used. It is indicated in infants with spinal dysraphism and may help to diagnose patients with meningomyelocele, spinal lipoma or cord tethering. We present a newborn with parplectic symptoms as a result of an epidural hematoma, which could be demonstrated exclusively by ultrasonography. We want to stress that spinal ultrasonography is a method of high clinical value.

  15. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and Apgar score of newborns


    Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Abdollahifard, Sedigeh; Chitsazi, Mohammad-Taghi; Behlooli, Sepideh


    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and the health status of newborns using Apgar scores. Methods One hundred pregnant women with periodontal disease were included in the case series and 100 pregnant women without periodontal disease were placed in the control group, respectively. The periodontal parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing depth (PD), birth weight, and Apgar scores were record...

  16. A clinical prediction rule for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological chorioamnionitis (HC is an intrauterine inflammatory process highly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcome. HC is often clinically silent and diagnosed postnatally by placental histology. Earlier identification could facilitate treatment individualisation to improve outcome in preterm newborns. AIM: Develop a clinical prediction rule at birth for HC and HC with fetal involvement (HCF in preterm newborns. METHODS: Clinical data and placental pathology were obtained from singleton preterm newborns (gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks born at Erasmus UMC Rotterdam from 2001 to 2003 (derivation cohort; n = 216 or Máxima MC Veldhoven from 2009 to 2010 (validation cohort; n = 206. HC and HCF prediction rules were developed with preference for high sensitivity using clinical variables available at birth. RESULTS: HC and HCF were present in 39% and 24% in the derivation cohort and in 44% and 22% in the validation cohort, respectively. HC was predicted with 87% accuracy, yielding an area under ROC curve of 0.95 (95%CI = 0.92-0.98, a positive predictive value of 80% (95%CI = 74-84%, and a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI = 88-96%. Corresponding figures for HCF were: accuracy 83%, area under ROC curve 0.92 (95%CI = 0.88-0.96, positive predictive value 59% (95%CI = 52-62%, and negative predictive value 97% (95%CI = 93-99%. External validation expectedly resulted in some loss of test performance, preferentially affecting positive predictive rather than negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: Using a clinical prediction rule composed of clinical variables available at birth, HC and HCF could be predicted with good test characteristics in preterm newborns. Further studies should evaluate the clinical value of these rules to guide early treatment individualisation.

  17. Transfer of Maternal Immunity to Newborns of Diabetic Mothers



    This study was carried out with hyperglycemic pregnant women to investigate the transfer of antibody classes to newborns across the placenta or by colostrum and the functional activity of phagocytes in maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum from diabetes mothers. Samples from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum were collected from 20 normoglycemic and 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women. We determined antibodies levels, superoxide release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of phagoc...

  18. Brain Injury Following Repetitive Apnea in Newborn Piglets (United States)

    Schears, Gregory; Creed, Jennifer; Antoni, Diego; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Greeley, William; Wilson, David F.; Pastuszko, Anna

    Repetitive apnea is associated with a significant increase in extracellular dopamine, generation of free radicals as determined by o-tyrosine formation and increase in Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons. This increase in extracellular dopamine and of hydroxyl radicals in striatum of newborn brain is likely to be at least partly responsible for the neuronal injury and neurological side effects of repetitive apnea.

  19. Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants.


    Thoresen, M; Cowan, F.; Whitelaw, A


    Transcutaneous (tc) PO2 in newborn infants increased on head up tilting (median increase 0.5 kPa at term, 1.0 kPa preterm). Head down tilting was associated with an equivalent fall in tcPO2. There was no change in tcPCO2. Tilting of infants mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome or surgery produced no consistent change in PO2.

  20. Neurological distress in Togolese newborn: Prevalence, causes and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaka Bahoura


    Full Text Available Background: The transition from fetal to neonatal life during birth is difficult for all babies. We aim to analyze the demography, clinical presentation, causes, and outcome of neurologically distressed newborns. Materials and Methods: We reviewed a total of 615 newborns files admitted with life threatening condition. Amongst them, 453 had presented neurological distress syndrome. Only cases with severe neurological impairment (Apgar Score System [ASS] ≤6 with no other associated injury were included in the study group. The study covered a period from January to December 2011 and located in pediatric intensive care unit. The information regarding clinical presentation, condition of birth, causes of distress, and outcome were analyzed. Neonate examination had been conducted by neonatologist and pediatric neurologist. Results: The sample included 272/453 (60.04% males and 181/453 (39.96% females. Newborns were aged from 1 to 14 days. The incidence of neurological distress amongst all admissions was 453/615 (73.65%. Clinical signs were weakness of primary reflexes (86.70%, non reactivity (78.19%, flaccid muscle tone (59.49% and impaired consciousness (32.29%. On Apgar score, 73 (20.68% had a score from 0 to 3; 234 (66.29% had a score 4-6 in the first minute of life. A total of 307 (86.97% newborns had been resuscitated at birth during the first five minutes. Death rate was 35.69%. Asphyxia (51.27% and neonatal infection (43.34% were the most common causes of death. Conclusion: These results show that much effort remains to be done in obstetric care, resuscitation management and improvement in neonatal infection care.

  1. Bath and colonization of the preterm newborn skin.


    Chollopetz da Cunha, Maria Luzia; Soibelmann Procianoy, Renato


    This article aims at determining the bathing role in skin colonization of preterm newborn by reviewing the literature from MEDLINE database. Clinical researches have demonstrated that bathing with soap triggers pH increase interfering with the skin physiological protection and provoking changes in the cutaneous microflora composition. Preterm neonates in NICU tend to acquire nosocomial skin flora from the action of bathing with cleansing products on the epidermal barrier function with direct ...

  2. Herniorrafia inguinal em potro neonato Repair of congenital inguinal hernia in a newborn foal

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    Marcelo Weinstein Teixeira


    Full Text Available As hérnias inguinais congênitas em potros não são um achado raro na casuística hospitalar. A maioria dos casos são conduzidos clinicamente, por se tratar de hérnias indiretas. As hérnias inguinais congênitas diretas, irredutíveis, em potros são uma urgência cirúrgica e se não tratadas imediatamente causam 100% de óbito. Um potro da raça Quarto-de-milha, com 36 horas de vida, apresentando volume parcialmente redutível na região inguinal esquerda, desconforto abdominal contínuo e congestão de mucosas aparentes, foi admitido no hospital veterinário. O animal foi imediatamente encaminhado à cirurgia, onde a herniorrafia com ressecção de alça intestinal, por acesso inguinal foi realizada. A recuperação pós-operatória foi satisfatória e o animal apresenta desenvolvimento físico normal para a raça.Equine congenital inguinal hernias are a common finding in clinical practice. Since most cases are indirect hernias, these usually are treated clinically. Inguinal hernias in newborn foals represent a surgical emergency, that, if not treated result in 100% mortality. A quarter-horse mth 36 hours of life with a volume on the left inguinal region, continous signs of abdominal pain and mucosal congestion was admitted at the hospital. The animal was imediately sent to surgery, where a hernioraphy by inguinal acces with ressection of an intestinal loop was realized. Post-surgical evolution was satifactory and the animal today presents normal physical growth for the breed standarts.

  3. Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

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    Longnecker Matthew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. Methods We first evaluated the reliability of the AGD measures in 20 subjects. Then measurements were taken on an additional 87 newborns (42 females, 45 males. All subjects were from Morelos, Mexico. Results The reliability (Pearson r of the AGD measure was, for females 0.50, and for males, 0.64. The between-subject variation in AGD, however, was much greater than the variation due to measurement error. The AGD measure was about two-fold greater in males (mean, 22 mm than in females (mean, 11 mm, and there was little overlap in the distributions for males and females. Conclusion The sexual dimorphism of AGD in humans comprises prima facie evidence that this outcome may respond to in utero exposure to hormonally active agents.

  4. Identifying hypoxia in a newborn piglet model using urinary NMR metabolomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Skappak

    Full Text Available Establishing the severity of hypoxic insult during the delivery of a neonate is key step in the determining the type of therapy administered. While successful therapy is present, current methods for assessing hypoxic injuries in the neonate are limited. Urine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR metabolomics allows for the rapid non-invasive assessment of a multitude breakdown products of physiological processes. In a newborn piglet model of hypoxia, we used NMR spectroscopy to determine the levels of metabolites in urine samples, which were correlated with physiological measurements. Using PLS-DA analysis, we identified 13 urinary metabolites that differentiated hypoxic versus nonhypoxic animals (1-methylnicotinamide, 2-oxoglutarate, alanine, asparagine, betaine, citrate, creatine, fumarate, hippurate, lactate, N-acetylglycine, N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and valine. Using this metabolomic profile, we then were able to blindly identify hypoxic animals correctly 84% of the time compared to nonhypoxic controls. This was better than using physiologic measures alone. Metabolomic profiling of urine has potential for identifying neonates that have undergone episodes of hypoxia.

  5. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.


    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  6. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening

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    Taraka R. Donti


    Full Text Available Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis.

  7. Lessons Learned From Newborn Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects. (United States)

    Oster, Matthew E; Aucott, Susan W; Glidewell, Jill; Hackell, Jesse; Kochilas, Lazaros; Martin, Gerard R; Phillippi, Julia; Pinto, Nelangi M; Saarinen, Annamarie; Sontag, Marci; Kemper, Alex R


    Newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2011. Within 4 years, 46 states and the District of Columbia had adopted it into their newborn screening program, leading to CCHD screening being nearly universal in the United States. This rapid adoption occurred while there were still questions about the effectiveness of the recommended screening protocol and barriers to follow-up for infants with a positive screen. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics to convene an expert panel between January and September 2015 representing a broad array of primary care, neonatology, pediatric cardiology, nursing, midwifery, public health, and advocacy communities. The panel's goal was to review current practices in newborn screening for CCHD and to identify opportunities for improvement. In this article, we describe the experience of CCHD screening in the United States with regard to: (1) identifying the target lesions for CCHD screening; (2) optimizing the algorithm for screening; (3) determining state-level challenges to implementation and surveillance of CCHD; (4) educating all stakeholders; (5) performing screening using the proper equipment and in a cost-effective manner; and (6) implementing screening in special settings such as the NICU, out-of-hospital settings, and areas of high altitude.

  8. Management of Complex Ovarian Cysts in Newborns – Our Experience (United States)

    Manjiri, S; Padmalatha, SK; Shetty, J


    Aims: To analyse the clinical presentation, clinicopathological correlation and management of complex ovarian cysts in newborn and infants. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 6 years (2009-2015), 25 newborns who were diagnosed to have ovarian cyst on antenatal ultrasound, were followed up. We collected data in the form of clinical features, radiological findings, pathology and mode of treatment. Results: Of the 25 fetuses who were diagnosed to have ovarian cysts, fourteen (56%) underwent spontaneous regression by 6-8 months. Eight were operated in newborn period while 3 were operated in early infancy. Seven had ovarian cyst on right side, 4 had on left side. Eight babies underwent laparoscopy while 3 underwent laparotomy. Histopathology showed varied features of hemorrhagic cyst with necrosis and calcification, serous cystadenoma with hemorrhage, benign serous cyst with hemorrhage and simple serous cyst. Post-operative recovery was uneventful in all. Conclusion: All the ovarian cysts detected antenatally in female fetuses need close follow-up after birth. Since spontaneous regression is known, only complex or larger cysts need surgical intervention, preferably by laparoscopy. Majority of the complex cysts show atrophic ovarian tissue hence end up in oophorectomy but simple cysts can be removed preserving normal ovarian tissue whenever possible. PMID:28083489

  9. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh


    Full Text Available Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, prolonged hospital course (HC and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days; duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3% newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality.

  10. Single trocar laparoscopic-assisted colostomy in newborns. (United States)

    Liem, N T; Quynh, T A


    To present the technique and outcomes of single trocar laparoscopic-assisted colostomy in newborns. A rectangular skin flap was developed at the left subcostal area and detached from the fascia. Then the fascia and peritoneum were opened longitudinally around 11 mm, and then a 10-mm trocar was inserted into the abdominal cavity. The 10-mm operating laparoscope (Stema, Germany) was inserted through the trocar. The left transverse colon was inspected, grasped and brought outside the abdominal cavity with a Babcock grasper. The skin flap was inserted through a window created at the colon mesentery and secured to the opposite side to elevate the colon. A loop colostomy was performed. From August 2009 to December 2011, single trocar laparoscopic-assisted colostomy was performed for 39 newborns with anorectal malformations, including 26 boys and 13 girls. Mean operative time was 24 ± 4 min (range 20-30 min). There were no perioperative deaths or complications. Mean postoperative stay was 3 ± 0.6 days. Single trocar laparoscopic-assisted colostomy is a feasible and safe procedure in newborns.

  11. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

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    Hüseyin Altunhan


    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  12. [RV polymorphism of the chromosomes in newborn infants]. (United States)

    Krachunova, M; Tsancheva, M; Lozanova, T


    The authors examined the routine variants (RV) of the karyotype of 100 clinically healthy newborns--49 girls and 51 boys. Secondary constriction of the long arm of one of the homologues of the chromosome I was found in 2% of the newborns; of the chromosome 9--in 4% of the chromosome 16--in 3%. Secondary constriction in both homologues was observed in the chromosome I in 1%; in the chromosome 9--in 1% and in the chromosome 16--4%. Secondary constriction of the short arm of both homologues was found only in the chromosome 16 in 3%. The large acrocentric chromosomes showed extended proximal area (p5) in 34%, but diminished (pI)--in 8%. The small acrocentrics with p5 were found in 14% of the newborns, but with pI--in 7%. Enlarged satelites were observed in 1% in the both groups of acrocentrics. Difference between the homologues in respect to the short arms was observed in 32,3% of the pairs of the great acrocentrics and in 47,5% of the small acrocentrics. Distribution of the Y chromosome according to the size in 51 boys was of Gaus character q1--0%, q2--29,4%, q3--33,3%, q4--25,5% and q5--11,7%. It is possible that Y chromosome with a size of q1 could be connected with definite pathology.

  13. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  14. Physics for Animation Artists (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.


