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Sample records for animals laboratory

  1. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  2. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  3. A laboratory animal science pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece.

  4. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  5. 21 CFR 211.173 - Laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory animals. 211.173 Section 211.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory animals. Animals used in testing components, in-process materials, or drug products for...

  6. Laboratory Animal Allergy in the Modern Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meinir

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory animal workers face a high risk of developing laboratory animal allergy as a consequence of inhaling animal proteins at work; this has serious consequences for their health and future employment. Exposure to animal allergen remains to be the greatest risk factor although the relationship is complex, with attenuation at high allergen exposure. Recent evidence suggests that this may be due to a form of natural immunotolerance. Furthermore, the pattern of exposure to allergen may also be important in determining whether an allergic or a tolerant immune response is initiated. Risk associated with specific tasks in the laboratory need to be determined to provide evidence to devise a code of best practice for working within modern laboratory animal facilities. Recent evidence suggests that members of lipocalin allergens, such as Mus m 1, may act as immunomodulatory proteins, triggering innate immune receptors through toll-like receptors and promoting airway laboratory animal allergy. This highlights the need to understand the relationship between endotoxin, animal allergen and development of laboratory animal allergy to provide a safe working environment for all laboratory animal workers.

  7. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    country of Central and South America, as well as to the Caribbean, and Mexico and published notices in newsletters. Young scientists from Mexico , Peru, and...Transgenic Animals. J. Gordon. 30 4 F 88 The Spontaneously Hypercholesterolemic Pig as an Animal Model for Human Atherosclerosis . A. Attie & M...and Potential Approaches. An NIH Conference. The Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Understanding Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Humans. T

  8. Complete Isolation System for Laboratory Infectious Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean; Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Contents:Duringthe development of biological medical science,a great number of research experiments are carried out andthe various infectious animal experiments are necessary part of them.For lab animal experiments,it is necessary tochoose proper isolation equipments accordingto experiment hazardlevels.1.FunctionsAnimal isolation systemare used broadlyin laboratory research,pharmaceuticals and medical areas.The isolationsystemhas become excellent equipmentsin animal breeding,disease diagnosis,analysis,test ...

  9. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  10. [Spirograph for small laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniiarov, S B; Lanskiĭ, Iu M; Bebinov, E M

    1986-10-01

    A design of dry spirograph is described. It is characterized by greater precision, lack of inertia, high reliability, absence of respiration resistance, adequate form of recording, rapid resetting to any respiratory rate. The device consists of two similar injection syringes, photoelectric sensor for the identification of the initial moments of respiration stages, electromagnetic valves, two photoelectric converters of the air volume into the impulse signal, vacuum micro-pump, microcompressor and a system of air-driving tubes. In the initial position of pistons and valves the microcompressor pumps air into the inhalation cylinder and lifts the piston to the upper extreme position. With the signal marking the beginning of inspiration, the valves switch over and the piston lowers, pushing out the air, which moves into the animals' respiratory organs. Simultaneously, the signals of the inhaled air volume from the photoelectric transducer reach the recorder. During expiration the air pushes the piston down into the second cylinder and photoelectric transducer gives the information on the volume of the expired air.

  11. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  12. Laboratory animal: biological reagent or living being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V.P. Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The duties of humans toward non-human animals and their rights in society have been debated for a long time. However, a discussion on the terminology used for the identification of laboratory animals is usually not considered, although the employment of inadequate terminology may generate disastrous consequences for the animals before, during, and after the experiment. This study intends to defend the use of appropriate terminology, call attention to an unethical attitude of certain professionals when dealing with experimental animals, and also propose operational mechanisms, which allow for those distortions to be corrected.

  13. Laboratory animal allergy: an occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Debra; McCauley, Linda

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory animal allergy is a relatively common work-related condition occurring in an estimated one-third of laboratory animal workers. More than 10% of these workers develop occupational asthma. Sensitization often occurs in the first 3 years of employment. Risk factors include a personal or family history of atopy, other preexisting non-work-related allergies, and a significant exposure to laboratory animals. Inhalation is the most common route of exposure, followed by skin and eye exposures. Preplacement testing and regular health surveillance screening may be used by institutions employing laboratory animal workers to identify, monitor, and prevent allergies and disease in these workers. Intervention and prevention techniques (i.e., engineering, administrative, and work practice controls and personal protective equipment) are key to controlling and preventing allergy symptoms and occupational asthma. Occupational health professionals play an important role in the early identification of at-risk and affected employees, and can render the necessary treatment, referrals, education, and recommendations to prevent debilitating illness.

  14. Laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Venugopalan Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal cancer is rapidly increasing especially in developing countries. The major risk factors include unhealthy lifestyle practices such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco to name a few. Diagnosis at an advanced stage and poor prognosis make esophageal cancer one of the most lethal diseases. These factors have urged further research in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Animal models not only aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal cancer but also help in developing therapeutic interventions for the disease. This review throws light on the various recent laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer.

  15. 48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Care of laboratory animals... Care of laboratory animals. As prescribed in 1523.303-72, insert the following clause: Care of... adhere to the principles enunciated in the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by...

  16. 48 CFR 1523.303-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Care of laboratory animals... Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-72 Care of laboratory animals. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 1552.223-72, Care of Laboratory Animals, in all contracts involving the use...

  17. 48 CFR 352.270-5 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care of laboratory animals... on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (January 2006) The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) establishes a number of requirements for...

  18. Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Martinez,Edson Z.; Andrea A. Cetlin; Simoneti, Christian S; Freitas, Amanda S; Martinez, José A B; Borges, Marcos C; Vianna, Elcio O

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for...

  19. The development of laboratory animal legislation in the UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Littlefair; Maggy Jennings; Barney Reed

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom was the first country to pass legislation on the use of animals in scientific research, and is currently seen as having among the strongest laboratory animal regulations in the world. This brief paper will focus on three features which have characterised recent developments in laboratory animal welfare in the UK: the regulatory framework for laboratory animal use, the influence of public opinion on animal experimentation, and the importance of ethical review in weighing harms and benefits. Finally, attention will be given to the likely impact of the new European Union(EU) Directive.

