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Sample records for animals newborn

  1. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  2. Chronic stress in adulthood followed by intermittent stress impairs spatial memory and the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals: prevention by FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Herrero, Ana Isabel;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether chronic stress in adulthood can exert long-term effects on spatial-cognitive abilities and on the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress at midlife (12 months old) and then reexposed...... each week to a stress stimulus. When evaluated in the water maze at the early stages of aging (18 months old), chronic unpredictable stress accelerated spatial-cognitive decline, an effect that was accompanied by a reduction in the survival of newborn cells and in the number of adult granular cells......, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, during the 4 weeks of continuous stress not only prevented the deleterious effects of chronic stress on spatial memory, but also reduced the survival of the newly generated hippocampal cells in aging animals. FGL treatment did not, however, prevent...

  3. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? A newborn may sleep up to 18 hours ...

  4. Anemia in the Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD ... Prematurity (ROP) Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  5. Thrush in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... thrush. You paint this medicine on your baby's mouth and tongue. If you have a yeast infection on your nipples, your doctor may recommend an ...

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  8. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  9. Communication and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn Print A A A Text ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  10. Hemothorax in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Wille, L.

    1980-04-01

    Twenty cases of hemothorax in newborns are reviewed in detail. This unusual cause of acute respiratory distress within the neonatal period was observed in 14 males and 6 females. Most of the patients were fullterm newborns. As causal factors hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (vitamin K deficiency), disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformations and pleural/vascular rupture are considered. The time of occurrence of bleeding symptoms ranged from 1 to 28 days of life. Sixteen out of 20 patients survived without sequelae, but in 4 cases the outcome was lethal.

  11. Hemothorax in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty cases of hemothorax in newborns are reviewed in detail. This unusual cause of acute respiratory distress within the neonatal period was observed in 14 males and 6 females. Most of the patients were fullterm newborns. As causal factors hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (vitamin K deficiency), disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformations and pleural/vascular rupture are considered. The time of occurrence of bleeding symptoms ranged from 1 to 28 days of life. Sixteen out of 20 patients survived without sequelae, but in 4 cases the outcome was lethal. (orig.)

  12. Newborn health: everybody's business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Munar, Wolfgang; Henry, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in issue-attention and in evidence of what works to save newborn lives (e.g., kangaroo mother care, antenatal corticosteroids, immediate and exclusive breastfeeding), we are still falling short on impact. To advance the unfinished newborn survival agenda, newborns must become an integral priority in developing countries where the burden of neonatal mortality is highest. Interventions must be adapted to local contexts and cultures and integrated into packages along the continuum of care delivered through the primary health-care systems that countries have at their disposal. PMID:24953532

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn needs, and all of its components — lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat — are easily digested. Commercial ... quart, of formula a day may need additional vitamin D supplementation. Water, juice, and other foods usually aren't ...

  14. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... The mother's pregnancy and labor history are important to make the diagnosis. Tests performed on the baby may include: Blood count ...

  15. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002004.htm Infant - newborn development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Infant development is most often divided into the following areas: ...

  16. Practices with the newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Bulut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 10 towns and 17 villages of Mardin between 15-25 June 2009, with 159 married women in their own houses using interviewing technique. In this study, the answers of 155 women with kids were assessed. 42,8% of the interviewed women introduced themselves as Kurdish, while 31,4% introduced themselves as Arabic, 25,8% introduced themselves as Assyrian The interviewed women were 17-60 years old. It was found that half of the women were not literate and 40,5% were inbred. The purpose of the study is to present the similarities of the practices regarding newborns, according to ethnical identities. According to the findings, it was noticed from the tables that 85,7% of the people who introduced themselves as Kurdish, 14,3% of the people who introduced themselves as Arabic celebrated the birth of a male child by sacrificing an animal. 93,8% of the Arabic people and 6,3% of the Kurds were found to value the first cut hair piece of the babies with gold or paper note. 93,8% of the Arabs were found to name their babies after their dead relatives with a ceremony. The majority of the Kurds and Arabs name their babies after the prayer. The Assyrians were found to name their babies with the prayer of the priest, 3 days after they are born. The babies were named by the elderly in the Kurdish, Arabic and Assyrian societies. The majority of the people who swaddle their babies are the Kurds. According to our findings, it is possible for us to say that the people who express themselves with different ethnic and religious identities have similar cultural characteristics under the same geographical conditions.

  17. Practices with the newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Bulut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe study was conducted in 10 towns and 17 villages of Mardin between 15-25 June 2009, with 159 married women in their own houses using interviewing technique. In this study, the answers of 155 women with kids were assessed. 42,8% of the interviewed women introduced themselves as Kurdish, while 31,4% introduced themselves as Arabic, 25,8% introduced themselves as Syriac. The interviewed women were 17-60 years old. It was found that half of the women were not literate and 40,5% were inbred. The purpose of the study is to present the similarities of the practices regarding newborns, according to ethnical identities. According to the findings, it was noticed from the tables that 85,7% of the people who introduced themselves as Kurdish,  14,3% of the people who introduced themselves as Arabic celebrated the birth of a male child by sacrificing an animal.  93,8% of the Arabic people and 6,3% of the Kurds were found to value the first cut hair piece of the babies with gold or paper note.   93,8% of the Arabs were found to name their babies after their dead relatives with a ceremony. The majority of the Kurds and Arabs name their babies after the prayer. The Syriacs were found to name their babies with the prayer of the priest, 3 days after they are born. The babies were named by the elderly in the Kurdish, Arabic and Syriac societies. The majority of the people who swaddle their babies are the Kurds. According to our findings, it is possible for us to say that the people who express themselves with different ethnic and religious identities have similar cultural characteristics under the same geographical conditions.

  18. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  19. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you bring your ... from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time they are born. ...

  20. Nail care for newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001914.htm Nail care for newborns To use the sharing features on ... finger or toe instead of the nail. Baby's nails grow quickly, so you may have to cut the fingernails at least once a week. You may only need ... SG, Bedwell C, Cork MJ. Neonatal skin care and toxicology. In: Eichenfield LF, Frieden IJ, Mathes ...

  1. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  2. Growth and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 4 days. Newborns usually have several poopy diapers a day if breastfed and fewer if formula-fed. What to Expect Being small or large at birth doesn't necessarily mean a baby will be small or large later in childhood or as an adult. Plenty of towering teenagers began life as small ...

  3. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  4. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  5. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  6. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to a ... be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he has ...

  7. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  8. What Disorders Are Newborns Screened for in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Test . What are some examples of the benefits of newborn screening? Many conditions included today in ... NIH Scientists Combine Efforts to Advance Birth Defects Research It’s in the DNA: Animal Models Offer Clues to Human Development All related ...

  9. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symmetry stimulate an infant's developing vision. As vision improves and babies gain more control over ... newborn to learn and play: Put on soothing music and hold your baby, gently swaying to the ...

  10. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... of MCAD and presymptomatic treatment can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence, clinical outcome, biochemical and molecular phenotype of MCAD cases detected in the first three years of newborn screening in British Columbia (BC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Medium chain...... is comparable to reports from other newborn screening programs. Persistence of elevated C8 levels and C8/C10 ratios in confirmed MCAD cases suggest that these are sensitive markers for newborn screening. Early detection and treatment have successfully prevented adverse health outcomes in patients with MCAD....

  11. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  12. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M. A.; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured u...

  13. Group B Strep Infection in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Group B Strep Infection in Newborns Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the difference between early- and late-onset group B strep diseases in newborns… How it Spreads and ...

  14. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  15. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  16. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  17. Congenital syphilis in the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, V.; Pandit, P B; Nkrumah, F K

    1988-01-01

    We studied 53 newborn babies with congenital syphilis. The common clinical features seen were low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, jaundice, and symmetrical superficial desquamation of the skin affecting palms and soles. The presence of these clinical signs is highly suggestive of early congenital syphilis. Hydrops fetalis without rhesus or ABO isoimmunisation should always arouse the suspicion of congenital syphilis.

  18. Intestinal apolipoprotein synthesis in the newborn piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D D; Rohwer-Nutter, P L

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary and biliary lipid absorption on intestinal apo B-48 and apo A-I synthesis in the newborn piglet, 2-d-old female piglets were prepared with a duodenal infusion catheter. After recovery, animals were given either low triglyceride (Vivonex; VIV group) or high triglyceride (Intralipid; FAT group) diets by continuous intraduodenal infusion for 24 h. A bile-diverted group was also studied. Segments of proximal jejunum and distal ileum were then pulse-radiolabeled in vivo with 3H-leucine. Mucosal apo B-48 and apo A-I were immunoprecipitated, and apoprotein synthesis was expressed as percentage of total protein synthesis. Mucosal apoprotein content (ng apoprotein/microgram total protein) was measured by competitive ELISA assays. In jejunum and ileum, apo B-48 synthesis was not different in the three groups. However, apo B content increased 2.4-fold in jejunum and 1.7-fold in ileum in the FAT group compared with the VIV group. Immunoblotting revealed the majority of jejunal apo B to be apo B-48, not apo B-100 from contaminating plasma lipoproteins, in all three experimental groups. Bile-diverted animals had decreased jejunal apo B content compared with the VIV group. Jejunal apo A-I synthesis and content were approximately 2-fold higher in FAT animals compared with the VIV group. Although ileal apo A-I synthesis was also 2-fold higher in the FAT group, apo A-I content was not different from the VIV group. Neither jejunal nor ileal apo A-I synthesis was significantly affected by bile diversion, even though jejunal apo A-I content was decreased by over two thirds compared with the VIV animals. In the newborn piglet, intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 and apo A-I is differentially regulated by luminal lipid absorption. Although fat feeding and bile diversion regulate mucosal apo B-48 content, synthesis is unchanged, indicating a posttranslational regulatory mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1900361

  19. [THE COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF KAOLIN-ACTIVATED THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY NEWBORNS AND NEWBORNS WITH HEART AILMENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, N P; Karas'kov, A M; Litasova, E E; Strunin, O V; Karmadonova, N A; Akopov, G D; Vishegorodtseva, L I

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to diferentiate reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in newborns with congenital heart disease. The study included two groups ofpatients. The first one consisted of 62 newborns with congenital heart disease and the second one consisted of 35 healthy newborns. The results of kaolin-activated thromboelastography implemented in groups are evaluated as condition of normal coagulation. The valuable diferences of homeostasis system in healthy newborns and newborns with congenital heart disease (without severe concomitant pathology) are not established. They have similar indicators of kaolin-activated thromboelastography. The derived results can be applied as standards in full-term newborns with congenital heart disease. PMID:27455561

  20. Congenital epulis of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mahesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital epulis, a benign tumor of the oral cavity, is an extremely rare condition in newborn. It may lead to mechanical obstruction, therefore resulting in respiratory distress and difficulty in feeding. Addressing the problem may need a multidisciplinary team approach at the time of birth. Antenatal ultrasonography and perinatal magnetic resonance imaging are an adjunct to treatment planning. Prenatal diagnosis remains difficult as the findings are nonspecific due to the late development of the tumor. Surgical excision is, therefore, the treatment of choice. Our report discusses this condition and the treatment thereafter on a newborn, with an epulis originating from the upper alveolar ridge discovered at birth. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of large polygonal granular cells. The mass was excised under general anesthesia, and the outcome was good after surgery allowing regular feeds on the second postoperative day.

  1. Newborn with severe epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Martin Lehmann; Bygum, Anette; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited skin disease with four main subtypes that cannot be distinguished clinically at birth. All subtypes may present with widespread life-threatening blisters and fragile skin, making treatment and handling of the newborn with EB challenging. The prognosis...... and nutrition. For immediate pain relief, intranasal fentanyl worked best and gabapentin was successfully used for chronic pain. The feeding difficulties were handled first by a nasogastric feeding tube. Later a normal feeding bottle proved to be adequate....

  2. Family knowledge on newborn care

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Leticia Monteiro Gomes; Cristiane Rodrigues da Rocha; Danielle de Mendonça Henrique; Mirza Almeida Santos; Leila Rangel da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: analyzing the knowledge that families acquired on newborn care, before and after their participation in a mother-father-infant welcoming group. Methods: a quantitative and descriptive study that took place in a municipal health center, with 27 participants. Data were collected by a questionnaire applied before and after the educational activity, and was analyzed by comparing the answers of the items. Results: care actions properly modified were: the use of baby powder, soap, tea, o...

  3. Hip sonography in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the data relative to 1507 cases studied with clinical and US examinations, in the neonatal period, in order to exclude hip dysplasia dislocation. US examination was carried out according to Graf's technique and the newborns were classified according to US hip type, to clinical examination and to possible risk factors. The patients were included in a protocol including orthopedic and US controls. Seventeen treated infants were considered as pathologic. Ten of them had IIc or D hips ar birth; the other 7, with IIa hips at birth, presented a X-ray pathologic hip after the 4th months of life. At about one year of age all infants could normally walk, excpet for one who was being treated with herness. No statistically significant differences were observed between the number of pathologic infants in the risk group (1.7%) and that in the no-risk group (0.8%). Clinical examination of the newborn has low sensitivity in detecting pathologic hips. On the basis of their results, thw authors belive US examination of the newborn to be a valuable screening method to diagnose hip dysplasia/dislocation. Moreover, Graf's morphologic method is the best one for US screening of the hip in the neonatal period

  4. Enteral Nutrition and Care of Risky Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Törüner, Ebru Kılıçarslan; Altay, Naime

    2013-01-01

    Making appropriate and effective enteral feeding is decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of risky newborns. Most important problems during enteral feeding in risky newborns are realizing the enteral feeding needs late, not following enteral feeding protocols and errors in medical practices (misconnections etc.). The aim of this review article is to describe the gastrointestinal development, nutrition requirements, enteral nutrition, feeding intolerance and care of risky newborns. ...

  5. Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Newborn Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Sontag, Marci K; Ren, Clement L

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) has evolved over the past decade as newborn screening has become universal in the United States and elsewhere. The heterogeneity of phenotypes associated with CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction and mutations in the CFTR gene has become clearer, ranging from classic pancreatic-insufficient CF to manifestations in only 1 organ system to indeterminate diagnoses identified by newborn screening. The tools available for diagnosis have also expanded. This article reviews the newest diagnostic criteria for CF, newborn screening, prenatal screening and diagnosis, and indeterminate diagnoses in newborn-screened infants and symptomatic adults. PMID:27469178

  6. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghirri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  7. Unusual osteopathy in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Nogrady, M.B.; Wesenberg, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A newborn baby presented with hyaline membrane disease, interstitial pneumonia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual bone manifestations with lytic and sclerotic bone lesions and virtually absent periosteal reaction. He subsequently developed intracranial calcifications and mental retardation. The pneumonia and hepatosplenomegaly resolved. At the time of the delivery, a sibling was suffering from a severe undetermined viral infection. The clinical evolution of the disease and the radiologic findings led us to believe that this patient has a prenatal viral infection. The laboratory tests and the histologic picture of the bone biopsy supported the diagnosis.

  8. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  9. Citrobacter freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Antonio; Vela, Ana Isabel; Andrada, Marisa; Herraez, Pedro; Díaz-Delgado, Josue; Domínguez, Lucas; Arbelo, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Citrobacter freundii, a gram-negative enterobacterium, may cause fatal septicemia in humans and animals. Its potential pathogenic role in cetaceans (bottlenose dolphins and beluga whales) has been hypothesized. Here we describe fatal C. freundii septicemia in a stranded newborn Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

  10. 新生牛跟腱胶原蛋白海绵与动物肾、睾丸、皮肤细胞的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of new-born bovine tendon-made collagen sponge with animal kidney,testicle and skin cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉萍; 马忠仁; 乔自林; 李明生; 冯若飞; 周雪雁; 侯兰新; 李倬

    2008-01-01

    背景:随着新生生血清的产业化,新生生跟腱资源大量积累,使得利用其制备医用胶原蛋白海绵并产业化成为可能.目的:采用新生生跟腱制备胶原蛋白海绵,观察其与Veto细胞、天祝白牦生胚胎皮肤细胞和岷县黑紫羔羊睾丸细胞的生物相容性.设计、时间、地点:重复测量观察,于2006-02105在西北民族人学生命科学与工程学院生物工程与技术国家民委重点实验室完成.材料:用出生24 h内的新生生跟腱经冰醋酸、胃蛋白酶等消化.经盐析、透析及冻干等处理后,制成胶原蛋白海绵.天祝白牦生胚胎皮肤f2代细胞和岷县黑紫羔羊睾丸f2代细胞为自制,Veto细胞为协和医科人学细胞中心提供.方法:在6孔板中,将3种细胞分别接种于经紫外线、臭氧灭菌后的胶原蛋白海绵上,于37℃、体积分数为0.05的CO2恒温箱培养,同时设对照实验.主要观察指标:相差显微镜观察接种5,12,24,72 h时3种细胞在胶原蛋白海绵上和6孔板底的生K情况,接种11 d对共培养物行考马斯亮蓝,苏术精一伊红染色.结果:接种后5 h.在胶原蛋白海绵周围的6孔板底部可看到细胞已贴壁、伸展,个别细胞有分裂现象,在胶原蛋白海绵表面,隐约可见圆彤细胞排列,接种后48~72 h时,6孔板底部细胞铺满单层.接种后11 d,考马斯亮蓝和苏小精一伊红染色显示3种共培养物中均有大量细胞良好生长,胶原海绵外观变得挺拔、透明、有韧性.结论:新生生跟腱胶原蛋向海绵与上述3种来自不同动物、不同组织的细胞有很好的生物相容性,可做皮肤细胞、肾细胞和睾丸细胞的培养支架.%BACKGROUND:Industrialization of new-born bovine serum and abundant resource of bovine lendon enable industrialization of medical collagen sponge.OBJECTIVE:To prepare collagen sponge with new-born bovine tendons by inoculating Veto cells,primary embryo skin cell of Tianzhu White Yak and lamb

  11. Citric Acid Cycle Metabolites Predict the Severity of Myocardial Stunning and Mortality in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz;

    2016-01-01

    , which so far are undetermined. DESIGN: A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals. Stunning was induced by 10 cycles...... animals (n = 8), concentrations of succinate (p citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolites reflects...... the presence of myocardial stunning and predicts mortality in acute noninfarct right ventricular heart failure in newborn pigs. This phenomenon occurs independently of the type of inotrope, suggesting that citric acid cycle intermediates represent potential markers of acute noninfarct heart failure....

  12. ASSOCIATION OF PLACENTAL MORPHOMETRY WITH NEWBORN ANTHROPOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The fetal growth is the outcome of the maternal nutrient stores and efficient transport across the placenta. Hence, any variation in the placenta leads to disproportionate fetal growth leading to long term risk of chronic diseases in the newborn. This stud y was designed to explore influence of placental morphometry on newborn anthropometry . MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study was conducted on 391 placentae of singleton newborn from a teaching hospital of North Karnataka, India. Data was collected from August 2 012 to January 2013 by using standard operating procedures in a pre - designed and pre - tested proforma. The distributions of placental morphology and newborn anthropometry are mentioned with their percentiles and Box plots. Analysis of variance is used to st udy the differences in means of placental morphometry in different groups of newborn anthropometry. RESULTS : The Means and standard deviations of placental morphometry; weight, volume, surface area and thickness were 440±100gm, 386±101 ml, 230±50 cm sq , an d 2.1±0.4cm respectively. Mean and standard deviations of birth weight and newborn length were 2700±500 gm. 46.6±2.5cm. Placental morphometry and newborn anthropometry increased significantly with gestation. CONCLUSIONS : This study infers that suboptimal g rowth of placenta leads to adverse pregnancy outcome.

  13. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  14. MTBVAC vaccine is safe, immunogenic and confers protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilo, Nacho; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzon, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Development of novel more efficient preventive vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to achieve TB eradication by 2050, one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for the current century. MTBVAC is the first and only live attenuated vaccine based on a human isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis developed as BCG-replacement strategy in newborns that has entered first-in-human adult clinical trials. In this work, we characterize the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MTBVAC in a model of newborn C57/BL6 mice. Our data clearly indicate that MTBVAC is safe for newborn mice, and does not affect animal growth or organ development. In addition, MTBVAC-vaccinated mice at birth showed enhanced immunogenicity and better protection against M. tuberculosis challenge in comparison with BCG.

  15. Newborn Screening Disorders, California, 2009-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table presents counts of disorders that have been diagnosed by the California Newborn Screening program during the five-year period from 2009 through 2014....

  16. Looking at Your Newborn: What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mother during pregnancy. You may feel firm, disc-shaped lumps of tissue beneath the nipples and, ... a foul odor or discharge develops. Umbilical (navel) hernias are common in newborns, particularly in infants of ...

  17. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  18. Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160324.html Zika Linked to Deformed Limbs in Newborns Cause isn' ... 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus has already been linked to serious birth ...

  19. Pneumothorax after Mechanical Ventilation in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Malek; Nargess Afzali; Mojtaba Meshkat; Nadieh Yazdi Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Air leak syndromes including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and pulmonary interstitial emphysema are frequent in neonatal period. Mechanical ventilation with positive pressure is one of the most common causes of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors and incidence of pneumothorax in newborns under mechanical ventilation. Methods:This descriptive cross sectional study was performed in 400 newborns under mechanical ventilation in intensive care un...

  20. The perception of facial expressions in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Farroni, Teresa; Menon, Enrica; Rigato, Silvia; Johnson, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of newborns to discriminate and respond to different emotional facial expressions remains controversial. We conducted three experiments in which we tested newborns’ preferences, and their ability to discriminate between neutral, fearful, and happy facial expressions, using visual preference and habituation procedures. In the first two experiments, no evidence was found that newborns discriminate, or show a preference between, a fearful and a neutral face. In the third experiment, ...

  1. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  2. Superbugs and antibiotics in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borghesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become an urgent and global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance occurring each year worldwide. The overuse of antibiotics, both in animal industry and in clinical settings, and the generated selective pressure, are the main factors implicated in the emergence of resistant strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have pointed out that more than half of hospital patients receive an antibiotic during their stay, and nearly a third receive a broad-spectrum antibiotic. In neonatal units, previous antibiotic exposure to third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem were identified as independent risk factors for infection caused by multi-drug resistant strains. While resistant ‘superbugs’ emerge, the arsenal to fight these microorganisms is progressively shrinking, as the number of newly discovered antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug administration each year is dropping. In face of global spread of antibiotic resistance and of the limited development of new drugs, policies and rules are under study by agencies (CDC, World Health Organization and governments, in order to: i facilitate and foster the discovery of new antibiotic compounds; ii develop new, alternative therapies able to potentiate or modulate the host immune response or to abrogate the resistance and virulence factors in the microorganisms; and iii prevent the emergence of resistance through antibiotic stewardship programs, educational programs, and reduction of antibiotic use in livestock; the field of neonatal medicine will need its own, newborn-tailored, antibiotic stewardship programs to be implemented in the NICUs. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai

  3. Care of the well newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Johanna B; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2012-01-01

    The birth of an infant is one of the most memorable experiences a family shares. Pediatric health care professionals are privileged to participate in this experience and recognize it as a time to promote the health of the newborn and family. Ideally, a well-designed care system would be replete with comprehensive supports during the prenatal period, birth, and transition to home. Opportunities exist to improve the care we deliver with universal screening of all pregnant women; coordinated assessments of family health, including mental health; and access to coordinated supports and services for mother and infant. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, it is estimated the United States would save billions of dollars per year and prevent more than 900 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants. All infants, whether breastfed or formula fed, should receive 400 IU supplemental vitamin D. Influenza and TdaP vaccination of postpartum mothers and other caregivers helps cocoon the vulnerable infant from influenza and pertussis until he or she can be fully vaccinated. When children reach the highest weight or length allowed by the manufacturer of their infant-only seat, they should continue to ride rear-facing in a convertible seat. It is best for children to ride rear-facing as long as possible to the highest weight and height allowed by the manufacturer of their convertible seat. PMID:22210929

  4. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  5. [Lung ultrasound in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, N

    2016-03-01

    Lung ultrasound (LU) is becoming a bedside point-of-care technique in critical care and emergency medicine as it is performed and immediately interpreted by the clinician. LU is quick, easy, relatively inexpensive, and provides accurate diagnostic information when compared with conventional lung imaging methods, such as CT scans and chest radiographs, with the additional advantage of being non-irradiating, adapted to bedside use, and easily repeatable with no side effects for the patient. LU is easy to learn, does not require sophisticated ultrasound machines or settings, and shows low intra- and interobserver variability when a standardized approach is used. A comprehensive and standardized ultrasound semiology has been described and validated in both adults and children. In summary, LU allows for quick easy recognition of a normally aerated lung in contrast to an interstitial or alveolar pattern. Recognition of these patterns may be even easier in neonates due to their small size and the absence of obesity and heavy musculature. Specific LU findings have been described for some types of neonatal lung injury, such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the neonate, meconium aspiration syndrome, and neonatal pneumonia. In the newborn, LU has proved its usefulness in predicting the need for hospital admission and/or intubation based on simple LU patterns. A recently proposed LU score, adapted for the neonate, correlates well with oxygenation status, independently of gestational age and underlying respiratory condition. The score reliably predicts the need for surfactant treatment in preterm babies less than 34 weeks gestation treated with nasal CPAP from birth. LU is a promising tool with numerous potential applications that warrant future studies. However, like every technique, LU has its limitations and should not completely replace standard radiography. LU can nevertheless largely reduce exposure to ionizing radiation by limiting the

  6. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  7. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases.

  8. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  9. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159719.html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness ... 2016 TUESDAY, July 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot during pregnancy protects newborns against the flu ...

  10. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs.

  11. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  12. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubry Adelheid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2 gene. Methods We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR, and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR. Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Results Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003. At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among

  13. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Ozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  14. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.;

    2012-01-01

    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian D......-age individuals demonstrated DNA methylomes in the crossroad between the newborn and the nonagenarian/centenarian groups. Our study constitutes a unique DNA methylation analysis of the extreme points of human life at a single-nucleotide resolution level....

  15. Effects of postnatal smoke exposure on laryngeal chemoreflexes in newborn lambs

    OpenAIRE

    St-Hilaire, Marie; Duvareille, Charles; Avoine, Olivier; Carreau, Anne-Marie; Samson, Nathalie; Micheau, Philippe; Doueik, Alexandre; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Laryngeal chemoreflexes (LCR), which are elicited by the contact of liquids such as gastric refluxate with laryngeal mucosa, may trigger some cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Indeed, while LCR in mature mammals consist of protective responses, previous animal data have shown that LCR in immature newborns can include laryngospasm, apnea, bradycardia, and desaturation. The present study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke is responsible for enhan...

  16. Differential Facial Responses to Four Basic Tastes in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentstein, Diana; Oster, Harriet

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the distinctiveness and recognizability of taste-elicited facial expressions in 12 newborns two hours of age. Findings demonstrated that newborns differentiate sour and bitter from each other and from salty, and discriminate between sweet and nonsweet. Judges accurately identified newborns' responses to sucrose, but systematically…

  17. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  18. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  19. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases ar

  20. Nasogastric Tube Placement in Newborns Before Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdulrahman M; Saeed, Anjum; Assiri, Asaad M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical staff (physicians) at different levels about insertion or placement of nasogastric tube (NGT) in a normal newborn before discharge. It was a survey-based, observational study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital. Atotal of 103 doctors were sent text message; among those 81 (78.6%) responded. Among the respondents, 27, 16, 11 and 27 were neonatologists, general physicians, obstetricians/ ENT/pediatric surgeons, and senior registrars neonatology (SRN), respectively. Majority of physicians, 57 (70.3%) rejected the idea of insertion of NGTin a normal newborn but in 24 (29.6%), answer was to insert NGTin all the newborns before discharge to check the patency of nasal cavities. Regarding the position, region of doctors and their response, majority from Center said ‘No’(not in favour of insertion) but from South, 17/18 (94.4%) said ‘Yes’(in favour of insertion). Regarding other specialties, majority of them showed rejection of this idea. In conclusion, most of the healthcare professionals, directly involved with neonatal care, rejected the idea of routine insertion of NGTin normal newborn examination before discharge; rather, some non-invasive technique could be opted.