    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

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    Takashi Maoka


    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  17. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation


    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  19. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

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    Ping Sun


    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  20. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers]. (United States)

    Belli, M A


    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  1. Rate and adaptation effects on the auditory evoked brainstem response in human newborns and adults. (United States)

    Lasky, R E


    Auditory evoked brainstem response (ABR) latencies increased and amplitudes decreased with increasing stimulus repetition rate for human newborns and adults. The wave V latency increases were larger for newborns than adults. The wave V amplitude decreases were smaller for newborns than adults. These differences could not be explained by developmental differences in frequency responsivity. The transition from the unadapted to the fully adapted response was less rapid in newborns than adults at short (= 10 ms) inter stimulus intervals (ISIs). At longer ISIs (= 20 ms) there were no developmental differences in the transition to the fully adapted response. The newborn transition occurred in a two stage process. The rapid initial stage observed in adults and newborns was complete by about 40 ms. A second slower stage was observed only in newborns although it has been observed in adults in other studies (Weatherby and Hecox, 1982; Lightfoot, 1991; Lasky et al., 1996). These effects were replicated at different stimulus intensities. After the termination of stimulation the return to the wave V unadapted response took nearly 500 ms in newborns. Neither the newborn nor the adult data can be explained by forward masking of one click on the next click. These results indicate human developmental differences in adaptation to repetitive auditory stimulation at the level of the brainstem.

  2. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

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    Alessandra N. Bazzano


    Full Text Available Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  3. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia. (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A; Var, Chivorn


    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  4. Serum Endothelin-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Levels in the Newborns With Respiratory Distress



    The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ET-1 and TGF-β in the newborns with respiratory distress. In this study, newborns with respiratory distress hospitalized into the Newborn Intensive Care Unit were included. The highest values of ET-1 and TGF-β were obtained from newborns with diagnosis as meconium aspiration syndrome (5.70 ± 5.87 pg/mL and 3.75 ± 1.94 pg/mL, resp) in the sample obtained in the first six hours after birth, and these are statistically differe...

  5. 78 FR 16514 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ..., policies, guidelines, and programs for effectively reducing morbidity and mortality in newborns and... Sarkar, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Room...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold


    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  7. "Name" that Animal (United States)

    Laird, Shirley


    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  10. Effects of manual hyperinflation in preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation (United States)

    Viana, Camila Chaves; Nicolau, Carla Marques; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada


    Objective To assess the effects of manual hyperinflation, performed with a manual resuscitator with and without the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, on the respiratory function of preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation. Methods Cross-sectional study of hemodynamically stable preterm newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, under mechanical ventilation and dependent on it at 28 days of life. Manual hyperinflation was applied randomly, alternating the use or not of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, followed by tracheal aspiration for ending the maneuver. For nominal data, the two-tailed Wilcoxon test was applied at the 5% significance level and 80% power. Results Twenty-eight preterm newborns, with an average birth weight of 1,005.71 ± 372.16g, an average gestational age of 28.90 ± 1.79 weeks, an average corrected age of 33.26 ± 1.78 weeks, and an average mechanical ventilation time of 29.5 (15 - 53) days, were studied. Increases in inspiratory and expiratory volumes occurred between time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in both the maneuver with the valve (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009) and without the valve (p = 0.026 and p = 0.001), respectively. There was also an increase in expiratory resistance between time-points A5 and C1 (p = 0.044). Conclusion Lung volumes increased when performing the maneuver with and without the valve, with a significant difference in the first minute after aspiration. There was a significant difference in expiratory resistance between the time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in the first minute after aspiration within each maneuver. PMID:27737427

  11. Pulmonary vascular response to digoxin in newborn lambs. (United States)

    Milstein, J M; Goetzman, B W


    The effects of digoxin on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were evaluated in normoxic (N) and hypoxic (H) newborn lambs with normal and elevated PVR, respectively. Lambs were anesthetized and instrumented to enable continuous measurement of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA), mean left atrial pressure (PLA), mean pulmonary blood flow (Qp), and mean aortic pressure (PAO). Digoxin (10-20 micrograms/kg) was injected via central venous catheters in 11 N lambs and 4 H lambs. Under N conditions, baseline PVR was equal to 0.12 mm Hg/ml/min/kg, PPA was 33 mm Hg, PLA was 6 mm Hg, Qp was 235 ml/min/kg, and PAO was 69 mm Hg. Following digoxin, mean PVR increased by 24% (P less than 0.001) and PPA increased by 23% (P less than 0.001) for an average duration of 199 sec while QP increased by 5% (P less than 0.02) and PLA was constant suggesting a direct vasoconstrictive effect. Under H conditions, baseline PVR was equal to 0.26 mm Hg/ml/min/kg, PPA was 58 mm Hg, PLA was 4 mm Hg, Qp was 208 ml/min/kg, and PAo was 65 mm Hg. Following digoxin, mean PVR, Qp, PLA, and PAo did not change appreciably although PPA had a uniform increase of 5% (P less than 0.001). The blunted response may suggest that either the pulmonary vascular bed was maximally constricted or that digoxin and hypoxia share a common mechanism. In conclusion, digoxin has a direct pulmonary vasoconstrictor action in newborn lambs. Because of its short duration, this action probably should not alter the clinical use of this drug in newborn humans.

  12. Cerebral microcalcifications in a newborn with congenital tuberculosis. (United States)

    Cifuentes, Yolanda; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Piar, Jorge; Pardo, Patricia


    Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths due to the disease. In 2011, the incidence in Colombia was 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There is little information about tuberculosis in pregnant women, and congenital infection is considered a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose, leads to high mortality, and may be confused with tuberculosis acquired after birth. In addition, it has been associated with HIV infection in mothers and infants. Moreover, there is increasing incidence of congenital syphilis in the world. In Colombia, the prevalence is 2.5 cases per 1,000 births and its frequency in the Instituto Materno Infantil-Hospital La Victoria is one case per 57 births. We report the case of a newborn under treatment for congenital syphilis and in whom microcalcifications were found in a transfontanelar ultrasound. This finding warned about the existence of another infectious agent. PCR was negative for cytomegalovirus, and IgM titers for toxoplasma, rubella and herpes I and II were also negative. After learning about a history of incomplete treatment for tuberculosis in the mother, we suspected the presence of an infection by the tubercle bacillus in the newborn. No acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in three gastric juice samples. The IS6110 PCR assay was found positive in cerebrospinal fluid and urine, but not in blood. The newborn was treated with crystalline penicillin for 10 days along with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. The patient is currently under clinical monitoring.

  13. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) efficacy and safety in the newborn. (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Antonucci, Roberto; Fanos, Vassilios


    Neonates can perceive pain, therefore an adequate analgesic therapy is a major issue not only from an ethical perspective but also to improve short- and long-term outcome. Fever during the neonatal period requires hospitalization and needs a treatment with an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of severe complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), the most commonly prescribed drug in paediatric patients for its analgesic and antipyretic effects, is the only agent recommended for use as an antipyretic in the newborn and has been recently proposed as a supplement therapy to opioids for postoperative analgesia. This article aims to give an updated overview on the use of paracetamol in newborns by presenting its pharmacological profile (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics), recommendations for dosing regimens (oral or rectal administration: 25-30 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 34 weeks' gestation, 60 mg/kg/day in term neonates; i.v. administration: indicatively 20-40 mg/kg/day depending on gestational age, with some differences among various guidelines) and clinical uses (more commonly as analgesic/antipyretic by oral or rectal route, but also i.v. in anaesthesia for postoperative analgesia and painful procedures in Neonatal Intensive Care Units). Moreover, drug tolerability is discussed in the light of its potential hepatotoxicity and the unique characteristics of the newborn patient. By analyzing the available literature and the dosing guidelines, a mismatch exists between the current clinical use of paracetamol and the recommendations, suggesting a cautious approach particularly in extremely preterm neonates.

  14. Beta-nerve growth factor levels in newborn cord sera. (United States)

    Haddad, J; Vilge, V; Juif, J G; Maitre, M; Donato, L; Messer, J; Mark, J


    This study was designed to examine beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in human cord blood by a two-site enzyme immunoassay using MAb 27/21 to mouse NGF and to determine whether beta-NGF levels show developmental changes. Blood was collected at delivery from 61 newborns, 55 neonates appropriate for gestational age (46 term infants and 9 premature infants), 5 neonates small for gestational age, and 1 neonate with congenital hydrocephalus. In addition, samples were collected from 2 microcephalic children (microcephaly vera) aged 15 and 18 mo, 2 control children, and 4 healthy adults. Mean levels of NGF in preterm infants (n = 9; 13.7 +/- 8 pg/mL) were significantly lower than levels in term infants (n = 47; 21.2 +/- 8.8 pg/mL; p = 0.034 by Mann-Whitney U test). There was no correlation between birth weight, length, head circumference, and beta-NGF levels. In microcephalic children, NGF levels were low (8 pg/mL) compared with control infants' values (22 pg/mL). In adults, beta-NGF levels were higher and ranged between 238 and 292 pg/mL. Our study demonstrates that beta-NGF levels can be assessed in human newborn sera using a two-site enzyme immunoassay with MAb 27/21 to mouse beta-NGF, that beta-NGF levels are extremely low in newborns compared with adults, that beta-NGF levels seems to show developmental changes, and that beta-NGF levels may be used to assess NGF utilization under normal and pathologic conditions such as cerebral malformations.

  15. Supporting mothers to bond with their newborn babies: Strategies used in a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellemes Phuma-Ngaiyaye


    Results: It was showed that nurses and midwives used different approaches to facilitate maternal–newborn bonding. The responses revealed two major themes: mother–newborn interaction and mother–nurse/midwife interaction. Mother–newborn interaction involved breastfeeding and maternal involvement in newborn care, whereas mother–nurse/midwife interaction involved effective communication and psychosocial support. Maternal–newborn bonding promotes a mother's successful transition into motherhood, nurses and midwives should actively initiate strategies facilitating early maternal–newborn bonding.

  16. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta


    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  17. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  19. A Case of Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata in Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Karabayır


    Full Text Available Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctate (RCDP is a rare autosomal recessive peroxisomal disease. The main features of the disease are shortening of the proximal long bones, punctate calcifications located in the epiphyses of long bones and in soft tissues around joints and vertebral column, vertebral clefting, dysmorphic face, and severe growth retardation, whereas cervical spinal stenosis may also rarely be present. Imaging of the brain and spinal cord in patients with this disorder may aid prognosis and guide management decisions. We report the newborn diagnosed as CDP with cervical stenosis. Our aim is to discuss current knowledge on etiopathogenesis as well as radiological and clinical symptoms of diseases associated with CDP.

  20. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten


    : Among 264 term, healthy, and singleton infants eligible for inclusion, 248 were included. Of these 205 (83%) obese mother-newborn-dyads had a DXA scan and 2-h plasma glucose measurements. Linear regression analysis showed that birth weight z-scores correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels (p = 0......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  1. Paraurethral Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Moralioglu


    Full Text Available Paraurethral or Skene′s duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene′s duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage.

  2. Endoscopic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma in a term newborn. (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Sema Rala; Turhan, Tuncer; Uygur, Ozgun; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Yalaz, Mehmet; Kultursay, Nilgun


    Intracerebellar hemorrhage is very rare in term infants and only severe cases with massive intracranial hemorrhage, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and clinical deterioration due to increased intracranial pressure require neurosurgical evacuation. In recent adult studies endoscopic hematoma evacuation has been shown as a rapid, effective, and safe technique. A term newborn hospitalized for meconium aspiration syndrome showed hypertonia, jitteriness and abnormal amplitude integrated electroencephalogram findings. He was diagnosed with cerebellar hematoma which caused hydrocephalus by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hematoma was successfully evacuated neuroendoscopically as the first case in literature to our knowledge. Neurologic, a-EEG and MRI findings resolved.

  3. Pyoderma gangrenosum in a newborn--case report. (United States)

    Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Santos, Maria Amélia Lopes dos; Sousa, Brena Andrade de; Nascimento, Carla do Socorro Silva do; Amin, Gabriela Athayde; Moutinho, Ana Thais Machado


    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, inflammatory, chronic and recurrent disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noninfectious, necrotizing and painful cutaneous ulcers. Usually it affects adults aged between 25 and 54 years old and rarely children (less than 4%), in which it mainly affects the head, face, buttocks, genital and perianal region. The disease presents a quick response to systemic corticosteroids. We report a case of a newborn with hemorrhagic and necrotic ulcers, distributed in the abdomen, buttocks and genital region with rapid and effective response to oral prednisone.

  4. Supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment: evidence from Japan. (United States)

    Shigeoka, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide


    We estimate the degree of supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment by exploiting changes in reimbursement arising from the introduction of the partial prospective payment system (PPS) in Japan. Under the partial PPS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization became relatively more profitable than other procedures, since it was excluded from prospective payments. We find that hospitals have responded to PPS adoption by increasing NICU utilization and by more frequently manipulating infants' reported birth weights which in large part determine their maximum allowable stay in the NICU. This induced demand substantially increases the reimbursements received by hospitals.

  5. [Pain scales used in the newborn infant: a systematic review]. (United States)

    Pereira Da Silva, Tiago; Justo Da Silva, Lincoln


    For many years, appropriate relevance has not been given for pain in newborn infants, but research brought to light this important subject in neonatal medicine. Pain scores have been organized in scales and validated to be used in clinical practice. Currently, there are several scales based on different pain indicators. These scales should be used according to different circumstances. With the purpose of helping health professionals, a systematic review of neonatal pain scales based on gestational age, duration of painful episode and type of pain indicator was carried out. Data concerning validation of the scales were also analyzed and two scales for use in clinical practice or in research are suggested.

  6. [Early diagnosis of a newborn with a mediastinal mass]. (United States)

    Flores-Hernández, Salomón Sergio; Ahumada Mendoza, Héctor; Santana-Montero, Blanca Lilia; González Flores, María de Lourdes


    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour that evolves from the neural crest cell. This neoplasm may arise at any site in the sympathetic nervous system, including the brain, the cervical region, the posterior mediastinum, the para-aortic sympathetic ganglia, the pelvis, and the adrenal medulla. The clinical presentation in neonatal age is rare and the differential diagnosis includes congenital lung malformations, pneumoniae, atelectasia, etc. The case of a newborn with a mediastinal neuroblastoma is presented. This case illustrates how a patient with an X-ray image compatible with a thoracic tumor should be studied.

  7. Ultrasonography of hydronephrosis in the newborn: A practical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Widespread use of fetal ultrasonography is accompanied by more frequent detection of antenatal hydronephrosis. Therefore, sonographic evaluation of neonates with a history of antenatal hydronephrosis is becoming more widespread. As an initial postnatal non-invasive imaging modality, ultrasonography is used to screen for persistence of hydronephrosis, determine the level and severity of obstruction, and contribute to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide a practical overview of the sonographic evaluation of neonatal hydronephrosis and to describe the sonographic findings of conditions associated with hydronephrosis in the newborn.

  8. [Morphological characteristics of the lymphoid tissues in the newborn children]. (United States)

    Aminova, G G; Grigorenko, D E; Rusina, A K; Erofeeva, L M


    Quantitative and qualitative analysis and statistical processing of thymus, trachea, duodenum ileum, coecum and appendix in newborns demonstrated that by the moment of birth peripheral immunogenesis organs were not equally formed due to peculiarities of their function in postnatal ontogenesis. Lymphoid nodules were absent in tracheal mucosa and adjacent lymph nodes showed loss of lymphoid noules aswell. However intensive formation of lymphoid structures took place in the walls of the gut, especially large intestine. The appendix, lymphoid tissue of which was not, in fact, developed at all, made an exception.