  20. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the gen

  1. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  2. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  3. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-12

    amphibians and reptiles, fish, dogs and cats , birds, and invertebrates. Information on standardized nomenclature, appropriate animal models, use of animals in...precisely defined genetic disorders. The dog has proved to be "man’s best friend," not only because it is considered a companion and family member. but...models for human disease, we have also learned much about normal physiologic processes in dogs themselves. Advances in molecular genetics , reproduction

  4. The characteristics, treatment and prevention of laboratory animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Ferdenzi, Elisabetta; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-12-17

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a pervasive problem that affects up to one-third of laboratory animal personnel. An immediate hypersensitivity reaction can be triggered by contact with antigens present in urine, hair, dander and saliva of laboratory animals. The authors provide an overview of the epidemiology, triggering mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of LAA. They also discuss primary and secondary prevention measures that can be taken to reduce LAA morbidity and to allow personnel suffering from LAA to safely continue to do their jobs.

  5. Laboratory Animal Science in China 1988-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In 1988, I had the opportunity to visit China and present a series of lectures on laboratory animal medicine subjects at the Beijing Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine. Students from veterinary schools in different regions of the country attended, and I had the opportunity to meet and talk with them. I visited some laboratory animal research facilities and got an impression of the level of laboratory animal science being practiced. I also visited the cities of Xian and Shanghai as well as Beijing during that visit.

  6. THE HISTORY OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THE 3RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    This talk will give an introduction to the history of the use of laboratory animals with focus on the history of the three Rs (3Rs). We will see how animal experimentation has been performed early in our civilization, and how the suffering of animals has been justified. This will include Rene...... Descartes´s mechanical view of animals in the seventeenth century, and Charles Darwin's ambivalent relationship to animal experimentation, which he views as cruel but necessary. In the 1870s the Danish Foundation for Protection of Animals (“Dyrenes Beskyttelse”) and Professor Peter Panum discussed the use...... Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. This book founded the concept of the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Today, the concept of the 3Rs is widespread, and this concept is incorporated into the laboratory animal legislation of many countries, including EU directives and Danish legislation...

  7. Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ferraz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16% than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01. Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group. Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

  8. MICROWAVE SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  9. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad

    2016-06-01

    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge.

  10. The Evolving Role of Animal Laboratories in Physiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra'anan, Alice W.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are intended to illustrate concepts and add an active learning component to courses. Since the 1980s, there has been a decline in animal laboratories offered in conjunction with medical physiology courses. The most important single reason for this is cost, but other contributing factors include the development of computer…

  11. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  12. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  13. The need for econometric research in laboratory animal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G; Kearney, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The scarcity of research funding can affect animal facilities in various ways. These effects can be evaluated by examining the allocation of financial resources in animal facilities, which can be facilitated by the use of mathematical and statistical methods to analyze economic problems, a discipline known as econometrics. The authors applied econometrics to study whether increasing per diem charges had a negative effect on the number of days of animal care purchased by animal users. They surveyed animal numbers and per diem charges at 20 research institutions and found that demand for large animals decreased as per diem charges increased. The authors discuss some of the challenges involved in their study and encourage research institutions to carry out more robust econometric studies of this and other economic questions facing laboratory animal research.

  14. Suitability of laboratory animals for screening anti-hyperlipidemic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwade N

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the lipid profiles of various laboratory animals to that of human beings. The human subjects and animals included in the study were from three age groups based on key physiological states. A record of the usual dietary constituents and their daily consumption was maintained. The results indicated that the lipid profile of pigs and dogs bears similarity to that of human beings. Results also revealed that lipid profile was labile in the second group of these animals indicating that this age is suitable to bring about the required changes to produce a hyperlipidemic animal.

  15. Diversity in laboratory animal science: issues and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science.

  16. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  17. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Nancy A; Weigler, Benjamin J; Di Giacomo, Ronald F

    2003-12-01

    In contemporary laboratory animal facilities, workplace exposure to zoonotic pathogens, agents transmitted to humans from vertebrate animals or their tissues, is an occupational hazard. The primary (e.g., macaques, pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats) and secondary species (e.g., sheep, goats, cats, ferrets, and pigeons) of animals commonly used in biomedical research, as classified by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, are established or potential hosts for a large number of zoonotic agents. Diseases included in this review are principally those wherein a risk to biomedical facility personnel has been documented by published reports of human cases in laboratory animal research settings, or under reasonably similar circumstances. Diseases are listed alphabetically, and each section includes information about clinical disease, transmission, occurrence, and prevention in animal reservoir species and humans. Our goal is to provide a resource for veterinarians, health-care professionals, technical staff, and administrators that will assist in the design and on-going evaluation of institutional occupational health and safety programs.

  18. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  19. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science.

  20. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, Number 10: Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. Third Revised Edition, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Agricultural and Renewable Resources.

    This report deals with the nutrient requirements of seven species of animals used extensively for biomedical research in the United States. Following an introductory chapter of general information on nutrition, chapters are presented on the nutrient requirements of the laboratory rat, mouse, gerbil, guinea pig, hamster, vole, and fishes. Each…

  1. The Mammalian Microbiome and Its Importance in Laboratory Animal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, André; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    In this issue are assembled 10 fascinating, well-researched papers that describe the emerging field centered on the microbiome of vertebrate animals and how these complex microbial populations play a fundamental role in shaping homeostasis of the host. The content of the papers will deal with bacteria and, because of relative paucity of information on these organisms, will not include discussions on viruses, fungus, protozoa, and parasites that colonize various animals. Dissecting the number and interactions of the 500-1000 bacterial species that can inhabit the intestines of animals is made possible by advanced DNA sequencing methods, which do not depend on whether the organism can be cultured or not. Laboratory animals, particularly rodents, have proven to be an indispensable component in not only understanding how the microbiome aids in digestion and protects the host against pathogens, but also in understanding the relationship of various species of bacteria to development of the immune system. Importantly, this research elucidates purported mechanisms for how the microbiome can profoundly affect initiation and progression of diseases such as type 1 diabetes, metabolic syndromes, obesity, autoimmune arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The strengths and limitations of the use of germfree mice colonized with single species of bacteria, a restricted flora, or most recently the use of human-derived microbiota are also discussed.