  1. Iatrogenic esophageal perforation in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Park, Won Soon; Choi, Jung Hwan [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Esophagus and pharyngeal structures of newborn are very week and so vulnerable. When a parallel longitudinal tubular structure around (especially behind) the esophagus is seen, traumatic esophageal perforation must be differentiated. We report a case of esophageal perforation in a premature twin baby by nasogastric tube insertion.

  2. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  3. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.; Moran, Sebastian; Pisano, David G.; Gomez, Antonio; Diez, Javier; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Setien, Fernando; Carmona, F. Javier; Puca, Annibale A.; Sayols, Sergi; Pujana, Miguel A.; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Formiga, Francesc; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Fraga, Mario F.; Heath, Simon C.; Valencia, Alfonso; Gut, Ivo G.; Wang, Jun; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian DNA had a lower DNA methylation content and a reduced correlation in the methylation status of neighboring cytosine—phosphate—guanine (CpGs) throughout the genome in comparison with the more homogeneously methylated newborn DNA. The more hypomethylated CpGs observed in the centenarian DNA compared with the neonate covered all genomic compartments, such as promoters, exonic, intronic, and intergenic regions. For regulatory regions, the most hypomethylated sequences in the centenarian DNA were present mainly at CpG-poor promoters and in tissue-specific genes, whereas a greater level of DNA methylation was observed in CpG island promoters. We extended the study to a larger cohort of newborn and nonagenarian samples using a 450,000 CpG-site DNA methylation microarray that reinforced the observation of more hypomethylated DNA sequences in the advanced age group. WGBS and 450,000 analyses of middle-age individuals demonstrated DNA methylomes in the crossroad between the newborn and the nonagenarian/centenarian groups. Our study constitutes a unique DNA methylation analysis of the extreme points of human life at a single-nucleotide resolution level. PMID:22689993

  4. ASCENDING WAY INFECTION NEWBORNS AND THE FORMATION OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS OF THE NEWBORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunovskaya L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and value of the bacterial factor in development pre-natal infection of newborns is studied. It is considered microflora of patrimonial ways of pregnant women, as basic pathogenesis factor of an ascending way infection of newborns. On an example of the spent bacteriological researches correlation communication between microflora of patrimonial ways, placenta and an ascending way infection of newborns is shown. At crops gastric swallowing at newborn children with pre-natal infection of newborns it is ascertained growth aerobic and аanaerobic microflora in the majority (87,7 % supervision in the form of microbes associations gramme-positive coccus Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Candida. The inclusion in the treatment of Saccharomyces boulardіi contributes to the restoration of intesti­nal microflora in 90 % of newborns. Found significant growth of the colonies of Bifidobacterium spp. (3.7-4,9 lg CFU/ml and Lactobacillus spp. (7.2 lg CFU/ml.

  5. Pneumothorax After Mechanical Ventilation in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadieh Yazdi Hosseini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Air leak syndromes including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and pulmonary interstitial emphysema are frequent in neonatal period. Mechanical ventilation with positive pressure is one of the most common causes of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors and incidence of pneumothorax in newborns under mechanical ventilation. Methods:This descriptive cross sectional study was performed in 400 newborns under mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Iran from April 2004 to December 2008. Predisposing factors leading to ventilation and incidence of air leak syndromes were studied. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, history of surfactant replacement therapy, ventilator settings and mortality rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Univariate analysis and regression analysis were considered. Findings:Among 400 patients under mechanical ventilation, 102 neonates developed pneumothorax (26%. Fifty six (54.9% of them were boys and 46 (45.1% girls. 54.9% of newborns with pneumothorax were preterm and 45.1% term. Birth weight less than 2500g was recorded in 59.8%. Fifty two percent of these neonates were born by cesarean section vs. 32% of newborns without pneumothorax. The most common type (62.7% of ventilation leading to pneumothorax was Inspiratory Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV. Surfactant replacement therapy was recorded in 32.4% of cases with pneumothorax compared to 60.4% of neonates under ventilation without pneumothorax, which was significantly different (P= 0.017. Conclusion:In newborns surfactant replacement therapy can reduce the risk of pneumothorax caused by mechanical ventilation.

  6. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  7. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in newborns and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewska, A; Wolański, N

    1992-01-01

    A total of 1034 newborns were used to analyze sexual dimorphism with respect to 37 somatic traits and ratios between them, describing body shape. Arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for both sexes. Similarly, sexual dimorphism of adults was analyzed. Sexual differences in newborns were statistically significant for most measurements but only for some body proportions (relative chest size, foot shape, relative lower extremity length, and the ratio of head to chest circumference). The highest degree of sexual dimorphism in newborns was shown by the index standardized on the mean (dsex/mean) of such traits as the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue on the thigh, subscapular fat tissue and fat tissue on the 10th rib, body weight, hand breadth, and relative chest size (Marty index). A moderate dimorphism was found for the length of upper extremities, forearm with the hand, head with the neck, hand and trunk, the size of the nose and foot, the breadth of hips and mandible, and the upper-face height. A low dimorphism was found for body length, circumference and breadth of head, face diameter, chest circumference, foot shape, relative length of lower extremities, and proportion between head and chest circumferences. Sexual differences (dsex/mean) for all the somatic traits examined in adults were statistically significant. The dimorphism of all the traits (except hip breadth) was higher in adults than in newborns. The highest increase in sexual dimorphism was noted for chest breadth (ca 55 times), then for chest depth (ca 17 times), thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue on arm (ca. 17 times), and the length of lower extremities (ca 15 times). Sexual differences in proportions (shape) of the body were also better pronounced in adults than in newborns. Sexual dimorphism standardized for dispersion (dsex/SD) in newborns differed from that in adults with respect to the degree of its expression and the sequence of the traits showing the highest and the

  9. Primary health care of the newborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    More than 50% of infant deaths in India occur during the neonatal period. High priority therefore needs to be given to improving the survival of newborns. A large number of neonatal deaths have their origin in the perinatal period and are mainly determined by the health and nutritional status of the mother, the quality of care during pregnancy and delivery, and the immediate care of the newborn at birth. Main causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, respiratory problems, and infections, especially tetanus. Most such deaths occur among low birthweight babies. Hypothermia, undernutrition, and mismanaged breast feeding may also indirectly contribute to neonatal mortality. Community-based studies have, however, demonstrated that most neonatal mortality can be affordably prevented through primary health care. Efforts are underway to expand the health care infrastructure, but the outreach of maternal and child health care remains unsatisfactory especially in rural areas. PMID:12319228

  10. Haemolytic disease of the newborn foal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A M; Jeffcott, L B

    1978-07-22

    Clinical features of haemolytic disease of the newborn foal (HDNF) are reviewed. The state of knowledge concerning the serological factors associated with isoimmunisation of mares and as assessment of the methods available for screening potential "haemolytic mares" are presented. The treatment of severely affected foals has principally involved exchange transfusion but more recently a simple transfusion of mare's packed erythrocytes has proved more successful. PMID:685106

  11. Neonatal occipital alopecia in a newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Chiriac; Chiriac, Anca E; Piotr Brzezinski

    2014-01-01

    A newborn, male gender, born at term, APGAR 10, was addressed to us for occipital alopecia observed since birth (Fig. 1). Mother was a young health person of 25 years old, primipara and the birth was non-Caesarian delivery. Alopecia was confirmed in the occipital area, with no signs of inflammation or other dermatological problems on the whole body. A diagnosis of frictional/pressure occipital alopecia was admitted and the family was reassured of the absence of any inquiry.

  12. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  13. Intracranial haemorrhage after transport of premature newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Slobodan; Stojanović Vesna; Savić Radojica; Doronjski Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage remains an important factor of premature newborns’ morbidity. Its incidence is significantly influenced by adequate perinatal care and safe neonatal transport. Risk factors for the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns after neonatal transport were analyzed in the retrospective transversal clinical study. Out of 150 study subjects, 60% (n=90/150) had intracranial hemorrhage with a statistically significant difference in relation to Apgar sc...

  14. Nutritional support in the premature newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Puntis, J W L

    2006-01-01

    The theory and practice of nutritional support in the premature newborn has assumed increasing importance with survival of greater numbers of very immature infants. After birth, many do not tolerate full enteral feeding until gastrointestinal motor function has matured. During this process some will develop necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating failure of adaptation to postnatal life that may result in death, or severe complications. The feeding strategy that minimises the risk of NE...

  15. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  16. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vinay; Berkelhamer, Sara; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. PPHN is often secondary to parenchymal lung disease (such as meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome) or lung hypoplasia (with congenital diaphragmatic hernia or oligohydramnios) but can also be idiopathic. The diagnosis of PPHN is based on clinical evidence of labile hypoxemia often asso...

  17. A Comprehensive Initiative to Prevent Falls Among Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Rose Mary; Summerlin-Long, Shelley; Mog, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Our hospital experienced seven instances of newborns falling over a 7-month period. Until that time, there had been no reported newborn falls. We formed a committee to study the situation and make recommendations for change. Common factors observed were early morning hours and an exhausted parent, usually the mother, falling asleep while feeding the newborn. The committee developed a policy and procedure addressing falls among newborns, created staff education and tools, and posted signage in mothers' rooms. We also updated crib cards to include information about falls and safe sleep, and we revised newborn admission education for parents with additional information about falls. The incidence of newborns falling has decreased since we implemented these changes.

  18. Neuronal quantity and ultrastructure in extracorticospinal tract of newborn rabbits with cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Li; Ying Yang; Zhimei Jiang; Lanrnin Guo; Jing Gao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The liver enzyme system and blood brain barrier function of newborn rabbits are incomplete.High level of bilirubin can lead to cerebral palsy (CP) of newborn rabbits. The pathological and ultrastructural changes of brains of immature rabbits may differ from those of mature rabbits.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in dopaminergic neuron amount and ultrastructure in the extracorticospinal tract of animal models of CP induced by hyperbilirubinemia.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Rehabilitation Medical College of Jiamusi University; Laboratory for Pediatric Neurology Rehabilitation of Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Thirty newborn 2- to 5- day inbred Japanese rabbits, weighing about 50 g, of either gender, were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Jilin University. Bilirubin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody were purchased from Sigma Corporation, USA.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the laboratory for children neuro-rehabilitation, Jiamusi University between September 2002 and December 2005. ①Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 2groups: control group (n =10) and model group (n =20). ②Bilirubin of 100 mg/kg was given to the rabbits of model group through intraperitoneal injection, once every other day, 3 times totally; The same amount of normal saline was given to the rabbits of control group. After injection, the newborn rabbits had been fed by maternal milk for 45 days. ③TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra and corpora striatum in each area of0.15 mm ×0.15 mm were counted. Uitrastructures of substantia nigra and corpora striatum were observed under the electron miscroscope. The concentration of bilirubin in brain tissue of CP rabbits of model group was measured with high performance liquid chromatogram.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative analysis results and ultrastructure of TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra and corpora striatum in two groups.RESULTS: Thirty newborn rabbits were involved, 6

  19. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  20. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  1. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  2. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  3. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  4. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  5. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  6. Care of the newborn in perinatal units in New Brunswick

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 23 perinatal units in New Brunswick hospitals was conducted by means of a mailed questionnaire to determine the type of care provided to newborns. The results showed various degrees of conformity with published guidelines for the care of newborns. Deficiencies were noted in several areas of care: failing to give or improperly giving vitamin K1 prophylaxis (in 7 of the units), flushing the eyes after silver nitrate prophylaxis (in 10), using hexachlorophene to bathe newborns (in 11...

  7. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. High compliance with newborn community-to-facility referral in eastern Uganda:.an opportunity to improve newborn survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kayemba Nalwadda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seventy-five percent of newborn deaths happen in the first-week of life, with the highest risk of death in the first 24-hours after birth.WHO and UNICEF recommend home-visits for babies in the first-week of life to assess for danger-signs and counsel caretakers for immediate referral of sick newborns. We assessed timely compliance with newborn referrals made by community-health workers (CHWs, and its determinants in Iganga and Mayuge Districts in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: A historical cohort study design was used to retrospectively follow up newborns referred to health facilities between September 2009 and August 2011. Timely compliance was defined as caretakers of newborns complying with CHWs' referral advice within 24-hours. RESULTS: A total of 724 newborns were referred by CHWs of whom 700 were successfully traced. Of the 700 newborns, 373 (53% were referred for immunization and postnatal-care, and 327 (47% because of a danger-sign. Overall, 439 (63% complied, and of the 327 sick newborns, 243 (74% caretakers complied with the referrals. Predictors of referral compliance were; the newborn being sick at the time of referral- Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.3, and 95% Confidence-Interval (CI of [1.6 - 3.5], the CHW making a reminder visit to the referred newborn shortly after referral (AOR =1.7; 95% CI: [1.2 -2.7]; and age of mother (25-29 and (30-34 years, (AOR =0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8] and (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8] respectively. CONCLUSION: Caretakers' newborn referral compliance was high in this setting. The newborn being sick, being born to a younger mother and a reminder visit by the CHW to a referred newborn were predictors of newborn referral compliance. Integration of CHWs into maternal and newborn care programs has the potential to increase care seeking for newborns, which may contribute to reduction of newborn mortality.

  10. Microglia engulf viable newborn cells in the epileptic dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microglia, which are the brain's resident immune cells, engulf dead neural progenitor cells during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The number of newborn cells in the SGZ increases significantly after status epilepticus (SE), but whether and how microglia regulate the number of newborn cells after SE remain unclear. Here, we show that microglia rapidly eliminate newborn cells after SE by primary phagocytosis, a process by which viable cells are engulfed, thereby regulating the number of newborn cells that are incorporated into the DG. The number of newborn cells in the DG was increased at 5 days after SE in the adult mouse brain but rapidly decreased to the control levels within a week. During this period, microglia in the DG were highly active and engulfed newborn cells. We found that the majority of engulfed newborn cells were caspase-negative viable cells. Finally, inactivation of microglia with minocycline maintained the increase in the number of newborn cells after SE. Furthermore, minocycline treatment after SE induced the emergence of hilar ectopic granule cells. Thus, our findings suggest that microglia may contribute to homeostasis of the dentate neurogenic niche by eliminating excess newborn cells after SE via primary phagocytosis. GLIA 2016;64:1508-1517.

  11. Emergency preparedness for newborn screening and genetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Kenneth A; Thoene, Jess; Watson, Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Patients identified in newborn screening programs can be among the most vulnerable during a disaster due to their need to have prompt diagnosis and medical management. Recent disasters have challenged the ability of newborn screening programs to maintain the needed continuity during emergency situations. This has significant implications for the newborn screening laboratories, the diagnostic confirmation providers, and the patients who either require diagnosis or maintenance of their therapeutic interventions. In 2007, the National Coordinating Center (NCC) for the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaboratives (RCs) sponsored a meeting involving representatives of the Regional Genetics and Newborn Screening Collaborative Groups, state newborn screening programs, providers of diagnosis and confirmation services, manufacturers of equipment, medical foods, and other treatments used in patients identified in newborn screening programs, and individuals from agencies involved in disaster response including the National Disaster Medical Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Emergency Management Assistance Compact, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and others. In addition to developing contingency plans for newborn screening, we have considered other uses of genetics as it is used in DNA-based kinship identification of mass casualties. The meeting resulted in the description of a wide range of issues facing newborn screening programs, provider groups, and patients for which emergency preparedness development is needed in order that appropriate response is enabled. PMID:19444127

  12. Preventing in-hospital newborn falls: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Tara; Henderson-Williams, Audery; Nelson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In-hospital newborn falls are arguably one of the most underresearched and underreported issues for organizations that care for newborn patients. From the few published statistics of in-hospital fall rates, we know that perhaps 600 to 1,600 newborn falls occur annually. Many of these falls can result in injury or even death of the newborn, legal issues for the institution, and severe emotional stress to the caregiver(s) and parents. Therefore, we searched the literature to ascertain causation and associated risks associated with in-hospital newborn falls. This is an important issue for nurses to understand because not only can the newborn be harmed due to a fall, but the actual newborn fall can also elicit strong feelings of guilt and culpability in the caregiver(s). This article reviews the literature to examine what is known about the factors associated with in-hospital newborn falls, to explore prevention measures, and to present best practices for how to adopt safe-sleep policy to prevent newborn falls. PMID:24013477

  13. Microglia engulf viable newborn cells in the epileptic dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microglia, which are the brain's resident immune cells, engulf dead neural progenitor cells during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The number of newborn cells in the SGZ increases significantly after status epilepticus (SE), but whether and how microglia regulate the number of newborn cells after SE remain unclear. Here, we show that microglia rapidly eliminate newborn cells after SE by primary phagocytosis, a process by which viable cells are engulfed, thereby regulating the number of newborn cells that are incorporated into the DG. The number of newborn cells in the DG was increased at 5 days after SE in the adult mouse brain but rapidly decreased to the control levels within a week. During this period, microglia in the DG were highly active and engulfed newborn cells. We found that the majority of engulfed newborn cells were caspase-negative viable cells. Finally, inactivation of microglia with minocycline maintained the increase in the number of newborn cells after SE. Furthermore, minocycline treatment after SE induced the emergence of hilar ectopic granule cells. Thus, our findings suggest that microglia may contribute to homeostasis of the dentate neurogenic niche by eliminating excess newborn cells after SE via primary phagocytosis. GLIA 2016;64:1508-1517. PMID:27301702

  14. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  15. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  16. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  17. Idiopathic esophagopleural fistula in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannaccone, G.; Cozzi, F.; Roggini, M.; Capocaccia, P.

    1982-07-01

    Idiopathic rupture of the esophagus in the neonate is a rare event, probably related to the same mechanism of ischemic necrosis responsible for other 'spontaneous' g.i. tract perforations in the newborn. The laceration is usually located on the right aspect of the distal esophagus and is complicated by esophagopleural fistula and hydropneumothorax. Plain chest film and esophagography are diagnostic. The condition is an emergency one and usually carries a bad prognosis without prompt surgical repair. A typical case is reported in a baby who survived without early surgery; a residual tiny blind pouch and a small hiatal hernia required surgery at 1 year of age.

  18. Chest shape in preterm newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suggestion that thoracic shape of anteroposterior radiographs reflects lung compliance was examined in 62 preterm newborn infants (none with pulmonary hypoplasia) by measuring ratios of upper to lower chest widths. Chest shape did not vary significantly with the presence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or with gender, Apgar score, endotracheal intubation, radiographic severity of RDS, or age at radiography. However, decreased maturity was associated with a relatively wide upper chest and narrow lower chest. Developmental factors may be more important than lung compliance (and the other factors noted) in determining the radiographic configuration of the infantile chest

  19. Newborn care practices and home-based postnatal newborn care programme – Mewat, Haryana, India, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Nath Sinha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the Home Based Postnatal Newborn Care programme by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs under the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in 2011 to reduce neonatal mortality rates (NMRs. ASHAs get cash incentives for six postnatal home visits for newborn care. We studied newborn care practices among mothers in Mewat, Haryana, having a high NMR and determined risk factors for unsafe practices and described the knowledge and skills of ASHAs during home visits. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers who had delivered a child during the previous seven months using cluster sampling. We interviewed mothers and ASHAs in the selected subcentres using semi–structured questionnaires on the six safe newborn care practices, namely safe breastfeeding, keeping cord and eyes clean, wrapping baby, kangaroo care, delayed bathing and hand washing. Results: We interviewed 320 mothers, 61 ASHAs and observed 19 home visits. Overall, 60% of mothers adopted less than three safe practices. Wrapping newborns (96% and delayed bathing (64% were better adopted than cord care (49%, safe breastfeeding (48%, hand washing (30%, kangaroo care (20% and eye care (9%. Cultural beliefs and traditional birth attendants influenced the mother’s practices. The lack of supervision by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM, delayed referral and transportation were the other challenges. Conclusion: Knowledge–practice gaps existed among mothers counselled by ASHAs. Poor utilization of reproductive and child health services decreased opportunities for ASHA–mother dialogue on safe practices. Recommendations included training ANMs, training TBAs as ASHAs, innovative communication strategies for ASHAs and improved referral system.

  20. Responses to converting-enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage in newborn lambs and adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J.C.; Block, S.M.; Flowe, K.; Morris, M.; South, S.; Sundberg, D.K.; Zimmerman, C.

    1987-02-01

    The authors compared the cardiovascular and hormonal responses to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and hemorrhage of 20% of blood volume in chronically instrumented unanesthetized newborn lambs and adult sheep. Administration of the nonsulfhydryl-containing converting-enzyme inhibitor enalapril reduced mean arterial pressure in the newborn but not in the adult animals. Blood pressure fell in both age groups after hemorrhage, and the hemorrhage-induced fall in blood pressure, integrated over the period of hypovolemia, was more pronounced when converting-enzyme inhibition was present in the lambs. This was not observed in the adults. Cardiac output fell following hemorrhage in both age groups, and the fall was greater when enalapril was present in the lambs, but this was not the case in the adults. Hemorrhage increased plasma renin activity in both groups, and enalapril augmented this increase. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, measured by radioimmunoassay, and catecholamines measured by radio enzymatic assay, increased following hemorrhage within and between groups. Taken together these data suggest that the renin-angiotensin systems plays a more important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in newborn lambs than it does in adult sheep, and catecholamine and vasopressin responses to volume loss can occur in the presence of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

  1. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  2. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  3. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  4. Discomfort and pain in newborns with myelomeningocele: A prospective evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Ottenhoff (Myrthe); R. Dammers (Ruben); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin); D. Tibboel (Dick); T.H. Rob De Jong (T.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: In a worldwide debate on deliberately terminating the lives of newborns, proponents point at newborns with very severe forms of myelomeningocele (MMC) and their assumed suffering, claiming there are no effective means of alleviating their distress. Nevertheless, the degree of

  5. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  6. Genetic susceptibility of newborn daughters to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decordier, Ilse; De Bont, Kelly; De Bock, Kirsten;

    2007-01-01

    of a newborn as compared to his mother for oxidative DNA damage. We compared the in vitro genetic susceptibility for H2O2 in PBMC of 17 mother-newborn daughter pairs taking into account genotypes for relevant DNA repair (hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD) and folate metabolism (MTHFR) polymorphisms. After in vitro...

  7. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  8. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  9. Nosocomial Outbreak of Parechovirus 3 Infection among Newborns, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenger, Volker; Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-09-01

    In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333

  10. Compound muscle action potentials in newborn infants with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Pasman, J.W.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and neurological impairment in newborn infants with spina bifida. Thirty-one newborn infants (17 males, 14 females, mean gestational age 39 wks [SD 2]; mean birthweight 3336 g [SD 496]) with s

  11. Spatial training promotes short-term survival and neuron-like differentiation of newborn cells in Aβ1-42-injected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Juan; Jiang, Xia; Hu, Xian-Feng; Ma, Rong-Hong; Chai, Gao-Shang; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Li; Bao, Jian; Feng, Qiong; Hu, Yu; Chu, Jiang; Chai, Da-Min; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Neurogenesis plays a role in hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired neurogenesis may correlate with cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Spatial training influences the production and fate of newborn cells in hippocampus of normal animals, whereas the effects on neurogenesis in Alzheimer-like animal are not reported until now. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effect of Morris water maze training on proliferation, survival, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation of newborn cells in β-amyloid-treated Alzheimer-like rats. We found that spatial training could preserve a short-term survival of newborn cells generated before training, during the early phase, and the late phase of training. However, the training had no effect on the long-term survival of mature newborn cells generated at previously mentioned 3 different phases. We also demonstrated that spatial training promoted newborn cell differentiation preferentially to the neuron direction. These findings suggest a time-independent neurogenesis induced by spatial training, which may be indicative for the cognitive stimulation in Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:27459927

  12. Intracranial haemorrhage after transport of premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage remains an important factor of premature newborns’ morbidity. Its incidence is significantly influenced by adequate perinatal care and safe neonatal transport. Risk factors for the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns after neonatal transport were analyzed in the retrospective transversal clinical study. Out of 150 study subjects, 60% (n=90/150 had intracranial hemorrhage with a statistically significant difference in relation to Apgar score, gestational age, birth weight, age at the moment of transport and the prophylactic use of surfactant. In this group, grades I/II intracranial hemorrhage were detected in 77% (n=69/90, while grades III/IV intracranial hemorrhage were diagnosed in 23% (n=21/90. A statistically significant difference was observed in relation to gestational age, birth weight, antenatal use of tocolytics and steroids, delivery mode and age in the time of transport between these groups. All patients were transferred to Intensive Care Unit, the duration of transport was less than 5 minutes in 71% 9n=107/150, whereas longer transport was recorded in 29% (n=43/150. In the group of longer transport, prophylactic surfactant was less frequently used with a higher incidence of grades III/IV intracranial hemorrhage. In order to prevent the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns, the most important measures are the antenatal use of steroids and postnatal prophylactic use of surfactant.

  13. Screening of the hearing of newborns - Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Permanent congenital bilateral hearing loss (CHL of moderate or greater degree (≥40 dB HL is a rare disease, with a prevalence of about 1 to 3 per 1000 births. However, it is one of the most frequent congenital diseases. Reliance on physician observation and parental recognition has not been successful in the past in detecting significant hearing loss in the first year of life. With this strategy significant hearing losses have been detected in the second year of life. With two objective technologies based on physiologic response to sound, otoacoustic emissions (OAE and auditory brainstem response (ABR hearing screening in the first days of life is made possible. Objectives: The objective of this health technology assessment report is to update the evaluation on clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs. Universal newborn hearing screening (UHNS (i, selective screening of high risk newborns (ii, and the absence of a systematic screening program are compared for age at identification and age at hearing aid fitting of children with hearing loss. Secondly the potential benefits of early intervention are analysed. Costs and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs are determined. This report is intended to make a contribution to the decision making whether and under which conditions a newborn hearing screening program should be reimbursed by the statutory sickness funds in Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment report updates a former health technology assessment (Kunze et al. 2004 [1]. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, based on a documented search and selection of the literature using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and a documented extraction and appraisal of the included studies. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the different screening strategies in Germany the decision analytic Markov state model which had been developed in

  14. Cystic fibrosis: newborn screening in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Daniel T; McCudden, Christopher R; Willis, Monte S

    2008-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common lethal genetic disease in Caucasians, manifesting as progressive lung dysfunction, pancreatic insufficiency, and intestinal disease. CF was traditionally diagnosed clinically, either because of a family history or occurrence of meconium ileus, or as a result of intestinal malabsorption and chronic pulmonary disease. In 1979, it was discovered that immunoreactive trypsinogen was increased in neonatal dried-blood specimens on Guthrie cards, making it possible to screen neonates. During the past decades, survival rates of patients with CF have improved significantly (see Figure 5). To continue this progress, universal newborn screening has been implemented in many states as an addition to the arsenal of therapies and strategies to improve survival. National newborn-screening programs to identify CF patients after birth have been adopted for a number of years in Europe, Australia, and Canada. As expected, many benefits have been seen due to the early identification of CF patients, including improved survival, better lung function and growth with less intensive therapy, and reduced cost of therapy. To date, 37 states in the United States have adopted similar programs, in the hopes of improving CF outcomes. This welcome trend should help improve the lives of CF patients living in America. PMID:18717498

  15. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P

    2008-01-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  16. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    March, Samanta M.; Culleré, Marcela E.; Abate, Paula; Hernández, José I.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH's behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0....