  9. Prenatal and newborn paternity testing with DNA analysis. (United States)

    Csete, K; Beer, Zs; Varga, T


    In rape against youthful girls which yields pregnancy after the abortion DNA examinations can be performed from the aborted foetal material to provide evidence of paternity of the suspect. In our present work we demonstrate six cases: four of them are rape cases and two where the mother abandoned her newborn baby. These cases proved that DNA-STR profiles can be determined from foetus after the abortion and perpetrator of a rape can be found. Due to our result we suggest that not only placenta but also bloody vernix caseosa is useful tissue for identifying the putative mother because vernix caseosa can be the carrier of the mother's blood.

  10. Serum zinc levels in newborns with neural tube defects. (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Keshtkar, Abasali


    Neural tube defects (NTD) comprise of a group of congenital malformations that include spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele. Reports have implicated zinc deficiency as one of the causative factors of NTDs. We compared the serum zinc level of 23 newborns having neural tube defects with 35 healthy controls by spectrophotometery during 2003-2004. Zinc deficiency was documented in 43.5% of the cases and 8.6% of the controls (P = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the presence of NTDs and zinc deficiency (OR = 8.2, 95% Cl: 1.9-34.7).

  11. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry in the newborn infant: state of the art. (United States)

    Hegyi, T


    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant continues to challenge physicians. Clinical evaluation and treatment have evolved well-established principles over the past decade. This review examines neonatal bilirubin metabolism and focuses on a recently developed clinical diagnostic tool, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer. In spite of some limitations, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer can be best applied as a screening tool to identify healthy full-term infants who require serum bilirubin determination. With proper application, this device can eliminate most invasive diagnostic testing. Optimal use of the instrument requires the relationship between the serum bilirubin concentration and the transcutaneous bilirubinometer index to be determined for each device, institution, and population.

  12. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choonsik [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lodwick, Daniel [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hasenauer, Deanna [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Williams, Jonathan L [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lee, Choonik [MD Anderson Cancer Center-Orlando, Orlando, FL 32806 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Anthropomorphic computational phantoms are computer models of the human body for use in the evaluation of dose distributions resulting from either internal or external radiation sources. Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed and widely utilized for organ dose assessment: (1) stylized phantoms and (2) voxel phantoms which describe the human anatomy via mathematical surface equations or 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Although stylized phantoms based on mathematical equations can be very flexible in regard to making changes in organ position and geometrical shape, they are limited in their ability to fully capture the anatomic complexities of human internal anatomy. In turn, voxel phantoms have been developed through image-based segmentation and correspondingly provide much better anatomical realism in comparison to simpler stylized phantoms. However, they themselves are limited in defining organs presented in low contrast within either magnetic resonance or computed tomography images-the two major sources in voxel phantom construction. By definition, voxel phantoms are typically constructed via segmentation of transaxial images, and thus while fine anatomic features are seen in this viewing plane, slice-to-slice discontinuities become apparent in viewing the anatomy of voxel phantoms in the sagittal or coronal planes. This study introduces the concept of a hybrid computational newborn phantom that takes full advantage of the best features of both its stylized and voxel counterparts: flexibility in phantom alterations and anatomic realism. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces, a mathematical modeling tool traditionally applied to graphical animation studies, was adopted to replace the limited mathematical surface equations of stylized phantoms. A previously developed whole-body voxel phantom of the newborn female was utilized as a realistic anatomical framework for hybrid phantom construction. The construction of a hybrid

  13. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  14. Agreement between Cochrane Neonatal reviews and clinical practice guidelines for newborns in Denmark a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Greisen, Gorm; Madsen, Lars P


    OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical practice guidelines in Denmark. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical guidelines for newborn infants. Materials:All Cochrane neonatal reviews and Danish local clinical guidelines for newborn infants. MAIN OUT...

  15. [Animal experimentation in Israel]. (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah


    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  16. [Intracranial hemorrhage during hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant at term]. (United States)

    Moyoukolo, J; Retbi, J M; Allemon, M C; Semaan, N; J'Mii, B


    The authors report a case of intra-cerebral hematoma in a patient with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. This hematoma had to be taped, and after that, an hydrocephalus shunted. The state of deficiency of vitamin K in the newborn should be treated systematically. The oral route is as good as the intra-muscular route for the baby.

  17. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S. H.; van Beek, A.; Janssen, J. W.; de Vleeschouwer, L. H. M.; Huysman, W. A.; van den Akker, E. L. T.


    Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infant

  18. 76 FR 78569 - Medical Benefits for Newborn Children of Certain Woman Veterans (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO05 Medical Benefits for Newborn Children of Certain Woman Veterans... to provide certain health care services to a newborn child of a woman veteran who is receiving... woman veteran who is receiving maternity care furnished by for not more than seven days after the...

  19. [Hemorrhagic infarction of the testicle in the newborn infant. A case presentation]. (United States)

    Coronel Sánchez, B; Domínguez Hinarejos, C; Serrano Durbá, A; Martínez Verduch, M; Estornell Moragues, F; García Ibarra, F


    Hemorrhagic infarction of the testicle is an unusual occurrence in the newborn infant. It usually develops as a consequence of torsion of the spermatic cord. We report a case of global testicular infarction in a newborn associated with a tense hydrocele.

  20. Congruency as a Nonspecific Perceptual Property Contributing to Newborns' Face Preference (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Valenza, Eloisa; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene


    Past research has shown that top-heaviness is a perceptual property that plays a crucial role in triggering newborns' preference toward faces. The present study examined the contribution of a second configural property, "congruency," to newborns' face preference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that when embedded in nonfacelike stimuli,…

  1. The Dried Bloodspot: Newborn Screening Research Saving the Lives of Babies (United States)

    Levy-Fisch, Jill; Gartzke, Micki; Leight, Kelly


    Newborn screening is a test done on every child born in the US shortly after birth to detect diseases where, if not diagnosed and treated in the newborn period, the child will suffer significant trauma, disability or die. A few drops of blood from each baby's heel is put on a card and sent to the state's public health lab for testing. Most states…

  2. Prenatal parental tobacco smoking, gene specific DNA methylation, and newborns size: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I. Both (Marieke); N.H. van Mil (Nina); C.P. Tolhoek (Catharina P.); L. Stolk (Lisette); P.H.C. Eilers; M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); B.T. Heijman (Bastiaan); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); A. Hofman (Albert); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)


    textabstractBackground: Deleterious effects of prenatal tobacco smoking on fetal growth and newborn weight are well-established. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this relationship is alterations in epigenetic programming. We selected 506 newborns from a population-based prospective birth co

  3. Prospective evaluation of faecal fatty acid excretion in short bowel syndrome in newborns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, E.; Dejong, C.H.C.; Piena-Spoel, M.; Liefaard, G.; Molenaar, J.C.; Tibboel, D.


    Prospective evaluation of faecal fatty acid excretion in short bowel syndrome in newborns. Heineman E, Dejong CH, Piena-Spoel M, Liefaard G, Molenaar JC, Tibboel D. Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in the newborn res

  4. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette


    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  5. Preference for Point-Light Human Biological Motion in Newborns: Contribution of Translational Displacement (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Kitromilides, Elenitsa; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Pavlova, Marina; Gentaz, Edouard


    In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception…

  6. Chest associated to motor physiotherapy improves cardiovascular variables in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome



    Abstract Background We aimed to evaluate the effects of chest and motor physiotherapy treatment on hemodynamic variables in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Methods We evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), temperature and oxygen saturation (SO2%) in 44 newborns with re...

  7. Neutrophil, TLR2, and TLR4 expression in newborns at risk of sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Yunanto


    Conclusion There are significant increases in neutrophils, as well as neutrophil expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the saliva and blood from newborns with sepsis risk factors compared to those of healthy newborns. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:132-7.

  8. 78 FR 23770 - Establishment of the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and... (United States)


    ... authorizing directive and guidelines under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), a charter will be filed... state and local health agencies to provide for newborn and child screening, counseling and health care..., counseling, testing, or specialty services for newborns and children at risk for heritable disorders;...

  9. Clinical prediction rule for RSV bronchiolitis in healthy newborns: prognostic birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Bont, L.; Wilbrink, B.; Belderbos, M.E.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Visser, G.H.; Rovers, M.M.


    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine predictors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among healthy newborns. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, 298 healthy term newborns born in 2 large hospitals in the Netherlands were monitored throughout the

  10. 75 FR 2554 - Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (United States)


    ... should have expertise in dealing with heritable disorders and genetic diseases that affect the racial and ethnic and geographical diversity of newborns served by the State newborn screening programs. The... be impaired. Appointments shall be made without discrimination on the basis of age, ethnicity,...

  11. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J


    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  12. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper


    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  13. [Swedish guidelines for prevention and treatment of pain in the newborn infant]. (United States)

    Larsson, Björn A; Gradin, Maria; Lind, Viveka; Selander, Bo


    A Swedish national consensus statement concerning prevention and management of pain in the newborn infant has been prepared by members of the Swedish Paediatric Pain Society (Svensk Barnsmärtförening, SBSF). The document is based on the Consensus Statement for the Prevention and Management of Pain in the Newborn Infant by Anand et al [1].

  14. Animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The preterm and term rabbit models. (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ryan, Rita M


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is an important lung developmental pathophysiology that affects many premature infants each year. Newborn animal models employing both premature and term animals have been used over the years to study various components of BPD. This review describes some of the neonatal rabbit studies that have contributed to the understanding of BPD, including those using term newborn hyperoxia exposure models, premature hyperoxia models, and a term newborn hyperoxia model with recovery in moderate hyperoxia, all designed to emulate aspects of BPD in human infants. Some investigators perturbed these models to include exposure to neonatal infection/inflammation or postnatal malnutrition. The similarities to lung injury in human premature infants include an acute inflammatory response with the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that have been implicated in human disease, abnormal pulmonary function, disordered lung architecture, and alveolar simplification, development of fibrosis, and abnormal vascular growth factor expression. Neonatal rabbit models have the drawback of limited access to reagents as well as the lack of readily available transgenic models but, unlike smaller rodent models, are able to be manipulated easily and are significantly less expensive than larger animal models.

  15. Efficiency of lachrymal sac drainage in newborns with dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakovich V.N.


    Full Text Available The article represents results of treatment of 14 newborns with unilateral dacryocystocele. Patients age was 7.2±0.5 days. In 9 newborns (64.3% dacryocystocele was complicated with lachrymal sac phlegmon; in 5 children (35.7% any complications were absent. Drainage of lachrymal sac through the lower lachrymal canaliculus, instillation of antibiotics, systemic antibiotic therapy in case of phlegmon were performed in all the children. Lachrymal sac washing was performed with a solution of the antibiotic ofloxacin till clear fluid evacuation. If necessary the drainage was repeated in 10 days. The drainage of lachrymal sac was successful in all the patients. 2-3 weeks after the drainage probing of nasolachrymal duct was perfomed in 4 children (28.6% including those 3 with lacrymal sac phlegmon. In 71.4% regression of dacryocystocele occurred itself. Any complications and side effects were not observed. Positive effect of the drainage, according to the authors, can be explained so that dilatation of lachrymal canaliculus before the procedure allows to eliminate Rosenmьller valve stenosis and evacuation of fluid, mucus and pus, being breeding ground for microorganisms from lachrymal sac, promotes inflammation subsiding. Authors also recommend to pay attention on prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele, using ultrasound investigation in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Exploring the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic vesicopustules in a newborn. (United States)

    Mohr, Melinda R; Sholtzow, Melissa; Bevan, Herbert E; Fisher, Randall G; Williams, Judith V


    Hemorrhagic vesicles in a newborn present a challenging differential diagnosis including both infectious and neoplastic disorders. Patients should be evaluated in an efficient manner to arrive at the correct diagnosis as quickly as possible. We present here an interesting case that outlines the methodical workup that ultimately revealed the diagnosis of congenital Langerhans cell histiocytosis. After a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis is made, it is important to evaluate the patient thoroughly for systemic involvement. Historically, the diagnosis of congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis was used to delineate a benign self-limited disorder limited to the skin with spontaneous resolution during the first several months of life; this disorder may also be referred to as "self-regressive Langerhans cell histiocytosis." However, some newborns with initial skin-only Langerhans cell histiocytosis progress to have multisystem disease after spontaneous resolution has occurred. For this reason, the nomenclature is changing. We suggest using the term "skin-only Langerhans cell histiocytosis." Periodic long-term follow-up is recommended to monitor for relapse or progression to systemic disease.

  17. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu


    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author).

  18. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain. (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan


    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

  19. Regulation of the pulmonary circulation in the fetus and newborn. (United States)

    Gao, Yuansheng; Raj, J Usha


    During the development of the pulmonary vasculature in the fetus, many structural and functional changes occur to prepare the lung for the transition to air breathing. The development of the pulmonary circulation is genetically controlled by an array of mitogenic factors in a temporo-spatial order. With advancing gestation, pulmonary vessels acquire increased vasoreactivity. The fetal pulmonary vasculature is exposed to a low oxygen tension environment that promotes high intrinsic myogenic tone and high vasocontractility. At birth, a dramatic reduction in pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance occurs with an increase in oxygen tension and blood flow. The striking hemodynamic differences in the pulmonary circulation of the fetus and newborn are regulated by various factors and vasoactive agents. Among them, nitric oxide, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin I(2) are mainly derived from endothelial cells and exert their effects via cGMP, cAMP, and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Alterations in these signaling pathways may lead to vascular remodeling, high vasocontractility, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  20. Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Newborn. A Case Report

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    Bárbara Aleida García Hernández


    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage is a serious disease that usually occurs in the first hours or days of life, especially in premature infants weighing less than 1500 g. We present the case of full-term newborn with normal birth weight who was non-institutionally delivered. At 17 days old, he was referred to the Paquito González Cueto Hospital because of fever and seizures. Subsequently, he was admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Increased head circumference, tense anterior fontanelle and global hypertonia were found. A transfontanelle ultrasound revealed a subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhage. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm the diagnosis. Symptoms and echoencephalographic results improved as occurs in 65% of cases. We decided to present this case since the condition developed in a full-term newborn with normal weight, which is unusual, and the fact that he was born outside a hospital. Although the relationship between this fact and the disease could not be established, it helps general practitioners to develop the ability to consider such serious diseases in cases that do not necessarily meet what is classically described.