  2. Development of animal model for Chandipura virus in laboratory mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raut; CG; Jadi; RS; Chinchwale; AS; Daware; MM

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there was a outbreak of Chandipura virus(CHPV)in Sothern part of India causing encephalitis and acutedeathin children of age group of2.5months to15years withthe mortality rate of55.6%.As this disease is of acutedeath nature in humans no data available on pathogenesis.To understandthe pathogenesis of the disease caused by CHPV,experimental infection in laboratory swiss albino micewas conducted.Animals of age upto one weekfound highlysusceptible to all the routes of inoculation.For further stu...

  3. Molecular characterization of pneumococcal isolates from pets and laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van der Linden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 2008 Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 41 pets/zoo animals (guinea pigs (n = 17, cats (n = 12, horses (n = 4, dogs (n = 3, dolphins (n = 2, rat (n = 2, gorilla (n = 1 treated in medical veterinary laboratories and zoos, and 44 laboratory animals (mastomys (multimammate mice; n = 32, mice (n = 6, rats (n = 4, guinea pigs (n = 2 during routine health monitoring in an animal facility. S. pneumoniae was isolated from nose, lung and respiratory tract, eye, ear and other sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carriage of the same isolate of S. pneumoniae over a period of up to 22 weeks was shown for four mastomys. Forty-one animals showed disease symptoms. Pneumococcal isolates were characterized by optochin sensitivity, bile solubility, DNA hybridization, pneumolysin PCR, serotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen of the 32 mastomys isolates (56% were optochin resistant, all other isolates were optochin susceptible. All mastomys isolates were serotype 14, all guinea pig isolates serotype 19F, all horse isolates serotype 3. Rats had serotypes 14 or 19A, mice 33A or 33F. Dolphins had serotype 23F, the gorilla serotype 14. Cats and dogs had many different serotypes. Four isolates were resistant to macrolides, three isolates also to clindamycin and tetracycline. Mastomys isolates were sequence type (ST 15 (serotype 14, an ST/serotype combination commonly found in human isolates. Cats, dogs, pet rats, gorilla and dolphins showed various human ST/serotype combinations. Lab rats and lab mice showed single locus variants (SLV of human STs, in human ST/serotype combinations. All guinea pig isolates showed the same completely new combination of known alleles. The horse isolates showed an unknown allele combination and three new alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isolates found in mastomys, mice, rats, cats, dogs, gorilla and dolphins are most likely identical to human pneumococcal isolates. Isolates from

  4. 76 FR 27335 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... activities (including research, research training, experimentation, biological testing, or related purposes... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals AGENCY:...

  5. Publication bias in laboratory animal research: a survey on magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, G. ter; Korevaar, D.A.; Leenaars, M.; Sterk, P.J.; Noorden, C.J. van; Bouter, L.M.; Lutter, R.; Oude Elferink, R.P.; Hooft, L.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Publication bias jeopardizes evidence-based medicine, mainly through biased literature syntheses. Publication bias may also affect laboratory animal research, but evidence is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion of laboratory animal researchers on the magnitude, drivers, consequences a

  6. Open- and Closed-Formula Laboratory Animal Diets and Their Importance to Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M.; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E

    2009-01-01

    Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of ‘standard reference diets’ in biomedical r...

  7. 77 FR 38073 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Clarification of Position Statements on Implementation of the Eighth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Statements on Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals... Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide). In response to those comments, NIH has... Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, authorized by Public Law 99-158, 42...

  8. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This report describes National Institute of Health policies on animal welfare, the 1976 amendment to the Animal Welfare Act, and relevant portions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. It is divided into four sections on the following topics: (1) laboratory animal management; (2) laboratory animal quality and health; (3) institutional policies;…

  9. Laboratory Animal Welfare -- European Prospective%欧洲实验动物福利前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒂姆·Nevalainen

    2003-01-01

    @@ The use and welfare of laboratory animals in research are major issues in modern society. Both widespread public concern on welfare of animals and continuously increasing demands on quality of both animals and of biomedical research make the issues urgent and complex. As a result the use of laboratory animals is experiencing turmoil of rapidly changing regulations both at European and at international level.

  10. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Carbone

    Full Text Available Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC, which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia. 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE

  11. Open- and closed-formula laboratory animal diets and their importance to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E

    2009-11-01

    Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of 'standard reference diets' in biomedical research as a means to improve the ability to replicate research. As a result the AIN76 purified diet was formulated. During this same time, the laboratory animal nutritionist at the NIH was formulating open-formula, natural-ingredient diets to meet the need for standardized laboratory animal diets. Since the development of open-formula diets, fixed-formula and constant-nutrient-concentration closed-formula laboratory animal natural ingredient diets have been introduced to help reduce the potential variation diet can cause in research.

  12. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  13. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  14. Pharmacological enhancement of memory and executive functioning in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

  15. 76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ..., experimentation, biological testing, or related purposes) involving live vertebrate animals. The eighth edition of... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals AGENCY:...

  16. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology.

  17. Building Transnational Bodies: Norway and the International Development of Laboratory Animal Science, ca. 1956–1980

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Argument This article adopts a historical perspective to examine the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, an auxiliary field which formed to facilitate the work of the biomedical sciences by systematically improving laboratory animal production, provision, and maintenance in the post Second World War period. We investigate how Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine co-developed at the local level (responding to national needs and concerns) yet was simultaneously transnationa...

  18. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  19. The 53rd annual meeting of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzuru; Kurabayashi

    2005-01-01

    The53rd annual meeting of the Japanese Associationfor Laboratory Animal Science will be held on May11-13,2006atInternational Conference Center Kobe.It is a pleasurefor all members of the Organizing Committeeto be able nowto an-nounce the conference tofellowmembers of Asian Federation of Laboratory Animal Science as well as our society.Animal experiments have madeimmense contributionstoresearchforthe progressin human welfare andscience.Howev-er,many mattersthat cannot be solved without animal experiments sti...

  20. 76 FR 17423 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... activities (including research, research training, experimentation or biological testing, or related purposes... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals AGENCY:...