  17. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Mabel March; Spear, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system, that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH’s behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0...

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  20. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  1. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  2. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  3. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  4. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  5. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  6. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  7. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  8. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable for....... Using it even without knowing the exact level of CBF and CBV, it is possible to aim to keep CBF and CBV stable. Futureresearch should focus on development of monitoring tools, gaining more insight in neonatal cerebral autoregulation, and demonstrating clinical benefits of a 'cerebral perfusion...

  9. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Kuzdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism’s natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.

  10. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, M; Thurik, F F; Koelewijn, J M; van der Schoot, C E

    2015-08-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases are caused by anti-D, despite the introduction of antental and postnatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. In general, red blood cell antibody screening programmes are aimed to detect maternal alloimmunization early in pregnancy to facilitate the identification of high-risk cases to timely start antenatal and postnatal treatment. In this review, an overview of the clinical relevance of red cell alloantibodies in relation to occurrence of HDFN and recent views on prevention, screening and treatment options of HDFN are provided. PMID:25899660

  11. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  13. Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mϋller, M J; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2016-09-16

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine. Mortality is considerably high in extremely small preterm infants reaching up to 42% of the affected children. Measures such as breastfeeding or alternatively nutrition with pasteurized human donor milk from a milk bank, administration of probiotics, avoidance of histamine type II receptor antagonists, and restrictive antibiotic treatment should be considered early on for prevention of NEC. PMID:27589549

  14. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  15. Immunization of newborns with bacterial conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William S

    2013-05-17

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines are based on the principle of coupling immunogenic bacterial capsular polysaccharides to a carrier protein to facilitate the induction of memory T-cell responses. Following the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in the 1980s, conjugate vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections were developed and proven to be effective in protecting children against invasive disease. In this review, the use of conjugate vaccines in human newborns is discussed. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules have been trialed and proven to be safe, with the majority of studies demonstrating no evidence for the induction of immune tolerance. Whether their neonatal administration also results in an earlier induction of clinical protection in the first 2-3 critical months of life is still to be demonstrated. PMID:22728221

  16. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  17. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  18. VIP and PACAP 38 modulate ibotenate-induced neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressens, P; Arquié, C; Hill, J M; Marret, S; Sahir, N; Robberecht, P; Evrard, P

    2000-12-01

    Intracerebral administration of ibotenate produces, through activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex: high doses of ibotenate induce periventricular and subcortical neuronal heterotopias, while low doses of ibotenate produce intracortical heterotopias and molecular layer ectopias. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are closely related peptides with neurotrophic properties. They share common VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, which use cAMP as a second messenger. Previous studies have shown that VIP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and exacerbates glutamate-induced c-fos neuronal expression. In order to gain new insight into the molecular control of neuronal migration, the present study examined the effects of VIP and PACAP on ibotenate-induced heterotopias in the newborn hamster. Co-treatment with VIP and a high dose of ibotenate produced a pattern of neuronal heterotopias similar to the one observed in animals treated with low doses of ibotenate alone. Pups co-injected with a low dose of ibotenate and a VIP antagonist displayed cortical dysgeneses similar to those observed in animals treated with high doses of ibotenate alone. The modulating effects of VIP on excitotoxin-induced heterotopias were mimicked by forskolin, PACAP, and by a specific VPAC2 receptor agonist but not by a VPAC1 agonist, and were blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that VIP and PACAP can attenuate ibotenate-induced heterotopias in newborn hamster and that this effect is mediated by the VPAC2 receptor utilizing the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  19. Birth Weight of Healthy Newborns in Zagreb Area, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kolčić, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Pfeifer, Dina; Smolej-Narančić, Nina; Ilijić, Marcela; Bljajić, Danko; Biloglav, Zrinka; Ivanišević, Marina; Đelmiš, Josip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess birth weight of healthy newborns from the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County, Croatia. Birth weights of healthy newborns, born at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Center »Zagreb« in the year 2001, were included into analysis. Since there were only few newborns in the 22nd–27th week of gestation, they were excluded from the study. Small number of data points was also noticed in 28th–36th week of gestation, and was supplemented w...

  20. No priming of the immune response in newborn Brown Norway rats dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    with ovalbumin and if this method could be used in an animal model for food allergy. Methods: Newborn Brown Norway rats were dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth (100 mug or 6 mg). As young adults, the animals were dosed by gavage for 35 days with 1 mg ovalbumin/day or once intraperitoneally with 100 mug. Control......E and IgG responses were decreased compared to the control groups, however, not always reaching statistical significance. A statistical significant decrease in the specific immune response was found in young adult rats dosed in the mouth as compared to by gavage. Conclusions: Dosing Brown Norway rats...

  1. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  2. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  3. Newborn Screened Diseases by Race/Ethnicity, 2009-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table presents the disorders diagnosed by the California Newborn Screening Program during the five-year period from 2009 through 2014. The counts of disorders...

  4. Global Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made towards reducing under-5 childhood mortality in the Millennium Development Goals era. Reduction in newborn mortality has lagged behind maternal and child mortality. Effective implementation of innovative, evidence-based, and cost-effective interventions can reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Interventions aimed at the most vulnerable group results in maximal impact on mortality. Intervention coverage and scale-up remains low, inequitable and uneven in low-income countries due to numerous health-systems bottle-necks. Innovative service delivery strategies, increased integration and linkages across the maternal, newborn, child health continuum of care are vital to accelerate progress towards ending preventable maternal and newborn deaths. PMID:26613686

  5. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  6. Screening Newborns | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... today. 1999 NIDCD research explores intervention strategies for children with hearing loss. 1999 President Clinton signs the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act , authorizing support for statewide screening programs. 1998 NIDCD research demonstrates the need for both ...

  7. Newborn falls in-hospital: time to address the issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Goodman, Alexander; Remorino, Rowena; Bolger, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Newborn falls in-hospital are considered rare and mostly accidental. Few studies are available explaining such accidents. The number of cases may be under reported by parents because of the inevitable sense of guilt they experience. Although deaths have been rarely reported, such accidents may be associated with serious outcomes. An urgent assessment by both the midwifery and paediatric teams should be undertaken following the reporting of such accidents. This paper explains what is meant by newborn falls, presents some relevant literature and uses a case study involving a newborn in hospital to form the basis of a discussion. Importantly it is felt that there is a need to raise awareness of the potential of these accidents amongst health professionals. We hope this paper goes some way towards highlighting some key issues and, moreover, increases awareness of newborn falls in hospital. PMID:21560948

  8. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  9. Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160325.html Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn Baby ... birth defect linked to fetal exposure to the Zika virus, state health officials say. According to a ...

  10. Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The article, Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs, 2002-2009, Implications For the Future, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of Medicare and Medicaid...

  11. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and large ovarian cyst in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derinkuyu, Betul E.; Boyunaga, Oznur [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Sezin; Ergenekon, Ebru [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Ucar, Murat [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    We report a case of a newborn girl with neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and a large ovarian cyst. She also had melanocyte deposition in the filum terminale. The ultrasound and the magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed. (orig.)

  12. The gut microbiome and its potential role in the development and function of newborn calf gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilusha eMalmuthuge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A diverse microbial population colonizes the sterile mammalian gastrointestinal tract during and after the birth. There is increasing evidence that this complex microbiome plays a crucial role in the development of the mucosal immune system and influences newborn health. Microbial colonization is a complex process influenced by a two-way interaction between host and microbes and a variety of external factors, including maternal microbiota, birth process, diet, and antibiotics. Following this initial colonization, continuous exposure to host-specific microbes is not only essential for development and maturation of the mucosal immune system but also the nutrition and health of the animal. Thus, it is important to understand host-microbiome interactions within the context of individual animal species and specific management practices. Data is now being generated revealing significant associations between the early microbiome, development of the mucosal immune system, and the growth and health of newborn calves. The current review focuses on recent information and discusses the limitation of current data and the potential challenges to better characterizing key host-specific microbial interactions. We also discuss potential strategies that may be used to manipulate the early microbiome to improve production and health during the time when newborn calves are most susceptible to enteric disease.

  13. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation...

  14. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Altunhan, Hüseyin; Annagür, Ali; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Konak, Murat; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Örs, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolism disorder. The frequency of sepsis significantly increases in patients with galactosemia. The most common agent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungus in patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candida is an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive care units especially in newborns with underlying risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. Although the most common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. c...

  15. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Altunhan; Ali Annagür; Murat Konak; Sabahattin Ertuğrul; Hasan Ali Yüksekkaya; Rahmi Örs

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in c...

  16. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to multiple maternal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh B; Deepthi K; Yashovardhan A.; Arun R; Sreedhar Babu KV; Jothibai DS; Bhavani V

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition in which the lifespan of an infant’s red blood cells (RBCs) is shortened by the action of specific maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. Rhesus (Rh)- D haemolytic disease of the newborn is a prototype of maternal isoimmunization and foetal haemolytic disease. Although rare, the other blood group antigens capable of causing alloimunization and haemolytic disease are c, C, E, Kell and Duffy. We report a case of H...

  17. Role of Subgroup Incompatibility in Newborn Jaundice Requiring Exchange Transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Annagür, Ali; Altunhan, Hüseyin; Konak, Murat; Koç, Hasan; Örs, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the role of exchange transfusion related complications, treatment, and etiology as well as subgroup incompatibility in patients subject to ET (exchange transfusion) due to newborn jaundice. 82 patients hospitalized due to newborn jaundice and exposed to exchange transfusion between August 2007 and August 2011 were retrospectively studied. Before ET mean total serum bilirubin was 29,2±9,83. The most frequent cause of ET was ABO incompatibility (31%) followed by...

  18. Nursing care during complications caused by newborn venous puncture

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Shirley Siniak dos Anjos Modes; Maria Aparecida Munhoz Gaíva; Michelly Kim de Oliveira Rosa; Cláudia da Fonseca Granjeiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze nursing care in the prevention and treatment of complications of peripheral venipuncture in newborns hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. It is a descriptive exploratory study, with qualitative approach conducted with nurses who cared for newborns in hospitals in Cuiaba, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to thematic analysis’ technique. Preventive measures for complications menti...

  19. Gestational risks determinants of mothers of newborns in neonatal death

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângelqa Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari; Maria Rita Bertolozzi; José Carlos Dalmas; Edmarlon Girotto

    2015-01-01

    Describes the socio-economic, reproductive and obstetric characteristics of mothers of newborn children that had neonatal death in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The quantitative descriptive retrospective research is based on data retrieved from the declaration of live birth, death certificate and infant death investigation form, between 2000 and 2009. During a period of 10 years, 537 newborn children died; 50.5% of mothers were nulliparous; 60.0% were between 12 and 27 years old; 30.8% had ...

  20. Does intrauterine tobacco exposure increase the pain perception of newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Tekin, Şule Yıldırım, Hakan Aylanç, Nazan Kaymaz, Fatih Battal, Naci Topaloğlu, Esra Başer, Fatih Köksal Binnetoğlu Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey Background: This study aimed to assess whether there was a difference in the pain-perception levels of newborns born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy and newborns born to mothers who were not exposed to active or passive smoking during pregnancy. Materials and methods: A total of 60 newborns born by normal spontaneous vaginal birth between June 2013 and June 2014 were included in the study: 30 born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and 30 born to mothers not exposed to smoking. Mothers or newborns who had taken analgesics or sedative medications in the previous 24 hours, newborns not born at term, and sick newborns were not included in the study. During the routine hepatitis B-vaccination injection given at postnatal 48 hours, the newborns’ behavior was monitored and recorded by video camera. The data obtained from the recordings were evaluated according to the Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale and analyzed with SPSS 20. Results: The median pain score of the group exposed to tobacco smoke in utero was 8.5, while the median pain score of the unexposed group was 6 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero may increase the pain-perception levels of newborns. Keywords: intrauterine, newborn, pain perception, smoking, mother 

  1. Penile length of newborns and children in Surakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annang Giri Moelyo; Melita Widyastuti

    2013-01-01

    Background Penile length is a factor for assessing abnormalities in external genitalia. To diagnose micropenis, a condition in which penile length is < - 2.5 standard deviations (SD), a reference is required for diagnosis. Age and race/ethnic groups are factors that contribute to normal penile length. To date, Indonesia does not have such a reference for normal penile length in newborns and children. Objective To assess normal penile length in newborns and children in Surakarta, Central J...

  2. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  3. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  4. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  5. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  6. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W

    2016-07-01

    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input. PMID:27079969

  7. Newborn Screening: What Does the Emergency Physician Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Lindsay Roofe; Higby, Nicholas; Abramo, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Newborn screening programs were established in the United States in the early 1960s. Newborn screening programs were then developed by states and have continued to be the responsibility of the state. All states require a newborn screening, but what is required of these programs and screening panels has differed greatly by state. Historically, the most commonly screened disorders are the following: congenital hypothyroidism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, sickle cell disease and associated hemoglobinopathies, biotinidase deficiency, galactosemia, cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. However, under new guidelines in 2006 and with new advances in technology, the scope of newborn screening programs has expanded to include at a minimum 9 organic acidurias, 5 fatty acid oxidation disorders, 3 hemoglobinopathies, and 6 other conditions. This CME article reviews the logistics of newborn screening and explores the effect of new technology and recent policy on state screens and what that means for providers. This article also highlights several of the disorders most relevant to emergency room physicians and discusses future considerations of newborn screening. PMID:26335232

  8. Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Critically Ill Mexican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-González Isabel MSc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of intermediary metabolism (IEiM are complex diseases with high clinical heterogeneity, and some patients who have severe enzyme deficiencies or are subjected to stress (catabolism/infections actually decompensate in the neonatal period. In this study, we performed metabolic tests on 2025 newborns in Mexico admitted to 35 neonatal intensive care units or emergency wards (NICUs/EWs over a 6-year period, in whom a metabolic disorder was clinically suspected. Of these 2025 newborns with sickness, 11 had IEiM, revealing a prevalence of 1:184. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the newborns with confirmed IEiM are shown. Of these 11 patients, 4 had isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 3 had maple syrup urine disease, 2 had urea cycle disorders, 1 had 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia, and 1 had isovaleric acidemia. During the first week of life (average 3 days, all of these newborns presented with impaired alertness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and vomiting along with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia. Of the 11 newborns with IEiM, 7 died, leading to a mortality rate of 64%. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of newborns admitted to the NICU/EW must include IEiM, requiring systematic screening of this population.

  9. Serum silicon concentrations in pregnant women and newborn babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Anderson, Simon H C; Lakasing, Lorin; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-12-14

    Earlier studies in animals have suggested an essential role for Si in connective tissues, but such works have not been replicated per se. Nonetheless, a study conducted in 2000 has reported that Si may be essential during pregnancy for the growing fetus, since serum Si concentrations in infants were approximately 300 % higher than those in older children and adults and serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were approximately 300 % lower than those in age-matched non-pregnant controls. To reproduce these potentially important findings, in the present study, serum Si concentrations were measured in fourteen pregnant women (15-24 weeks of gestation) and compared with those of seventeen non-pregnant, non-lactating female controls. Serum Si concentrations were also measured in fourteen full-term mothers at the time of delivery and in the umbilical cord (UC) vein and artery where possible. Fasting serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were not significantly different from those of the female controls and showed little change with advancing gestation (r 0·2). Mean serum Si concentrations in the UC vein samples were 52 % higher, while those in the UC artery samples were 235 % higher than those in the maternal forearm vein samples, although data were widely spread and differences were not significant. Mean maternal forearm vein Si concentrations at delivery were 50 % lower than those of pregnant women and female controls, but, again, these were not significant. Overall, we note that there are significant analytical challenges in comparing baseline Si levels between different groups; notwithstanding, our findings cannot confirm a reduction in fasting serum Si levels during pregnancy, but, equally, we cannot rule out higher serum Si levels in newborns than in their mothers, and further work is required. PMID:23702224

  10. MICE, a program to track and monitor animals in animal facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pognonec Philippe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of laboratories are using the mouse as a model system in developmental biology as well as in molecular biology. Surprisingly, most of these laboratories do not have reliable computerized systems to track these animals, and the few commercial solutions available are expensive. We thus developed MICE (Mouse Information and Classification Entity, a program aimed at facilitating the monitoring of animals in animal facilities. Results This program consists of a virtual facility in which scientists can perform all the tasks done in the real world (i.e., receiving animals, breeding them, preparing cage labels, etc.. Recording of each animal (birth date, cage number, ID number, tail analysis number, parents, genetic status, genetic background, etc. enables reliable tracking. According to any parameter of interest, animals can then be identified, grouped, sorted, moved, and so forth. Crossings are automatically processed by the program. For example, new genetic backgrounds, generation number, and anticipated due dates are determined. The program also reminds the user when new births are expected and entering newborn animals only requires a few clicks. The genealogy of each animal can be determined in two different ways, one being the visualization of a genealogical tree from which information of ancestors can be retrieved. Conclusion This standalone program, that will be distributed free of charge to academic laboratories requesting a license, represents a new and valuable tool for all animal facility users, and permits simple and reliable tracking and retrieving of animals.

  11. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  12. Septic arthritis in the newborn and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Septic arthritis represents an intra-articular infection caused by pyogenic bacteria. During the earliest childhood it is considered to be a systemic septic condition and demands early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients with septic arthritis treated at the Department of Orthopedics of the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad, over a 10-year period. We are also presenting a case of a 12-day-old newborn baby, with clear radiological signs of osteoarthritis of the right knee. Results A retrospective study included the period 1991-2000, and showed that 15 patients, aged 10 days - 12 months were treated for osteoarthritis. The most common localization was the hip, in 60% of cases. In 11 patients the causative agent was Staphylococcus aureus while in the 4 remaining patients the bacteriologic finding was negative. One patient died of generalized sepsis. Discussion In neonates and infants septic arthritis is characterized by atypical clinical picture, often causing delayed diagnosis. In the initial phases of the disease ultrasonographic findings were of greater use compared to radiological imaging, due to relatively late appearance of radiological signs of disease. Conclusions Due to possible development of serious and irreversible damage, even lethal outcome, septic arthritis requires early diagnosis, prompt administration of antibiotics and early surgical treatment. It is a quite unique area in Pediatric Orthopedics where missed or delayed diagnosis may have serious consequences.

  13. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  14. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe;

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The role of SP-D in the metabolism of surfactant is as yet quite unclear. The aims of this study were to establish normal values of SP-D in the umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of mature...... newborn infants and to assess the influence of perinatal conditions on these levels. A total of 458 infants were enrolled in the present study. Umbilical cord blood was drawn at the time of birth and capillary blood at age 4 to 10 d. The concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood...... was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood was 392.1 ng/mL and was found to be influenced by maternal smoking and labor. The median concentration of SP-D in capillary blood was 777.5 ng/mL and was found to be influenced by the mode of delivery...

  15. Metabolomic Research on Newborn Infants With Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Li, Xiang-Wen; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and to explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR, with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention. A total of 60 newborns with IUGR and 60 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study. The differences in 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood, as well as changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine, were compared. Metabolites, particularly alanine, homocysteine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, serine, tyrosine, isovaleryl carnitine, and eicosenoyl carnitine, differed according to newborns’ birth weight (<3rd percentile, 3rd–5th percentiles, 5th–10th percentiles, and 10th–90th percentiles), with those with lower birth weight showing the greater difference (P < 0.05). Metabolites also differed by gestational age, and the differences observed were mainly as follows: preterm and full-term newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, proline, cerotoyl carnitine, and tetradecanedioyl carnitine (P < 0.05); preterm and full-term AGA newborns showed differences in metabolites, mainly in alanine, glutamine, homocysteine, pipecolic acid, proline, heptanoyl carnitine, and sebacoyl carnitine (P < 0.05); and preterm and full-term newborns with IUGR showed differences in metabolites, mainly in arginine, glutamic acid, homocysteine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, heptanoyl carnitine, decanoyl carnitine, linoleyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine, glutarylcarnitine, sebacoyl carnitine

  16. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  17. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  18. Whole-Genome Screening of Newborns? The Constitutional Boundaries of State Newborn Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jaime S.; Smith, Monica E.

    2016-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs routinely screen nearly all of the 4 million newborns in the United States each year for ~30 primary conditions and a number of secondary conditions. NBS could be on the cusp of an unprecedented expansion as a result of advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS). As WGS becomes cheaper and easier and as our knowledge and understanding of human genetics expand, the question of whether WGS has a role to play in state NBS programs becomes increasingly relevant and complex. As geneticists and state public health officials begin to contemplate the technical and procedural details of whether WGS could benefit existing NBS programs, this is an opportune time to revisit the legal framework of state NBS programs. In this article, we examine the constitutional underpinnings of state-mandated NBS and explore the range of current state statutes and regulations that govern the programs. We consider the legal refinements that will be needed to keep state NBS programs within constitutional bounds, focusing on 2 areas of concern: consent procedures and the criteria used to select new conditions for NBS panels. We conclude by providing options for states to consider when contemplating the use of WGS for NBS. PMID:26729704

  19. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  20. Features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinivetska N.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormalities of digestion and absorption are the most common syndromes associated with the digestive system diseases in children. Pancreatic enzyme failure leads to violation of different metabolic processes, especially in neonates. Exocrine pancreas is sensitive to a variety of factors, including virus. It emphasizes the importance of investigation of pancreatic secretory activity in children who was born from mothers exposed to viral infection during pregnancy. Objective. The purpose is to determine the features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence. Methods. Animals were divided into four groups: the 1st – intact, the 2nd – intrafetal injection of the antigen, the 3rd – animals administered with antigen into the amniotic fluid, and the 4th group – control (intrafetal injection of a normal salt solution. As antigen we used Vaxigrip vaccine. Results. It was revealed that on the14th day after birth antigen-exposed animals were characterized by the increase of glycoproteins (++ in a connective tissue capsule of pancreas and decreased content of glycoproteins in the cytoplasm of acinar cells and ducts comparing with the intact group (++/+. Taken together this data evidence the reduction of the synthetic activity of acinar cells after intrafetal administration of the antigen. This may cause a predisposition for the development of dyspepsia and food allergy. Further work is planned to investigate the dynamics of glycosaminoglycans redistribution in different parts of pancreas after prenatal antigenic administrations. Citation: Grinivetska NV. [Features of glycoproteins distribution in the pancreatic structures of newborn rats after prenatal antigenic influence]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:30-4. Ukrainian.

  1. Perinatal asphyxia in the term newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Antonucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the important advances in perinatal care in the past decades, asphyxia remains a severe condition leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Perinatal asphyxia has an incidence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live full-term births, and represents the third most common cause of neonatal death (23% after preterm birth (28% and severe infections (26%. Many preconceptional, antepartum and intrapartum risk factors have been shown to be associated with perinatal asphyxia. The standard for defining an intrapartum hypoxic-ischemic event as sufficient to produce moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy which subsequently leads to cerebral palsy has been established in 3 Consensus statements. The cornerstone of all three statements is the presence of severe metabolic acidosis (pH < 7 and base deficit ≥ 12 mmol/L at birth in a newborn exhibiting early signs of moderate or severe encephalopathy. Perinatal asphyxia may affect virtually any organ, but hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is the most studied clinical condition and that is burdened with the most severe sequelae. The feasibility of providing neuroprotection after HIE has been proven by hypothermia therapy, which is able to reduce the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability. Many promising neuroprotective agents might contribute to reduce hypoxic-ischemic brain injury through different mechanisms of action, but further studies are required to confirm their efficacy. The prognosis is dependent on the severity of the perinatal asphyxia. Only a minority of infants with severe HIE survive without handicap. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  2. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  3. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  4. Fatal Melioidosis in a Newborn from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yao; Chen, Hai; Zhu, Xiong; Mao, Xuhu

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we report a case of fatal melioidosis in a newborn. The newborn died of serious melioidosis with respiratory and multiorgan failure at 16 days of age despite extensive treatment with antibiotics and methylprednisolone. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from the infant's blood and cerebrospinal fluid and identified as a novel sequence type (ST-1341). His father had cough and fever when the newborn was born, and a localized patchy infiltration on the right upper lung was seen in chest radiography, but B. pseudomallei was not isolated. Two years later, the father developed cough and fever again, and the same novel sequence type of B. pseudomallei was isolated from the blood of the father. It is postulated that transmission of B. pseudomallei from the father to the newborn might have occurred during close contact in the first couple of days after birth. Given the high mortality of neonatal melioidosis, particular attention must be paid when the caretakers of the newborn develop fever of unknown origin in a melioidosis-endemic region. PMID:27162267

  5. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  6. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  7. STUDY ON THE GROWTH OF CEREBELLUM IN NEWBORN INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟利; 钟美萍; 吴圣楣; 罗敏洁

    2000-01-01

    Objective To know the growth of the cerebellum in newborn infants. Methods The central vermian area (CVA) of the cerebellum was measured by head ultrasonography in 90 newborns including 65full- terms, 14 preterms and 11 small for gestational age infants (SGA). Results The average age of the newborn infants were 4.7d (3~7d). The mean CVA in full- terms was 5.8±0.8cm2, which was significantly greater than that in preterms (3.7±1.0cm2), and SGA (5.1±0.8cm2), respectively. However, when corrected for birth weight (BW), the ratio of CVA/BW in term SGA was 2.07, being significantly higher than the ratio of 1.72 in normal full-term newborns. There was no difference between male and female infants. Statistically significant relationships were found between CVA and BW (r=0.8129, P<0.01) and between CVA and gestational age (r=0.7450, P<0.01). Conclusion The study provide some understanding on the growth of the cerebellum, and the cerebellar measurement by cranial ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of neurological maturation in newborn infants.

  8. Newborn Body Indices in Housewives and Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Torabizadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare newborns anthropometric indices of housewives and employed women.Materials and Methods: This case control study compared newborns’ anthropometric indices (weight, length, head circumference and first minute APGAR between working women and housewives. Two hundred consecutive term pregnant women during active phase of labor without any pregnancy complications were evaluated. For each participant a questionnaire was filled by the researcher. Employed women according to their standing position during work time were divided into three groups: heavy, light and moderate jobs.   Results: The mean weight, length and head circumference of the newborns were higher in employed women (p=0.018, p<0.001, p=0.010, respectively. After eliminating effect of the interfering variables by using a general linear model, it was observed that the mother’s job has a direct influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight was similar in two groups (p=0.340. The newborn's anthropometric indices and first minute APGAR had not significant difference in subgroups of job difficulty.Conclusion: Maternal job has a direct positive influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight is not related to maternal job.

  9. Newborns' cry melody is shaped by their native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampe, Birgit; Friederici, Angela D; Christophe, Anne; Wermke, Kathleen

    2009-12-15

    Human fetuses are able to memorize auditory stimuli from the external world by the last trimester of pregnancy, with a particular sensitivity to melody contour in both music and language. Newborns prefer their mother's voice over other voices and perceive the emotional content of messages conveyed via intonation contours in maternal speech ("motherese"). Their perceptual preference for the surrounding language and their ability to distinguish between prosodically different languages and pitch changes are based on prosodic information, primarily melody. Adult-like processing of pitch intervals allows newborns to appreciate musical melodies and emotional and linguistic prosody. Although prenatal exposure to native-language prosody influences newborns' perception, the surrounding language affects sound production apparently much later. Here, we analyzed the crying patterns of 30 French and 30 German newborns with respect to their melody and intensity contours. The French group preferentially produced cries with a rising melody contour, whereas the German group preferentially produced falling contours. The data show an influence of the surrounding speech prosody on newborns' cry melody, possibly via vocal learning based on biological predispositions.