  1. Sensorized pacifier to evaluate non-nutritive sucking in newborns. (United States)

    Grassi, Angela; Cecchi, Francesca; Sgherri, Giada; Guzzetta, Andrea; Gagliardi, Luigi; Laschi, Cecilia


    We developed a device for an objective measurement of non-nutritive sucking (NNS). NNS is newborns' spontaneous action that is a predictor of their neural system development and can be adopted as an intervention to train oral feeding skills in preterms. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors were embedded into a commercial pacifier and the two signals were simultaneously acquired using the Inter-Integrated circuit (I²C) interface. This solution traced a complete pressures profile of the sucking pattern in order to better understand the functional aspects of the two NNS phases, the suction and the expression. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that the sensorized pacifier is an adequate tool for measuring NNS burst-pause patterns. The identified parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity could be used as indicators of the NNS ability. This device might be used both for exploring the possible diagnostic data contained in NNS pattern and for monitoring the sucking skills of premature infants.

  2. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.


    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  3. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

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    Luciano Eustáquio Chaves


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve.RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001. The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%.CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use.

  4. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

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    Ilias Chatziioannidis


    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  5. Foot Skin Ischemic Necrosis following Heel Prick in a Newborn

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    Esad Koklu


    Full Text Available There are only a few reports on side effects after heel prick in neonates although heel prick has been performed all over the world for many years. The medicine staff had obtained only a drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet without compressing the heel or foot to measure his blood glucose level 3 hours after birth. However he developed a severe and hemorrhagic skin reaction on his entire left foot, beginning 30 minutes after obtaining the drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet. The lesion, which was treated with topical mupirocin and povidone-iodine solution daily, slowly decreased in size and had almost fully resolved within 3 weeks. He was healthy and 9 months old at the time of writing this paper. We herein report a case of foot skin ischemic necrosis following heel prick in a newborn. To our knowledge this patient is the first case of foot skin ischemic necrosis due to heel prick in newborns.

  6. [Newborn screening for galactosemia: a health economics evaluation]. (United States)

    Camelo Junior, José Simon; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado; Jorge, Salim Moysés; Maciel, Lea Maria Zanini; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Camargo, Alceu Salles; Passador, Cláudia Souza; Camelo, Sílvia Helena Henriques


    This study assesses the efficiency of the galactosemia add-on test in neonatal screening performed on regular Guthrie card blood spots. Based on estimated average incidence of galactosemia (1:19,984 newborns) in São Paulo State, Brazil, the study develops a cost-benefit analysis model, using a B/C ratio and a 9.25% annual interest rate in order to decapitalize the results. Sensitivity analysis is also performed, varying (as a function of the interest or discount rate) from 0 and 20% and according to the 95% confidence interval (1:7,494-1:59,953 newborns). The results show that the savings obtained by improved health of galactosemic patients detected early by add-on neonatal screening is superior to the costs (B/C=1.33), characterizing galactosemia add-on testing in neonatal screening as an efficient policy. The lower the prevailing interest rate in the economy, the more efficient the neonatal screening policy.

  7. Factors influencing surfactant composition in the newborn infant. (United States)

    Obladen, M


    In order to evaluate the surfactant maturation of the neonate, tracheal aspirates were analyzed in 84 newborn infants with 12h of birth. Using 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, 9 different phospholipids were identified. Dynamic surface tension measurements were performed with a modified Wilhelmy balance. Five different groups of infants with typical phospholipid patterns were characterized: i.e., 1. Normal term newborn. 2. RDS in the preterm infant. 3. Acceleration of lung maturity in preterm infants without RDS. 4. Retardation in term infants with RDS. 5. Therapeutic induction of pulmonary maturity in preterm infants following maternal glucocorticoid administration. Mature lung effluent contains high concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phsophatidylglycerol (PG). In infants with RDS, PC is low and PG absent. Accelerated lung maturity was observed after chronic prenatal stress, such as prolonged rupture of the membranes, chronic vaginal bleeding, and maternal hepatitis or drug addiction. Retardation of pulmonary maturity was seen in infants with alpha-1-AT-deficiency, maternal diabetes and maternal hypothyroidism. Administration of methylprednisolone to the mother 24 h to 72h before birth induced both the synthesis of PC and PG in the preterm infants, resulting in an almost full-term phospholipid pattern as early as 31 weeks of gestation. The significance of these factors on the pathogenesis of RDS is discussed.

  8. A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures (United States)


    Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

  9. Heart rate variability analysis for newborn infants prolonged pain assessment. (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J; Rakza, T; Logier, R; Jeanne, M; Jounwaz, R; Storme, L


    Pain management is a general concern for healthcare quality. In the particular context of neonatal care, it's well known that an efficient pain management will decrease mortality and morbidity of newborn infants. Furthermore, the plasticity of developing brain is vulnerable to pain and/or stress, that in turn may cause long term neurodevelopmental changes, including altered pain sensitivity and neuroanatomic and behavioural abnormalities. During neonatal intensive care stay, large number of painful procedures are performed, the majority of which are not accompanied by adequate analgesia. Optimal management requires competent pain assessment which can be especially difficult to perform in this non verbal population. We have developed an instantaneous heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method, non intrusive and user-friendly, based on the ECG signal acquisition. This analysis method enabled us to design parameters related to the influence of pain on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity. This paper presents the application of this method, previously validated for adults under general anesthesia, to the domain of newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection status in the PBMC of newborns of HBsAg positivemothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Ping Wang; De Zhong Xu; Yong Ping Yah; Meng Yuan Shi; Ru Lin Li; Jing Xia Zhang; Gang Zuan Bai; Jian Xin Ma


    AIM To study the hepatitis B virus (HBV) status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and itsrelationship with serum HBV infection in newborns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers.METHODS Blood specimens were collected by femoral puncture from newborns of HBsAg positive motherswithin 24 hours after birth between February, 1997 and May, 1998. All sera were examined for HBV DNAand HBsAg by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).PBMC were separated from above blood specimen of newborns. Fifty-five FBMC smear of newborns wereobtained whose sera were HBV DNA positive and 38 PBMC smear were randomly selected from newbornswhose'sera were HBV DNA negative. These Ninety-three smear of newborns' PBMC at birth were detectedfor HBV DNA by in situ polymerase chain reaction (IS PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) using digoxin-labelled HBV DNA probe.RESULTS Twenty-seven (49.09%) out of 55 HBV DNA positive newborns sera had HBV DNA in PBMCand 4 (10.53%) out of 38 HBV DNA negative newborns sera were detected for HBV DNA in their PBMC byISH. Sixty-two HBV DNA negative newborns PBMC by ISH were examined for HBV DNA by IS PCR. Ten(35.71%) out of 28 HBV DNA positive newborns sera had HBV DNA in their PBMC. Two (5.88%) out of 34 HBV DNA negative newborns sera were found HBV DNA in their PBMC. Total positive rates of PBMCHBV DNA (by ISH and/or IS PCR) were 67.27% (37/55) in those newborns with HBV DNA positive seraand 15.79% (6/38) in those newborns with HBV DNA negative sera.CONCLUSION HBV DNA in PBMC were found in most of newborns who had HBV DNA positive sera.But HBV DNA in PBMC also were positive in some of newborns who were negative for HBV DNA in theirsera at birth. It suggests that intrauterine HBV infection may be demonstrated only by HBV infection intheir PBMC and should be served as diagnosis index for intrauterine HBV infection. HBV infection in PBMCmay play some role in HBV intrauterine infection and

  11. Maternal Betaine Supplementation during Gestation Enhances Expression of mtDNA-Encoded Genes through D-Loop DNA Hypomethylation in the Skeletal Muscle of Newborn Piglets. (United States)

    Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Gao, Guichao; Cai, Demin; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ruqian


    Betaine has been widely used in animal and human nutrition to promote muscle growth and performance, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation affects the metabolic characteristics of neonatal skeletal muscles. In the present study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets throughout gestation significantly upregulated the expression of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes (p betaine supplementation increased the plasma betaine concentration and muscle expression of methyl transfer enzymes (p betaine supplementation during gestation enhances expression of mtDNA-encoded genes through D-loop DNA hypomethylation in the skeletal muscle of newborn piglets.

  12. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Gabriel López-Velázquez


    Full Text Available Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos® was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration:, NCT 01251783.

  13. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro


    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration:, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  14. Evaluation of the galactogogue effect of silymarin on mothers of preterm newborns (<32 weeks

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    Chiara Peila


    Full Text Available Hypogalactia has a relative high frequency in women having delivered preterm infants, who often have difficulties in maintaining a sufficient production of milk for their infants’ needs over prolonged periods of time. Recent studies have shown a potential galactogogue effect of silymarin on milk production in animal models (cows and rats and in humans (mothers of term newborns; nonetheless, none of the studies conducted on humans consisted of double-blind randomized clinical trials and no data are available concerning mothers who delivered preterm infants. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of silymarin (BIO-C® as galactogogue and its tolerability in mothers who delivered preterm infants. We enrolled 50 mothers at 10±1 days post-partum who had delivered infants at ® and placebo arms. No adverse events were observed in the 2 arms among mothers and infants, and silymarin and its metabolites were not detectable in the analyzed human milk samples. Further investigation on specific patient groups affected by hypogalactia, defined according to stricter criteria, should be planned to assess the efficacy of the product in increasing milk production.

  15. Postnatal leptin is necessary for maturation of numerous organs in newborn rats. (United States)

    Attig, Linda; Larcher, Thibaut; Gertler, Arieh; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Djiane, Jean


    The postnatal leptin surge, described particularly in rodents, has been demonstrated to be crucial for hypothalamic maturation and brain development. In the present study, the possible general effects of this hormone on maturation of numerous peripheral organs have been explored. To test this hypothesis, we used a leptin antagonist (L39A/D40A/F41A) to investigate the effects of the blockage of postnatal leptin action on neonatal growth and maturation of organs involved in metabolism regulation, reproduction and immunity. For that purpose, newborn female pups were subcutaneously injected from days 2-13 with either saline or leptin antagonist and sacrificed at weaning. Organs were submitted to histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin antagonist treatment clearly impaired the maturation of pancreas, kidney, thymus and ovary. All these alterations, at the organ level, occurred without changes in the whole-body mass of the animals. Leptin antagonist treatment induced: (1) a reduction in b cell area and a concomitant increase of a cells in Langherans islets in the pancreas, (2) a reduction in the number of glomeruli and a persistence of immature glomeruli in kidney, (3) an increase in the thymic cortical layer thickness, reflecting an unmatured stage, (4) a drastic reduction of the pool of primordial follicles, in ovaries. All these results strongly argue for a crucial role of leptin for the achievement of organ maturation, opening new perspectives in the field of leptin physiology and organ development.

  16. The brains of very preterm newborns in clinically stable condition may be hyperoxygenated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line Caroe; Greisen, Gorm


    near-infrared spectroscopy in clinical steady state on the first day of life (median age: 19.2 hours). The mean gestational ages and birth weights in the 2 groups were 29.1 +/- 2.6 weeks versus 39.7 +/- 1.3 weeks and 1307 +/- 437 g versus 3484 +/- 346 g, respectively. Three preterm infants needed......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare cerebral oxygenation in preterm newborns with that in healthy term newborns. METHODS: Forty-six preterm newborns with gestational ages of weeks and 25 healthy term newborns were included. The cerebral tissue oxygenation index (c-TOI) was measured by using...... mechanical ventilation and 11 received inotropic drugs. Later, 3 preterm infants developed intraventricular hemorrhage and 2 infants died. All term infants were healthy newborns recruited in the maternity ward. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in c-TOI (preterm: 78.6% [95% confidence interval: 76.9%-80...

  17. Detection of critical congenital heart defects: Review of contributions from prenatal and newborn screening. (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Sontag, Marci K


    In 2011, statewide newborn screening programs for critical congenital heart defects began in the United States, and subsequently screening has been implemented widely. In this review, we focus on data reports and collection efforts related to both prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening. Defect-specific, maternal, and geographic factors are associated with variations in prenatal detection, so newborn screening provides a population-wide safety net for early diagnosis. A new web-based repository is collecting information on newborn screening program policies, quality indicators related to screening programs, and specific case-level data on infants with these defects. Birth defects surveillance programs also collect data about critical congenital heart defects, particularly related to diagnostic timing, mortality, and services. Individuals from state programs, federal agencies, and national organizations will be interested in these data to further refine algorithms for screening in normal newborn nurseries, neonatal intensive care settings, and other special populations; and ultimately to evaluate the impact of screening on outcomes.

  18. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana). (United States)

    Jacobs, Bob; Lee, Laura; Schall, Matthew; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Kottwitz, Jack J; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C


    Although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. To this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. After cortical neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 153), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed by using computer-assisted morphometry. The results showed that newborn elephant neurons were considerably larger in terms of all dendritic and spine measures than newborn giraffe neurons. Qualitatively, neurons in the newborns appeared morphologically comparable to those in their adult counterparts. Neurons in the newborn elephant differed considerably from those observed in other placental mammals, including the giraffe, particularly with regard to the morphology of spiny projection neurons. Projection neurons were observed in both species, with a much larger variety in the elephant (e.g., flattened pyramidal, nonpyramidal multipolar, and inverted pyramidal neurons). Although local circuit neurons (i.e., interneurons, neurogliaform, Cajal-Retzius neurons) resembled those observed in other eutherian mammals, these were usually spiny, which contrasts with their adult, aspiny equivalents. Newborn projection neurons were smaller than the adult equivalents in both species, but newborn interneurons were approximately the same size as their adult counterparts. Cortical neuromorphology in the newborn giraffe is thus generally consistent with what has been observed in other cetartiodactyls, whereas newborn and adult elephant morphology appears to deviate substantially from what is commonly observed in other placental mammals.