  1. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de W.C.M.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the

  2. A user-friendly approach to cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G

    2011-08-19

    Cost accounting is an essential management activity for laboratory animal facility management. In this report, the author describes basic principles of cost accounting and outlines steps for carrying out cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities. Methods of post hoc cost accounting analysis for maximizing the efficiency of facility operations are also described.

  3. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2016-03-01

    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys.

  4. Amphibians as animal models for laboratory research in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W; Warburton, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The concept of animal models is well honored, and amphibians have played a prominent part in the success of using key species to discover new information about all animals. As animal models, amphibians offer several advantages that include a well-understood basic physiology, a taxonomic diversity well suited to comparative studies, tolerance to temperature and oxygen variation, and a greater similarity to humans than many other currently popular animal models. Amphibians now account for approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of lower vertebrate and invertebrate research, and this proportion is especially true in physiological research, as evident from the high profile of amphibians as animal models in Nobel Prize research. Currently, amphibians play prominent roles in research in the physiology of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, reproductive, and sensory systems. Amphibians are also used extensively in physiological studies aimed at generating new insights in evolutionary biology, especially in the investigation of the evolution of air breathing and terrestriality. Environmental physiology also utilizes amphibians, ranging from studies of cryoprotectants for tissue preservation to physiological reactions to hypergravity and space exploration. Amphibians are also playing a key role in studies of environmental endocrine disruptors that are having disproportionately large effects on amphibian populations and where specific species can serve as sentinel species for environmental pollution. Finally, amphibian genera such as Xenopus, a genus relatively well understood metabolically and physiologically, will continue to contribute increasingly in this new era of systems biology and "X-omics."

  5. Making animals alcoholic: shifting laboratory models of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals as experimental organisms has been critical to the development of addiction research from the nineteenth century. They have been used as a means of generating reliable data regarding the processes of addiction that was not available from the study of human subjects. Their use, however, has been far from straightforward. Through focusing on the study of alcoholism, where the nonhuman animal proved a most reluctant collaborator, this paper will analyze the ways in which scientists attempted to deal with its determined sobriety and account for their consistent failure to replicate the volitional consumption of ethanol to the point of physical dependency. In doing so, we will see how the animal model not only served as a means of interrogating a complex pathology, but also came to embody competing definitions of alcoholism as a disease process, and alternative visions for the very structure and purpose of a research field.

  6. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  7. Distance Education as a Tool for Training Veterinarians in Laboratory Animal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V. Turner

    2012-01-01

    With increasing globalization and a trend towards international harmonization of standards for the care and use of animals in research and testing,there is a significant need to assist and support countries to develop training programs for laboratory animal veterinarians. Although formal educational opportunities for training laboratory animal veterinarians exist through well-established specialty colleges of laboratory animal medicine such as ACLAM,ECLAM,JCLAM,and KCLAM or through other professional organisations,such as the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations ( FELASA ),opportunities for participating in these programs are often limited to veterinarians in North America,Western Europe and specific regions of Asia. Creative thinking is required to develop cost-effective,practical,entry-level and advanced continuing education and applied training programs for veterinarians working in the field of laboratory animal medicine around the world.This paper will describe one potential solution for this issue,the use of a distance education program that provides theoretical information in a virtual classroom with applied training modules to deliver knowledge and practical skills to laboratory animal veterinarians.This type of program takes advantage of the online learning environment and can be an effective means to deliver training at the grassroots level to adult learners.

  8. Toxicological study of plant extracts on termite and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, I; Gogoi, Inee; Dolui, A K; Handique, Ruma

    2005-04-01

    Toxic activity of leaf extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. and Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. were tested in the laboratory against tea termite, Odontotermes assamensis Holm. Both the tested extracts caused mortality of the termite. The highest toxic activity (100%) was found in the 2.0% chloroform extracts of P. hydropiper. The chloroform extract of P. hydropiper was explored for possible mammalian toxicological effects. The LD50 was 758.58 mg/kg in male albino mice. Subcutaneous injection of sub-lethal dose of extract into male mice once a week for 6 weeks failed to express any significant influence on WBC, RBC count and blood cholesterol.

  9. Publication bias in laboratory animal research: a survey on magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerben ter Riet

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Publication bias jeopardizes evidence-based medicine, mainly through biased literature syntheses. Publication bias may also affect laboratory animal research, but evidence is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion of laboratory animal researchers on the magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions for publication bias. And to explore the impact of size of the animals used, seniority of the respondent, working in a for-profit organization and type of research (fundamental, pre-clinical, or both on those opinions. DESIGN: Internet-based survey. SETTING: All animal laboratories in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory animal researchers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S: Median (interquartile ranges strengths of beliefs on 5 and 10-point scales (1: totally unimportant to 5 or 10: extremely important. RESULTS: Overall, 454 researchers participated. They considered publication bias a problem in animal research (7 (5 to 8 and thought that about 50% (32-70 of animal experiments are published. Employees (n = 21 of for-profit organizations estimated that 10% (5 to 50 are published. Lack of statistical significance (4 (4 to 5, technical problems (4 (3 to 4, supervisors (4 (3 to 5 and peer reviewers (4 (3 to 5 were considered important reasons for non-publication (all on 5-point scales. Respondents thought that mandatory publication of study protocols and results, or the reasons why no results were obtained, may increase scientific progress but expected increased bureaucracy. These opinions did not depend on size of the animal used, seniority of the respondent or type of research. CONCLUSIONS: Non-publication of "negative" results appears to be prevalent in laboratory animal research. If statistical significance is indeed a main driver of publication, the collective literature on animal experimentation will be biased. This will impede the performance of valid literature syntheses. Effective, yet efficient systems should be explored to

  10. Laboratory Animal Workers’ Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certificati...

  11. Annual progress report, 1 January 1975--31 December 1975. [Information center on laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). Located within the Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences, ILAR serves as a coordinating agency to disseminate information, survey existing and required resources, establish standards and guidelines, promote education, hold conferences, and, generally, upgrade laboratory animal resources within the United States. Activities during 1976 are reported.