  10. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  11. Successful xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林乐岷; 宋一民; 宋纯; 许评; 宋春芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of xenotransplantation with pig parathyroid cells, which was prepared using cell microencapsulation technique, on the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in rats without immunosuppressor. Methods Parathyroid cells were isolated from 10 healthy newborn pigs and encapsulated in alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) membranes. Thirty-two aparathyroid Wistar rats were randomly allocated to microcapsule, non-microcapsule, empty microcapsule, and control groups. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with encapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, free porcine parathyroid cells, empty capsules or 0.9% NaCl, respectively. Total serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were monitored continuously for 40 weeks. And then, the transplant beds were retrieved and subjected to morphologic and electron microscopic examination. Results In those animals xenotransplanted with microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells, the calcium and PTH levels were consistently within the normal range during the 40 weeks. In contrast, no therapeutic effects were observed in rats in the non-microcapsule group. Furthermore, neither empty capsules nor 0.9% NaCl were shown to have any effect on the recipient's serum calcium or PTH levels. After 40 weeks, electron microscopic examination demonstrated that the parathyroid cells within the microcapsules had survived well in vivo. Conclusions Xenotransplantation of microencapsulated newborn pig parathyroid cells can successfully treat hypoparathyroidism in rats without using immunosuppressive drugs. The results of this study show the possible clinical use of microencapsulated porcine parathyroid cells.

  12. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J Martin

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs

  13. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lee J; Katzenelson, Alyssa; Koehler, Raymond C; Chang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC)/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs and NPCs suitable

  14. Influence of antepartum administration of immunopotentiators on reproductive efficacy of buffalo and viability of their newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Hussein A; Badr, Atef M

    2008-01-01

    The authors determine the efficacy of prepartum immunopotentiators administered during late gestation on postpartum fertility, IgG levels and calf viability. Fifty buffalo were divided into five groups (10 animals in each group). Group I was the control group. Each animal in Group II received 30 ml intramuscularly of viteselen (1.7 mg sodium selenium and 150 mg vitamin E/ml). Each animal in Group III received a subcutaneous injection of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at 0.5 ml. In Group IV, each animal received 12.5 ml of levamisole hydrochloride intramuscularly, while those in Group V received 10 ml of ultra-corn subcutaneously. The immunopotentiators were administered according to each group 60 days prior to the anticipated date of parturition. Postpartum fertility was assessed by close observation and rectal examination after parturition. Colostrum from the dams and sera from the newborn were collected to estimate the level of immunoglobulin (IgG). Body weight, growth rate and viability of the calves were recorded after parturition. Prepartum treatment with viteselen reduced the period of foetal membrane expulsion by 2 h compared to the other groups. Concomitantly, the uterine involution period was significantly shorter in animals treated with viteselen and ultra-corn than in the other groups. Injection of viteselen, BCG or ultra-corn significantly reduced the calving to the first oestrus interval and length of postpartum service period (by 57, 54, 48 days and 67, 57, 44 days, respectively) than the levamisole group. The IgG level was significantly higher in both the colostrum of the dam and in newborn serum after administration of immunopotentiating agents. Furthermore, the viteselen injection resulted in a significantly higher level of IgG in both dam colostrum (at parturition) and calf serum in comparison to the other groups. The calves from viteselen and ultra-corn treated dams showed a higher growth rate and better health condition than the controls

  15. Influence of antepartum administration of immunopotentiators on reproductive efficacy of buffalo and viability of their newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Badr

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors determine the efficacy of prepartum immunopotentiators administered during late gestation on postpartum fertility, IgG levels and calf viability. Fifty buffalo were divided into five groups (10 animals in each group. Group I was the control group. Each animal in Group II received 30 ml intramuscularly of viteselen (1.7 mg sodium selenium and 150 mg vitamin E/ml. Each animal in Group III received a subcutaneous injection of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG at 0.5 ml. In Group IV, each animal received 12.5 ml of levamisole hydrochloride intramuscularly, while those in Group V received 10 ml of ultra-corn subcutaneously. The immunopotentiators were administered according to each group 60 days prior to the anticipated date of parturition. Postpartum fertility was assessed by close observation and rectal examination after parturition. Colostrum from the dams and sera from the newborn were collected to estimate the level of immunoglobulin (IgG. Body weight, growth rate and viability of the calves were recorded after parturition. Prepartum treatment with viteselen reduced the period of foetal membrane expulsion by 2 h compared to the other groups. Concomitantly, the uterine involution period was significantly shorter in animals treated with viteselen and ultra-corn than in the other groups. Injection of viteselen, BCG or ultra-corn significantly reduced the calving to the first oestrus interval and length of postpartum service period (by 57, 54, 48 days and 67, 57, 44 days, respectively than the levamisole group. The IgG level was significantly higher in both the colostrum of the dam and in newborn serum after administration of immunopotentiating agents. Furthermore, the viteselen injection resulted in a significantly higher level of IgG in both dam colostrum (at parturition and calf serum in comparison to the other groups. The calves from viteselen and ultra-corn treated dams showed a higher growth rate and better health condition than the

  16. [Tracheal phospholipid composition and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1979-03-01

    Tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates were collected in 50 newborn infants with and without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). After lipid extraction the phospholipids were analyzed with 2-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Surface-active are lecithin (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Newborn infants with RDS always have a complete lack of PG, which makes up to 11% of phospholipid-phosphors in mature newborns. In all infants with and without RDS, a sharp increase of PC occurs in the lung effluent after birth. The recovery from RDS is characterized by marked changes of PI: this phospholipid rises up to twice its initial value if the infants survive. The PI-increase parallels the clinical improvement and reaches its maximum usually on the 5th day of life. At the time of the PI-peak, the infants' surfactant function is sufficient to maintain alveolar stability with spontaneous breathing. In infants dying from RDS the PI-increase was not observed.

  17. Universal newborn hearing screening coming soon: "hear's" why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, C

    2001-12-01

    Screening the hearing of all newborns, both NICU and well nursery, is rapidly becoming the standard of care. The impetus for universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has come from outside the domain of nursing and the newborn nursery. Because nursing will be involved in nearly all aspects of UNHS, nurses need a thorough knowledge base about permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) and UNHS. Technology exisits today that can objectively and physiologically screen for this condition at a cost comparable to metabolic screening. PCHL occurs more than twice as often as all the hemoglobinopathies and inborn errors of metabolism combined. Undiagnosed hearing loss often leads to permanent developmental delays. The ultimate goal of early diagnosis and intervention for a congenital hearing loss is to enable the child to develop language and communication skills that correspond to his chronological age and innate cognitive abilities.

  18. Multiple congenital epulis in newborn - A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A newborn infant with multiple congenital oral swellings can be a striking sight for both parents and healthcare professionals involved in neonatal care. Neumann first described congenital epulis of a newborn in 1871, hence it is also known as Neumann′s tumor. Congenital epulis occurs at birth and has a predilection for females. Congenital epulis clinically appears as a pedunculated protuberant mass. In cases with large lesions, mechanical, oral, and nasal obstruction can impair fetal deglutition or interfering with feeding and / or respiratory impairment. We are reporting a case of a six-day-old, 3.5 kg newborn female, who had reported to our institution with multiple congenital oral swellings arising from the maxilla and mandible.

  19. Crying of a newborn child: alarm signal or protocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarici, A; Travan, L; Accardo, A; De Vonderweid, U; Bava, A

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether the new-born cry is a simple alarm signal or differentiated cries with different meanings. 12 digital audio taped recordings of 6 full-term healthy babies were analysed. Cries of 6 newborns in this preliminary study were recorded in a pain condition after a prick for the hematic check-up the third day after delivery and then while crying spontaneously in the cradle. The sounds were sampled at 44100 Hz with a 16-bit resolution and converted to the .wav format. All the analyses were performed with a software written in the MAT-LAB environment. The most important result was that these new-born children modulated the supralaryngeal tract considerably more in cries following the painful stimulus than in "spontaneous" ones, as would be expected by the hypothesis of crying as "protolanguage."

  20. Pediatricians diagnosis in oral benign pathology of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Gutiérrez Américo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of oral pathology of the newborn is important for the pediatric odontologist and also for pediatricians in order to diagnose and adequately approach it. The newborn oral cavity has specific anatomical features which health care team must know how to identify benign oral conditions. The more common are: Bohn nod- ules, Epstein pearls, Fordyce granules, Riga Fede ulcer, eruption hematoma, candidiasis, herpes simplex, difficult dental eruption, lymphangioma, natal and neonatal teeth. For those teeth whether or no they have carried or worn edges should be pulled out if they affect oral function or if they are the cause of Riga Fede ulceration. Surgical treatment is also indicated for congenital epulis, mucocele, ranula and hemangioma. A successful treatment, is based on a good diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment. This article briefly describes the most common oral conditions of newborns in order to orient the specialist (not the dentist with practical recommendations for early and timely treatment.

  1. Noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Wynne, Karon E.; Petrov, Yuriy; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Richardson, C. Joan; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral ischemia after birth and during labor is a major cause of death and severe complications such as cerebral palsy. In the USA alone, cerebral palsy results in permanent disability of 10,000 newborns per year and approximately 500,000 of the total population. Currently, no technology is capable of direct monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. This study proposes the use of an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral ischemia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral ischemia in newborns with normal weight (NBW), low birth-weight (LBW, 1500 - 2499 g) and very low birth-weight (VLBW, cerebral oxygenation would suggest that no therapy was necessary; conversely, evidence of cerebral ischemia would prompt therapy to increase cerebral blood flow.

  2. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  3. What Parents Want to Know about the Storage and Use of Residual Newborn Bloodspots

    OpenAIRE

    Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Goldenberg, Aaron; Kuppermann, Miriam; Dolan, Siobhan M.; Rose, Nancy C.; Stark, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    Many state newborn screening programs retain residual newborn screening bloodspots for a variety of purposes including quality assurance, biomedical research, and forensic applications. This project was designed to determine the information that prospective parents want to know about this practice.

  4. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  5. Non-immune hydrops fetalis: Clinical experience in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is a condition of excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid without identifiable circulating antibody to erythrocytes membrane antigens. In newborn infants it is characterized by skin oedema and pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion. In the era of routine Rh immunization for the prevention of foetal erythroblastosis, non-immune pathophysiologic mechanisms are presented in 76-87% of all hydropic newborns. Non-immune hydrops fetalis can be associated with numerous and various disorders. The mortality rate may exceed 50%. This study was aimed at presenting our clinical experience in treating newborn infants with non-immune hydrops fetalis. Material and methods. A retrospective-prospective study included newborn infants with non-immune hydrops fetalis, who were treated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mother and Child Health Institute of Serbia between January 1, 2001 and October 31, 2010. All valid data about aetiology, diagnosis, clinical course and outcome were recorded. Results. The diagnosis of non-immune hydrops fetalis was made in 11 newborns. The etiologic diagnosis was established in 8 patients: anaemia due to fetomaternal transfusion in 4 patients and conatal cytomegalovirus infection, intracranial haemorrhage, isolated pulmonary lymphangiectasia and diffuse skin and mediastinal lymphangiomatosis in the remaining 4 patients. Conclusion. Non-immune hydrops of newborn infant is associated with a high mortality rate and requires complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. An optimal management of neonates with non-immune hydrops fetalis demands a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit.

  6. Dental lamina cyst of newborn: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental lamina cyst, also known as gingival cyst of newborn, is a benign oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. These lesions are usually multiple but do not increase in size. Since the lesions are self-limiting and spontaneously shed a few weeks or months after birth no treatment is required. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion. In addition, it may be incorrectly diagnosed as natal teeth if present in mandibular anterior region. Here, we present a case of dental lamina cyst of newborn.

  7. CAUSES OF DEATH IN NEWBORN INFANTS ACCORDING TO AUTOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  8. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  9. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  10. Assessment of the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature and full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Muslubas, Isil Bahar Sayman; Oral, Ayse Yesim Aydın; Cabi, Cemalettin; Caliskan, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in premature and full-term newborns. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated measurements of CCT and IOP in 45 premature and 45 full-term newborns. IOP was determined with topical anesthesia using a Tono-Pen AVIA, applanation tonometer and a wire lid retractor in premature newborns undergoing screening for retinopathy. Full-term newborns were used as a control group. CCT was determined with a port...

  11. Less can be more: considering seasonal differences of newborn mortality in breeding regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, D.W.H.; Müller, S I; Bingaman Lackey, L; Hammer, C; Hammer, S.; Leus, K.; Maier, M; Hatt, J M; M Clauss

    2010-01-01

    Although many ruminant species are seasonal breeders in the wild, they breed throughout the year in captivity. While seasonal differences in newborn mortality could be expected, breeding is usually not managed so that births in month of particularly high newborn mortality are prevented – maybe because the effect of an adapted breeding management on population development (reduced newborn mortality vs. prolonged interbirth interval) is unknown. We found distinct seasonal differences in newborn...

  12. Current Issues and Challenges in the Use of Aerosolized Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion Darius Samsudin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy is a recognized treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in the newborns. Over the past 30 years, human and animal trials have been performed regarding administration of aerosolized surfactant to the injured lung, however the result has been unsatisfactory when compared with instilled surfactant delivery via endotracheal tube (ETT. This review aims to investigate the current issues, challenges and future recommendation of aerosolized surfactant therapy. CONTENT: Five randomized clinical trials in humans and 13 animal trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most animal trials agree that this method of treatment is feasible. However, human trials presented conflicting results, and generally showed it to be ineffective. When compared with surfactant delivery via ETT, aerosolized surfactant is less effective in improving respiratory function. SUMMARY: The current data from human trials does not support the implementation of aerosolized surfactant therapy to treat newborns with RDS. Further research is necessary to improve nebulization, delivery, distribution and deposition in the lung, to investigate aerosolized surfactant delivery via ETT and to determine the appropriate dose. KEYWORDS: surfactant, aerosol, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Combined effect of low-dose nitric oxide gas inhalation with partial liquid ventilation on hemodynamics, pulmonary function, and gas exchange in acute lung injury of newborn piglets.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a randomized animal study to determine whether there is a cumulative effect on hemodynamics, pulmonary function, and gas exchange when low-dose nitric oxide (NO) is added to partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in acute lung injury. Eighteen newborn piglets were saline-lavaged repeatedly, and randomly divided into two groups: PLV with perfluorocarbon group (n=8) and lavage only (control) group (n=10). Perfluorodecalin (30 mL/kg) was instilled into the endotracheal tube for 30 min, fo...

  14. Mannose-binding lectin and infection risk in newborns: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Israëls; F.N.J. Frakking; L.C.M. Kremer; M. Offringa; T.W. Kuijpers; M.D. van de Wetering

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and infections in newborns to determine whether infection risk is increased in MBL-deficient newborns. All original reports on MBL and infections in newborns were retrieved from Embase, Medline and CENTRAL from 1966 t

  15. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  16. Superbugs and antibiotics in the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Borghesi; Mauro Stronati

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become an urgent and global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance occurring each year worldwide. The overuse of antibiotics, both in animal industry and in clinical settings, and the generated selective pressure, are the main factors implicated in the emergence of resistant strains. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have pointed out that more than half of hospital patients receive an antibiotic during their stay, and nearl...

  17. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  18. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  19. Thyroid function in small for gestational age newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Bagnoli; Laura, Farmeschi; Sara, Nappini; Salvatore, Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) during fetal and extrauterine life in SGA and AGA newborns, and the existing data on the possible alterations of these hormones in postnatal life are controversial. It remains to be established whether SGA newborns have different blood concentrations of thyroid hormones as compared with AGA infants and if so, whether these findings play a role in the development of obesity, short stature, hypertension, and diabetes--disorders, already known to be related with SGA birth. It has also not yet been established whether and when substitutive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) should be initiated in preterm and full-term SGA newborns. Further trials are needed to determine the thyroid hormone profile in both preterm and full-term SGA newborns and also to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of LT4 treatment in these infants.

  20. Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Fito, N; M. Sala; Cardo, E; Mazon, C; de Muga, M E; Verdu, A; Marco, E.; Grimalt, J.; Sunyer, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: A total of 98 mother-infant pairs (83.1% of all children born during the period 1997–99 in a specific area polluted with HCB) were recruited. Levels of organochlorine compounds were measured in 70 cord serum samples. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in plasma of all newborns three days after birth.

  1. Head Position Preference in the Human Newborn: A New Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnqvist, Louise; Hopkins, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Studied head position preference in 20 newborns differing by Cesarean or vaginal delivery and sex. Found that neither factor accounted for differences. The head turned right more often and was maintained longer in this position during quiet wakefulness, regardless of scoring method. When using global scoring, duration of midline position was…

  2. Fuzzy object models for newborn brain MR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2013-03-01

    Newborn brain MR image segmentation is a challenging problem because of variety of size, shape and MR signal although it is the fundamental study for quantitative radiology in brain MR images. Because of the large difference between the adult brain and the newborn brain, it is difficult to directly apply the conventional methods for the newborn brain. Inspired by the original fuzzy object model introduced by Udupa et al. at SPIE Medical Imaging 2011, called fuzzy shape object model (FSOM) here, this paper introduces fuzzy intensity object model (FIOM), and proposes a new image segmentation method which combines the FSOM and FIOM into fuzzy connected (FC) image segmentation. The fuzzy object models are built from training datasets in which the cerebral parenchyma is delineated by experts. After registering FSOM with the evaluating image, the proposed method roughly recognizes the cerebral parenchyma region based on a prior knowledge of location, shape, and the MR signal given by the registered FSOM and FIOM. Then, FC image segmentation delineates the cerebral parenchyma using the fuzzy object models. The proposed method has been evaluated using 9 newborn brain MR images using the leave-one-out strategy. The revised age was between -1 and 2 months. Quantitative evaluation using false positive volume fraction (FPVF) and false negative volume fraction (FNVF) has been conducted. Using the evaluation data, a FPVF of 0.75% and FNVF of 3.75% were achieved. More data collection and testing are underway.

  3. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Schefer Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. RESULTS: Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. CONCLUSION: Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units.

  4. Students as Technicians: Screening Newborns for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, freshman college students learn biotechnology techniques while playing the role of a laboratory technician. They perform simulations of three diagnostic tests used to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis. By performing an ELISA, a PCR analysis, and a conductivity test, students learn how biotechnology techniques can be used to…

  5. Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter system is functional at this age. Here, we adapt the auditory-visual matching paradigm that previously revealed sensitivity to large numerosities to test sensitivity to numerosities spanning the range from 2 to 12. Across studies, newborns discriminated pairs of large numerosities in a 3:1 ratio, even when the smaller numerosity was 3 (3 vs. 9). In contrast, newborn infants failed to discriminate pairs including the numerosity 2, even at the same ratio (2 vs. 6). These findings mirror the dissociation that has been reported with older infants, albeit with a discontinuity situated between numerosities 2 and 3. Two alternative explanations are compatible with our results: either newborn infants have a separate system for processing small sets, and the capacity of this system is limited to 2 objects; or newborn infants possess only one system to represent numerosities, and this system either is not functional or is extremely imprecise when it is applied to small numerosities.

  6. Change of blood rheology in newborn and its cerebrovascular damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ming Chen; Chun-Hua Lai; Jun-Feng Lv; Bing-Yan Yang; Li Xing-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage in newborn whose hematocritg (HCT) are among 60%-65%.Methods:A total of 100 cases newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% with blood routine examination were set as observation group, 100 cases newborn whose HCT <60% were set as control group, compared the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage between two groups.Results:The HCT, whole blood viscosity (high), whole blood viscosity (low shear), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, aspertate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, Vs, Vs and the abnormal rate of aEEG examination in observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference had statistical significance, RI in observation group were significantly lower than the control group, the difference had statistical significance.Conclusions:newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% but not with polycythemia have appeared and cerebrovascular lesions, it should cause clinical positive value.

  7. Relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); E.J. Vedder (Lies); W. Murk; W.D. Bowen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe immune system of many mammalian species is not fully developed at birth, with newborns obtaining temporary immunological protection from maternal antibodies. Little is known of the immune system of the harbour seal, and developmental aspects of its immune system have not been systema

  8. Effect of sleeping position on nasal patency in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Olarinde, O; Banerjee, A R; O'Callaghan, C

    2006-01-01

    Sleeping posture has been implicated in the pathophysiology of sudden infant death syndrome. The effect of supine and lateral sleeping positions on nasal patency was investigated using acoustic rhinometry in 11 healthy newborns. The implications of the findings in sudden infant death syndrome are discussed.

  9. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  10. Patient characteristics in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roofthooft, M T R; Elema, A; Bergman, K A; Berger, R M F

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of PPHN on mortality, morbidity, and behavioural skills. Methods. A retrospective observational study of 143 newborns with PPHN, over an 11-year period, using objective health-status data from medical records and family doctors, and subjective health status data from

  11. Patient Characteristics in Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. R. Roofthooft

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the impact of PPHN on mortality, morbidity, and behavioural skills. Methods. A retrospective observational study of 143 newborns with PPHN, over an 11-year period, using objective health-status data from medical records and family doctors, and subjective health status data from a standardized Child Behaviour Checklist. Results. The majority of patients were males, treated with inhaled nitric oxide had maladaptation/maldevelopment as pathophysiological mechanism and a gestational age >37 weeks. In term newborns, types of pathophysiological mechanism (<.001 and Oxygen Index (=.02 were independent predicting risk factors for PPHN-related mortality. Analysis of preexisting disease and outcome categories in term newborns showed only a significant correlation between the use of iNO and respiratory complaints (=.03, not confirmed by multivariate analysis and regression analysis. Conclusions. PPHN is a serious, often fatal condition. The incidence of PPHN in preterm newborns is high. In term survivors, PPHN had no additional role in morbidity/outcome.

  12. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems.

  13. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  14. [A mobile reanimation model (reanimationmobile) for initial newborn infant care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, N; Hansmann, M; Niesen, M

    1976-12-01

    A mobile unit for reanimation of the newborn is reported to be used alternatively in the deliveryroom or in the surgical tract. The following adventages are achieved: a large working plate easily accessible from three sides, a complete and variable instrumentation, an efficent warmth supply and the possibility for easy cleaning and desinfection.

  15. Ovarian cyst in a newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Caiulo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ovarian cysts in the newborn is often a sign of an abnormal exacerbation of the physiologic process. In our case a large cyst caused symptoms related to gastroesophageal reflux: vomiting, poor weight gain, and respiratory disorders. Ultrasound examination enabled a correct diagnosis.

  16. Sucrose and Warmth for Analgesia in Healthy Newborns: An RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. RESULTS: The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. PMID:25687147

  17. The Distribution of Etiology in Newborns with Prolonged Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Çetinkaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the etiology in neonates admitted with prolonged jaundice.Materials and Method: Neonates with prolonged jaundice were included to this prospective study designed between January 2007 and December 2007. Prolonged jaundice was defined as total bilirubin level >5 mg/dL in newborns older than 14 days of age. After detailed history and physical examination, blood tests including blood groups of baby and mother, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, complete blood count (CBC, blood smear, reticulocyte count, Coombs test, serum aspartat transaminase (AST level, serum alanin transaminase (ALT level, viral markers, thyroid function tests, and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD level and routine urine analysis with urine culture were performed in all newborns. Results: A total of 154 neonates were enrolled to the study. The most frequent cause of prolonged jaundice was breast milk jaundice (53%. It was followed by urinary tract infections and clinical sepsis (29%, hemolytic causes due to blood group incompetency (10% and congenital hypothyroidism (8%. However,there were no significant differences between etiology and mean bilirubin levels.Conclusion: It is important to determine the etiology and to plan therapy according to etiology is important in newborns with prolonged jaundice. Breast milk jaundice, urinary tract infection and sepsis, hypothyroidism and hemolytic causes must be considered as the main etiology in newborns with prolonged jaundice. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 99-103

  18. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  19. Enhanced interpretation of newborn screening results without analyte cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquardt, Gregg; Currier, Robert; McHugh, David M. S.; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Magera, Mark J.; Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo; Rinaldo, Piero; Smith, Emily H.; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turgeon, Coleman T.; Lorey, Fred; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Greed, Lawrence C.; Lewis, Barry; Boemer, Francois; Schoos, Roland; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Sinclair, Graham; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Dymerski, Mark; Porter, Cory; Manning, Adrienne; Seashore, Margretta R.; Quesada, Jonessy; Reuben, Alejandra; Chrastina, Petr; Hornik, Petr; Mandour, Iman Atef; Sharaf, Sahar Abdel Atty; Bodamer, Olaf; Dy, Bonifacio; Torres, Jasmin; Zori, Roberto; Cheillan, David; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Ludvigson, David; Stembridge, Adrya; Bonham, Jim; Downing, Melanie; Dotsikas, Yannis; Loukas, Yannis L.; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Zacharioudakis, Georgios S. A.; Barath, Akos; Karg, Eszter; Franzson, Leifur; Jonsson, Jon J.; Breen, Nancy N.; Lesko, Barbara G.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Turner, Kimberley; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Scolamiero, Emanuela; Antonozzi, Italo; Carducci, Claudia; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Giordano, Giuseppe; Camilot, Marta; Teofoli, Francesca; Manos, Shawn M.; Peterson, Colleen K.; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Sevier, Darrin W.; Lee, Soo-Youn; Park, Hyung-Doo; Khneisser, Issam; Browning, Phaidra; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Watson, Michael S.; Eaton, Roger B.; Sahai, Inderneel; Ruiz, Consuelo; Torres, Rosario; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Hietala, Amy; McCann, Mark; Campbell, Carlene; Hopkins, Patrick V.; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Elvers, Bert; Morrissey, Mark A.; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Knoll, Detlef; Webster, Dianne; Frazier, Dianne M.; McClure, Julie D.; Sesser, David E.; Willis, Sharon A.; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; John, Catharine; Lim, James; Caldwell, S. Graham; Tomashitis, Kathy; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Inmaculada Rueda; Yahyaoui Macias, Raquel; Maria Egea-Mellado, Jose; Gonzalez-Gallego, Inmaculada; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Childs, Thomas; McKeever, Christine D.; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Queijo, Cecilia; Lemes, Aida; Davis, Tim; Hoffman, William; Baker, Mei; Hoffman, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To improve quality of newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry with a novel approach made possible by the collaboration of 154 laboratories in 49 countries. Methods: A database of 767,464 results from 12,721 cases affected with 60 conditions was used to build multivariate pattern recog

  20. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welcy Cassiano de Oliveira Tobinaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2±1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3±437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p=0.004, heart rate (p=0.003, and respiratory rate (p=0.004 and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p>0.05. Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  1. Evaluation by computed tomography in premature and newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of cranio-cerebral computed tomography hypoxic brain damage of varying degrees and different types may be demonstrated in premature infants and high-risk newborns. Paraventricular leucomalacia of varying extent up to porencephalic defects are found, as well as cortical infarctions, hemorrhage into brain tissue or ventricles, cerebral atrophy, developing hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies. (orig.)