  19. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

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    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  20. Competition from newborn granule cells does not drive axonal retraction of silenced old granule cells in the adult hippocampus

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    Carla M Lopez


    Full Text Available In the developing nervous system synaptic refinement, typified by the neuromuscular junction where supernumerary connections are eliminated by axon retraction leaving the postsynaptic target innervated by a single dominant input, critically regulates neuronal circuit formation. Whether such competition based pruning continues in established circuits of mature animals remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in the context of adult neurogenesis where newborn cells must integrate into preexisting circuits, and thus, potentially compete with functionally mature synapses to gain access to their postsynaptic targets. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation/retrieval and the dentate gyrus subfield (DG exhibits continued neurogenesis into adulthood. Therefore, this region contains both mature granule cells (old GCs and immature recently born GCs that are generated throughout adult life (young GCs, providing a neurogenic niche model to examine the role of competition in synaptic refinement. Recent work from an independent group in developing animals indicated that embryonically/early postnatal generated GCs placed at a competitive disadvantage by selective expression of tetanus toxin (TeTX to prevent synaptic release rapidly retracted their axons, and that this retraction was driven by competition from newborn GCs lacking TeTX. In contrast, following 3-6 months of selective TeTX expression in old GCs of adult mice we did not observe any evidence of axon retraction. Indeed ultrastructural analyses indicated that the terminals of silenced GCs even maintained synaptic contact with their postsynaptic targets. Furthermore, we did not detect any significant differences in the electrophysiological properties between old GCs in control and TeTX conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate a remarkable stability in the face of a relatively prolonged period of altered synaptic competition between two populations of neurons within the


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    Leilianna de Souza Vieira


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of preterm newborn infants in mechanical ventilation who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a public hospital at Fortaleza/CE. Method: Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal quantitative analysis with 1250 preterm infants admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, Dr. César Cals General Hospital, at Fortaleza, from July 2006 to June 2007. Data collection occurred during two months, with visits to units twice a week, where the medical records were done. Were included in these sample newborns that were in mechanical ventilation and developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Then the gestational average was 28.6 weeks; the mean weight of infants was 1125.33 grams, born vaginally or cesarean section, of both sexes and with various primary diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice and neonatal infection. Results: In the sample from the total admissions, 34.48% were for mechanical ventilation and 3.48% developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence, bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a important complication of prematurity, directly related to the duration of mechanical ventilation, thus the team must be committed on weaning and extubation of those as soon as possible, preferably within the first week of life.

  2. Dexamethasone Treatment of Newborn Rats Decreases Cardiomyocyte Endowment in the Developing Heart through Epigenetic Modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresha S Gay

    Full Text Available The potential adverse effect of synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone therapy on the developing heart remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on cardiomyocyte proliferation and binucleation in the developing heart of newborn rats and evaluated DNA methylation as a potential mechanism. Dexamethasone was administered intraperitoneally in a three day tapered dose on postnatal day 1 (P1, 2 and 3 to rat pups in the absence or presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Ru486, given 30 minutes prior to dexamethasone. Cardiomyocytes from P4, P7 or P14 animals were analyzed for proliferation, binucleation and cell number. Dexamethasone treatment significantly increased the percentage of binucleated cardiomyocytes in the hearts of P4 pups, decreased myocyte proliferation in P4 and P7 pups, reduced cardiomyocyte number and increased the heart to body weight ratio in P14 pups. Ru486 abrogated the effects of dexamethasone. In addition, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA blocked the effects of dexamethasone on binucleation in P4 animals and proliferation at P7, leading to recovered cardiomyocyte number in P14 hearts. 5-AZA alone promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation at P7 and resulted in a higher number of cardiomyocytes in P14 hearts. Dexamethasone significantly decreased cyclin D2, but not p27 expression in P4 hearts. 5-AZA inhibited global DNA methylation and blocked dexamethasone-mediated down-regulation of cyclin D2 in the heart of P4 pups. The findings suggest that dexamethasone acting on glucocorticoid receptors inhibits proliferation and stimulates premature terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart via increased DNA methylation in a gene specific manner.

  3. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  4. Glucocorticoid treatment of MCMV infected newborn mice attenuates CNS inflammation and limits deficits in cerebellar development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kosmac


    Full Text Available Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV.

  5. Our love for animals. (United States)

    Scruton, Roger


    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.




    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  7. Algorithm Animation with Galant. (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F


    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  8. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy


    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  9. Animal MRI Core (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  10. Prognosis of the Newborns with Congenital Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Molaei


    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is defined as problems affecting the heart of the fetus. According to previous studies, the incidence rate varies from 4-12 in 1000 live births. This study aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, and findings that have impact on the prognosis of newborns hospitalized in Tabriz children Hospital, northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 neonates with CHD admitted in Tabriz children Hospital, northwest of Iran from December 2011 to December 2012. Demographic characteristics, main complaints, symptoms, clinical presentations, associated anomalies, diagnoses, and also the correlation between the treatment process and mortality were evaluated. All data were analyzed using SPSS™ version 16 statistical software. Results: A total of 82 neonates with CHD were enrolled. The mean age and birth weight were 8.54 days and 2828.17 grams, respectively. The most common chief complaint was respiratory distress (58 cases, 70.73%. The most common diagnosis was d-transposition of great arteries and the most frequent therapeutic procedure was medical therapy in combination with mechanical ventilation (31 cases, 37.8%. 10 neonates (12.1% had complications while seizure was the most common complication of the study (4 case, 4.87%. Of 82 newborns in this study, 30 patients (36.6% died of which 13 cases (43.33% had DTGA; the most common therapeutic procedure was mechanical ventilation plus medical therapy which was performed in 22 patients (73.33%. In our study, no significant correlation could be observed between age, sex or weight of neonates and final outcome. Conclusion: Mortality of neonates with critical CHD is high. Also, the neonates treated with more invasive methods have higher mortality rates. It is obvious that both early detection and timely management affect ultimate prognosis of these patients. Hence, prenatal (fetal echocardiography and

  11. Assessment of pulmonary dynamics in normal newborns: a pneumotachographic method. (United States)

    Estol, P; Píriz, H; Pintos, L; Nieto, F; Simini, F


    A pneumotachographic method for assessment of pulmonary dynamics in critically ill newborns in an intensive care setting was developed in our laboratory. Before the results obtained with this method could be applied, the normal range of values were determined in 48 normal term and preterm newborns. Their body weight ranged between 1200 and 4100 g, and postnatal ages between 24 hours and 21 days. In three infants, two determinations were performed after an interval of 7 days. The studies were performed with a pneumotachograph applied to the upper airway by means of an inflatable face mask or latex nasal prongs. The air flow signal was electronically integrated to time to produce a volume signal. Airway pressure was determined proximal to the pneumotachograph. Esophageal pressure was determined with a water filled catheter placed in the lower third of the esophague. Tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (V), Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (R), total pulmonary work (Wt), Elastic work (We), and flow resistive work (Wv), were determined. A significant linear correlation was found between Cdyn and body weight (r = 0.50, p less than 0.01) whereas no significative correlation was found between body weight and VT, V or R. Values for VT, V and Cdyn were corrected for body weight and means (X), standard deviation (SD) so as 10th and 90th percentiles are shown in table III. X, SD and percentiles for R were shown in table III. Wt, We and Wv were corrected for V, and X, SD and percentiles shown in table III. Values of VT/Kg, Cdyn/Kg and R are similar to those found by other authors with pneumotachography and plethysmography. The V/Kg values obtained by us were higher than those reported by other authors, which together with the lack of correlation of VT and V with body weight, question the reliability of V values in our study. This could be explained by: 1) excessive increase in dead space in cases in which a face mask was used; 2) nocioceptive stimulus

  12. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro


    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  13. [Nutritional status of women with gestational diabetes and characteristics of newborn]. (United States)

    González Stäger, Maria Angelica; Rodríguez Fernández, Alejandra; Ortega Quintana, Victoria; Oliveras Vega, Leslie


    The objective was to determine the relationship between the mother's nutritional status and the newborn's gestational characteristics. A sample of 149 women with gestational diabetes was controlled in the High Risk Obstetric Unit of the Medical Specialties Public Health Center before delivery in the maternity ward of the Hospital Clinico Herminda Martín de Chillán, Chile in 2010. Data were obtained from the perinatal clinical history and the newborn's chart. The variables recorded for the mother were nutritional status, type of delivery, number of pregnancies, and metabolic control. Data for the newborn were weight, length, head circumference, and gestational diagnosis. These data were analyzed by ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Multiple Correspondence. Women with a normal nutritional status were multiparous with natural childbirth; the newborn had an adequate gestational age and normal head circumference. On the other hand, maternal obesity was related to a Cesarean; the newborn was large for gestational age and had a larger head circumference. Overweight women were primiparous and the newborn was small for gestational age with a smaller head circumference (p obesity in women with gestational diabetes explains variables such as type of delivery, number of gestations, and the newborn's diagnosis.

  14. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka


    Full Text Available Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1 had safe cord care, 5.2% (21 optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203 were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC, and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities.

  15. Carnitine concentrations in term and preterm newborns at birth and during the first days of life. (United States)

    Honzík, T; Chrastina, R; Hansíková, H; Böhm, M; Martincová, O; Plavka, R; Zapadlo, M; Zeman, J


    Carnitine plays an important role in energetic metabolism. The aim of the study was to characterize the carnitine status in term and preterm newborns with respect to gestational age, birth weight, haematocrit and red blood cell count (RBC). The effect of nutrition on carnitine levels in the first week of life was also studied. Total blood pool of free carnitine (FC), acylcarnitines (AC) and total carnitine (TC) were analysed in whole cord blood and postnatally in capillary blood obtained at the day 4-6 in 33 term newborns and at the day 7-10 in 27 preterm newborns using tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma level of carnitine in the cord blood was measured using radioenzymatic method. Cord plasma levels of FC, AC and TC were higher in preterm newborns in comparison with term newborns (p parenteral nutrition. Our results indicate that preterm newborns are born with limited carnitine store. Interpretation of carnitine analyses in whole blood relies in addition to gestational age and birth weight on the haematocrit, especially in newborns with anaemia or blood hyperviscosity.

  16. Determinants of the developing oral flora in normal newborns. (United States)

    Long, S S; Swenson, R M


    The ability of Streptococcus species to selectively adhere to the oral epithelial cells of newborns was studied in vitro. On day 1 of life, mucosal cells from normal infants demonstrated selective attraction for the natural distribution of streptococci that would soon colonize these surfaces. Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mitis adhered well in vitro to scraped cells from cheek and tongue surfaces. Streptococcus mutans, on the other hand, exhibited feeble or no adherence to cheek or tongue cells. Adherence of Escherichia coli to oral epithelial cells was also studied. The ability of strains of E. coli to adhere to cheek and tongue cells correlated solely with the presence of cell surface substances, probably pili. These observations, made on infants at the critical moment of their developing flora, strengthen the hypothesis that the ability of bacteria to adhere to surfaces is an important determinant of their ecological place in the oral microflora.

  17. Intracranial hemorrhage in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (United States)

    Pooni, Puneet A; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Harmesh; Jain, B K


    This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) with particular reference to intracranial hemorrhage. Infants (n = 42) presenting with late HDN from January 1998 to December 2001 were studied. Majority (76%) were in the age group of 1-3 months. All were term babies on exclusive breast-feeding and none received vitamin K at birth. 71% patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, commonest site being intracerebral and multiple ICH. Visible external bleeding was noted in 1/3rd of patients only. Three patients expired. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Isolated intracranial hemorrhage is a common mode of presentation.

  18. Percutaneous catheter use in newborn infants with parenteral nutrition. (United States)

    García del Río, M; Lastra-Sanchez, G; Martínez-Léon, M; Martínez-Valverde, A


    The well known negative effect of infection on nutrition causes the cycle 'infection-malnutrition-infection'. Prolonged parenteral nutrition requires central venous catheterization. Due to the possibility of 'catheter related sepsis' (CRS) catheters should be used correctly to avoid septic complications. A very high percentage of central venous catheters (CVC) removed because of presumed infections are not infected when culture is done. In some patients infections are successfully treated with antibiotics without catheter removal. Removal of the line is recommended when catheter-associated sepsis is suspected or proven, but not for the extremely ill preterm infant or when such removal may be impractical. A therapeutic protocol is suggested to avoid future canalizations in the neonate, sometimes in a critical situation. Current literature referring to CRS in the newborn infant is reviewed.

  19. Innocent blood: a history of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Hemorrhages occurring in the newborn without trauma have been observed by obstetricians since the 17th century, but have been considered different diseases depending on their location. Umbilical hemorrhage associated with obstructed bile canals was described by Cheyne in 1802. Grandidier in 1871 and Townsend in 1894 grouped together various forms of neonatal bleeds and associated them with disturbed coagulation. When the clotting system became better understood in the last decade of the 19th century, effective symptomatic treatment was developed: gelatin, serum injection, and the transfusion of fresh blood. In 1935, Dam detected the function of vitamin K in the coagulation system and 4 years later, Waddell introduced vitamin K administration into therapy and prevention of neonatal hemorrhagic disease. Kernicterus occurred when high doses of synthetic water-soluble vitamin K analogues were given to preterm infants, reminding physicians that progress in neonatal therapy rests on the cornerstones of controlled trials and follow-up.

  20. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in the newborn and infants]. (United States)

    Filippkin, M A; Kal'naia, T V; Kal'noĭ, A M


    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involvement in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, listerosis), the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis). The examinations were performed in the real time regimen with a frequency of 3.5-7.5 MHz. In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications (dislocation, cerebral ventricles dilatation, abscesses, hygromas).

  1. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce


    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  2. Cartilage canals in newborn dogs: histochemical and immunohistochemical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Giancamillo


    Full Text Available Cartilage canals (CCs are microscopic structures involved in secondary ossification centers (SOCs development. The features of CCs were investigated in the humeral and femoral proximal epiphyses of small-sized newborn dogs (from premature to 28 days after birth with histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Masson’s Trichrome revealed a ring-shaped area around CCs, which changes in colour from green (immature collagen to red (mature collagen as ossification progresses; perichondrium staining always matched the ring colour. Safranin-O was always negative. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed immunopositivity for both collagen type I and V around the CCs; collagen type II was negative. CCs count showed a tendency to be higher in the humerus than in the femur. This work enlightened for the first time changes in composition of CCs surrounding matrix during SOCs development in dogs, paving the way to further investigations.

  3. Neurophysiological findings in a newborn with chromosome 10 trisomy. (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Di Palma, Franco; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco


    The trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10 is a rare condition. The phenotypic expression of this genetic aberration is characterised by growth and mental retardation with several neurological signs. We report the neurophysiological findings in a newborn affected by 10p chromosome trisomy who developed seizures. Serial EEGs showed a progressive reduction in burst-suppression activity and a slow rhythmic basal activity. At 1 year of age the recording showed for the first time spikes of high amplitude (up to 800 μV) in bilateral frontal regions. These findings could be related to an asymmetrical cerebral maturation in the context of perinatal sufferance and brain malformation due to the genetic aberration.

  4. An Unusual Case of Suspected Microvascular Angina in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cataldo


    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia in pediatric population is uncommon and usually due to congenital heart disease or extracardiac conditions leading to poor coronary perfusion. A 6-day-old newborn presented with respiratory distress and signs of heart failure. ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory results were consistent with myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography was performed to exclude anomalous origin of coronary arteries, showing normal coronary artery origin and course. Thrombophilia and extra-cardiac causes were ruled out. Clinical conditions improved with mechanical ventilation and diuretics, enzyme levels lowered, repolarisation and systolic function abnormalities regressed, but ischemic electrocardiographic and echocardiographic signs still presented during intense crying. Becaues of suspicion of microvascular angina, therapy with ASA and beta-blocker was started. At 5 month followup, the baby was in good clinical condition and no more episodes were recorded. We believe it is an interesting case, as no similar cases have been recorded till now.