  12. Abortion in laboratory animals induced by Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J O; Elissalde, M H

    1979-05-01

    Pregnant mice, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits responded to injections of Moraxella bovis strain EPP-63(300) with abortion, death, embryo resorption, and production of small litters. The nature of response appeared to depend primarily on the number of viable cells injected and to some extent on the species of animal and stage of pregnancy. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with 3 X 10(5) viable cells induced 100% abortion and no deaths. Embryo resorption and smaller litters were induced with injection of lower doses of M. bovis. None of the rats used in this study aborted; however, resorption rates were higher in rats than mice. Bacteria-free filtrates prepared from aqueous extracts of blood agar on which M. bovis had been grown induced abortion in mice and guinea pigs, at a rate similar to that caused by viable cells. The lyophilized filtrate could be diluted to produce 100% abortion with no death of injected mice. Abortion-inducing, nonlethal doses of M. bovis and lyophilized filtrates appeared to have no effect on nonpregnant female or male mice.

  13. Employee motivation in laboratory animal science: creating the conditions for a happy and productive staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, John F

    2006-01-01

    High rates of employee turnover are the source of a considerable loss of time and resources, but managers are not always aware of the reasons that motivate employees to stay in their positions. The author compares prominent theories of employee motivation and then puts them to the test by surveying 82 cagewashers, animal caretakers, animal technicians, and supervisors working in a laboratory animal facility to determine the job characteristics that motivate them.

  14. The Model Laboratory Animal and the‘Trojan Horse' in Biosecurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Driver

    2003-01-01

    @@ Today's sophisticated biomedical research sometimes requires the use of laboratory animals raised in stable micronen vironments free from the microorganisms that may compromise the success of an experiment. Laboratory rodents can be obtained in one of several categories defined by the degree to which they harbour microflora, whether commensal, potentially pathogenic or pathogenic. It is now possible to specify the different species of organism that are tolerated and those that are not tolerated, In such model laboratory animals it is essential to raise and maintain them in circumstances under which microorganisms that would not be tolerated cannot enter the production system.

  15. How to improve housing conditions of laboratory animals: the possibilities of environmental refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V; Van Loo, P L P

    2013-01-01

    Housing systems for captive animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic considerations, such as equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals and to maintain a certain degree of hygiene, with little or no consideration for animal welfare. Environmental refinement can be defined as any modification in the environment of captive animals that seeks to enhance the physical and psychological well-being of the animals by providing stimuli which meet the animals' species-specific needs. This article provides an overview of environmental factors that influence the well-being of captive animals with specific reference to the needs of the most common laboratory species. It is important to evaluate environmental refinement in terms of the benefit to the animal, by assessing the use of and preference for certain enrichment, the effect on behaviour, and the performance of species-typical behaviour on physiological parameters. It is also necessary to evaluate the impact of refinement on scientific outcome, including whether and how statistical power is affected. Communication and team work between animal welfare scientists, animal research scientists, institutional animal welfare officers, veterinarians and animal ethics committees, animal facility management and personnel, are essential for success.

  16. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  17. Strategies for the assessment of competence in laboratory animal science courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of skills, knowledge and competencies is an essential part of education in laboratory animal science. In Europe, a greater emphasis will be placed on such evaluations going forward, because the European Union will base its education and training framework on learning outcomes rather than...... on course time and syllabuses, as done previously. The authors present their experiences administering different written, oral and practical examinations for Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations categories B, C and D courses. Examinations can be administered online as well...

  18. A mask for delivery of inhalation gases to small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D E; Zwies, A; Duffy, T E

    1980-10-01

    A mask was developed for the administration of volatile anesthetics and other gases to small, spontaneously breathing laboratory animals. A vacuum-powered venting system surrounding the inspiratory gas supply prevented potentially hazardous gases from escaping into the environment. This system was used to deliver nitrous oxide, halothane, and methoxyflurane to rats, gerbils, and newborn dogs. It was used to vary the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inspired by spontaneously breathing animals undergoing physiological experiments.

  19. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working wit...

  20. Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V.; Brabb, Thea; Pekow, Cynthia; Vasbinder, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is sel...

  1. The injustice of excluding laboratory rats, mice, and birds from the Animal Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F Barbara

    2000-09-01

    A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation -- rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.

  2. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A...

  3. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Elbers, Ingrid J W; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the detection and quantification of PAs in animal feed. The participants were asked to quantify PAs in a blank test sample, a blank test sample to be spiked with a provided spiking mixture of seven PA standards, and a test sample contaminated with common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Ten of the participating laboratories used an LC-MS/MS method, one used an LC-ToF-MS method, and one used a GC-MS method. None of the laboratories reported false-negative samples, while two laboratories reported false-positive results in the blank sample. z-scores were calculated for each laboratory for seven PAs in test samples B and C. z-scores varied considerably between laboratories for the concentrations of the free bases and less for the N-oxides, probably due to the lower levels of the free bases as compared with the N-oxides in the contaminated feed. Questionable or unsatisfactory results for the z-scores were obtained for 8% of the cases for the spiked sample and for 12% of the incurred sample. Three laboratories scored consequently positive or negative results. No preferred method for quantification of PAs in feed could be identified within the methods used for this study due to the relatively small number of participants. It was concluded that this inter-laboratory study shows that the methods used for PA detection need further development for accurate estimation of PAs in contaminated feed.

  4. Medical records for animals used in research, teaching, and testing: public statement from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.

  5. The effectiveness of computer-generated 3D animations in inquiry chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Rachel Morgan

    It has been shown that students need a molecular-level understanding of substances in order to comprehend chemistry. For solid structures, atomic-level understanding requires students to learn additional and different concepts than for other states of matter. To aid understanding, animations were created to model unit cell structures and depict the properties of unit cells. In order to determine if these animations are helpful to students, they were tested during a laboratory exercise in which students had previously been using model kits and images from textbooks to learn about solid structures. Students evaluated in this study were from two lecture sections of general chemistry, one that routinely used animations during lecture and one that used a more traditional lecture format that did not include animations or models. Twelve laboratory sections of these lectures, taught by six different instructors each teaching two sections, were chosen for participation. One section for each instructor was given the animations as an optional tool for completing the laboratory assignment, which consisted of questions about unit cells and crystal structures. The results of the study indicate that students who looked at the animations performed significantly better on the assignment. For the control group, students who routinely viewed multiple representations of chemistry in lecture performed significantly better on the lab assignment than students in the lecture section where chemistry concepts were only presented on the chalkboard and overhead projector. Students in the traditional lecture section also had significantly less appreciation for the model kits used in the laboratory than students in the other lecture section. Observations of students in the lab combined with statistical results led to the revision of the solid structures investigation. Additional animations were created and inserted into the module that covered areas where students indicated more help was needed