  2. Prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in the newborns delivered over the period of one year from 1st January 2008 to 31st Dec 2008. Study Design: A descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a period of one year from January 2008 to Dec 2008 Patients and methods: All live newborns delivered at Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah during the study period were included and observed for development of respiratory distress. Results: All newborns (n=659), delivered at this hospital over the period of 12 months, were observed for respiratory distress. The overall prevalence of respiratory distress (RD) was 4.24%. Prevalence was 19.7% in preterm and 2.3% in full term. Transient tachypnea of newborn(TTN) was found to be the commonest 35.7% cause of Respiratory Distress (RD) followed by Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) 25%, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) 17.9%, congenital pneumonia 7.1% and other congenital anomalies 14.3%. TTN was found to be common among both term and preterm babies, while hyaline membrane disease was seen among preterm, and meconium aspiration syndrome among term and post term babies. Conclusion: Respiratory distress is a common neonatal problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Majority of cases are due to TTN followed by hyaline membrane disease and meconium aspiration syndrome. (author)

  3. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  4. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF LIFE OF A NEWBORN BABY

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    Yuri Alexandrovich Govenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crimes against life are very different from other types of crime by being a public danger: they lead to such consequences that cannot be repaired or reimbursed – the loss of life is irreversible. The harm is not limited only by the fact of death and hard moral consequences to relatives, but the state and society are also damaged because relatives lose help and society and state lose labor contribution of the citizen. That’s why Art.20 of Constitution of Russia allows death penalty for the most serious crimes against life as an exceptional measure of punishment (it includes Ch.2 Art 105 of Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. This article made a research of the criminal law protection of the newborn child’s life (Art.106 of the CC of RF under mitigating circumstances and the problems of improving the criminal legislation, and realization of proposals aiming the improving of the criminal legislation will provide certainty of criminal responsibility for mothers who kill their newborn children; and also the differentiation of the criminal prosecution for women who decided to get rid of the child long before birth, and the murder itself was calmly planned act; and those women who killed their newborn children being in a traumatic situation or in a state of mental disorder not excluding sanity.The goal is to analyze the current legislation of law enforcement in the field of protection of the right to life of the newborn.The methodological basis of the article is the dialectic-materialistical method of cognition and comprehensive approach derived from it including elements of a system-information analysis.The results obtained during research are focused on practical application in the field of protection of newborn life.Application of results: the results are useful for improving the criminal legislation.

  5. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  6. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  7. Maternal Smoking and Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes among the offspring in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this fetal "programming" effect remain unclear. The present study sought to explore whether maternal smoking affects metabolic health biomarkers in fetuses/newborns.In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248, we compared metabolic health biomarkers in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers. Outcomes included cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of β-cell function.Independent of maternal (glucose tolerance, age, ethnicity, parity, education, body mass index, alcohol use and infant (sex, gestational age, birth weight z score, mode of delivery, cord blood glucose concentration characteristics, the newborns of smoking mothers had lower IGF-I concentrations (mean: 6.7 vs. 8.4 nmol/L, adjusted p = 0.006, and marginally higher proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (0.94 vs. 0.72, adjusted p = 0.06 than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. Cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, IGF-II, leptin and adiponectin concentrations and glucose-to-insulin ratios were similar in the newborns of smoking and non-smoking mothers.Maternal smoking was associated with decreased fetal IGF-I levels, and borderline lower fetal β-cell function. Larger cohort studies are required to confirm the latter finding. The preliminary findings prompt the hypothesis that these early life metabolic changes may be involved in the impact of maternal smoking on future risk of metabolic syndrome related disorders in the offspring.

  8. Characterization of regulatory T cells in urban newborns

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    Tzianabos Arthur O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma prevalence is particularly high among urban children. Although the underlying immune mechanism contributing to asthma has not been identified, having impaired T regulatory (Treg cells at birth may be a determining factor in urban children. The objective of this study was to compare Treg phenotype and function in cord blood (CB of newborns to those in peripheral blood (PB of a subset of participating mothers. Methods Treg numbers, expression, and suppressive function were quantified in subjects recruited prenatally from neighborhoods where ≥ 20% of families have incomes below the poverty line. Proportion of Treg cells and expression of naïve (CD45RA or activated (CD45RO, CD69, and HLA-DR markers in CD4+T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Treg suppressive capacity was determined by quantifying PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in mononuclear cell samples with and without CD25 depletion. Results In an urban cohort of 119 newborns and 82 mothers, we found that newborns had similar number of cells expressing FOXP3 as compared to the mothers but had reduced numbers of CD4+CD25+bright cells that predominantly expressed the naïve (CD45RA rather than the activated/memory (CD45RO phenotype found in the mothers. Additionally, the newborns had reduced mononuclear cell TGF-β production, and reduced Treg suppression of PHA-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation compared to the mothers. Conclusion U.S. urban newborns have Treg cells that express FOXP3, albeit with an immature phenotype and function as compared to the mothers. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to delineate Treg cell maturation and subsequent risk for atopic diseases in this urban birth cohort.

  9. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  10. Speech therapy procedures in high-risk newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Virgílio Magalhães Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the speech therapy procedures performed in a neonatal ICU. Methods: A documental research based on registration records, comprised by a total of 34 newborns that required early stimulation by the speech therapy service in a neonatal ICU of a hospital with tertiary level of care. The study was held in the period between August, 2005 and January, 2006. From the sample, 14 children were female (41.2% and 20 were male (58.8%. The age of the newborns ranged from 3 to 57 life days. The studied variables included: risk conditions of the newborn, clinical assessment procedures, the intervention performed and the results obtained regarding weight. Results: The risk condition of preterm newborn (PTNB associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS was present in 25 (73.5% children. The initial weight of 15 (44.11% children ranged from 1170 to 1742 grams. The most widely discussed speech therapy procedures were the assessment of oral functions with identification of changes in sucking and swallowing in 25 (73.5% newborns and intervention by means of non-nutritive sucking in 18 (53% children. At the end of speech therapy, 19 (55.9% children weighed between 1742 to 2314 grams. Conclusions:The benefits of speech therapy performance were related to the identification of high-risk children who required intervention in oral functions and organization of the baby for feeding. It is assumed that the introduction of oral administration as quickly and safely as possible favored the improvement of the nutritional status of children and their clinical evolution

  11. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  12. Antioxidant protects against increases in low molecular weight hyaluronan and inflammation in asphyxiated newborn pigs resuscitated with 100% oxygen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene C D Østerholt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newborn resuscitation with 100% oxygen is associated with oxidative-nitrative stresses and inflammation. The mechanisms are unclear. Hyaluronan (HA is fragmented to low molecular weight (LMW by oxidative-nitrative stresses and can promote inflammation. We examined the effects of 100% oxygen resuscitation and treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, on lung 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, LMW HA, inflammation, TNFα and IL1ß in a newborn pig model of resuscitation. METHODS & PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newborn pigs (n = 40 were subjected to severe asphyxia, followed by 30 min ventilation with either 21% or 100% oxygen, and were observed for the subsequent 150 minutes in 21% oxygen. One 100% oxygen group was treated with NAC. Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, lung sections, and lung tissue were obtained. Asphyxia resulted in profound hypoxia, hypercarbia and metabolic acidosis. In controls, HA staining was in airway subepithelial matrix and no 3-NT staining was seen. At the end of asphyxia, lavage HA decreased, whereas serum HA increased. At 150 minutes after resuscitation, exposure to 100% oxygen was associated with significantly higher BAL HA, increased 3NT staining, and increased fragmentation of lung HA. Lung neutrophil and macrophage contents, and serum TNFα and IL1ß were higher in animals with LMW than those with HMW HA in the lung. Treatment of 100% oxygen animals with NAC blocked nitrative stress, preserved HMW HA, and decreased inflammation. In vitro, peroxynitrite was able to fragment HA, and macrophages stimulated with LMW HA increased TNFα and IL1ß expression. CONCLUSIONS & SIGNIFICANCE: Compared to 21%, resuscitation with 100% oxygen resulted in increased peroxynitrite, fragmentation of HA, inflammation, as well as TNFα and IL1ß expression. Antioxidant treatment prevented the expression of peroxynitrite, the degradation of HA, and also blocked increases in inflammation and inflammatory cytokines. These findings

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  16. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade partially attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets: relationship with the nitrergic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, J.S. Jr. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Martins, A.R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Rosa, E. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SPBrasil (Brazil); Hehre, D.; Bancalari, E.; Suguihara, C. [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Developmental Biology Laboratory, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-02-10

    The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT{sub 1} receptor (AT{sub 1}-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO{sub 2} = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT{sub 1}-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT{sub 1}-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT{sub 1}-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT{sub 2}-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT{sub 1}-R blockade. We suggest that AT{sub 1}-R blockade might act through AT{sub 2}-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets.

  17. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.R. Lyra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days, and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g; mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days. When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028. All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  18. Frequency of Developmental Dislocation of the Hip in Icteric Newborns Detected by Graf 's Ultrasonographic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Foroughi; Reza Jalli; Mehrdad Mohammadhoseini

    2009-01-01

    "nIntroduction: A prospective detection of developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH) in icteric newborns and comparison with the frequency of DDH in other newborns. "nMaterials and Methods: During a one year period all icteric newborns who were referred to Nemazi hospital’s neonatal emergency room for bilirubin checking were screened by Graf"s ultrasonographic method for DDH.300 newborns (600 hips) were screened during this period. Any newborn with other problems such as ...

  19. History and current status of newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jane M; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    The impact of hemoglobinopathies on healthcare in the United States, particularly sickle cell disease (SCD), has been significant. Enactment of the Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act in 1972 significantly increased the federal interest in the SCDs and other hemoglobinopathies. Only since May 1, 2006, have all states required and provided universal newborn screening for SCD despite a national recommendation to this effect in 1987. In this article, we review the history of screening for SCD and other hemoglobinopathies, along with federal and state activities that have contributed to improved health outcomes for patients with SCD, as well as current newborn screening practices. We also chronicle the federal activities that have helped to shape and to refine laboratory screening and diagnostic proficiency. Finally, we review molecular testing strategies that have evolved and outline their possible future impacts on disease detection and outcome improvement. PMID:20207263

  20. Measurements and monitoring of phototherapy in newborn jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, T.R.

    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn (neonatal jaundice) may cause irreversible brain damage if plasma concentrations of bilirubin exceed the number of binding sites on albumin and other blood components. Phototherapy or exchange transfusions to prevent the excessive rise in concentration of the pigment should be instituted in appropriate clinical situations. In phototherapy, the jaundiced infant is exposed to visible light containing the wavelength (about 450 nm) bilirubin will absorb. Because bilirubin is quite photolabile and will readily isomerize in vivo, it is rapidly converted to excretable forms. The effectiveness of this therapy, however, depends upon the maintenance of adequate radiant flux in the required wavelength. Energy output and spectral distributions of phototherapy lamps must be measured. The long-term effects of irradiation of newborn infants over several days are not yet known.

  1. CEPHALIC INDEX IN NEWBORNS: THE EFFECT OF HEREDITY AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric dimensions are the basis of evaluation of health of new-borns. MATERIALS AND METHOD Head length and Head Width of three hundred sixty normal new-borns (180 male and 180 female belonging to three different endogamous groups, i.e. Jat Sikhs, Banias and Majhbi Sikhs were recorded and Cephalic Index was calculated. RESULTS The difference in mean Cephalic index was found to be highly significant in the three endogamous groups (p<0.001, whereas it was just significant in males and females. CONCLUSION Cephalic index varies with heredity and also shows sexual dimorphism. This variation can be used in forensic practice for identification of skeletal remains. It is also useful in plastic surgery, facial reconstruction, pediatrics, oral surgery, dentistry and various other craniofacial surgeries.

  2. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  3. A clinical prediction rule for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological chorioamnionitis (HC is an intrauterine inflammatory process highly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcome. HC is often clinically silent and diagnosed postnatally by placental histology. Earlier identification could facilitate treatment individualisation to improve outcome in preterm newborns. AIM: Develop a clinical prediction rule at birth for HC and HC with fetal involvement (HCF in preterm newborns. METHODS: Clinical data and placental pathology were obtained from singleton preterm newborns (gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks born at Erasmus UMC Rotterdam from 2001 to 2003 (derivation cohort; n = 216 or Máxima MC Veldhoven from 2009 to 2010 (validation cohort; n = 206. HC and HCF prediction rules were developed with preference for high sensitivity using clinical variables available at birth. RESULTS: HC and HCF were present in 39% and 24% in the derivation cohort and in 44% and 22% in the validation cohort, respectively. HC was predicted with 87% accuracy, yielding an area under ROC curve of 0.95 (95%CI = 0.92-0.98, a positive predictive value of 80% (95%CI = 74-84%, and a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI = 88-96%. Corresponding figures for HCF were: accuracy 83%, area under ROC curve 0.92 (95%CI = 0.88-0.96, positive predictive value 59% (95%CI = 52-62%, and negative predictive value 97% (95%CI = 93-99%. External validation expectedly resulted in some loss of test performance, preferentially affecting positive predictive rather than negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: Using a clinical prediction rule composed of clinical variables available at birth, HC and HCF could be predicted with good test characteristics in preterm newborns. Further studies should evaluate the clinical value of these rules to guide early treatment individualisation.

  4. Neurological distress in Togolese newborn: Prevalence, causes and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaka Bahoura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transition from fetal to neonatal life during birth is difficult for all babies. We aim to analyze the demography, clinical presentation, causes, and outcome of neurologically distressed newborns. Materials and Methods: We reviewed a total of 615 newborns files admitted with life threatening condition. Amongst them, 453 had presented neurological distress syndrome. Only cases with severe neurological impairment (Apgar Score System [ASS] ≤6 with no other associated injury were included in the study group. The study covered a period from January to December 2011 and located in pediatric intensive care unit. The information regarding clinical presentation, condition of birth, causes of distress, and outcome were analyzed. Neonate examination had been conducted by neonatologist and pediatric neurologist. Results: The sample included 272/453 (60.04% males and 181/453 (39.96% females. Newborns were aged from 1 to 14 days. The incidence of neurological distress amongst all admissions was 453/615 (73.65%. Clinical signs were weakness of primary reflexes (86.70%, non reactivity (78.19%, flaccid muscle tone (59.49% and impaired consciousness (32.29%. On Apgar score, 73 (20.68% had a score from 0 to 3; 234 (66.29% had a score 4-6 in the first minute of life. A total of 307 (86.97% newborns had been resuscitated at birth during the first five minutes. Death rate was 35.69%. Asphyxia (51.27% and neonatal infection (43.34% were the most common causes of death. Conclusion: These results show that much effort remains to be done in obstetric care, resuscitation management and improvement in neonatal infection care.

  5. Relative immunocompetence of the newborn harbour seal, phoca vitulina

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Peter; Swart, Rik; Visser, Ilona; Vedder, Lies; Murk, W.; Bowen, W.D.; Osterhaus, Albert

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe immune system of many mammalian species is not fully developed at birth, with newborns obtaining temporary immunological protection from maternal antibodies. Little is known of the immune system of the harbour seal, and developmental aspects of its immune system have not been systematically studied. We collected blood and milk samples from nine free-ranging mother-pup pairs throughout the lactation period on Sable Island, Canada, in an effort to characterise developmental aspe...

  6. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Chamdine Omar; Shadi Hamza; Abou Merhi Bassem; Rajab Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced ne...

  7. Screening of newborn infants for galactosemia in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lorne T.; Norman, Margaret G.; Applegarth, Derek A.; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    With simple microbiologic and fluorescent tests, we detected two cases of classic galactosemia, confirmed by specific enzyme assays, in the first 25 000 newborn infants in British Columbia screened for this disorder. The results were equivocally abnormal for another 31 infants, and a second blood sample was requested from each, either for repeat screening or for enzyme assays. The two infants with galactosemia were in hospital with an undiagnosed acute illness and had only a trace of nongluco...

  8. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-c

    OpenAIRE

    Abourazzak, Sana; Hajjaj, Safae; Hakima, Chekabab; Bouharrou, Abdelhak; Hida, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Anti-D isoimmunisation remains the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis. Whereas most clinically significant blood group sensitisations noted during pregnancy are still secondary to anti-D incompatibility, sensitisation to antigens other than D in the CDE system is not uncommon and can cause severe disease. The widespread use of Rh-D immune globulin has led to a relative increase in the importance of non-Rh-D isoimmunisation as a cause of haemolytic disease of the newborn. We report ...

  9. Mucus extravasation phenomenon in newborn babies: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, A F; Moreti, M M; Cardoso, S V; Loyola, A M

    2001-01-01

    Two rare cases of congenital mucoceles in newborn babies are reported. The patients presented with nodular swellings on their lower lips at birth with no obvious local aetiology. In both cases the mucoceles interfered with normal feeding. The lesions were excised by surgical approach under general anaesthesia and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief discussion of the epidemiology and ethiopathogeny of mucoceles. PMID:11309877

  10. Positive pressure ventilation and cranial volume in newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, D W

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between changes in airways pressure, pleural pressure, and cranial volume was studied in a group of sick newborn infants requiring ventilatory assistance. Cranial volume increased appreciably only when lung compliance was such that more than 20% of the applied airways pressure was transmitted to the pleural space, or if the absolute pleural pressure was greater than 4 cmH2O above atmospheric pressure. The findings stress the need for more-critical monitoring during periods of...

  11. The jaundiced newborn: which early monitoring for a safe discharge?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pratesi; Dani, C

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common causes of prolonged hospital stay or readmission of a near-term or term baby. Reason of concern at early discharge of a jaundiced newborn is that of bilirubin neurotoxicity, even if a serum bilirubin concentration surely toxic for the brain is still unknown. Kernicterus and severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are still problems in the third millennium and the American Academy of Pediatrics claimed the pediatric community to increase vigilance in orde...

  12. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. PMID:27619029

  13. Characterization of regulatory T cells in urban newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Tzianabos Arthur O; Cruikshank William W; Wallace Paul K; Visness Cynthia M; McLoughlin Rachel M; Ruiz-Perez Begona; Ly Ngoc P; O'Connor George T; Gold Diane R; Gern James E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the United States, asthma prevalence is particularly high among urban children. Although the underlying immune mechanism contributing to asthma has not been identified, having impaired T regulatory (Treg) cells at birth may be a determining factor in urban children. The objective of this study was to compare Treg phenotype and function in cord blood (CB) of newborns to those in peripheral blood (PB) of a subset of participating mothers. Methods Treg numbers, expression,...

  14. [Spinal sonography of a newborn infant with postpartal paraplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, R; Klemm, T

    1988-01-01

    Cranial ultrasonography is a well established diagnostic procedure. In contrast ultrasonography of the spine and the spinal cord is less frequently used. It is indicated in infants with spinal dysraphism and may help to diagnose patients with meningomyelocele, spinal lipoma or cord tethering. We present a newborn with parplectic symptoms as a result of an epidural hematoma, which could be demonstrated exclusively by ultrasonography. We want to stress that spinal ultrasonography is a method of high clinical value.

  15. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihatsch, Walter; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence, d...... whose mothers have taken medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Parents who receive prenatal education about the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis may be more likely to comply with local procedures....

  16. Isolated congenital tracheal stenosis in a preterm newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Ulrich; Rödel, Ralph; Paul, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Severe tracheal stenosis, resulting in functional atresia of the trachea is a rare congenital malformation with an estimated occurrence of two in 100,000 newborns. If no esophagotracheal fistula is present to allow for spontaneous breathing, this condition is usually fatal. We report on a male infant born at 32 weeks of gestation. The patient presented with respiratory distress immediately after delivery due to severe congenital tracheal stenosis resulting in functional atresia of the trachea...

  17. [Symptomatic calcification in the newborn. Phenocopies of chondrodysplasia punctata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher-Düber, A; Schumacher, R; Spranger, J

    1990-04-01

    Stippled epiphyses occur in the new-born and young infant in the different hereditary forms of chondrodysplasia punctata. Symptomatic stippling has been described also in association with chromosomal anomalies, gangliosidosis and drug induced embryopathies. We present patients with Cumarin-embryopathy (2), fetal alcohol syndrome (1), Zellweger-syndrome (2) and chromosomal anomaly 16 (1) and discuss the typical roentgenographic features, distribution and differential diagnosis of epiphyseal stippling. PMID:2160110

  18. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Jeanne Magioli Bravo-valenzuela; Guilherme Ricardo Nunes Silva; Marcela Pinto Varella

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein.

  19. [Characteristics of the spermatogenic epithelium in the testis of newborn rats--the offspring of female rats with chronic liver injury of various genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, M L; Briukhin, G V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chronic injury of hepatobiliary system of various genesis in females rats on the formation of spermatogenic epithelium in the testis of their newborn offspring was studied. The models of toxic (CCl4) and medicinal (tetracycline, paracetamol) liver injury were used. The state of the seminiferous epithelium was assessed on the serial histological sections of the testis with the use of the morphometric device. In experimental animals, a reduction of the diameter and the area of the seminiferous tubules (ST) was detected, associated with the decline of the total number of spermatogenic cells, spermatogonia of various generations, total number of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. At the same time, in the newborn rats of all the experimental groups, the number of ST with the desquamated epithelium, and that one of the multinucleated spermatogenic cells with fragmented and pyknotic nuclei were increased. PMID:25282824

  20. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  1. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  2. Urinary tract infection and indirect hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamdine Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Jaundice is a common problem during the neonatal period. About 60% of the full term and 80% of premature infants develop jaundice. It can be associated with serious illnesses such as Urinary tract infections. Aims : The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of urinary tract infection in newborns with indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to find a relationship with prolonged jaundice. Patients and Methods : We retrospectively evaluated asymptomatic, jaundiced neonates for evidence of a urinary tract infection. Data reviewed including demographic and historical data were included with data of blood studies, radiological evaluation and treatment. Results : 32 neonates of 152 cases had urinary tract infection. Most commonly isolated organisms were Klebsiella and Escherishia coli. Maximum duration of phototherapy was 4 days in the urinary tract infection group versus 7 in the non-urinary tract infection group. Intensive phototherapy was used in 18.7% in the urinary tract infection group versus 29.16% in the non-urinary tract infection group. None of the newborns in the urinary tract infection group underwent exchange transfusion therapy. Conclusion : Urinary tract infection can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced newborns. Thus, it may be the first in these babies before other signs become evident.

  3. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Altunhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  4. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, prolonged hospital course (HC and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days; duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3% newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality.

  5. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  6. [Sudden death in new-born babies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhaume, A

    This sudden death of a new-born baby, which had been thriving up to then, is a dramatic but not exceptional event. A systematic search for the etiology must be made, and this should include an autopsy in order that the diagnosis of "sudden and unexplained death" is confirmed only after eliminating all other possible causes. Knowledge of this syndrome has benefited from epidemiological surveys which have defined the previous clinical condition, but none of the many etiollotical hypotheses envisaged can take into account the total number of cases reported. One of the most recent cases developed apnoea during sleep, which could explain some unexpected deaths in new-born babies. This was discovered by polygraphic sleep recordings and confirmed by pathological examinations. These demonstrated indirect signs of chronic hypoxia which could have been related to the sudden death of the baby. Though there does not appear to be any relationship between the apnoea syndrome during sleep and these sudden and unexpected deaths, this hypothesis has opened up a new promising line of research which could help to identify new-born babies at risk from "sudden death", and to propose preventative measures. PMID:224505

  7. Newborn care practices in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Pratibha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices related to newborn care in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP, and to identify critical behaviors, practices, and barriers that influence the survival of newborns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP, included 524 women who had a live birth during last 1 year preceding data collection. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS 10.0 for windows. Results: Study findings showed that about half of the deliveries took place at home. Majority (77.1% of the mothers believed that baby should be bathed with warm water and dried with clean cloth and 79.7% mothers practiced it. Only 36.6% mothers initiated breast-feeding within 1 h of birth and 30.2% initiated after 1 day. The mothers who have not given colostrum to their baby, in majority the reason was customs. Conclusion: In majority of cases, correct knowledge and correct practices regarding newborn care were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.

  8. Gestational risks determinants of mothers of newborns in neonatal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângelqa Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Describes the socio-economic, reproductive and obstetric characteristics of mothers of newborn children that had neonatal death in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The quantitative descriptive retrospective research is based on data retrieved from the declaration of live birth, death certificate and infant death investigation form, between 2000 and 2009. During a period of 10 years, 537 newborn children died; 50.5% of mothers were nulliparous; 60.0% were between 12 and 27 years old; 30.8% had less than seven years of schooling; 55.2% had an income of more than two minimum wages. Over 90.0% of mothers had previous history of infant death prior to pregnancy. Further, 91.4% attended prenatal courses and all of them showed some type of disease during pregnancy which, in most cases, led to the death of the newborn child in the early neonatal period (p<0.05. Most maternal characteristics investigated could be detected early and controlled in prenatal care.

  9. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  10. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaretti Marcia Cristina Zago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-U is a rare red blood cell alloantibody that has been found exclusively in blacks. It can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn and hemolytic transfusion reactions. We describe the case of a female newborn presenting a strongly positive direct antiglobulin test due to an IgG antibody in cord blood. Anti-U was recovered from cord blood using acid eluate technique. Her mother presented positive screening of antibodies with anti-U identified at delivery. It was of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and showed a titer of 32. Monocyte monolayer assay showed moderate interaction of Fc receptors with maternal serum with a positive result (3.1%. The newborn was treated only with 48 hours of phototherapy for mild hemolytic disease. She recovered well and was discharged on the 4th day of life. We conclude that whenever an antibody against a high frequency erythrocyte antigen is identified in brown and black pregnant women, anti-U must be investigated.

  11. Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Jens, Eduardo; Pagliarini, Thiago; Bonif cio, Silvia Le o; Dorlhiac-Llacer, Pedro Enrique; Chamone Dd, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

    2003-01-01

    Anti-U is a rare red blood cell alloantibody that has been found exclusively in blacks. It can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn and hemolytic transfusion reactions. We describe the case of a female newborn presenting a strongly positive direct antiglobulin test due to an IgG antibody in cord blood. Anti-U was recovered from cord blood using acid eluate technique. Her mother presented positive screening of antibodies with anti-U identified at delivery. It was of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and showed a titer of 32. Monocyte monolayer assay showed moderate interaction of Fc receptors with maternal serum with a positive result (3.1%). The newborn was treated only with 48 hours of phototherapy for mild hemolytic disease. She recovered well and was discharged on the 4th day of life. We conclude that whenever an antibody against a high frequency erythrocyte antigen is identified in brown and black pregnant women, anti-U must be investigated. PMID:14762491

  12. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis.

  13. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Taraka R; Blackburn, Patrick R; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2016-06-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS) tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC) deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis. PMID:27114915

  14. Crystallographic investigationsof urine at newborns with ischemic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the identification of structural markers of ischemic nephropathy by studying facies (dry drops of urine in newborn infants. The study involved two groups of full-term newborns with gestational age 38-41 weeks and signs of ischemic nephropathy: 1st - 75 children who suffered severe asphyxia, 2nd - 75 children with moderate asphyxia. Comparison group consisted of 20 infants without asphyxia at birth. Morphological changes were detected in dry drops by microscopy at 40-fold increase in 1-2 and 7-8 days of life. Asphyxia cause disturbance of renal filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion that lead to increase levels of organic components and mineral salts in urine, crystallization of which forms a specific picture of facies. By urine’s facies morphology at 1-2 days of life is possible to evaluate renal function in newborns suffered from asphyxia. The number of inclusions in facies, their total area and distribution are depending on the severity of asphyxia. Structural changes in the urine of children with ischemic nephropathy remain till the end of the early neonatal period.