  5. Black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (United States)

    Alnemri, AbdulRahman M.


    Objectives: To determine the clinical presentation, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of Saudi infants with black lung persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Methods: This is a retrospective review of all neonates with PPHN presented to the Armed Force Hospital Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: Ten term and near term infants presented with PPHN were included. Maternal diabetes and Down syndrome were the most common identified risk factors for PPHN in the study group. Nine infants were treated with oral sildenafil and did not require mechanical ventilation. Only one infant required mechanical ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide in addition to oral sildenafil. Conclusion: Most of the patients in this cohort with PPHN had risk factors, they did not require mechanical ventilation and responded well to oral sildenafil. PMID:28042638

  6. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy. (United States)

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G


    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion.

  7. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Verbsky, James; Thakar, Monica; Routes, John


    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.

  8. High-output heart failure in a newborn. (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Moniz, Marta; Ferreira, Sofia; Goulão, Augusto; Barroso, Rosalina


    High-output cardiac failure is rare in newborns. Emergent diagnosis and management of this pathology is crucial. We report the case of a child, currently 12-months old; obstetric background is non-contributory. Clinic observation on D1 was normal except for the presence of a systolic cardiac murmur; cardiological evaluation revealed mild ventricular dysfunction of the right ventricle. On the third day of life, she developed cardiac failure with gallop rhythm, hepatomegaly and a murmur in the anterior fontanel; an echocardiogram confirmed clinic aggravation with biventricular dysfunction and right cavities and superior vena cava dilatation. The cranial MRI confirmed the presence of a pial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) involving the anterior and middle cerebral arteries with an associated fronto-parietal ischaemic lesion. The infant underwent embolisations of AVM with successful flow reduction and cardiac failure improvement. The multidisciplinary follow-up showed no cardiac dysfunction or permanent lesions but confirmed a severe psycho-motor delay and left hemiparesia.

  9. Companion Animals. [Information Packet. (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  10. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types of...

  11. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  12. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  13. Hazardous marine animals. (United States)

    Auerbach, P S


    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  14. Animals in the Classroom (United States)

    Roy, Ken


    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer


    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. The Classroom Animal: Snails. (United States)

    Kramer, David S.


    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  17. Animal Care Use Committees. (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others


    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  18. Small Animal Care. (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  19. Immunological mechanisms of hepatitis B virus persistence in newborns. (United States)

    Trehanpati, Nirupma; Hissar, Syed; Shrivastav, Shikha; Sarin, Shiv K


    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and about a half million people die every year. India represents the second largest pool of chronic HBV infection worldwide with an estimated 40 million infected people. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in pregnant women is shown to be 0.82 per cent with the risk of mother-to-child vertical transmission. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity indicates replicative form of HBV which may play a role in immunotolerance in utero by crossing the placenta. In case of HBeAg positivity and high viral load of mother, HBV immunoglobulin is preferably given along with HBV vaccination. Antiviral therapy is recommended for use in the third trimester of pregnancy to reduce the perinatal transmission of HBV, however, use of antiviral therapy should be individualized during pregnancy. Chronic HBV infection in neonates is linked with strong presence of Tregs (T regulatory cells) and defective CD8 T cells pool to produce interferon (IFN)-γ. T cell receptor (TCRζ) chain defects were also associated with decreased CD8 T cell dysfunction. Decreased TCRζ expression could be due to persistent intrauterine exposure of the viral antigens early in embryonic development leading to immune tolerance to HBV antigens in the newborns positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg+ve). Therefore, due to HBV infection, T cell tolerance to HBV-antigen may probably leave the newborn as a chronic carrier. However, HBV vaccination may have benefits in restoring acquired immunity and better production of HBV specific antibodies.

  20. Nerve protective effect of Baicalin on newborn HIBD rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Liu; Yi Feng; Ai-Min Li


    Objective:To investigate the nerve protective effect and mechanism of baicalin on newborn rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage(HIBD).Methods:A total of64SD newborn rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, nerve growth factor group and baicalin group, with16 in each group.Left carotid artery ligation method was adopted to establish theHIBD model except for in control group, which was treated with intraperitoneal injection of salin e10 mL/kg for3 d.After oxygen recovery on hypoxia ischemia rats, intraperitoneal injection of saline10 mL/kg was adopted in model group for3 d.Intraperitoneal injection of nerve growth factor injection 50μg/kg per day was adopted in nerve growth factor group for3 d; intraperitoneal injection of radix scutellariae16 mg/kg per day was adopted in baicalin group for3 d after modeling.Four rats of each group were sacrificed atDay1,2,3,7 for microscopic observation of pathological morphological changes in brain tissue afterHE staining,S-P immunohistochemical method was used for observation ofFas andFasL expression in brain cells.Results:Neat structure of cells was observed in control group; edema cells in disordered arrangement was observed in model group, with some cells necrosis and cavity change; tissue injury in nerve growth factor group and baicalin group was significantly lighter than that in model group;Fas andFasL expression in model group, nerve growth factor group and baicalin group were significantly higher than that in control group at different time points(P0.05).Conclusions:Baicalin can reduce expression ofFas andFasL inHIBD rats, inhibit apoptosis of nerve cells, thus achieve the protective effect onHIBD rat nerves.

  1. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O


    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  2. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni


    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.

  3. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O


    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  4. No more tears? Maternal involvement during the newborn screening examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ganda, Augustine Josie


    BACKGROUND: Babies often show signs of discomfort and distress by crying during the neonatal screening examination (NSE). The authors hypothesized that supporting the baby with maternal participation may reduce infant crying during NSE. The objective of this study was to document incidental infant crying during NSE, before and after training residents, on maternal involvement and infant comfort techniques to help. METHODS: A total of 20 NSEs of normal newborn babies by pediatric residents were observed (video-recorded) following informed consent of the doctor and the baby\\'s mother. The examining doctors were then taught how to use maternal participation and developmental care (MPDC) comfort techniques to support the baby during NSE. Mothers were shown how to focus on their baby\\'s needs by supporting the baby\\'s head (preventing atonic neck reflexes) and, if necessary, providing nonnutritive sucking to the baby and an encouraging, repetitive low-tone voices to sooth the baby. A further 14 NSEs on different babies were video-recorded using these techniques. The video recordings were analyzed by independent observers for total length of crying and duration of crying during specific components of the NSE. Mothers in both groups were given a questionnaire to assess their opinions of the NSE. RESULTS: The median length of crying was significantly longer in the pre-MPDC group (93.5 seconds; range 0-198 seconds) compared with the post-MPDC infants (0 seconds; range 0-123 seconds; P = .001). Only 1 of 20 infants in the pre-MPDC did not cry during NSE compared with 8 of 14 babies in the post-MPDC group. CONCLUSION: Newborn infants cry less and mothers were more satisfied with NSEs when shown simple support and comfort techniques for their babies.

  5. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah


    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  6. Congenital heart disease in the newborn requiring early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Weon Yun


    Full Text Available Although antenatal diagnostic technique has considerably improved, precise detection and proper management of the neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD is always a great concern to pediatricians. Congenital cardiac malformations vary from benign to serious conditions such as complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA, critical pulmonary and aortic valvular stenosis/atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR, which the baby needs immediate diagnosis and management for survival. Unfortunately, these life threatening heart diseases may not have obvious evidence early after birth, most of the clinical and physical findings are nonspecific and vague, which makes the diagnosis difficult. High index of suspicion and astute acumen are essential to decision making. When patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is opened widely, many serious malformations may not be noticed easily in the early life, but would progress as severe acidosis/shock/cyanosis or even death as PDA constricts after few hours to days. Ductus dependent congenital cardiac lesions can be divided into the ductus dependent systemic or pulmonary disease, but physiologically quite different from each other and treatment strategy has to be tailored to the clinical status and cardiac malformations. Inevitably early presentation is often regarded as a medical emergency. Differential diagnosis with inborn error metabolic disorders, neonatal sepsis, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN and other pulmonary conditions are necessary. Urgent identification of the newborn at such high risk requires timely referral to a pediatric cardiologist, and timely intervention is the key in reducing mortality and morbidity. This following review deals with the clinical presentations, investigative modalities and approach to management of congenital cardiac malformations presenting in the early life.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of free and total flucloxacillin in newborn infants. (United States)

    Herngren, L; Ehrnebo, M; Broberger, U


    Flucloxacillin 50 mg/kg b.w. was administered intravenously (in combination with ampicillin/gentamicin) and orally (with amoxicillin) to 9 newborn infants (gestational age 33-41 weeks) to treat bacterial infections. The concentrations of flucloxacillin in plasma and urine after i.v. injection were analysed according to an open two-compartment model, and the plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin and its distribution to blood cells and plasma water in whole blood were determined. Considerable differences were found from values reported in adults. The terminal half-life averaged 4 h 38 min and was significantly correlated with gestational age. Plasma clearance was low (0.744 ml X min-1 X kg-1), due to the small renal clearance (0.182 ml X min-1 X kg-1), whilst non-renal clearance (0.563 ml X min-1 X kg-1) was approximately the same as in adults. The mean apparent volume of distribution of total drug (Vz) was 0.280 l/kg. The corresponding volume of distribution of unbound drug (Vu1 + Vu2) was 1.74 l/kg, which indicates considerable extravascular drug binding. The plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin (mean 86.3%) was significantly correlated with gestational age and the bilirubin/albumin concentration ratio. Bioavailability after oral administration, when corrected for changes in terminal half-life, was 47.7%, which is only slightly lower than that reported in adults. Since the plasma concentrations after both i.v. and oral administration were well above the MIC-values generally reported for Staphylococcus aureus, and since few side-effects were observed, intravenous injection or, in selected cases, orl administration of flucloxacillin appears to be a reliable therapy for the treatment of infections due to sensitive strains of S. aureus in premature newborn infants.

  8. Even routine painful procedures can be harmful for the newborn. (United States)

    Bellieni, C V; Iantorno, L; Perrone, S; Rodriguez, A; Longini, M; Capitani, S; Buonocore, G


    Stressful events can damage neonatal brain through a complexity of events including free radical (FR) generation. We examined whether pain provoked by a routine heel prick can generate an increase in potentially harmful FR in neonatal blood. To this aim, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and total hydroperoxide (TH) concentrations were measured at the beginning (sample A) and at the end (sample B) of each sampling in 64 babies (corrected age: 37.2+/-2.7 weeks) who underwent heel prick for routine blood tests. We scored pain of every procedure in all newborns. No differences were detected between AOPP and TH blood concentrations at the beginning and at the end of heel prick sampling, considering the whole cohort of babies. Conversely, a significant increase was observed between AOPP and TH blood concentrations considering only those babies who showed the highest pain intensity. When babies' pain was high (ABC score >or=4), mean AOPP and TH blood levels increased significantly; in this case, mean AOPP values increased from 53.5microm/l (SD=41.6) to 63.2microm/l (SD=44.3) and TH values from 218.3UCarr (SD=89.2) to 228.7UCarr (SD=93.3), with a significant p value of 0.02 and 0.036, respectively. A significant correlation was also found between AOPP blood levels ratio (sample B/sample A) in each baby, and the correspondent level of pain. These data show that even common routine procedures can be potentially harmful for the newborn if they provoke a high level of pain.

  9. Contact and nutrient caregiving effects on newborn infant pain responses. (United States)

    Gormally, S; Barr, R G; Wertheim, L; Alkawaf, R; Calinoiu, N; Young, S N


    To understand how the 'caregiving context' could affect responses to procedural pain, the authors sought to determine whether (1) the combined effects of sweet taste and holding (caregiving contact) were greater than the effects of either alone, (2) any combined effects were additive or interactive, and (3) the interventions had similar effects on behavioral (crying and facial activity) and physiological (heart rate, vagal tone) responses to the heel-stick procedure in newborn infants in a randomized two-factorial intervention trial. Eighty-five normally developing newborn infants were studied with a mean gestational age of 39.4 weeks on the 2nd or 3rd day of life. Infants were randomized in blocks of eight to receive (1) no holding and water taste (control participants), (2) no holding and sucrose taste (sucrose group), (3) holding and water taste (holding group), or (4) holding and sucrose taste (holding and sucrose group). Crying was reduced significantly by taste and holding, and the interventions combined additively. Facial activity was only significantly reduced by holding. For physiological measures, the interventions interacted with each other and preintervention levels to reduce heart rate and lower vagal tone more during the procedure in infants in whom heart rate and vagal tone were higher before intervention. Consequently, sweet taste and holding interventions combined in complex ways when acting on different behavioral and physiological response systems to modify stressful pain experiences. The results suggest that providing a caregiving context when painful procedures are performed may be a simple and practical method of reducing pain experience in infants, and that no one measure captures these effects.

  10. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne


    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool ( or which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  11. Workshop on molecular animation. (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E


    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  12. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  13. Is animal experimentation fundamental? (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli


    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  14. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo


    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  15. Towards an animated JPEG (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  17. Expanded newborn screening in the Health Services of the Mexican Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Trigo-Madrid


    Full Text Available In Mexico the birth prevalence of the metabolic diseases detected by expanded newborn screening is poorly known and there is little information about its performance indicators.Objective. Describe the birth prevalence of the metabolic defects detected by the expanded newborn screening program implemented in the Mexican Navy (Secretaría de Marina Armada de México, SEMAR, and to make known some of its performance indicators. Materials and Methods. A blood sample of 5 205 newborns from 18 Mexican states were taken. The age at blood sampling, the proportion of samples taken between the 3rd and the 5th days of life, and the time of results delivery were analyzed. The number and type of detected metabolic diseases, as well as the maternal age and body mass index, the type of birth, the gestational age and weight of the newborns were analized. Results. The age at blood sampling was 4.7 days and 81.15 percent of the samples were obtained in optimal time. Two cases of congenital hypothyroidism (3.8/10 000 newborns, one of adrenal congenital hyperplasia (1.9/10 000 newborns and five cases of deficiency of glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (9.6/10 000 newborns were detected. The 85.6% of mothers had pregnancies at an optimal reproductive age (20-35 years, but overweight and obesity occurred in 44.7% of them. Conclusions. In this analyzed population, the birth prevalence of metabolic defects was 15.37/10 000 newborns. The expanded newborn screening program allowed its identification and timely treatment, with the aim of preventing disability and death.