  6. METHODS OF LABORATORY ANIMALS" CARCASSES COLLECTION, STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION IN ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N SHAMANSOURI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental problems due to hazardous wastes production are increasing everyday. Laboratories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences produce hazardous wastes in their daily research avtivities. These hazardous wastes are produced from laboratory animals" carcasses, which were used in educational and research activities. These carcasses are mixed with other wastes while they are contaminated with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents. These wastes can contaminate environment and threaten human s health. So, carcasses produced in laboratories should be collected and handle with a specific method in order to destruct in an incinerator. Methods: In this study, methods of collection, storge and destruction of laboratory animals" carcasses in Isfahan university of medical Sciences were evaluated during four months. Specific questionnaires were used for data collection. The mean weight of carcasses of each labratories, produced within a week, were calculated. DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficacy in different Temperatures in the incinerator were calculated. Results: Mean weight of laboratory animals" carcasses produced during a week in all the laboratories were 20kg. DRE in the incinerator were 9S.39% in 750.C temperature during 1 hour, 94.20% in 850°c temperature during 30 minutes, 94.10% in 950°c temperature during 20 minutes and 94.80% in 1000°c temperature during 15 minutes. Discussion: According to laboratory animals" carcasses contamination with pathogenic organisms, toxic and chemical agents, present methods of collection, storage and destruction aren"t standard and healthy. Also, due to low amout of carcasses daily production, everyday destruction of these carcasses isn"t economic. As a result, carcasses produced everyday should be stored in a collecting box under zero temperature and destruct at the end of the week in the designed incinerator in 1000°c temperature .

  7. Laboratory Animal Workers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ(2)) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution.

  8. Ethic Problems of Laboratory Animal Science in China%实验动物科学带来的伦理问题在中国的表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玫蕾

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory animal is the animal with artificial feeding in the certain conditions, having the particular biological characteristics and for scientific research. They are indispensable props of life science and have made great contributions and sacrifices for human health and development. Laboratory animal science is an important branch of the life science,including laboratory animal and animal experiment. Along with development of mankind society, economy and civilization, now the realm of laboratory animal science is confronted with the problems of animal welfare and animal ethics.The animal protectionism inevitably conflict with the laboratory animal science in the certain way. People protect the wild animals first, then protect the artificially fed animal. Also people protect pets first and then protect the laboratory animals. Now it is popularization of protecting the wild and petted animals. It makes people hard to accept the reality of the experiments with animals. But life science especially biomedicine can't make great progress without the laboratory animals.

  9. The history of the oldest self-sustaining laboratory animal: 150 years of axolotl research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiß, Christian; Olsson, Lennart; Hoßfeld, Uwe

    2015-07-01

    Today the Mexican axolotl is critically endangered in its natural habitat in lakes around Mexico City, but thrives in research laboratories around the world, where it is used for research on development, regeneration, and evolution. Here, we concentrate on the early history of the axolotl as a laboratory animal to celebrate that the first living axolotls arrived in Paris in 1864, 150 years ago. Maybe surprisingly, at first the axolotl was distributed across Europe without being tied to specific research questions, and amateurs engaged in acclimatization and aquarium movements played an important role for the rapid proliferation of the axolotl across the continent. But the aquarium also became an important part of the newly established laboratory, where more and more biological and medical research now took place. Early scientific interest focused on the anatomical peculiarities of the axolotl, its rare metamorphosis, and whether it was a larva or an adult. Later, axolotl data was used to argue both for (by August Weismann and others) and against (by e.g., Albert von Kölliker) Darwinism, and the axolotl even had a brief history as a laboratory animal used in a failed attempt to prove Lysenkoism in Jena, Germany. Nowadays, technical developments such as transgenic lines, and the very strong interest in stem cell and regeneration research has again catapulted the axolotl into becoming an important laboratory animal.

  10. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall.

  11. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  12. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  13. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  14. 哨兵动物概述%A Brief Introduction of Laboratory Sentinel Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨函; 魏强

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel animals are rarely used in microorganism detection as a 'tool' in our country, but along with the increasing application of various species of laboratory animals and special animals , the currently used laboratory animals are more and more not enough to satisfy the requirement of various detection tests. It is very important to explore and learn from developed countries how to use sentinel animals. In this paper, we will introduce the Concept and application methods of sentinel animals.%哨兵动物在我国还未作为一个"工具"用于实验动物微生物检测工作,但随着实验动物种类和特殊动物的日益增加,现有方法已经不能满足检测需要.探讨哨兵动物的应用,采用国外先进方法,对提高我国实验动物质量显得非常重要.本文对哨兵动物的概念、使用方法和设置做一概述.

  15. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie

    2014-07-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  16. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK.

  17. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  18. A Computerized Data-Capture System for Animal Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Bente, Dennis A; Friesen, Jeremy; White, Kyle; Koll, Jordan; Gary P Kobinger

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive nature of an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL4) laboratory complicates even simple clinical evaluation including data capture. Typically, clinical data are recorded on paper during procedures, faxed out of the ABSL4, and subsequently manually entered into a computer. This system has many disadvantages including transcriptional errors. Here, we describe the development of a highly customizable, tablet-PC-based computerized data-capture system, allowing reliable collection of obse...

  19. Guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Bolin, Susan

    2012-12-01

    This unit provides a general overview on topics related to the practical care and use of laboratory animals in biomedical research. These topics are briefly described and provide Web sites and/or research articles that can be accessed for more detailed information. While the primary focus is on the care and use of rats and mice bred for biomedical research, many of the Web sites listed provide information on other species used for this purpose.