  15. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  16. Identifying hypoxia in a newborn piglet model using urinary NMR metabolomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Skappak

    Full Text Available Establishing the severity of hypoxic insult during the delivery of a neonate is key step in the determining the type of therapy administered. While successful therapy is present, current methods for assessing hypoxic injuries in the neonate are limited. Urine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR metabolomics allows for the rapid non-invasive assessment of a multitude breakdown products of physiological processes. In a newborn piglet model of hypoxia, we used NMR spectroscopy to determine the levels of metabolites in urine samples, which were correlated with physiological measurements. Using PLS-DA analysis, we identified 13 urinary metabolites that differentiated hypoxic versus nonhypoxic animals (1-methylnicotinamide, 2-oxoglutarate, alanine, asparagine, betaine, citrate, creatine, fumarate, hippurate, lactate, N-acetylglycine, N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and valine. Using this metabolomic profile, we then were able to blindly identify hypoxic animals correctly 84% of the time compared to nonhypoxic controls. This was better than using physiologic measures alone. Metabolomic profiling of urine has potential for identifying neonates that have undergone episodes of hypoxia.

  17. Findings of perinatal ocular examination performed on 3573, healthy full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Li-Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Jun-Yang; Fei, Ping; Zhang, Guo-ming; Mao, Jian-bo; Rychwalski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document the findings of a newborn eye examination programme for detecting ocular pathology in the healthy full-term newborn. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the majority of newborns born in the Kunming Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, China, between May 2010 and June 2011. Infants underwent ocular examination within 42 days after birth using a flashlight, retinoscope, hand-held slit lamp microscope and wide-angle digital retinal image acquisition system. The re...

  18. Intravenous Immunoglobulin G Treatment in ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, is it Myth or Real?

    OpenAIRE

    Beken, Serdar; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Altuntas, Nilgun; Unal, Sezin; Turan, Ozden; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin; Atalay, Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous Immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy has been used as a component of the treatment of hemolytic disease of the newborn. There is still no consensus on its use in ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn routinely. The aim of this study is to determine whether administration of IVIG to newborns with ABO incompatibility is necessary. One hundred and seventeen patients with ABO hemolytic disease and positive Coombs test were enrolled into the study. The subjects were healthy except jaundice. ...

  19. Impaired hepatic glycogenolysis related to hyperinsulinemia in newborns from hyperglycemic pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jame, P; Ktorza, A; Bihoreau, M T; Nurjhan, N; Ferré, P; Girard, J; Picon, L

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated the respective roles of insulin and glucagon in the initiation of hepatic glycogen degradation during the early postnatal period in rats, with special regard on the inhibitory effect of insulin on this process. Pregnant rats were rendered either slightly (8.5 mM) or highly hyperglycemic (22 mM) by infusing glucose during the last week of pregnancy. Fasted, newborn rats were studied from delivery to 16 h postpartum. At birth, newborns from slightly hyperglycemic rats showed higher glycemia and insulinemia and lower plasma glucagonemia compared with controls. Newborns from highly hyperglycemic rats were still more hyperglycemic and exhibited low plasma glucagon concentrations, but they were not hyperinsulinemic. In control newborns, hepatic glycogen breakdown was triggered by 2 h after delivery. By contrast, hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic newborns (newborns from slightly hyperglycemic rats) were unable to mobilize liver glycogen before 8-10 h after delivery. In hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemic newborns (newborns from highly hyperglycemic rats), hepatic glycogen concentration significantly started to decline 2 h after delivery and was no longer different from controls at 8 h. Anti-insulin serum injection at delivery promoted a prompt decrease in liver glycogen stores in controls as well as in newborns from slightly hyperglycemic rats. Phosphorylase a/synthase a ratio rose rapidly after delivery in controls and in newborns from highly hyperglycemic rats (maximum 4 h), whereas in newborns from slightly hyperglycemic rats, it rose much more slowly than in the two other groups (maximum 16 h). These data suggest that, in newborns from hyperglycemic mothers, hyperinsulinemia during late fetal and early neonatal life is the main factor preventing postnatal hepatic glycogenolysis. PMID:2284164

  20. Effect of Head Covering on Phototherapy-Induced Hypocalcaemia in Icterus Newborns; A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kargar, Marzieh; Jamshidi, Zahra; Beheshtipour, Nooshin; Pishva, Narjes; Jamali, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although phototherapy has been used for more than 60 years it has some complications. The light waves produced from phototherapy reduce melatonin concentration in newborns with subsequent hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of head covering on calcium and magnesium levels in full term newborns during phototherapy. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 72 full-term icterus newborns weighing >2500 gr with indirect hyperbillirubinemia who received phototherapy at the ...

  1. Heterogeneous Effects of Medical Interventions on the Health of Low-Risk Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of early-life medical interventions on low-risk newborn health. A policy rule in The Netherlands creates large discontinuities in medical treatments at gestational week 37. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find no health benefits from additional treatments for average newborns. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in returns to treatments with significant health benefits for newborns in the lowest income quartile and no benefits in higher income qua...

  2. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    S Rahimpour; V Modarresi; Behjati, M; MA Behjati

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD) in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS). Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classifie...

  3. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region: Networking and shared education

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities...

  4. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  5. Factors Accounting for a Missed Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis After Newborn Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Michael J.; Levy, Hara; Zaleski, Christina; Farrell, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn screening is a public health policy program involving the centralized testing laboratory, infant and their family, primary care provider, and subspecialist for confirmatory testing and follow-up of abnormal results. Cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening has now been enacted in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and throughout many countries in the world. Although CF neonatal screening will identify the vast majority of infants with CF, there are many factors in the newborn sc...

  6. Proteolysis and phenylalanine hydroxylation in response to parenteral nutrition in extremely premature and normal newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Denne, S C; Karn, C A; Ahlrichs, J A; Dorotheo, A R; Wang, J.; Liechty, E A

    1996-01-01

    To determine to what extent intravenous nutrition can reduce proteolysis in very immature and normal newborns, and to assess the capacity of preterm and normal newborns to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, phenylalanine and leucine kinetics were measured under basal conditions and during parenteral nutrition in clinically stable, extremely premature (approximately 26 wk of gestation) infants and in normal term newborns. In response to parenteral nutrition, there was significantly less suppre...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  10. 78 FR 16514 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., policies, guidelines, and programs for effectively reducing morbidity and mortality in newborns and... Sarkar, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Room...

  11. Randomised controlled trial evaluating effects of morphine on plasma adrenaline/noradrenaline concentrations in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.; Van Dijk, M.; Lingen, R.A. van; ROOFTHOOFT, D; Boomsma, F; van den Anker, J. N.; Tibboel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of continuous morphine infusion in ventilated newborns on plasma concentrations of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and their relation to clinical outcome.

  12. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  13. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  14. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  15. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  16. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  17. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  19. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  20. Cerebral microcalcifications in a newborn with congenital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Yolanda; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Piar, Jorge; Pardo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths due to the disease. In 2011, the incidence in Colombia was 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There is little information about tuberculosis in pregnant women, and congenital infection is considered a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose, leads to high mortality, and may be confused with tuberculosis acquired after birth. In addition, it has been associated with HIV infection in mothers and infants. Moreover, there is increasing incidence of congenital syphilis in the world. In Colombia, the prevalence is 2.5 cases per 1,000 births and its frequency in the Instituto Materno Infantil-Hospital La Victoria is one case per 57 births. We report the case of a newborn under treatment for congenital syphilis and in whom microcalcifications were found in a transfontanelar ultrasound. This finding warned about the existence of another infectious agent. PCR was negative for cytomegalovirus, and IgM titers for toxoplasma, rubella and herpes I and II were also negative. After learning about a history of incomplete treatment for tuberculosis in the mother, we suspected the presence of an infection by the tubercle bacillus in the newborn. No acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in three gastric juice samples. The IS6110 PCR assay was found positive in cerebrospinal fluid and urine, but not in blood. The newborn was treated with crystalline penicillin for 10 days along with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. The patient is currently under clinical monitoring. PMID:27622435

  1. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Pearce

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 to 2014 the New York State (NYS Newborn Screening (NBS program screened 2 million newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The data was analyzed to determine factors that affect 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels and assist in developing algorithm changes that would improve the positive predictive value of the methodology being used. The concentration of 17-OHP in dried blood spots was measured using the AutoDELFIA Neonatal 17-OHP kit (Perkin Elmer, Turku, Finland. During the 8 year period of this study 2476 babies were referred, 105 babies were diagnosed with CAH (90 with the salt-wasting (SW, 8 with simple virilizing (SV, 5 with non-classical CAH, and 2 with another enzyme deficiency and, 14 with possible CAH. Three false negative cases with SV-CAH were reported to the program. Of the total 108 known cases, 74 (69% infants were detected by newborn screening in the absence of clinical information, or, known family history. The incidence of CAH in NYS is 1 in 18,170 with a ratio of SW to SV of 8.2:1. The incidence of CAH is lower in Black infants than in White, Hispanic and Asian infants. Despite a lower mean birth weight, female infants have a lower mean 17-OHP value than male infants and are under-represented in the referred category. As per other NBS programs the false positive rate is exacerbated by prematurity/low birth weight and by over-early specimen collection.

  2. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Melissa; DeMartino, Lenore; McMahon, Rebecca; Hamel, Rhonda; Maloney, Breanne; Stansfield, Daniele-Marisa; McGrath, Emily C; Occhionero, Amanda; Gearhart, Adam; Caggana, Michele; Tavakoli, Norma P

    2016-06-01

    From 2007 to 2014 the New York State (NYS) Newborn Screening (NBS) program screened 2 million newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The data was analyzed to determine factors that affect 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels and assist in developing algorithm changes that would improve the positive predictive value of the methodology being used. The concentration of 17-OHP in dried blood spots was measured using the AutoDELFIA Neonatal 17-OHP kit (Perkin Elmer, Turku, Finland). During the 8 year period of this study 2476 babies were referred, 105 babies were diagnosed with CAH (90 with the salt-wasting (SW), 8 with simple virilizing (SV), 5 with non-classical CAH, and 2 with another enzyme deficiency) and, 14 with possible CAH. Three false negative cases with SV-CAH were reported to the program. Of the total 108 known cases, 74 (69%) infants were detected by newborn screening in the absence of clinical information, or, known family history. The incidence of CAH in NYS is 1 in 18,170 with a ratio of SW to SV of 8.2:1. The incidence of CAH is lower in Black infants than in White, Hispanic and Asian infants. Despite a lower mean birth weight, female infants have a lower mean 17-OHP value than male infants and are under-represented in the referred category. As per other NBS programs the false positive rate is exacerbated by prematurity/low birth weight and by over-early specimen collection. PMID:27331001

  3. Effects of manual hyperinflation in preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Camila Chaves; Nicolau, Carla Marques; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of manual hyperinflation, performed with a manual resuscitator with and without the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, on the respiratory function of preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation. Methods Cross-sectional study of hemodynamically stable preterm newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, under mechanical ventilation and dependent on it at 28 days of life. Manual hyperinflation was applied randomly, alternating the use or not of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, followed by tracheal aspiration for ending the maneuver. For nominal data, the two-tailed Wilcoxon test was applied at the 5% significance level and 80% power. Results Twenty-eight preterm newborns, with an average birth weight of 1,005.71 ± 372.16g, an average gestational age of 28.90 ± 1.79 weeks, an average corrected age of 33.26 ± 1.78 weeks, and an average mechanical ventilation time of 29.5 (15 - 53) days, were studied. Increases in inspiratory and expiratory volumes occurred between time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in both the maneuver with the valve (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009) and without the valve (p = 0.026 and p = 0.001), respectively. There was also an increase in expiratory resistance between time-points A5 and C1 (p = 0.044). Conclusion Lung volumes increased when performing the maneuver with and without the valve, with a significant difference in the first minute after aspiration. There was a significant difference in expiratory resistance between the time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in the first minute after aspiration within each maneuver. PMID:27737427

  4. Screening of newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Guidance for developing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause lifelong human suffering as a result of severe mental retardation and deficiency of growth. With the involvement of the IAEA, screening programmes to detect congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants have been introduced successfully in a large number of countries. The cornerstone of these programmes is accurate and reliable screening methods involving isotope techniques and simple medical treatment. The suffering - and heavy social and economic burden - caused by congenital hypothyroidism prompted many countries to institute a formalized screening programme directed at newborns, just as a vaccination programme has become an integral part of child health care. In many other countries however, this type of formalized service has not yet been established. For these countries, the implementation of a neonatal screening programme will bring about a considerable improvement in child health care. It is hoped that the guidance in this publication will be especially useful to the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several factors that prevail in a country - the climate, political environment, economic development, level of health care and the transportation system - have an influence on the overall operational systems, design and implementation of a screening programme. As such, the design of such a programme will differ greatly from country to country. Nevertheless, neonatal screening programmes have many elements in common. This book draws on the IAEA's experience in this area over more than a decade, and on the results of a regional technical cooperation programme on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in East Asia (IAEA Project RAS6032). This publication provides guidance aimed specifically at implementing and sustaining programmes for the screening of newborn infants

  5. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  6. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  7. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...

  8. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus in a bulgarian newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A A; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G; Lotti, T; Wollina, U; Tchernev, G

    2016-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN) is a rare disorder affecting 1 in 200,000–500,000 live births. Central nervous system defects such as spina bifida, meningocele, Dandy Walker malformation may accompany it and thus cause significant morbidity. Despite the related risk for malignant transformation, GCMNs may be associated with neurocutaneous melanosis, a rare syndrome in which a giant CMN or multiple smaller CMNs are accompanied by melanocytic deposition in the brain and the spinal cord. We present a case of a 5-day-old newborn with giant congenital melanocytic nevus on his back, as we discuss the diagnostic and treatment approach. PMID:27373137

  9. Nursing care in newborn pain relief: integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Leiliane Martins Farias; Rita Maria Viana Rêgo; Francisca Elisângela Teixeira Lima; Thelma Leite de Araújo; Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso; Ângela Maria Alves e Souza

    2012-01-01

    This is a bibliographic research that aimed to identify in nursing publications the non-pharmacological actions used in pain relief of newborns. The survey was carried out in May 2010, with the descriptors “Pain”, “Infant, Newborn” and “Nursing”, in LILACS, PubMed, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. 12 articles were selected, and we could identify as non-pharmacological measures of pain relief: glucose pacifier at 25%, non-nutritive sucking, change of position, massages, kangaroo position, mother’s...

  10. Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in newborns and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involment in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications

  11. Intrapericardial immature teratoma in the new-born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrapericardial teratomas are rare causes of mediastinal masses in children. Pericardial teratoma is a potentially curable lesion that may become life threatening when it induces mediastinal compression and fetal hydrops. Majority of the reported cases have been diagnosed prenatally. We report a case of an infant with intrapericardial immature teratoma, which was detected in a newborn infant presenting with respiratory distress. The tumor was excised completely, and histopathological examination of the resected tumor was suggestive of immature teratoma. The patient was asymptomatic three months postoperatively.

  12. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  13. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  14. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  15. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropomorphic computational phantoms are computer models of the human body for use in the evaluation of dose distributions resulting from either internal or external radiation sources. Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed and widely utilized for organ dose assessment: (1) stylized phantoms and (2) voxel phantoms which describe the human anatomy via mathematical surface equations or 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Although stylized phantoms based on mathematical equations can be very flexible in regard to making changes in organ position and geometrical shape, they are limited in their ability to fully capture the anatomic complexities of human internal anatomy. In turn, voxel phantoms have been developed through image-based segmentation and correspondingly provide much better anatomical realism in comparison to simpler stylized phantoms. However, they themselves are limited in defining organs presented in low contrast within either magnetic resonance or computed tomography images-the two major sources in voxel phantom construction. By definition, voxel phantoms are typically constructed via segmentation of transaxial images, and thus while fine anatomic features are seen in this viewing plane, slice-to-slice discontinuities become apparent in viewing the anatomy of voxel phantoms in the sagittal or coronal planes. This study introduces the concept of a hybrid computational newborn phantom that takes full advantage of the best features of both its stylized and voxel counterparts: flexibility in phantom alterations and anatomic realism. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces, a mathematical modeling tool traditionally applied to graphical animation studies, was adopted to replace the limited mathematical surface equations of stylized phantoms. A previously developed whole-body voxel phantom of the newborn female was utilized as a realistic anatomical framework for hybrid phantom construction. The construction of a hybrid

  16. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S. H.; van Beek, A.; Janssen, J. W.; de Vleeschouwer, L. H. M.; Huysman, W. A.; van den Akker, E. L. T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infant

  17. 78 FR 23770 - Establishment of the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... authorizing directive and guidelines under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), a charter will be filed... state and local health agencies to provide for newborn and child screening, counseling and health care..., counseling, testing, or specialty services for newborns and children at risk for heritable disorders;...

  18. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  19. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J;

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  20. Preference for Point-Light Human Biological Motion in Newborns: Contribution of Translational Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Kitromilides, Elenitsa; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Pavlova, Marina; Gentaz, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception…

  1. Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus status of pregnant women and their newborns in west iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women and in cord blood of their newborns. Serum calcium, phosphorus and 25(OH) Vit D, were measured in 193 pregnant subjects between 16-45 years of age in third trimester admitted in Be'sat hospital. Same were measured in the cord blood of 193 newborns belonging to them. Mean maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D was 16.5+-14.2 ng/mL, and cord blood was 12+-0.2 ng/mL. Fifty-seven percent of pregnant women had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Seventy six percent of newborns had 25(OH) Vit D values below the cutoff level. Maternal serum 25(OH) Vit D correlated positively with cord 25(OH) Vit D (r=0.77, P<0.05). Mean maternal serum calcium was 8.89+-0.73 mg/ml and mean newborn serum calcium was 9.46+-0.93. Mean maternal serum calcium correlated with mean newborn serum calcium (r= 0.38, P<0.05). Twenty six percent of women and 37.8% of newborns had hypocalcemia. There was a high prevalence of significant hypovitaminosis D among pregnant women and their newborns. Our study emphasize the need of majority of pregnant women and their newborns to supplemental vitamin D and has significant public health implications. (author)

  2. Prognostic significance of early platelet count decline in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd Elmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Decline of platelets with or without thrombocytopenia is observed in critically ill preterm newborns. Prognostic significance of platelets count in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit focused on outcome after thrombocytopenia. We aimed to estimate the changes in platelets count within the first 7 days of life in preterm newborns and its relation to final outcomes. Methods: Retrospectively, the platelets count during the first 7 days of life, and its association with mortality, length of stay among survivors (LOS, and later severe morbidities were determined. Appropriate regression analyses were used to examine possible relations between studied variables. Results and Discussion: Platelets drop that did not reach thrombocytopenia level in the first 7 days of life happened in 61.7%. Platelets count drop in the first 7 days of life was a predictor of mortality, LOS, and major morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis. Conclusions: Platelets count drop within the first 7 days of life independent of thrombocytopenia can be used to predict increased mortality, LOS, and the development of later severe morbidities in critically ill preterm neonates.

  3. Screening for C3 deficiency in newborns using microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Janzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dried blood spot samples (DBSS from newborns are widely used in neonatal screening for selected metabolic diseases and diagnostic possibilities for additional disorders are continuously being evaluated. Primary immunodeficiency disorders comprise a group of more than one hundred diseases, several of which are fatal early in life. Yet, a majority of the patients are not diagnosed due to lack of high-throughput screening methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have previously developed a system using reverse phase protein microarrays for analysis of IgA levels in serum samples. In this study, we extended the applicability of the method to include determination of complement component C3 levels in eluates from DBSS collected at birth. Normal levels of C3 were readily detected in 269 DBSS from healthy newborns, while no C3 was detected in sera and DBSS from C3 deficient patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that patients with deficiencies of specific serum proteins can be identified by analysis of DBSS using reverse phase protein microarrays.

  4. Prototype of a glass to administer liquid to newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lopes de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the evaluation of health professionals about a prototype glass to administer liquids to newborns. It was a descriptive, exploratory study, which was carried out at the maternity of a university hospital, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to 75 health professionals, after administering a glass of milk to newborns, in the months of July and August, 2011. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and subjected to qualitative content analysis, three categories emerged: positive aspects, with 269 of the register units; negative aspects, with 11 units and suggestions to improve the glass, with six. Statistical analysis showed that the concepts ‘good’ and ‘excellent’, related to the prototype glass, presented rates over 90%. The perception of the participants demonstrated a positive evaluation of the prototype glass, which proved to be a practical tool, the design and safe material for the execution of the ‘technique of the little glass’.

  5. Factors influencing surfactant composition in the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1978-07-01

    In order to evaluate the surfactant maturation of the neonate, tracheal aspirates were analyzed in 84 newborn infants with 12h of birth. Using 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, 9 different phospholipids were identified. Dynamic surface tension measurements were performed with a modified Wilhelmy balance. Five different groups of infants with typical phospholipid patterns were characterized: i.e., 1. Normal term newborn. 2. RDS in the preterm infant. 3. Acceleration of lung maturity in preterm infants without RDS. 4. Retardation in term infants with RDS. 5. Therapeutic induction of pulmonary maturity in preterm infants following maternal glucocorticoid administration. Mature lung effluent contains high concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phsophatidylglycerol (PG). In infants with RDS, PC is low and PG absent. Accelerated lung maturity was observed after chronic prenatal stress, such as prolonged rupture of the membranes, chronic vaginal bleeding, and maternal hepatitis or drug addiction. Retardation of pulmonary maturity was seen in infants with alpha-1-AT-deficiency, maternal diabetes and maternal hypothyroidism. Administration of methylprednisolone to the mother 24 h to 72h before birth induced both the synthesis of PC and PG in the preterm infants, resulting in an almost full-term phospholipid pattern as early as 31 weeks of gestation. The significance of these factors on the pathogenesis of RDS is discussed.

  6. Addressing Maternal and Newborn Health: A Leadership Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Leslie; Johnson, Peter; Hart, Leah; Austin, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Globally, each year 289,000 mothers die in childbirth and three million infants die in the first four weeks of life. The shortcomings in maternal and newborn health are particularly devastating in low-resource countries. This qualitative study describes the experience of an international nongovernmental organization, Jhpiego, which has been implementing public health programs to address maternal and newborn health outcomes for more than 40 years. Themes emerged from interviews with leaders of offices in a variety of countries with unique challenges related to health systems, human resources and infrastructure. Results emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments and international agencies for long-term program impact, as well as the recruitment of local talent for improving health systems to address problems that are best understood by the people who live and work in these countries. The discussion of program successes and challenges may inform best practices for promoting the health and wellness of women and families around the world. PMID:26860758

  7. Present practice of diagnostic imaging in the newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present practice of diagnostic imaging in our NICU (which includes premature unit) was studied, surveying the total 637 admitted newborn infants during the year of 1992. The total number of diagnostic imaging performed other than scout radiography was 939. The number of ultrasonography of the heart and the brain, and brain CT was 752 or 80.0% of the total. These were done more frequently in the cases of very low birth weight infants. In our NICU, ultrasonography including pulse-doppler method, is performed for diagnosis of structural and functional abnormality of the cardiopulmonary systems and also for finding intracranial lesion, on the basis of finding in plain chest films. In spite of various limitation, we are performing, as the necessity commands, fluoroscopic contrast study, angiography, scintigraphy and MRI for the low birth weight (≥1,500g) and mature infants. Some of the actual cases in which diagnostic imaging was helpful were presented. Recently, upon admittance to the NICU for the specific abnormality of the newborn and premature infants, orginally, asymptomatic diseases are often found and diagnosed. This should be the results of progress in diagnostic imaging in recent years. (author)

  8. [The jaundiced newborn: which early monitoring for a safe discharge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, S; Dani, C

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common causes of prolonged hospital stay or readmission of a near-term or term baby. Reason of concern at early discharge of a jaundiced newborn is that of bilirubin neurotoxicity, even if a serum bilirubin concentration surely toxic for the brain is still unknown. Kernicterus and severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are still problems in the third millennium and the American Academy of Pediatrics claimed the pediatric community to increase vigilance in order to reduce the occurrence of these dramatic events. The only existing kernicterus registry is the pilot USA kernicterus registry whose data on 125 kernicteric term and near term babies from 1992 to 2004 have been recently published. Nobody of the kenicteric babies into the USA register had a serum bilirubin levels below 20 mg/dL. All the babies who suffered from kernicteric sequelae were discharged as healthy from hospital and then, 86% of them, readmitted in the first ten days of life. In the majority of babies (69%) a cause of the severe hyperbilirubinemia was not found. Current knowledge on mechanism of neurological damage induced by bilirubin, unfortunately, does not allow to have a universal evidenced based guideline on how to manage neonatal jaundice. Thus, the existing national guidelines contain inevitable differences in the recommended procedure. Waiting for the future italian guidelines the paper illustrates a proposal of management of neonatal jaundice in term or near term newborns based on available scientific evidence and national guidelines published in english language. PMID:24245097

  9. The jaundiced newborn: which early monitoring for a safe discharge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pratesi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common causes of prolonged hospital stay or readmission of a near-term or term baby. Reason of concern at early discharge of a jaundiced newborn is that of bilirubin neurotoxicity, even if a serum bilirubin concentration surely toxic for the brain is still unknown. Kernicterus and severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are still problems in the third millennium and the American Academy of Pediatrics claimed the pediatric community to increase vigilance in order to reduce the occurrence of these dramatic events. The only existing kernicterus registry is the pilot USA kernicterus registry whose data on 125 kernicteric term and near term babies from 1992 to 2004 have been recently published. Nobody of the kenicteric babies into the USA register had a serum bilirubin levels below 20 mg/dL. All the babies who suffered from kernicteric sequelae were discharged as healthy from hospital and then, 86% of them, readmitted in the first ten days of life. In the majority of babies (69% a cause of the severe hyperbilirubinemia was not found. Current knowledge on mechanism of neurological damage induced by bilirubin, unfortunately, does not allow to have a universal evidenced based guideline on how to manage neonatal jaundice. Thus, the existing national guidelines contain inevitable differences in the recommended procedure. Waiting for the future italian guidelines the paper illustrates a proposal of management of neonatal jaundice in term or near term newborns based on available scientific evidence and national guidelines published in english language.

  10. Sensorized pacifier to evaluate non-nutritive sucking in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Angela; Cecchi, Francesca; Sgherri, Giada; Guzzetta, Andrea; Gagliardi, Luigi; Laschi, Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    We developed a device for an objective measurement of non-nutritive sucking (NNS). NNS is newborns' spontaneous action that is a predictor of their neural system development and can be adopted as an intervention to train oral feeding skills in preterms. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors were embedded into a commercial pacifier and the two signals were simultaneously acquired using the Inter-Integrated circuit (I²C) interface. This solution traced a complete pressures profile of the sucking pattern in order to better understand the functional aspects of the two NNS phases, the suction and the expression. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that the sensorized pacifier is an adequate tool for measuring NNS burst-pause patterns. The identified parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity could be used as indicators of the NNS ability. This device might be used both for exploring the possible diagnostic data contained in NNS pattern and for monitoring the sucking skills of premature infants. PMID:26830270

  11. A newborn screening system based on service-oriented architecture embedded support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Ping; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Weng, Yung-Ching; Wu, Jang-Hung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-10-01

    The clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders are rarely apparent during the neonatal period, and if they are not treated earlier, irreversible damages, such as mental retardation or even death, may occur. Therefore, the practice of newborn screening is essential to prevent permanent disabilities in newborns. In the paper, we design, implement a newborn screening system using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifications. By evaluating metabolic substances data collected from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), we can interpret and determine whether a newborn has a metabolic disorder. In addition, National Taiwan University Hospital Information System (NTUHIS) has been developed and implemented to integrate heterogeneous platforms, protocols, databases as well as applications. To expedite adapting the diversities, we deploy Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts to the newborn screening system based on web services. The system can be embedded seamlessly into NTUHIS. PMID:20703618

  12. Newborn care and safety: the black box of obstetric practices and residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Erin E; Haas, Susan; Lauria, Michele R

    2012-09-01

    Certain causes of newborn mortality such as sudden unexpected infant death, which includes sleep-related infant death and sudden unexplained infant death syndrome, are potentially preventable. Obstetricians are uniquely positioned to counsel new parents about safe practices regarding newborn sleep, feeding, and transportation. Patients often do not develop a relationship with their pediatricians until the neonate has been discharged, and the newborn period is a time of particular vulnerability. Newborn safety should be routinely taught in obstetric curricula, and the American College/Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) should partner to disseminate updated literature and guidelines to health care providers regarding newborn safety. Current guidelines from the Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Syndrome are summarized in this article. PMID:22914475

  13. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel López-Velázquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos® was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783.