  18. Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Serón-Ferré

    Full Text Available Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight at 1800 h (LL+Mel and the other five a placebo (LL. Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD. Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05. Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

  19. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayyil, Sudhin [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rodney [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r{sup 2} = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  20. Animal Diseases and Your Health (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  1. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: an unusual etiology of neonatal bleeding. (United States)

    Binder, L


    Emergency physicians may encounter presentations of bleeding in the neonate that have multifactorial etiologies. A case of a 15-day-old male infant with umbilical bleeding that exhibited many of the characteristic features of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (nonmedically attended birth, breastfeeding, no definite history of Vitamin K administration, bleeding from iatrogenic puncture sites, and isolated prolongation of the prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time) is presented. A differential diagnosis and laboratory evaluation of bleeding in the newborn are summarized, and treatment recommendations for hemorrhagic disease of the newborn are discussed.

  2. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martines


    Full Text Available In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025.

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal


    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  5. Environmentally friendly animal litter (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica


    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  6. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  7. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I


    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  8. Animal transportation networks. (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya


    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  9. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  10. [Alternatives to animal testing]. (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle


    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  11. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity? (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P


    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  12. Animal models of scoliosis. (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron


    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  13. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats]. (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna


    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  14. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  15. Cdk5 regulates accurate maturation of newborn granule cells in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jessberger


    Full Text Available Newborn granule cells become functionally integrated into the synaptic circuitry of the adult dentate gyrus after a morphological and electrophysiological maturation process. The molecular mechanisms by which immature neurons and the neurites extending from them find their appropriate position and target area remain largely unknown. Here we show that single-cell-specific knockdown of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5 activity in newborn cells using a retrovirus-based strategy leads to aberrant growth of dendritic processes, which is associated with an altered migration pattern of newborn cells. Even though spine formation and maturation are reduced in cdk5-deficient cells, aberrant dendrites form ectopic synapses onto hilar neurons. These observations identify cdk5 to be critically involved in the maturation and dendrite extension of newborn neurons in the course of adult neurogenesis. The data presented here also suggest a mechanistic dissociation between accurate dendritic targeting and subsequent synapse formation.

  16. [Parasitic and viral marker detection in pregnant adolescents and their newborn infants at risk]. (United States)

    Contreras, M C; Escaff, V; Salinas, P; Saavedra, T; Suárez, M


    We have investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzzi, Hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in 139 adolescent pregnant women and in their high risk newborn children. The methods employed were the Sabin and Feldman reaction, complement fixation reaction, ELISA, and xenodiagnostic 30.9% of the pregnant group were seropositive for T. gondii, both mothers and newborns were IgM-negative. Two mothers (1.4%) presented anti T. cruzii antibodies, and one newborn child had circulating parasites. Related to the virological studies, 93.5% of the population were anti CMV antibodies positive and all their newborns were IgM (-) 90.6% of the adolescents were rubella positive and one was seropositive to VIH. We conclude that the prevalence found in this group of adolescent pregnant women are not significantly different to the one reported for the general pregnant women population.

  17. Newborn Screening for Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 3 in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Serrant, Maribel Torres; Ramirez, Sonia I; Cadilla, Carmen L; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto


    Background Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by albinism, mucocutaneous bleeding, and storage of ceroid material in macrophages1. Patients that are not easily identified by physical characteristics (mostly HPS-3 patients) may have hemorrhagic complications with trauma or surgery. Objective To determine the prevalence of HPS-3 in Puerto Rican newborns using DNA pooling technique. Design/Methods Twelve percent of annual Puerto Rican births were tested randomly by PCR for the HPS-3 mutation, using pooled DNA extracted from dried blood samples. Results HPS-3 mutation was detected in 75 samples. Two newborns were found to be homozygous. Carrier frequency was 1:85 (1.18%). Conclusions The HPS-3 carrier frequency found (1.18%) justifies universal newborn screening in Puerto Rico. DNA pooling reduces time and labor in newborn screening thus facilitating early diagnosis and treatment of children with HPS-3 and the provision of genetic counseling to parents and relatives. PMID:20562649

  18. Case of acquired hemophilia with factor VIII inhibitor in a mother and newborn. (United States)

    Kotani, Yasushi; Shiota, Mitsuru; Umemoto, Masahiko; Koike, Eiji; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Hoshiai, Hiroshi


    We report a mother and newborn in the puerperium with hemorrhage secondary to factor VIII inhibitor. A 31-year-old gravida 1 para 1 delivered at a local clinic with a massive postpartum hemorrhage. The activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged and factor VIII inhibitor was detected. The persistent hemorrhage improved following treatment, including transfusion, steroid therapy, and bypass therapy with factor VII formulations. After hysteroscopic removal of the retained placenta, the hemorrhage decreased. The newborn developed significant swelling of the hands after routine blood sampling and factor VIII inhibitor was detected. The inhibitor disappeared without any special treatment in the 5th month postpartum in the mother and the 4th month postpartum in the newborn. Factor VIII inhibitor may be transferred via the placenta from the mother to the fetus. Therefore, the newborn should also be carefully observed in a case of massive hemorrhage after delivery.

  19. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: An update



    QUESTION What is the current evidence regarding the association between hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and maternal use of hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (eg, carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, topiramate)?

  20. History and Current Status of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M.


    The development of a T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period while asymptomatic permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions. PMID:25937517

  1. History and current status of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Puck, Jennifer M


    The development of a T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay utilizing dried blood spots in universal newborn screening has allowed the early detection of T-cell lymphopenia in newborns. Diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in affected infants in the neonatal period, while asymptomatic, permits early treatment and restoration of a functional immune system. SCID was the first immunodeficiency disease to be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel of Core Conditions in the United States in 2010, and it is now implemented in 26 states in the U.S. This review covers the development of newborn screening for SCID, the biology of the TREC test, its current implementation in the U.S., new findings for SCID in the newborn screening era, and future directions.

  2. Newborn genetic identification: a protocol using microsatellite DNA as an alternative to footprinting. (United States)

    de Pancorbo, M M; Rodríguez-Alarcón, J; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; Melchor, J C; Linares, A; García-Orad, A; Fernández-Llebrez del Rey, L; Aranguren, G; Santillana, L


    Newborn identification by foot- or finger-printing presents serious drawbacks. This study proposes an alternative method based on DNA analysis of blood-spots taken from the newborn child. CSF1PO, TPOX and TH01 microsatellite loci were chosen to develop a fast and reliable protocol to be applied in cases where it is suspected that newborn children have been exchanged. The advantage of these loci is that one can simultaneously amplify them by PCR multiplex reaction and determine their alleles, thereby reducing the time needed for identification tests. Moreover, the amplification products of these loci are very small (< 350 bp) and so can be analyzed in samples with degraded DNA. We have been able to prove that it is possible to obtain results in blood-spots taken from newborns up to 13 years before and kept at room temperature. Thus the protocol proposed here can be applied in long-term post-natal identification cases.

  3. [Anthropometric data on newborn infants: comparative study of two ethnic groups]. (United States)

    Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J


    We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.

  4. Does Newborn Care, Feeding Practices and Immunization Status have an Effect on Anthropometric Measurements of Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mishra, Shraddha Dwivedi, M A Hassan, Khurshid Parveen, M A Khan


    Method: A cohort study conducted in a community among newborns born during the period of November 2011 to April 2012. IEC (Information, Education and Counselling was given to their mothers from last three months of pregnancy till the newborns completed one year of age. The effect of newborn care, infant feeding practices and immunization status was assessed in terms of anthropometric measurements. Results: More than half of the infants i.e. 47 (60.26 % gained weight to reach within the normal range and weight of 33 (42.31% infants was below 2 standard deviation. Conclusion: Newborn care, infant feeding practices, immunization status and lesser episodes of illnesses have a positive effect on nutritional status of infants in terms of weight and length."

  5. Comparison of complication rates between umbilical and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnts, I.J.J.; Bullens, L.M.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Liem, K.D.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the complication rates between umbilical central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central venous catheters in newborns and to investigate whether other variables might increase complication rates. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: A Level III neona

  6. A framework for key considerations regarding point-of-care screening of newborns. (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Kus, Christopher A; Ostrander, Robert J; Comeau, Anne Marie; Boyle, Coleen A; Dougherty, Denise; Mann, Marie Y; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Green, Nancy S


    Newborn screening is performed under public health authority, with analysis carried out primarily by public health laboratories or other centralized laboratories. Increasingly, opportunities to improve infant health will arise from including screening tests that are completed at the birth centers instead of in centralized laboratories, constituting a significant shift for newborn screening. This report summarizes a framework developed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children based on a series of meetings held during 2011 and 2012. These meetings were for the purpose of evaluating whether conditions identifiable through point-of-care screening should be added to the recommended universal screening panel, and to identify key considerations for birth hospitals, public health agencies, and clinicians when point-of-care newborn screening is implemented.

  7. 78 FR 51195 - Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... for effectively reducing morbidity and mortality in newborns and children having, or at risk for... Vasquez, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration; telephone: (301... other relevant information should contact Debi Sarkar, Maternal and Child Health Bureau,...

  8. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.


    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  9. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura


    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  10. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  11. Snow White Trench (Animation) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Cytogenetics in animal production



    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  13. Infusing sodium bicarbonate suppresses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Qin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. METHODS: Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6 and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n = 8/group. At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg, or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed. RESULTS: Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (PH: 6.99 ± 0.07, HCO(3(-: 8.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L. Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO(3- recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H(2O(2 accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial

  14. Relationship between Irisin Concentration and Serum Cytokines in Mother and Newborn (United States)

    Hernandez-Trejo, Maria; Garcia-Rivas, Gerardo; Torres-Quintanilla, Alejandro


    Introduction Irisin is considered to be a myokine and adipokine that may also participate in reproductive functions, as it increases significantly throughout pregnancy. However, the regulation of circulating irisin and its relationship with other cytokines has not been assessed thus far in pregnant women and their offspring. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in irisin and cytokine concentrations between women at the end of pregnancy and their offspring, as well as the relationship between maternal and newborn irisin and maternal and newborn biomarkers. Methods Twenty-eight mother/newborn pairs were included in this study. The following biomarkers were evaluated in maternal venous and arterial umbilical cord blood samples: irisin, 27 cytokine panel, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma protein, and free fatty acid concentration. Results The newborns had significantly lower irisin concentrations compared to their mothers (p = 0.03), but this difference was present only in babies born from mothers without labor prior to cesarean section delivery (p = 0.01). No significant differences in maternal and newborn irisin concentrations were found between diabetic and non-diabetic mothers or between overweight/obese and normal weight mothers. A significant positive correlation was found between TAC level and irisin concentration in newborns. Maternal and newborn interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-5, IL-7, and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 levels were significantly positively correlated with irisin concentrations in both study groups. In addition, maternal IL1β, IL-5, IL-7, and IP-10 levels positively predicted maternal irisin concentrations. Furthermore, arterial cord blood TAC and IL-1β and IL1-RA levels positively predicted newborn irisin concentrations. Multiple regression analyses showed that maternal IL-13 negatively predicted offspring irisin levels (p = 0.03) and that maternal IL-1β positively predicted newborn irisin

  15. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival. (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Blencowe, Hannah; Oza, Shefali; You, Danzhen; Lee, Anne C C; Waiswa, Peter; Lalli, Marek; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Barros, Aluisio J D; Christian, Parul; Mathers, Colin; Cousens, Simon N


    In this Series paper, we review trends since the 2005 Lancet Series on Neonatal Survival to inform acceleration of progress for newborn health post-2015. On the basis of multicountry analyses and multi-stakeholder consultations, we propose national targets for 2035 of no more than 10 stillbirths per 1000 total births, and no more than 10 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, compatible with the under-5 mortality targets of no more than 20 per 1000 livebirths. We also give targets for 2030. Reduction of neonatal mortality has been slower than that for maternal and child (1-59 months) mortality, slowest in the highest burden countries, especially in Africa, and reduction is even slower for stillbirth rates. Birth is the time of highest risk, when more than 40% of maternal deaths (total about 290,000) and stillbirths or neonatal deaths (5·5 million) occur every year. These deaths happen rapidly, needing a rapid response by health-care workers. The 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide are attributable to three main causes: infections (0·6 million), intrapartum conditions (0·7 million), and preterm birth complications (1·0 million). Boys have a higher biological risk of neonatal death, but girls often have a higher social risk. Small size at birth--due to preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), or both--is the biggest risk factor for more than 80% of neonatal deaths and increases risk of post-neonatal mortality, growth failure, and adult-onset non-communicable diseases. South Asia has the highest SGA rates and sub-Saharan Africa has the highest preterm birth rates. Babies who are term SGA low birthweight (10·4 million in these regions) are at risk of stunting and adult-onset metabolic conditions. 15 million preterm births, especially of those younger than 32 weeks' gestation, are at the highest risk of neonatal death, with ongoing post-neonatal mortality risk, and important risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, stunting, and non

  16. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal gland hemorrhage in newborn; Diagnostyka ultrasonograficzna krwawien do nadnerczy u noworodkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieganowska-Klamut, Z.; Dybiec, E.; Wieczorek, P.; Charanicz-Bartler, H. [Zaklad Radiologii Pediatrycznej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)


    4 cases of adrenal gland hemorrhage in the newborns diagnosed by ultrasound examination were described. In 3 cases the hemorrhage was in one adrenal gland and in one the hemorrhage was in both. In 1 newborn control ultrasound and CT examination performed after 7 weeks demonstrated pseudocyst of right adrenal gland. In 2 other cases control ultrasound examination showed normalization of adrenal glands. The authors suggest differential diagnosis between the adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma of adrenal gland. (author) 7 refs, 2 figs

  17. Detrended fluctuation analysis of cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice with intracranial hemorrhage (United States)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Bibikova, O. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Mohammad, Y. K.; Huang, Q.; Zhu, D.; Li, P.; Tuchin, V. V.; Luo, Q.


    We study pathological changes in cerebral venous dynamics in newborn mice using the laser speckle contrast imaging and the detrended fluctuation analysis with a special attention to the latent stage of the development of the intracranial hemorrhage. We show that this stage is characterized by a high responsiveness of the sagittal sinus to pharmacological stimulations of adrenorelated dilation. We conclude that this effect can be considered as an important mechanism underlying the development of ICH in newborns.