  20. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  1. Application of RAPD Markers in Laboratory Animal%RAPD技术在实验动物中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建珍; 马恩波

    2003-01-01

    With the sharp development of biomedicine, the protection and utilization of laboratory animal resources, and standardization of laboratory animal have been regarded as the theme of laboratory animal science. Many kinds of genetic markers were used in genetic background analysis, identification of species and strains, and breeding of laboratory animal, unlike morphological marker, cytological marker and isozyme marker, which revealed the difference at gene expressing level, molecular genetic markers used as an accurate and effective method reveal genetic variations of hereditary material, it plays an important role in many fields. The RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA) method was firstly described in 1990, it has several distinct advantages over other techniques in that it is easy to perform and fast, and so was widely applied to taxonomy and identification of species, construction of genetic mapping, genetic relationships among species and population genetics. This paper summarized the application of RAPD markers in laboratory animal in recent 10 years.

  2. Administration of substances to laboratory animals: routes of administration and factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Brabb, Thea; Pekow, Cynthia; Vasbinder, Mary Ann

    2011-09-01

    Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is selected, issues such as volume of administration, site of delivery, pH of the substance, and other factors must be considered to refine the technique. Inadequate training or inattention to detail during this aspect of a study may result in unintentional adverse effects on experimental animals and confounded results.

  3. Near Field UHF RFID Antenna System Enabling the Tracking of Small Laboratory Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Catarinucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology is more and more adopted in a wide range of applicative scenarios. In many cases, such as the tracking of small-size living animals for behaviour analysis purposes, the straightforward use of commercial solutions does not ensure adequate performance. Consequently, both RFID hardware and the control software should be tailored for the particular application. In this work, a novel RFID-based approach enabling an effective localization and tracking of small-sized laboratory animals is proposed. It is mainly based on a UHF Near Field RFID multiantenna system, to be placed under the animals’ cage, and able to rigorously identify the NF RFID tags implanted in laboratory animals (e.g., mice. Once the requirements of the reader antenna have been individuated, the antenna system has been designed and realized. Moreover, an algorithm based on the measured Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI aiming at removing potential ambiguities in data captured by the multiantenna system has been developed and integrated. The animal tracking system has been largely tested on phantom mice in order to verify its ability to precisely localize each subject and to reconstruct its path. The achieved and discussed results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking system.

  4. Training in the laboratory animal science community: strategies to support adult learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Jackie; Stevens, James; Medina, Leticia V

    2007-01-01

    The essence of learning is change; learning is the process by which learners customize new information to make it personally meaningful and relevant. Training is the process of helping students make those changes. Research indicates that adults learn differently than children or adolescents and that adults consistently use the following six learning strategies: prior experiences; conversations; metacognition; reflection; authentic experiences; and images, pictures, or other types of visuals. Each of these learning strategies can be combined with the other strategies and often build upon each other. A recent study on how health care professionals learn indicated that the learning strategy they used most often was reflection, which supports learning before, during, and after training. Numerous examples are provided in this article describing how to integrate each of the six adult learning strategies into laboratory animal science training. While lectures and other types of direct instruction are appropriate, they are inadequate and ineffective unless they are integrated with and support adult learning strategies. Both the US Department of Agriculture regulations and the Public Health Service Policy mandate that research institutions must ensure that all personnel involved in animal care, treatment, or use are qualified to perform their duties. Applying adult learning strategies to training for the laboratory animal science community will enhance learning and improve both the science and the humane care of the animals, which is a goal our community must continuously strive to achieve.

  5. Application of Xenopus laevis in ecotoxicology (I)--Introduction and quality control of laboratory animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhanfen; XU Xiaobai

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the series of papers is to discuss the application of Xenopus laevis, as model animal in biology, in ecotoxicology. X. laevis as model animal is wildly used in biological study and has provided a lot of relating data because of many advantages, such as living in water and being easily maintained, laying eggs in the whole year, and externally fertilizing and developing. Embryos and larvae of X. laevis like other amphibians are directly exposed in the aquatic environment and sensitive to pollutants. In addition, sex differentiation and sex organ development of X. laevis are sensitive to sex hormones and endocrine disruptors with sex hormone activities, which enable X. laevis to be used in studies on sex hormone disruption and reproductive toxicity of endocrine disruptors. Metamorphic development of X. laevis is very sensitive to thyroid hormones and thyroid disruptors, which enables X. laevis to be used for evaluating thyroid disruptors. Also, X. laevis ecotoxicology can be linked with amphibian population declines and malformed frog occurrence, being one of the hotspots in ecology. Thus, more and more laboratories have introduced X. laevis to ecotoxicological study. The quality of laboratory animals correlates with scientificity and reliability of results from animal experiments. It is especially important for toxicology. Quality control of X. laevis involving several factors such as water and food is discussed in this paper.

  6. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  7. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  8. Experimental infection with Paragonimus heterotremus metacercariae in laboratory animals in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Devi, K Ranjana; Singh, L Deben; Binchai, Sutheewan; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to find out the host-parasite relationship between Paragonimus heterotremus isolated as metacercariae from mountain crabs, Indochinamon manipurensis, in Manipur, India and laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats, Swiss mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as experimental animals. The animals were fed with the metacercariae. Infected animals were sacrificed 35 to 430 days after feeding to recover worms, which were used to determine the developmental stages. Adult worms (n = 14) were recovered from 3 puppies > or = 70 days after feeding and immature worms (n = 25) were recovered from 2 other puppies 35 or 43 days after infection. The infection rate in puppies was 100%. Juvenile worms were recovered from 3 of 13 rats: 1 of 11 rats whose viscera and cavities were examined and both of two rats whose muscles were examined. Rats were not a suitable animal model for pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus. Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were also found to be insusceptible to pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus.

  9. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  10. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  11. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and stakeholders met at Newcastle University, United Kingdom to discuss the latest research and which methods could currently be considered most humane for the most commonly used laboratory species (mice, rats and zebrafish. They also discussed factors to consider when making decisions about appropriate techniques for particular species and projects, and priorities for further research. This report summarises the research findings and discussions, with recommendations to help inform good practice for humane killing.

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit in ulcerative colitis in laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of fruit of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) (CS) in acetic acid induced colitis in wistar rats. Methods: The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and C. sativus was administered at a dose of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, hematological parameters, colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 d. Results: Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO and hematological parameters. Pretreatment with C. sativus for 7 d exhibited significant effect in lowering of ulcer area, ulcer index as well as neutrophil infiltration at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrates C. sativus is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the inflammatory mediator.