  14. Evaluation of the galactogogue effect of silymarin on mothers of preterm newborns (<32 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Peila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypogalactia has a relative high frequency in women having delivered preterm infants, who often have difficulties in maintaining a sufficient production of milk for their infants’ needs over prolonged periods of time. Recent studies have shown a potential galactogogue effect of silymarin on milk production in animal models (cows and rats and in humans (mothers of term newborns; nonetheless, none of the studies conducted on humans consisted of double-blind randomized clinical trials and no data are available concerning mothers who delivered preterm infants. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of silymarin (BIO-C® as galactogogue and its tolerability in mothers who delivered preterm infants. We enrolled 50 mothers at 10±1 days post-partum who had delivered infants at ® and placebo arms. No adverse events were observed in the 2 arms among mothers and infants, and silymarin and its metabolites were not detectable in the analyzed human milk samples. Further investigation on specific patient groups affected by hypogalactia, defined according to stricter criteria, should be planned to assess the efficacy of the product in increasing milk production.

  15. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  16. [Clinical condition of the newborn versus tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Marzenna; Florek, Ewa; Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was the assessment of the clinical condition, birth weight, frequency of premature birth and incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the newborns whose mothers were active and passive smokers. This was a prospective study conducted in a group of 147 newborns born during the years 2003-2004 in the Princess Anna Mazowiecka Hospital, Warsaw, and hospitalized in the Neonatal and Intensive Care Department of Warsaw Medical University. Based on a questionnaire identifying the exposure to tobacco smoke and cotinine concentration in the mother's urine, the newborns were assigned to three groups: the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the newborns whose mothers were passive smokers and the newborns of non-smoking mothers. There were no statistically significant differences in the Apgar score assessment at the 1st and 5th minute between the three groups of the newborns. Acid-base balance parameters (pH, BE) were also similar. The birth weight of the newborns of mothers who were active smokers was 325g lower than the birth weight of the newborns of non-smoking mothers. This difference was statistically significant p = 0.033. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of deficit in birth weight 2.6 (1.0-6.9, CI 95%). In the group of the newborns whose mothers were active smokers, the incidence of lower birth weight (< 2500g) was also statistically significantly higher p = 0.01. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of premature birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). PMID:20301877

  17. Competition from newborn granule cells does not drive axonal retraction of silenced old granule cells in the adult hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Lopez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developing nervous system synaptic refinement, typified by the neuromuscular junction where supernumerary connections are eliminated by axon retraction leaving the postsynaptic target innervated by a single dominant input, critically regulates neuronal circuit formation. Whether such competition based pruning continues in established circuits of mature animals remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in the context of adult neurogenesis where newborn cells must integrate into preexisting circuits, and thus, potentially compete with functionally mature synapses to gain access to their postsynaptic targets. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation/retrieval and the dentate gyrus subfield (DG exhibits continued neurogenesis into adulthood. Therefore, this region contains both mature granule cells (old GCs and immature recently born GCs that are generated throughout adult life (young GCs, providing a neurogenic niche model to examine the role of competition in synaptic refinement. Recent work from an independent group in developing animals indicated that embryonically/early postnatal generated GCs placed at a competitive disadvantage by selective expression of tetanus toxin (TeTX to prevent synaptic release rapidly retracted their axons, and that this retraction was driven by competition from newborn GCs lacking TeTX. In contrast, following 3-6 months of selective TeTX expression in old GCs of adult mice we did not observe any evidence of axon retraction. Indeed ultrastructural analyses indicated that the terminals of silenced GCs even maintained synaptic contact with their postsynaptic targets. Furthermore, we did not detect any significant differences in the electrophysiological properties between old GCs in control and TeTX conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate a remarkable stability in the face of a relatively prolonged period of altered synaptic competition between two populations of neurons within the

  18. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  19. INCIDENCE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM NEWBORNS SUBMITTED TO MECHANICAL VENTILATION: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 1250 PRETERM NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilianna de Souza Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of preterm newborn infants in mechanical ventilation who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a public hospital at Fortaleza/CE. Method: Descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal quantitative analysis with 1250 preterm infants admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, Dr. César Cals General Hospital, at Fortaleza, from July 2006 to June 2007. Data collection occurred during two months, with visits to units twice a week, where the medical records were done. Were included in these sample newborns that were in mechanical ventilation and developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Then the gestational average was 28.6 weeks; the mean weight of infants was 1125.33 grams, born vaginally or cesarean section, of both sexes and with various primary diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice and neonatal infection. Results: In the sample from the total admissions, 34.48% were for mechanical ventilation and 3.48% developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence, bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a important complication of prematurity, directly related to the duration of mechanical ventilation, thus the team must be committed on weaning and extubation of those as soon as possible, preferably within the first week of life.

  20. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  1. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  3. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  4. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  5. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  6. Glucocorticoid treatment of MCMV infected newborn mice attenuates CNS inflammation and limits deficits in cerebellar development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kosmac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV.

  7. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  8. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  9. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  10. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  11. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  12. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  13. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  14. Use of the information from experiment by animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the radiation dose to various parts of human body tissue from internally deposited radionuclides, we need to know their pattern of uptake and retention within the human body. In the case that appropriate data for man are not available it is commonly necessary to use data collected from experimental animals. Since animal experiment can offer analytical approaches to the subject, the information from the experiment is considered to be rather essential for biologically logical description of the metabolism of the radionuclides. The animal experiment can be divided into three categories by the purpose; i.e., construction of a quantitative metabolic model, evaluation of the factors affecting the parameters used in the model and understanding the mechanisms of the metabolism. Extrapolation of animal data to man are subject to considerable criticism, and probably justifiably so because of the variations among species. An example of species variability is the difference of the whole-body retention rate of radiocesium between newborn of rat and human. Until adequate experimental data are collected from human subjects, we have no choice to rely mainly on information from experimental animals. As our knowledge is insufficient to provide a strong theoretical basis for the extraporation from animal to human, we should be very careful at the practice of the extrapolation, moreover, we should promote the study to establish a good interspecies correlation which will provide a better basis for the extrapolation. (auth.)

  15. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  16. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1 had safe cord care, 5.2% (21 optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203 were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC, and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities.

  17. The predictive value of first day bilirubin levels for early discharged newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA TOLGA ÜNSÜR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early discharge of newborns is essential because of social, economic an medical reasons in our area, but it increases readmission rates especially for hyperbilirubinemia. Hence, predicting the high risk neonates for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is required. This study was designed to investigate which level of total serum bilirubin (TSB at the first day could be used to predict hyperbilirubinemia .Methods: The venous blood samples obtained from 300 newborns at post-partum 24±6 hours for blood group, direct coomb’s, TSB and direct bilirubin level (DBL. These newborns were followed up during 5- day and TSB and DBLwere detected in 90 newborns with jaundice again according to Kramer dermal zones at 120±6 hours of age.Results: In 23.3% of 90 newborns phototherapy was needed. The cut off value of TSB at the first day to define newborns at high risk for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia was 6.50 mg/dl with positive predictive value 19.75%, negative predictive value 97.72%. At that point sensitivity was 76.19%, specificity was 76.70%.Conclusion: The cut-off point of 6.5 mg/dl of TSB at the first day might be used to predict subsequent hyperbilirubinemia risk at healthy, full-term early discharged newborns as the test is economic and available in all healthcare units.

  18. Fostering the practice of rooming-in in newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R. Shrivastava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Practice of rooming-in meant that baby and mother stayed together in the same room day and night in the hospital, right from the time of delivery till the time of discharge. Adoption of rooming-in offers multiple benefits to the newborn, mother, and mother-child as a unit. It is a cost-effective approach wherefewer instruments are required and spares additional manpower. Rooming-in endeavors the opportunity to contribute signifi cantly in the child’s growth, development and survival by assisting in timely initiation of breastfeeding. To ensure universal application of rooming-in in hospitals, a comprehensive and technically sound strategy should be formulated and implemented with active participation of healthcare professionals. Measures such as advocating institutional delivery through outreach awareness activities; adoption of baby-friendly hospital initiative; inculcating a sense of ownership among health professionals, can be strategically enforced for better maternal and child health related outcomes.

  19. Innocent blood: a history of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhages occurring in the newborn without trauma have been observed by obstetricians since the 17th century, but have been considered different diseases depending on their location. Umbilical hemorrhage associated with obstructed bile canals was described by Cheyne in 1802. Grandidier in 1871 and Townsend in 1894 grouped together various forms of neonatal bleeds and associated them with disturbed coagulation. When the clotting system became better understood in the last decade of the 19th century, effective symptomatic treatment was developed: gelatin, serum injection, and the transfusion of fresh blood. In 1935, Dam detected the function of vitamin K in the coagulation system and 4 years later, Waddell introduced vitamin K administration into therapy and prevention of neonatal hemorrhagic disease. Kernicterus occurred when high doses of synthetic water-soluble vitamin K analogues were given to preterm infants, reminding physicians that progress in neonatal therapy rests on the cornerstones of controlled trials and follow-up.

  20. Persistent bronchography in a newborn with esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Sordino, Desiree; Giordano, Maurizio; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2016-06-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula occurs in about 1:2,500 births. We report a case of persistent bronchography in a newborn with EA and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. A large amount of barium sulfate was injected for mistake by a tube directly in the right bronchus to evaluate the patency of the esophagus. The infant showed signs of respiratory distress; he was intubated and transported at children's Hospital Santobono Pausilipon. Here, it was performed a chest X-ray that confirmed the opacification of the right bronchial tree, and it was suspected an EA type 3b. The literature recommends that: evaluation of the patency of the esophagus, with an iodinate contrast medium, should be done in a pediatric specialized center for high risk of lung aspiration. PMID:27257464

  1. Persistent bronchography in a newborn with esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Bernardo, MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal atresia (EA with tracheoesophageal fistula occurs in about 1:2,500 births. We report a case of persistent bronchography in a newborn with EA and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. A large amount of barium sulfate was injected for mistake by a tube directly in the right bronchus to evaluate the patency of the esophagus. The infant showed signs of respiratory distress; he was intubated and transported at children's Hospital Santobono Pausilipon. Here, it was performed a chest X-ray that confirmed the opacification of the right bronchial tree, and it was suspected an EA type 3b. The literature recommends that: evaluation of the patency of the esophagus, with an iodinate contrast medium, should be done in a pediatric specialized center for high risk of lung aspiration.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for trypsin in newborn-screening for cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, J.; Niehaus, C.

    1982-11-01

    In 4,956 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin was measured in dried blood on filter paper using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. About 90% of all results were below 40 ng/ml. In 13 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin exceeded 80 ng/ml. These infants were examined clinically, including sweationtophoresis. We found three children suffering from cystic fibrosis. One further child showing an elevated concentration of chloride in the sweat (60 mval/ml) could not be reexamined. The concentration of immunoreactive trypsin in the cystic fibrosis children was 230, 297, and in one case 108 ng/ml at the 76th day of life, whereas the values for the 9 other children were between 80 and 154 ng/ml. We believe these results justify to use this test for a much higher number of infants, especially because it is inexpensive and can easily be added to existing newborn screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism.

  3. An Unusual Case of Suspected Microvascular Angina in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cataldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia in pediatric population is uncommon and usually due to congenital heart disease or extracardiac conditions leading to poor coronary perfusion. A 6-day-old newborn presented with respiratory distress and signs of heart failure. ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory results were consistent with myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography was performed to exclude anomalous origin of coronary arteries, showing normal coronary artery origin and course. Thrombophilia and extra-cardiac causes were ruled out. Clinical conditions improved with mechanical ventilation and diuretics, enzyme levels lowered, repolarisation and systolic function abnormalities regressed, but ischemic electrocardiographic and echocardiographic signs still presented during intense crying. Becaues of suspicion of microvascular angina, therapy with ASA and beta-blocker was started. At 5 month followup, the baby was in good clinical condition and no more episodes were recorded. We believe it is an interesting case, as no similar cases have been recorded till now.

  4. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in the newborn and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippkin, M A; Kal'naia, T V; Kal'noĭ, A M

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involvement in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, listerosis), the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis). The examinations were performed in the real time regimen with a frequency of 3.5-7.5 MHz. In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications (dislocation, cerebral ventricles dilatation, abscesses, hygromas).

  5. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 100 μμ/ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism

  6. Epiphyseal Separation of Distal Humerus in Newborn: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Yan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Complete distal humeral epiphyseal separation which is similar to elbow dislocation is a rare injury in neonates. Whereas ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are helpful, plain radiographs are ineffective when diagnosing this disorder. We report a case in which a fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis was diagnosed in a newborn via ultrasonography and MRI. A clear delineation of the injury was provided. The fractured distal humerus was treated by internal fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires. A follow-up observation revealed a good recovery. Traumatic separation of the distal epiphysis may be missed in maternity wards and not diagnosed until the patient is discharged from hospital. However, a good clinical result can be expected even when no attempt is made to reduce the dislocated epiphysis.

  7. Neurophysiological findings in a newborn with chromosome 10 trisomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Di Palma, Franco; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10 is a rare condition. The phenotypic expression of this genetic aberration is characterised by growth and mental retardation with several neurological signs. We report the neurophysiological findings in a newborn affected by 10p chromosome trisomy who developed seizures. Serial EEGs showed a progressive reduction in burst-suppression activity and a slow rhythmic basal activity. At 1 year of age the recording showed for the first time spikes of high amplitude (up to 800 μV) in bilateral frontal regions. These findings could be related to an asymmetrical cerebral maturation in the context of perinatal sufferance and brain malformation due to the genetic aberration.

  8. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  9. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion.

  10. Cartilage canals in newborn dogs: histochemical and immunohistochemical findings

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    A. Di Giancamillo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage canals (CCs are microscopic structures involved in secondary ossification centers (SOCs development. The features of CCs were investigated in the humeral and femoral proximal epiphyses of small-sized newborn dogs (from premature to 28 days after birth with histochemical and immunohistochemical approaches. Masson’s Trichrome revealed a ring-shaped area around CCs, which changes in colour from green (immature collagen to red (mature collagen as ossification progresses; perichondrium staining always matched the ring colour. Safranin-O was always negative. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed immunopositivity for both collagen type I and V around the CCs; collagen type II was negative. CCs count showed a tendency to be higher in the humerus than in the femur. This work enlightened for the first time changes in composition of CCs surrounding matrix during SOCs development in dogs, paving the way to further investigations.

  11. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  12. Seasonal pattern to multiple sclerosis in newborns in Bashkortostan

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    Magzhanov R.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to investigate the seasonal pattern to multiple sclerosis (MS in newborns in the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB depending on months of year in comparison with the RB population. Materials. Months of the birth of 1224 patients with MS republican have been analyzed in the center of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Ufa. The data of patients were compared to the data of birth rate in the RB within a year. Results. The majority of patients was born in May (12%, and the minimal amount of patients was determined in November (5.6% and December (4.4% that authentically differs from the rate of birth in various months of the year in the RB (p<0.05. Conclusion. Data provided by foreign researchers concerning influence of such environmental factor as insolation on pre-natal development were confirmed in the work.

  13. High-output heart failure in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Moniz, Marta; Ferreira, Sofia; Goulão, Augusto; Barroso, Rosalina

    2012-07-10

    High-output cardiac failure is rare in newborns. Emergent diagnosis and management of this pathology is crucial. We report the case of a child, currently 12-months old; obstetric background is non-contributory. Clinic observation on D1 was normal except for the presence of a systolic cardiac murmur; cardiological evaluation revealed mild ventricular dysfunction of the right ventricle. On the third day of life, she developed cardiac failure with gallop rhythm, hepatomegaly and a murmur in the anterior fontanel; an echocardiogram confirmed clinic aggravation with biventricular dysfunction and right cavities and superior vena cava dilatation. The cranial MRI confirmed the presence of a pial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) involving the anterior and middle cerebral arteries with an associated fronto-parietal ischaemic lesion. The infant underwent embolisations of AVM with successful flow reduction and cardiac failure improvement. The multidisciplinary follow-up showed no cardiac dysfunction or permanent lesions but confirmed a severe psycho-motor delay and left hemiparesia.

  14. [Somatometry in the full-term newborn infant (preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Galván, R; Díaz Graham, C; Martí Torroella, G; Pinal, A M

    1977-01-01

    As a preliminary comunication, the authors report a somatometric study carried out in 315 full term newborns from different socioeconomic situation; 152 were born at the Hospital General, S.S.A. and 163, in a private hospital where middle and high class families are attended. The information is grouped on whether measurements are related to physical growth, th state of nutrition or to physical development. Several conditions which necessarily must be taken as independent variables in a study of this sort, such as the age of the parents, but specially of the mother, the period of gestation and of course, the socioeconomic level, were analyzed. The finding of up to 17% of case with height under 47 cm. and/or weight under 2,500 g., outstands the necessity to study the homeorrhesis phenomenon as a very important detail in this type of material. PMID:843406

  15. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  16. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. PMID:27174826

  17. Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

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    María Serón-Ferré

    Full Text Available Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight at 1800 h (LL+Mel and the other five a placebo (LL. Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD. Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05. Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

  18. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

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    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  19. Expanded newborn screening in the Health Services of the Mexican Navy

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    Max Trigo-Madrid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico the birth prevalence of the metabolic diseases detected by expanded newborn screening is poorly known and there is little information about its performance indicators.Objective. Describe the birth prevalence of the metabolic defects detected by the expanded newborn screening program implemented in the Mexican Navy (Secretaría de Marina Armada de México, SEMAR, and to make known some of its performance indicators. Materials and Methods. A blood sample of 5 205 newborns from 18 Mexican states were taken. The age at blood sampling, the proportion of samples taken between the 3rd and the 5th days of life, and the time of results delivery were analyzed. The number and type of detected metabolic diseases, as well as the maternal age and body mass index, the type of birth, the gestational age and weight of the newborns were analized. Results. The age at blood sampling was 4.7 days and 81.15 percent of the samples were obtained in optimal time. Two cases of congenital hypothyroidism (3.8/10 000 newborns, one of adrenal congenital hyperplasia (1.9/10 000 newborns and five cases of deficiency of glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (9.6/10 000 newborns were detected. The 85.6% of mothers had pregnancies at an optimal reproductive age (20-35 years, but overweight and obesity occurred in 44.7% of them. Conclusions. In this analyzed population, the birth prevalence of metabolic defects was 15.37/10 000 newborns. The expanded newborn screening program allowed its identification and timely treatment, with the aim of preventing disability and death.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of free and total flucloxacillin in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, L; Ehrnebo, M; Broberger, U

    1987-01-01

    Flucloxacillin 50 mg/kg b.w. was administered intravenously (in combination with ampicillin/gentamicin) and orally (with amoxicillin) to 9 newborn infants (gestational age 33-41 weeks) to treat bacterial infections. The concentrations of flucloxacillin in plasma and urine after i.v. injection were analysed according to an open two-compartment model, and the plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin and its distribution to blood cells and plasma water in whole blood were determined. Considerable differences were found from values reported in adults. The terminal half-life averaged 4 h 38 min and was significantly correlated with gestational age. Plasma clearance was low (0.744 ml X min-1 X kg-1), due to the small renal clearance (0.182 ml X min-1 X kg-1), whilst non-renal clearance (0.563 ml X min-1 X kg-1) was approximately the same as in adults. The mean apparent volume of distribution of total drug (Vz) was 0.280 l/kg. The corresponding volume of distribution of unbound drug (Vu1 + Vu2) was 1.74 l/kg, which indicates considerable extravascular drug binding. The plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin (mean 86.3%) was significantly correlated with gestational age and the bilirubin/albumin concentration ratio. Bioavailability after oral administration, when corrected for changes in terminal half-life, was 47.7%, which is only slightly lower than that reported in adults. Since the plasma concentrations after both i.v. and oral administration were well above the MIC-values generally reported for Staphylococcus aureus, and since few side-effects were observed, intravenous injection or, in selected cases, orl administration of flucloxacillin appears to be a reliable therapy for the treatment of infections due to sensitive strains of S. aureus in premature newborn infants.

  1. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

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    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  2. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2010-06-01

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  3. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

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    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  4. No more tears? Maternal involvement during the newborn screening examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ganda, Augustine Josie

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Babies often show signs of discomfort and distress by crying during the neonatal screening examination (NSE). The authors hypothesized that supporting the baby with maternal participation may reduce infant crying during NSE. The objective of this study was to document incidental infant crying during NSE, before and after training residents, on maternal involvement and infant comfort techniques to help. METHODS: A total of 20 NSEs of normal newborn babies by pediatric residents were observed (video-recorded) following informed consent of the doctor and the baby\\'s mother. The examining doctors were then taught how to use maternal participation and developmental care (MPDC) comfort techniques to support the baby during NSE. Mothers were shown how to focus on their baby\\'s needs by supporting the baby\\'s head (preventing atonic neck reflexes) and, if necessary, providing nonnutritive sucking to the baby and an encouraging, repetitive low-tone voices to sooth the baby. A further 14 NSEs on different babies were video-recorded using these techniques. The video recordings were analyzed by independent observers for total length of crying and duration of crying during specific components of the NSE. Mothers in both groups were given a questionnaire to assess their opinions of the NSE. RESULTS: The median length of crying was significantly longer in the pre-MPDC group (93.5 seconds; range 0-198 seconds) compared with the post-MPDC infants (0 seconds; range 0-123 seconds; P = .001). Only 1 of 20 infants in the pre-MPDC did not cry during NSE compared with 8 of 14 babies in the post-MPDC group. CONCLUSION: Newborn infants cry less and mothers were more satisfied with NSEs when shown simple support and comfort techniques for their babies.

  5. Benefits and challenges of newborn hearing screening for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2004-03-01

    The late detection of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) often has severe effects on linguistic, speech, cognitive and educational development in affected children. Since newborn hearing screening (NHS) allows most PCEHL to be detected early enough for optimal intervention, the prospects of its introduction in the developing world are reviewed in this paper. It is observed that a simple generalisation on the feasibility of NHS for the developing countries seems inappropriate in view of the diversities in the health and socio-economic status of these countries and the recent favourable reports of universal newborn hearing screening from the region. NHS empowers parents to make timely choices that will allow their hearing impaired children to be given a good start in life and be fully integrated into the wider community. It also compels attention towards the development of essential hearing healthcare services, besides the specific documented benefits. Existing child-healthcare structures such as the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI), baby friendly hospital initiatives (BFHI) and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provide opportunities for the introduction of some form of NHS in many of these countries where routine or systematic childhood hearing screening does not exist. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness and the uncertainty regarding the commitment from healthcare practitioners may present some challenges but these are not insurmountable. Pilot studies are necessary in each country to provide empirical data that will guide healthcare providers who wish to introduce such a programme at any level of healthcare delivery. PMID:15129939

  6. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2012-01-31

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  7. Congenital heart disease in the newborn requiring early intervention

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    Sin Weon Yun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although antenatal diagnostic technique has considerably improved, precise detection and proper management of the neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD is always a great concern to pediatricians. Congenital cardiac malformations vary from benign to serious conditions such as complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA, critical pulmonary and aortic valvular stenosis/atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR, which the baby needs immediate diagnosis and management for survival. Unfortunately, these life threatening heart diseases may not have obvious evidence early after birth, most of the clinical and physical findings are nonspecific and vague, which makes the diagnosis difficult. High index of suspicion and astute acumen are essential to decision making. When patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is opened widely, many serious malformations may not be noticed easily in the early life, but would progress as severe acidosis/shock/cyanosis or even death as PDA constricts after few hours to days. Ductus dependent congenital cardiac lesions can be divided into the ductus dependent systemic or pulmonary disease, but physiologically quite different from each other and treatment strategy has to be tailored to the clinical status and cardiac malformations. Inevitably early presentation is often regarded as a medical emergency. Differential diagnosis with inborn error metabolic disorders, neonatal sepsis, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN and other pulmonary conditions are necessary. Urgent identification of the newborn at such high risk requires timely referral to a pediatric cardiologist, and timely intervention is the key in reducing mortality and morbidity. This following review deals with the clinical presentations, investigative modalities and approach to management of congenital cardiac malformations presenting in the early life.

  8. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

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    Thayyil, Sudhin [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.thayyil@ich.ucl.ac.uk; Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rodney [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [EGA UCL Institute for Women' s Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r{sup 2} = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  9. Direct in vivo cell lineage analysis in the retrorsine and 2AAF models of liver injury after genetic labeling in adult and newborn rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Pichard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver regeneration proceeds from the division of non parenchymal hepatocyte progenitors. Oval cells and Small Hepatocyte-like Progenitor Cells (SHPCs represent the two most studied examples of such epithelial cells with putative stem cell capacity. In the present study we wished to compare the origin of SHPCs proliferating after retrorsine administration to the one of oval cells observed after 2-Acetyl-Amino fluorene (2-AAF treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used retroviral-mediated nlslacZ genetic labeling of dividing cells to study the fate of cells in the liver. Labeling was performed either in adult rats before treatment or in newborn animals. Labeled cells were identified and characterised by immunohistochemistry. In adult-labeled animals, labeling was restricted to mature hepatocytes. Retrorsine treatment did not modify the overall number of labeled cells in the liver whereas after 2-AAF administration unlabeled oval cells were recorded and the total number of labeled cells decreased significantly. When labeling was performed in newborn rats, results after retrorsine administration were identical to those obtained in adult-labeled rats. In contrast, in the 2-AAF regimen numerous labeled oval cells were present and were able to generate new labeled hepatocytes. Furthermore, we also observed labeled biliary tracts in 2-AAF treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that SHPCs are derived from hepatocytes and we confirm that SHPCs and oval cells do not share the same origin. We also show that hepatic progenitors are labeled in newborn rats suggesting future directions for in vivo lineage studies.

  10. Newborns' preference for face-relevant stimuli: Effects of contrast polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Menon, Enrica; Zulian, Luisa; Faraguna, Dino; Csibra, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    There is currently no agreement as to how specific or general are the mechanisms underlying newborns' face preferences. We address this issue by manipulating the contrast polarity of schematic and naturalistic face-related images and assessing the preferences of newborns. We find that for both schematic and naturalistic face images, the contrast polarity is important. Newborns did not show a preference for an upright face-related image unless it was composed of darker areas around the eyes and mouth. This result is consistent with either sensitivity to the shadowed areas of a face with overhead (natural) illumination and/or to the detection of eye contact. PMID:16284255

  11. alpha-Thalassaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia in G-6-PD-deficient newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, T; Corti, R.; Costa, S.; G. Mele; Franca, V

    1980-01-01

    53 newborn infants with both G-6-PD deficiency (29 male hemizygotes and 24 female heterozygotes) and alpha-thalassaemia, and 120 newborn infants with only the enzymatic defect (60 male hemizygotes and 60 female heterozygotes) were studied. 12 of those with both G-6-PD deficiency and alpha=thalassaemia, and 32 of those with only G-6-PD deficiency showed hyperbilirubinaemia. alpha-Thalassaemia does not seem to be implicated in the development of hyperbilirubinaemia in G-6-PD-deficient newborns.