  18. Incidence of Inborn Errors of Metabolism by Expanded Newborn Screening in a Mexican Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Cantú-Reyna MD


    Full Text Available Newborn screening for the detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders is a public health initiative aimed at identifying specific diseases in a timely manner. Mexico initiated newborn screening in 1973, but the national incidence of this group of diseases is unknown or uncertain due to the lack of large sample sizes of expanded newborn screening (ENS programs and lack of related publications. The incidence of a specific group of IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders in newborns was obtained from a Mexican hospital. These newborns were part of a comprehensive ENS program at Ginequito (a private hospital in Mexico, from January 2012 to August 2014. The retrospective study included the examination of 10 000 newborns’ results obtained from the ENS program (comprising the possible detection of more than 50 screened disorders. The findings were the following: 34 newborns were confirmed with an IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, or other disorders and 68 were identified as carriers. Consequently, the estimated global incidence for those disorders was 3.4 in 1000 newborns; and the carrier prevalence was 6.8 in 1000. Moreover, a 0.04% false-positive rate was unveiled as soon as diagnostic testing revealed negative results. The most frequent diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and in the case of carriers, it was hemoglobinopathies. The benefit of the ENS is clear as it offers prompt treatment on the basis of an early diagnosis including proper genetic counseling. Furthermore, these results provide a good estimation of the frequencies of different forms of newborn IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders at Ginequito.

  19. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Desgualdo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasindice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased.

  20. Environmental enrichment promotes neural remodeling in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjun Liu; Yankui Guo; Yalu Li; Zhenying Yang


    We evaluated the effect of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and treatment with early environmental enrichment intervention on development of newborn rats, as evaluated by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. Early intervention with environmental enrichment intelligence training attenuated brain edema and neuronal injury, promoted neuronal repair, and increased neuronal plasticity in the frontal lobe cortex of the newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  1. Perforating neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis of the newborn--a clue to immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Torrelo, Antonio; Vera, Angel; Portugués, Mar; de Prada, Inmaculada; Sanz, Andrés; Colmenero, Isabel; Zulaica, Ander; de Lucas, Raúl; Fraga, Javier; Pedraz, Javier; Fontán, Sindo; Zambrano, Antonio


    We report two newborns with a widespread cutaneous eruption consisting of discrete papules which evolved into vesicles, pustules, crusts, and ulcers. These healed over a 2-week period with scarring. Histopathology showed three main features--histiocytic granulomas, neutrophilic infiltration, and transepidermal elimination of degenerated collagen and debris through hair follicles. Both patients had congenital immunodeficiency. This skin condition of the newborn, with distinct clinical and histopathologic features, is a manifestation of immunodeficiency that has not been previously described.

  2. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus: more caution is needed in newborn jaundice surveillance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, N M


    Since the 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of cases of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. The current UK incidence of bilirubin encephalopathy is 0.9\\/100,000 with a higher reported incidence in some countries. Three otherwise healthy newborn infants, who presented with severe hyperbilirubinaemia, including one who developed kernicterus, are reported here. Some of the current challenges in newborn jaundice surveillance are highlighted.

  3. Respiratory support strategy in 499 preterm newborns with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aguilar


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the respiratory support strategy and its association with morbidity and mortality in preterm infants with Gestational Age (GA ≤ 32 weeks, admitted between 2000 and 2008. Methods: Chart data from newborns with GA ≤ 32 weeks admitted to a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 2000-2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Newborns were divided into two groups according to the year of birth: Group 1 (2000-2004 and Group 2 (2005-2008. Each group of newborns was subdivided in subgroups according to their GA: 23-28 gestational weeks and 29-32 gestational weeks. Each group was compared in terms of ventilation and surfactant strategy, morbility and mortality. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS 21.0. Results: We included 499 newborns, 224 in Group 1 and 275 in Group 2. The mean GA, sex and birth weight were similar in both groups. The comparison of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference in the rate of invasive ventilation and surfactant strategy. The mortality before discharge rate was 17.4% for Group 1 and 13.5% for Group 2. The comparison of the subgroups, revealed a statistically higher incidence of INSURE strategy and noninvasive ventilation in newborns born after 2004, with reduction of the mortality rate in newborns with GA comprised between 29-32 weeks and reduction of pneumothorax, severe chronic lung disease and intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns with GA comprised between 23-28 weeks. Conclusion: There was a tendency towards non-invasive strategy and INSURE administration of surfactant over the years. Mortality and major morbidity decreased along with these changes in the therapeutic approach of the respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

  4. Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths (United States)

    Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline


    No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

  5. Capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns. (United States)

    Senk, Petr; Kozák, Libor; Foret, Frantisek


    Clinical analyses always represent a challenge for the sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical techniques. Of the most critical are the techniques required for the quick determination of the disease state and application of the proper treatment in newborns. This short critical review overviews the present state of the art of the use of mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis for screening of metabolic disorders in newborns.

  6. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)


    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  7. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K


    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  8. Knowledge of newborn healthcare among pregnant women: basis for promotional and educational programs on breastfeeding


    Hugo Issler; Márcia Borges Sanches Rodrigues de Sá; Dulce Maria Senna


    CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Cente...

  9. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education. (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L


    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  10. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice. (United States)

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun


    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  11. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Silvera


    Full Text Available Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  12. Cyclosporine Treatment Reduces Oxygen Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Qin; Chaudhary, Hetal; Brocks, Dion R.; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin


    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1–4 d, 1.4–2.5 kg) were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation)(n = 8/group). At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls) or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus) in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4) underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA) and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot) levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40–48% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27–31 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.04) at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg), significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H2O2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia

  13. Cyclosporine treatment reduces oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress in the brain of hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richdeep S Gill

    Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1-4 d, 1.4-2.5 kg were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation (n = 8/group. At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4 underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe, cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production (electrochemical sensor, cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40-48% of baseline, hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27-31 mmHg and acidosis (pH 7.04 at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H(2O(2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H(2O(2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia-reoxygenation.

  14. Mechanisms of perinatal cerebral injury in fetus and newborn. (United States)

    Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M; Mishra, O P


    Cerebral hypoxia in the fetus and newborn results in neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long-term sequelae such as mental retardation, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. In the developing brain, determinants of susceptibility to hypoxia should include the lipid composition of the brain cell membrane, the rate of lipid peroxidation, the presence of antioxidant defenses, and the development and modulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the intracellular Ca2+, and the intranuclear Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. In addition to the developmental status of these cellular components, the response of these potential mechanisms to hypoxia determines the fate of the hypoxic brain cell in the developing brain. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone spin adducts, studies from our laboratory demonstrated that tissue hypoxia results in increased free radical generation in the cortex of fetal guinea pigs and newborn piglets. Pretreatment with MgSO4 significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced increase in free radical generation in the term fetal brain. We also showed that brain tissue hypoxia modifies the NMDA receptor ion-channel recognition and modulatory sites. Furthermore, a higher increase in NMDA receptor agonist-dependent Ca2+ in synaptosomes was demonstrated. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ may activate several enzymatic pathways such as phospholipase A2 and metabolism of archidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase by proteases, and activation of nitric oxide synthase. Using inhibitors of each of these enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), and nitric oxide synthase (N-nitro-L-arginine), studies have shown that these enzyme reactions result in oxygen free radical generation, membrane peroxidation, and

  15. Surgical Outcomes of Trabeculotomy in Newborns with Primary Congenital Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Lei Huang; Jing-Jing Huang; Yi-Min Zhong; Xin-Xing Guo; Xiang-Xi Chen; Xiao-Yu Xu; Xing Liu


    Background:Early surgical intervention is required for the primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).There are currently few reports on the surgical outcomes in infants with PCG.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of trabeculotomy and the postoperative visual outcomes in Chinese newborns with PCG within 4 weeks of birth.Methods:A total of 21 eyes of 12 patients with PCG who underwent primary trabeculotomy within 4 weeks of birth were retrospectively studied.Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP),corneal clarity and diameter,axial length and optic disc cupping,visual acuity and postoperative refractive error,success rates,and complications were evaluated.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to evaluate the success rates.Results:The mean follow-up time was 46.9 ± 34.4 months (range:12-122 months).The postoperative IOP was significantly lower than the preoperative IOP at all of the follow-up visits (P < 0.001).The complete success rates for all eyes at 1,2,3,and 5 years postoperatively were 90.5%,85.7%,85.7%,and 85.7%,respectively.The IOPs of the three patients who needed antiglaucomatous medications postoperatively were also well controlled.At the last visit,the cornea became clear,and the cup-to-disc ratio decreased significantly (P =0.01) although the horizontal corneal diameter did not change significantly (P =0.11).Visual acuities were able to be recorded in eight eyes at the last visit,among which six eyes had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better.There were no severe intraoperative or postoperative complications.Conclusions:Trabeculotomy proves to be a safe and effective treatment in reducing IOP in this group of Chinese newborns with PCG.The outcomes of vision function were satisfactory in most of the patients.

  16. Galactosemia: when is it a newborn screening emergency? (United States)

    Berry, Gerard T


    Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, due to a severe deficiency of the enzyme, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), that catalyzes the conversion of galactose-1-phosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPglucose) to uridine diphosphate galactose (UDPgalactose) and glucose-1-phosphate. Upon consumption of lactose in the neonatal period, the affected infants develop a potentially lethal disease process with multiorgan involvement. Since the advent of newborn screening (NBS) for galactosemia, we rarely encounter such overwhelmingly ill newborns. After ascertainment that the positive NBS indicates the possibility of galactosemia due to GALT deficiency, the critical question for the physician is whether the infant has the classic or a variant form of GALT deficiency, as classic galactosemia is a medical emergency. However, there are over 230 GALT gene mutations that have been detected around the world. Yet, most positive NBS tests are due to the Duarte biochemical variant condition or a simple false positive. In order to make the correct decision as well as provide informative counseling to parents of infants with a positive NBS, I utilize a relatively simple classification scheme for GALT deficiency. There are three basic forms of GALT deficiency: 1) classic galactosemia; 2) clinical variant galactosemia; and 3) biochemical variant galactosemia. The classic genotype is typified by Q188R/Q188R, the clinical variant by S135L/S135L and the biochemical variant by N314D/Q188R. In classic galactosemia, the erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity is absent or markedly reduced, the blood galactose and erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate levels are markedly elevated, and the patient is at risk to develop potentially lethal E. coli sepsis, as well as the long-term diet-independent complications of galactosemia. Patients with the clinical variant form require treatment but do not die from E. coli sepsis in the neonatal period

  17. Care Coordination Associated with Improved Timing of Newborn Primary Care Visits. (United States)

    Goyal, Neera K; Hall, Eric S; Kahn, Robert S; Wexelblatt, Scott L; Greenberg, James M; Samaan, Zeina M; Brown, Courtney M


    Objective Despite practice recommendations that all newborns be examined within 3-5 days after discharge, many are not seen within this timeframe. Our objective was to determine the association between care coordination and timing of newborn follow-up. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 6251 newborns from eight maternity hospitals who scheduled a primary care appointment at one of two academic pediatric practices over 3.5 years. Two programs were sequentially implemented: (1) newborn discharge coordination, and (2) primary care intake coordination. Primary outcome was days between discharge and follow-up, dichotomized as ≤ or >5 days. Number of rescheduled appointments and loss to follow-up were also assessed. Adjusted relative risks (RR) and odds ratios (OR) were determined by piecewise generalized linear and logistic regression. Results Among 5943 newborns with a completed visit, 52.9 % were seen within 5 days of discharge (mean 6.7 days). After multivariable adjustment, the pre-exposure period (8 months) demonstrated a downward monthly trend in completing early follow-up (RR 0.93, p coordinator implementation and roughly 33 % after primary care coordinator implementation. The latter was also associated with a 13 % monthly decrease in odds of loss to follow-up (OR 0.87, p Care coordination increases adherence among low income families to recommended newborn follow-up after birth hospitalization.

  18. Pulse labeling and long-term tracing of newborn neurons in the adult subgranular zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Cheng; Yang Li; Ying Huang; Xiaoyan Feng; Guoping Feng; Zhi-Qi Xiong


    Research over the past decades has demonstrated that adult brain produces neural progenitor cells which proliferate and differentiate to newborn neurons that integrate into the existing circuit.However, detailed differentiation processes and underlying mechanisms of newly generated neurons are largely unknown due to the limitation of available methods for labeling and manipulating neural progenitor cells and newborn neurons. In this study, we designed a tightly controlled,noninvasive system based on Cre/loxP recombination to achieve long-term tracing and genetic manipulation of adult neurons in vivo. In this system, tamoxifen-inducible recomumase,CreERT2,was driven by BAC-based promoter of doublecortin(DCX,a marker of newborn neurons).By crossing this Cre line with reporter mouse, we found that newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) could be selectively pulse-labeled by tamoxifeninduced expression of yellow fluorescent protein(YFP).YFP-positive neurons were identified by coimmunostaining with cell type-specific markers and characterized by electrophysiological recording.Furthermore,analysis of the migration of these neurons showed that the majority of these labeled neurons migrated to the inner part of granule cell layer.Moreover,spine growth of inner molecular layer of newborn granule neurons takes a dynamic pattern of invert U-shape,in contrast to the wedge-shaped change in the outer molecular layer.Our transgenic tool provides an efficient way to selectively label and manipulate newborn neuron in adult mouse DG.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovsky V. D.


    Full Text Available The presence in pregnant woman foci of latent, chronic infection of any localization is an important cause of various complications during pregnancy, childbirth, a wide range of perinatal pathology. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of mother infectious diseases on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The authors set up an experiment on WAG rats on modeling subacute (prolonged peritonitis in females in order to study the influence of this infectiousinflammatory process in the organism of mother on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The study found that the presence of infectious-inflammatory diseases in mother is not always leads to inflammatory changes in the placenta, but involutive- degenerative and dyscirculatory changes are taking place in all cases. In newborns from mothers with infectious pathology revealed significantly reduced anthropometric parameters in comparison with newborns from healthy mothers. Anthropometric parameters of newborns from mothers with infectious pathology depend on the infective dose (the higher the dose of agent, the less neonatal anthropometric parameters. Negative influence of infectious extragenital pathology of mother on newborn anthropometric parameters requires improving the quality of pregravidal training aimed at early detection and sanitation of foci of infection.

  20. Peripartum maternal transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase organism to newborn infants. (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Skuratovsky, Alina; Khabra, Efrat; Adler, Amos; Pastukh, Nina; Barak, Shay; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben-Ami, Moshe; Kushnir, Amir


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the route of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) transmission to hospitalized newborns was from their mothers during delivery. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalized newborns were sampled for ESBL presence by stool cultures on the first and fourth days of life. Mothers of ESBL-positive newborns were sampled for possible correlation detection. Bacteria isolates were molecularly identified and susceptibility tests for antibiotic agents were performed. Of the 225 newborns, 14 (6.2%) were ESBL positive, 10 (4.4%) were Escherichia coli positive, and 4 (1.7%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae positive. Among the 14 mothers of positive newborns, 13 (92.8%) were found ESBL positive and one mother of a newborn with E. coli carriage was found ESBL negative. Genes encoding for ESBL resistance were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance were tested. This study demonstrated that ESBL bacteria carrier neonates hospitalized in NICU may be a result of transmission from mother to baby during delivery.