  12. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martines

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025.

  13. Preparing the next generation of maternal and newborn health leaders: the maternal and newborn health champions initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Blami; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Gomez, Patricia P; Carr, Catherine; Sanghvi, Harshad

    2015-06-01

    A champion in health care can be defined as any health professional who has the requisite knowledge and skills in a relevant health field, who is respected by his/her peers and supported by his/her supervisors, and who takes the lead to promote or introduce evidence-based interventions to improve the quality of care. Jhpiego used a common approach during two distinct initiatives to identify individuals in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean whose expertise in their clinical service area and whose leadership capacity could be strengthened to enable them to serve as champions for maternal and newborn health (MNH). These champions have gone on to contribute to the improvement of MNH in their respective countries and regions. The lessons learned from this approach are shared so they can be used by other organizations to design leadership development strategies for MNH in low-resource countries. PMID:26115857

  14. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  15. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  16. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  17. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  18. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  19. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  20. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  1. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  2. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  3. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  4. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  5. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  6. 78 FR 51195 - Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... for effectively reducing morbidity and mortality in newborns and children having, or at risk for... Vasquez, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration; telephone: (301... other relevant information should contact Debi Sarkar, Maternal and Child Health Bureau,...

  7. 77 FR 22791 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... mortality in newborns and children having (or at risk for) heritable disorders. The Advisory Committee's..., Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, Room 18A-19,...

  8. Magnesium sulphate as a safe treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn resistant to mechanical hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To see the effects of magnesium sulphate in newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) who did not respond to mechanical hyperventilation and are candidate for Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Ten newborn who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with profound hypoxia and respiratory failure due to PPHN were treated with conventional mechanical ventilation and then mechanical hyperventilation. The newborns who did not respond to mechanical Hyperventilation were treated with magnesium sulphate infusion. Nine out of ten babies survived and one of them died. The differences between the mean AaDo2, OI index, and PH after mechanical hyperventilation and magnesium sulphate administration was significant. Magnesium has a role in the treatment of PPHN patients who do not respond to hyperventilation or may be applied instead of hyperventilation. (author)

  9. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmin, Aleksey; Wong, Renee C.; Sermer, Mathew; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION What is the current evidence regarding the association between hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and maternal use of hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (eg, carbamazepine, phenobarbitone, topiramate)?

  10. A framework for key considerations regarding point-of-care screening of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Kus, Christopher A; Ostrander, Robert J; Comeau, Anne Marie; Boyle, Coleen A; Dougherty, Denise; Mann, Marie Y; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Green, Nancy S

    2012-12-01

    Newborn screening is performed under public health authority, with analysis carried out primarily by public health laboratories or other centralized laboratories. Increasingly, opportunities to improve infant health will arise from including screening tests that are completed at the birth centers instead of in centralized laboratories, constituting a significant shift for newborn screening. This report summarizes a framework developed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children based on a series of meetings held during 2011 and 2012. These meetings were for the purpose of evaluating whether conditions identifiable through point-of-care screening should be added to the recommended universal screening panel, and to identify key considerations for birth hospitals, public health agencies, and clinicians when point-of-care newborn screening is implemented.

  11. Cdk5 regulates accurate maturation of newborn granule cells in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jessberger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Newborn granule cells become functionally integrated into the synaptic circuitry of the adult dentate gyrus after a morphological and electrophysiological maturation process. The molecular mechanisms by which immature neurons and the neurites extending from them find their appropriate position and target area remain largely unknown. Here we show that single-cell-specific knockdown of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5 activity in newborn cells using a retrovirus-based strategy leads to aberrant growth of dendritic processes, which is associated with an altered migration pattern of newborn cells. Even though spine formation and maturation are reduced in cdk5-deficient cells, aberrant dendrites form ectopic synapses onto hilar neurons. These observations identify cdk5 to be critically involved in the maturation and dendrite extension of newborn neurons in the course of adult neurogenesis. The data presented here also suggest a mechanistic dissociation between accurate dendritic targeting and subsequent synapse formation.

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces mandibular calcium and phosphorus concentrations in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabel C S; Martinelli, Carolina da S M; Milhan, Noala V M; Marchini, Adriana M P da S; Dutra, Tamires P; de Souza, Daniela M; da Rocha, Rosilene F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24). Using energy dispersive spectrometry, we evaluated samples of mandibles from newborns to identify changes in bone mineralization, specifically Ca and P concentrations. Ca and P concentrations were lower in the Alcohol group than in the Control and Pair-fed groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). In summary, alcohol exposure before and throughout gestation reduces mandibular Ca and P concentrations in newborn rats. (J Oral Sci 58, 439-444, 2016). PMID:27665985

  13. Infusing sodium bicarbonate suppresses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Qin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. METHODS: Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6 and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n = 8/group. At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg, or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed. RESULTS: Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (PH: 6.99 ± 0.07, HCO(3(-: 8.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L. Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO(3- recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H(2O(2 accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial

  14. Neuroprotection of the newborn brain: therapeutic targets & behavioral outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of neuroprotective strategies in animal models for neonatal HI. Neuroprotection was assessed by not only by histology but was focused on the behavioral outcome seen in animal models for neonatal HI. First the role of erythropoietin afte

  15. A Rare Case; Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Associated with Anti-jkb

    OpenAIRE

    İlknur Tolunay; Meral Oruç; Orkun Tolunay

    2015-01-01

    Jka and Jkb antibodies (Kidd blood group system) can cause acute and delayed type transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of newborn. Jka and Jkb antibodies are seen after events like blood transfusions, pregnancy, abortion and curettage. Hemolytic disease of newborn related to Kidd-Jkb incompatibility is rare and mostly has a good prognosis. The patient was consulted to our department because of 20 hours of jaundice after birth. He was treated with intensive phot...

  16. Outsourcing Hospital-Based Newborn Hearing Screening: Key Questions and Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Randi L.; Roush, Jackson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the essential components of a high quality newborn hearing screening program and it examines important questions and considerations for hospitals considering outsourcing of newborn hearing screening. Specific issues include hiring, training, and evaluation of personnel; special considerations for the NICU; implications of a screening model that requires families to “opt-in”; implications for choice of technology; instrumentation and screening protocols; tracking and surve...

  17. Frightened Versus Not Frightened Disorganized Infant Attachment: Newborn Characteristics and Maternal Caregiving

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, Elena; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2014-01-01

    The disorganized infant has been described as experiencing “fright without solution” (Hesse & Main, 1999, p. 484) within the attachment relationship. Using a sample at risk because of poverty (n=157), this study evaluated the role of newborn characteristics in predicting disorganized attachment and explored the existence of two subgroups of disorganized infants, based on whether they display direct indices of fear. For the entire sample, regression analyses revealed that newborn characteristi...

  18. Environmental enrichment promotes neural remodeling in newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjun Liu; Yankui Guo; Yalu Li; Zhenying Yang

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and treatment with early environmental enrichment intervention on development of newborn rats, as evaluated by light and electron microscopy and morphometry. Early intervention with environmental enrichment intelligence training attenuated brain edema and neuronal injury, promoted neuronal repair, and increased neuronal plasticity in the frontal lobe cortex of the newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  19. The Sex Differences of Morphology and Immunology of SIRS of Newborn Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kosyreva, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases particularly appear at reproductive age and depend on the sex hormone level, varied between male and female. There are a few sets of data about the sex differences of infection and inflammatory diseases course, including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis, of newborns. The aim of our research was the estimation of morphological and immunological manifestation of SIRS of the newborn Wistar rats. Investigations we...

  20. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Vitor E. Valenti; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. Method This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newb...

  1. Chest associated to motor physiotherapy improves cardiovascular variables in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the effects of chest and motor physiotherapy treatment on hemodynamic variables in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Methods We evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), temperature and oxygen saturation (SO2%) in 44 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. We compared all variables between before physiotherapy treatment vs. after the last physiotherapy treatment. N...

  2. Respiratory support strategy in 499 preterm newborns with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aguilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the respiratory support strategy and its association with morbidity and mortality in preterm infants with Gestational Age (GA ≤ 32 weeks, admitted between 2000 and 2008. Methods: Chart data from newborns with GA ≤ 32 weeks admitted to a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 2000-2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Newborns were divided into two groups according to the year of birth: Group 1 (2000-2004 and Group 2 (2005-2008. Each group of newborns was subdivided in subgroups according to their GA: 23-28 gestational weeks and 29-32 gestational weeks. Each group was compared in terms of ventilation and surfactant strategy, morbility and mortality. The statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS 21.0. Results: We included 499 newborns, 224 in Group 1 and 275 in Group 2. The mean GA, sex and birth weight were similar in both groups. The comparison of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference in the rate of invasive ventilation and surfactant strategy. The mortality before discharge rate was 17.4% for Group 1 and 13.5% for Group 2. The comparison of the subgroups, revealed a statistically higher incidence of INSURE strategy and noninvasive ventilation in newborns born after 2004, with reduction of the mortality rate in newborns with GA comprised between 29-32 weeks and reduction of pneumothorax, severe chronic lung disease and intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns with GA comprised between 23-28 weeks. Conclusion: There was a tendency towards non-invasive strategy and INSURE administration of surfactant over the years. Mortality and major morbidity decreased along with these changes in the therapeutic approach of the respiratory distress syndrome in preterm newborns.

  3. A public health response to emerging technology: expansion of the Massachusetts newborn screening program.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K.; Zuckerman, B.; Sharfstein, J. M.; Levin, D.; Blatt, R. J.; Koh, H. K.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a new technology, called tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS), has challenged governments worldwide to consider expanding universal newborn screening for rare metabolic disorders. In 1997 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health developed a public process to meet this challenge. After addressing significant medical, legal, ethical, and logistical issues raised by tandem MS, Massachusetts incorporated one new disorder into the mandatory newborn screen and developed an o...

  4. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  5. A Valuable and Promising Method for Recording Brain Activity in Behaving Newborn Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Sokoloff, Greta; Tiriac, Alexandre; Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neurophysiological recording of brain activity has been critically important to the field of neuroscience, but has contributed little to the field of developmental psychobiology. The reasons for this can be traced largely to methodological difficulties associated with recording neural activity in behaving newborn rats and mice. Over the last decade, however, the evolution of methods for recording from head-fixed newborns has heralded a new era in developmental neurophysiology. Here, we review...

  6. Severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus: more caution is needed in newborn jaundice surveillance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, N M

    2012-02-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of cases of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and kernicterus. The current UK incidence of bilirubin encephalopathy is 0.9\\/100,000 with a higher reported incidence in some countries. Three otherwise healthy newborn infants, who presented with severe hyperbilirubinaemia, including one who developed kernicterus, are reported here. Some of the current challenges in newborn jaundice surveillance are highlighted.

  7. Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers

    OpenAIRE

    BOLAT, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and norm...

  8. Brain White Matter Abnormality in a Newborn Infant with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 1...

  9. Human Newborns Match Tongue Protrusion of Disembodied Human and Robotic Mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussignan, Robert; Courtial, Alexis; Canet, Pierre; Danon-Apter, Gisele; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    No evidence had been provided so far of newborns' capacity to give a matching response to 2D stimuli. We report evidence from 18 newborns who were presented with three types of stimuli on a 2D screen. The stimuli were video-recorded displays of tongue protrusion shown by: (a) a human face, (b) a human tongue from a disembodied mouth, and (c) an…

  10. Born Too Soon: Accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, JE; Kinney, MV; Belizan, JM; Mason, E.; McDougall, L; Larson, J; Lackritz, E; Friberg, IK; Howson, CP; the Born Too Soon Preterm Birth Action Group (see acknowledgemen

    2013-01-01

    DECLARATION This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was published in PDF format in the WHO Report "Born Too Soon: the global action report on preterm birth" (ISBN 978 92 4 150343 30), which i...

  11. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Alberta: Two years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lilley, Margaret; Christian, Susan; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Montgomery, Mark; Semple, Lisa; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Tabak, Joan; Bamforth, Fiona; Somerville, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, Alberta became the first province in Canada to introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) to its newborn screening program. The Alberta protocol involves a two-tier algorithm involving an immunoreactive trypsinogen measurement followed by molecular analysis using a CF panel for 39 mutations. Positive screens are followed up with sweat chloride testing and an assessment by a CF specialist. Of the 99,408 newborns screened in Alberta during the first two years of the program, 221 had a pos...

  12. Marked variation in newborn resuscitation practice: a national survey in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Chantelle; Ward, Carole; Grubb, Mark; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John; Marlow, Neil; Sharkey, Don

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although international newborn resuscitation guidance has been in force for some time, there are no UK data on current newborn resuscitation practices. Objective Establish delivery room (DR) resuscitation practices in the UK, and identify any differences between neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and other local neonatal services. Methods We conducted a structured two-stage survey of DR management, among UK neonatal units during 2009–2010 (n = 192). ...

  13. Penile Length and Anogenital Distance in Male Newborns From Different Iranian Ethnicities in Golestan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Alaee, Ehsan; Gharib, Mohammad Javad; Fouladinejad, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a feasible and accepted parameter of exogenous or endogenous androgens effects on development of reproductive system. Objectives: Since there is no report on penile length (PL) and AGD in our region, we investigated these parameters in male newborns in Golestan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured stretched PL and AGD in term newborns from different races in Dezyani Gynecologic Hospital of Gorgan, Iran. We al...

  14. Traditional Massage of Newborns in Nepal: Implications for Trials of Improved Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Luke C Mullany; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Khatry, Subarna K; James M. Tielsch

    2005-01-01

    Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance an...

  15. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  16. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  17. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  18. Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Blencowe, Hannah; Oza, Shefali; You, Danzhen; Lee, Anne C C; Waiswa, Peter; Lalli, Marek; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Barros, Aluisio J D; Christian, Parul; Mathers, Colin; Cousens, Simon N

    2014-07-12

    In this Series paper, we review trends since the 2005 Lancet Series on Neonatal Survival to inform acceleration of progress for newborn health post-2015. On the basis of multicountry analyses and multi-stakeholder consultations, we propose national targets for 2035 of no more than 10 stillbirths per 1000 total births, and no more than 10 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, compatible with the under-5 mortality targets of no more than 20 per 1000 livebirths. We also give targets for 2030. Reduction of neonatal mortality has been slower than that for maternal and child (1-59 months) mortality, slowest in the highest burden countries, especially in Africa, and reduction is even slower for stillbirth rates. Birth is the time of highest risk, when more than 40% of maternal deaths (total about 290,000) and stillbirths or neonatal deaths (5·5 million) occur every year. These deaths happen rapidly, needing a rapid response by health-care workers. The 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide are attributable to three main causes: infections (0·6 million), intrapartum conditions (0·7 million), and preterm birth complications (1·0 million). Boys have a higher biological risk of neonatal death, but girls often have a higher social risk. Small size at birth--due to preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), or both--is the biggest risk factor for more than 80% of neonatal deaths and increases risk of post-neonatal mortality, growth failure, and adult-onset non-communicable diseases. South Asia has the highest SGA rates and sub-Saharan Africa has the highest preterm birth rates. Babies who are term SGA low birthweight (10·4 million in these regions) are at risk of stunting and adult-onset metabolic conditions. 15 million preterm births, especially of those younger than 32 weeks' gestation, are at the highest risk of neonatal death, with ongoing post-neonatal mortality risk, and important risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, stunting, and non

  19. Sildenafil prevents the increase of extravascular lung water and pulmonary hypertension after meconium aspiration in newborn piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Silvera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meconium aspiration syndrome causes respiratory failure after birth and in vivo monitoring of pulmonary edema is difficult. The objective of the present study was to assess hemodynamic changes and edema measured by transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in low weight newborn piglets. Additionally, the effect of early administration of sildenafil (2 mg/kg vo, 30 min after meconium aspiration on this critical parameter was determined in the meconium aspiration syndrome model. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated anesthetized male piglets (Sus scrofa domestica aged 12 to 72 h (1660 ± 192 g received diluted fresh human meconium in the airway in order to evoke pulmonary hypertension (PHT. Extravascular lung water was measured in vivo with a PiCCO monitor and ex vivo by the gravimetric method, resulting in an overestimate of 3.5 ± 2.3 mL compared to the first measurement. A significant PHT of 15 Torr above basal pressure was observed, similar to that of severely affected humans, leading to an increase in ventilatory support. The vascular permeability index increased 57%, suggesting altered alveolocapillary membrane permeability. Histology revealed tissue vessel congestion and nonspecific chemical pneumonitis. A group of animals received sildenafil, which prevented the development of PHT and lung edema, as evaluated by in vivo monitoring. In summary, the transcardiopulmonary thermodilution method is a reliable tool for monitoring critical newborn changes, offering the opportunity to experimentally explore putative therapeutics in vivo. Sildenafil could be employed to prevent PHT and edema if used in the first stages of development of the disease.

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  1. Effects of dexamethasone injection on body retention and hepatic distribution of zinc, cadmium and metallothionein in newborn rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liver of 7-day-old rats contains high levels of metallothionein (MT) and zinc, which can be reduced markedly following treatment of neonates with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily on days 3, 4, 5 and 6 post-partum. Prior treatment with trace amounts of 65Zn and 109Cd did neither alter the basal MT and zinc concentrations nor their response to dexamethasone. The turnover of 65Zn or 109Cd in newborn rats was studied by measuring the whole body retention of the radioisotopes. Between days 3 and 7 postpartum, the normal turnover of 65Zn was much faster than that of 109Cd, and dexamethasone treatment resulted in further decrease of 65Zn retention without significantly altering that of 109Cd. The data indicate that the dexamethasone enhanced the excretion of 65Zn without any effection 109Cd excretion. The dexamethasone treatment resulted in marked reduction in both hepatic Zn and MT levels in newborn rats. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 columns of hepatic cytosols isolated from 7-day-old rats showed significant amounts of total Zn and 65Zn bound to MT fraction. Moreover, dexamethasone treatment markedly reduced their binding to the MT fraction suggesting that most of the Zn lost from the liver of dexamethasone-treated animals was from MT. About 95% of 109Cd in the liver cytosol was present in the MT fraction of 109Cd-injected rats and dexamethasone had little effect on the binding of total Zn. These data suggest that unlike in adult rats, injection of dexamethasone results in marked decrease in hepatic levels of Zn and MT in neonatal rats. (author)

  2. Cyclosporine treatment reduces oxygen free radical generation and oxidative stress in the brain of hypoxia-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richdeep S Gill

    Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1-4 d, 1.4-2.5 kg were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation (n = 8/group. At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4 underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe, cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production (electrochemical sensor, cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40-48% of baseline, hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27-31 mmHg and acidosis (pH 7.04 at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H(2O(2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H(2O(2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia-reoxygenation.

  3. Cyclosporine Treatment Reduces Oxygen Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Qin; Chaudhary, Hetal; Brocks, Dion R.; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It has previously been shown in traumatic brain injury animal models that treatment with cyclosporine reduces brain injury. However, the potential neuroprotective effect of cyclosporine in asphyxiated neonates has yet to be fully studied. Using an acute newborn swine model of hypoxia-reoxygenation, we evaluated the effects of cyclosporine on the brain, focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and markers of oxidative stress. Piglets (1–4 d, 1.4–2.5 kg) were block-randomized into three hypoxia-reoxygenation experimental groups (2 h hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation)(n = 8/group). At 5 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (placebo, controls) or cyclosporine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus) in a blinded-randomized fashion. An additional sham-operated group (n = 4) underwent no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione (ELISA) and cytosolic cytochrome-c (western blot) levels were examined. Hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 40–48% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 27–31 mmHg) and acidosis (pH 7.04) at the end of 2 h of hypoxia. Post-resuscitation cyclosporine treatment, particularly the higher dose (10 mg/kg), significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2 concentration during reoxygenation, and was associated with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical cytochrome-c and lactate levels. Carotid blood arterial flow was similar among groups during reoxygenation. Conclusively, post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine significantly attenuates H2O2 production and minimizes oxidative stress in newborn piglets following hypoxia

  4. Biochemical screening of 504,049 newborns in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland - Experience and development of a routine program for expanded newborn screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael; Simonsen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    pilot study during the first seven years, and the experience obtained during these years was used in the development of the routine neonatal screening program introduced in 2009. Methods for screening included tandem mass spectrometry and an assay for determination of biotinidase activity. A total of...... argue that newborn screening for these disorders should be standard of care, though unresolved issues remain, e.g. about newborns with a potential for remaining asymptomatic throughout life. Well organized logistics of the screening program from screening laboratory to centralized, clinical management...... is important....

  5. A Rare Case; Hemolytic Disease of Newborn Associated with Anti-jkb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Tolunay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jka and Jkb antibodies (Kidd blood group system can cause acute and delayed type transfusion reactions as well as hemolytic disease of newborn. Jka and Jkb antibodies are seen after events like blood transfusions, pregnancy, abortion and curettage. Hemolytic disease of newborn related to Kidd-Jkb incompatibility is rare and mostly has a good prognosis. The patient was consulted to our department because of 20 hours of jaundice after birth. He was treated with intensive phototherapy due to the high level of total-value bilirubin (17,6 mg/dl. Mother and patient were both B Rh (+. After direct coombs IgG +++ and C3d ++ values, further investigations were performed and mother had indirect coombs ++ and kidd antigen+. So, the newborn was diagnosed with hemolytic disease of newborn due to kidd incompatibility and was discharged on the fourth day of the treatment without sequel. In the literature serious cases are mentioned, mortality and disabilities are also seen. It is appropriate that pediatricians investigate the subgroup incompatibilities of newborns with hemolytic diseases without ABO and Rh incompatibility in early period, or those of newborns which are having a long respond concerning medical treatment.

  6. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  7. Care Coordination Associated with Improved Timing of Newborn Primary Care Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neera K; Hall, Eric S; Kahn, Robert S; Wexelblatt, Scott L; Greenberg, James M; Samaan, Zeina M; Brown, Courtney M

    2016-09-01

    Objective Despite practice recommendations that all newborns be examined within 3-5 days after discharge, many are not seen within this timeframe. Our objective was to determine the association between care coordination and timing of newborn follow-up. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 6251 newborns from eight maternity hospitals who scheduled a primary care appointment at one of two academic pediatric practices over 3.5 years. Two programs were sequentially implemented: (1) newborn discharge coordination, and (2) primary care intake coordination. Primary outcome was days between discharge and follow-up, dichotomized as ≤ or >5 days. Number of rescheduled appointments and loss to follow-up were also assessed. Adjusted relative risks (RR) and odds ratios (OR) were determined by piecewise generalized linear and logistic regression. Results Among 5943 newborns with a completed visit, 52.9 % were seen within 5 days of discharge (mean 6.7 days). After multivariable adjustment, the pre-exposure period (8 months) demonstrated a downward monthly trend in completing early follow-up (RR 0.93, p coordinator implementation and roughly 33 % after primary care coordinator implementation. The latter was also associated with a 13 % monthly decrease in odds of loss to follow-up (OR 0.87, p Care coordination increases adherence among low income families to recommended newborn follow-up after birth hospitalization.

  8. INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF MOTHER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovsky V. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence in pregnant woman foci of latent, chronic infection of any localization is an important cause of various complications during pregnancy, childbirth, a wide range of perinatal pathology. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of mother infectious diseases on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The authors set up an experiment on WAG rats on modeling subacute (prolonged peritonitis in females in order to study the influence of this infectiousinflammatory process in the organism of mother on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The study found that the presence of infectious-inflammatory diseases in mother is not always leads to inflammatory changes in the placenta, but involutive- degenerative and dyscirculatory changes are taking place in all cases. In newborns from mothers with infectious pathology revealed significantly reduced anthropometric parameters in comparison with newborns from healthy mothers. Anthropometric parameters of newborns from mothers with infectious pathology depend on the infective dose (the higher the dose of agent, the less neonatal anthropometric parameters. Negative influence of infectious extragenital pathology of mother on newborn anthropometric parameters requires improving the quality of pregravidal training aimed at early detection and sanitation of foci of infection.

  9. NEWBORNS ABANDONMENT: THE DYNAMICS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS RELEVANCE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baleeva K. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of newborns abandonment in modern Russia is relevant but understudied. This article discusses the nature and dynamics of the problem. Newborns abandonment is considered in the framework of social and demographic modernization. The problem of newborns abandonment is studied in the context of social orphanhood in Russia. The author focuses on the history of the problem of newborns abandonment, its features in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and modern Russia. For a deeper understanding of the problem the author held a series of expert interviews and highlighted the main factors that influenced newborns abandonment in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. The main challenges in the development of prevention in modern Russia are identified. The author concludes on the need to reform the system for preventing newborns abandonment as part of the ideology of the family-centered approach and constructing a unified federal structure. The paper uses qualitative methods: literature review, expert interviews. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of social work, sociology, demography, politics, and economics

  10. Pulse labeling and long-term tracing of newborn neurons in the adult subgranular zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Cheng; Yang Li; Ying Huang; Xiaoyan Feng; Guoping Feng; Zhi-Qi Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past decades has demonstrated that adult brain produces neural progenitor cells which proliferate and differentiate to newborn neurons that integrate into the existing circuit.However, detailed differentiation processes and underlying mechanisms of newly generated neurons are largely unknown due to the limitation of available methods for labeling and manipulating neural progenitor cells and newborn neurons. In this study, we designed a tightly controlled,noninvasive system based on Cre/loxP recombination to achieve long-term tracing and genetic manipulation of adult neurons in vivo. In this system, tamoxifen-inducible recomumase,CreERT2,was driven by BAC-based promoter of doublecortin(DCX,a marker of newborn neurons).By crossing this Cre line with reporter mouse, we found that newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) could be selectively pulse-labeled by tamoxifeninduced expression of yellow fluorescent protein(YFP).YFP-positive neurons were identified by coimmunostaining with cell type-specific markers and characterized by electrophysiological recording.Furthermore,analysis of the migration of these neurons showed that the majority of these labeled neurons migrated to the inner part of granule cell layer.Moreover,spine growth of inner molecular layer of newborn granule neurons takes a dynamic pattern of invert U-shape,in contrast to the wedge-shaped change in the outer molecular layer.Our transgenic tool provides an efficient way to selectively label and manipulate newborn neuron in adult mouse DG.

  11. Mechanisms of perinatal cerebral injury in fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M; Mishra, O P

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia in the fetus and newborn results in neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long-term sequelae such as mental retardation, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. In the developing brain, determinants of susceptibility to hypoxia should include the lipid composition of the brain cell membrane, the rate of lipid peroxidation, the presence of antioxidant defenses, and the development and modulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the intracellular Ca2+, and the intranuclear Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. In addition to the developmental status of these cellular components, the response of these potential mechanisms to hypoxia determines the fate of the hypoxic brain cell in the developing brain. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone spin adducts, studies from our laboratory demonstrated that tissue hypoxia results in increased free radical generation in the cortex of fetal guinea pigs and newborn piglets. Pretreatment with MgSO4 significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced increase in free radical generation in the term fetal brain. We also showed that brain tissue hypoxia modifies the NMDA receptor ion-channel recognition and modulatory sites. Furthermore, a higher increase in NMDA receptor agonist-dependent Ca2+ in synaptosomes was demonstrated. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ may activate several enzymatic pathways such as phospholipase A2 and metabolism of archidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase by proteases, and activation of nitric oxide synthase. Using inhibitors of each of these enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), and nitric oxide synthase (N-nitro-L-arginine), studies have shown that these enzyme reactions result in oxygen free radical generation, membrane peroxidation, and

  12. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  13. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  16. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  17. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  18. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  19. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  20. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407