  13. Serological evidence for hepatitis e virus infection in laboratory monkeys and pigs in animal facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kaori; Kita, Masakazu; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Arikawa, Jiro; Yagami, Kenichi; Asano, Masahide; Tezuka, Hideo; Suzuki, Noboru; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Furuya, Masato; Mohri, Shirou; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Ibuki, Kentaro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-07-01

    In laboratory animal facilities, monkeys and pigs are used for animal experiments, but the details of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these animals are unknown. The risk of infection from laboratory animals to humans has become a concern; therefore, much attention should be paid to the handling of these animals during their care and use, including surgical procedures performed on infected animals. In this connection, serum samples collected from 916 monkeys and 77 pigs kept in 23 animal facilities belonging to the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of National University Corporations (JALAN) and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of Public and Private Universities (JALAP) in Japan were examined for the purpose of detecting antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA by using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and seven serum samples of 916 (11.7%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 7 and 17 serum samples of 916 (0.8% and 5.3%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgA, respectively. Thirty-six samples from 62 (58.1%) farm pigs were positive for anti-HEV IgG, whereas all samples tested from miniature pigs were negative (0/15, 0%). Seven samples from 62 (9.1%) farm pigs and 7 samples from 916 (0.8%) monkeys were positive for IgM antibody, but these HEV-IgM antibody positive serum samples were HEV-RNA negative by RT-PCR. The IgM antibody positive rate (9.1%) of farm pigs was much higher than that of monkeys (0.8%). These results suggest the relative levels of risk of HEV infection from these animals to animal handlers and researchers who work with them in laboratory animal facilities.

  14. Emerging technologies in education and training: applications for the laboratory animal science community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Niemi, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several new and exciting communication technologies. Many of the technologies were developed by the entertainment industry; however, other industries are adopting and modifying them for their own needs. These new technologies allow people to collaborate across distance and time and to learn in simulated work contexts. The article explores the potential utility of these technologies for advancing laboratory animal care and use through better education and training. Descriptions include emerging technologies such as augmented reality and multi-user virtual environments, which offer new approaches with different capabilities. Augmented reality interfaces, characterized by the use of handheld computers to infuse the virtual world into the real one, result in deeply immersive simulations. In these simulations, users can access virtual resources and communicate with real and virtual participants. Multi-user virtual environments enable multiple participants to simultaneously access computer-based three-dimensional virtual spaces, called "worlds," and to interact with digital tools. They allow for authentic experiences that promote collaboration, mentoring, and communication. Because individuals may learn or train differently, it is advantageous to combine the capabilities of these technologies and applications with more traditional methods to increase the number of students who are served by using current methods alone. The use of these technologies in animal care and use programs can create detailed training and education environments that allow students to learn the procedures more effectively, teachers to assess their progress more objectively, and researchers to gain insights into animal care.

  15. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research.

  16. Does accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) ensure greater compliance with animal welfare laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories.

  17. 76 FR 74803 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Annual Report to OLAW covering the 2012 reporting period due January 31, 2013. In addition, institutions... agricultural animals used in biomedical research. In addition, there is a summary of OLAW's position on... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Adoption and Implementation...

  18. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  19. A model for population growth of laboratory animals subjected to marker-assisted introgression : how many animals do we need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudande, O.D.; Thomson, P.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides methods for calculating the mean and variance of the number of animals with the desired genotype in each backcross generation for a marker-assisted introgression experiment. The ultimate goal is to produce animals which are homozygous for the desired loci. The methods have been d

  20. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  1. A review of reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Okuda, Hirokazu; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in laboratory animals. AgNPs showed testicular/sperm toxicity in males and ovarian and embryonic toxicity in females. Maternal injection of AgNPs delayed physical development and impaired cognitive behavior in offspring. Ag was accumulated in the testes after administration of AgNPs. AgNPs were identified in the visceral yolk sac after administration during early gestation in mice. Radiolabeled AgNPs were detected in placenta, breast milk, and pre- and postnatal offspring after injection during late gestation in rats. Ag in the ionic form, and possibly also particles, was suggested to be bioavailable. Although this review provides initial information on the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of AgNPs, data is still very limited. Further studies using state-of-the-art methodologies and the relevant routes and doses for human exposure are required.

  2. [Value of the microarray for the study of Laboratory Animal Allergy (LAA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Martini, Agnese; Melis, Paola; Signorini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers the Laboratory Animal Allergy - LAA a risk for workers and in 1998 the LAA has been recognized as occupational risk in the USA. Rat and mouse are the most source of allergens, not so much for the higher power of allergy respect to the other animals, but because represent the more utilized species in the research. Most of the allergens are members of the lipocalin superfamily, small extracellular proteins represented by at least 50 proteins that mainly bind or carry small hydrophobic molecules. The recent and innovative molecular techniques, as the microarray, have allow the characterization of numerous allergens. The protein microarray gives the possibility to study of IgE profile for each individual, simultaneos analysis of a wide number of parameters concerning the allergy, giving new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for the allergies. In the study of occupational allergy--as LAA--the protein microarray could improve: the identification and characterization of new allergens; the individuation of susceptible workers; the study of immunological responses in exposed workers; the strategies of prevention and protection; the environmental and housing conditions. The participation, formation and information of the workers could improve the behavioural and occupational practices, the use of personal and collective protective devices in order to reduce the exposure to LAA in occupational context.

  3. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  4. [Empathy for pain: A novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral laboratory animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Zhen; Lv, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting

    2015-12-25

    Empathy, a basic prosocial behavior, is referred to as an ability to understand and share others' emotional state. Generally, empathy is also a social-behavioral basis of altruism. In contrast, impairment of empathy development may be associated with autism, narcissism, alexithymia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Thus, study of the brain mechanisms of empathy has great importance to not only scientific and clinical advances but also social harmony. However, research on empathy has long been avoided due to the fact that it has been considered as a distinct feature of human beings from animals, leading to paucity of knowledge in the field. In 2006, a Canadian group from McGill University found that a mouse in pain could be shared by its paired cagemate, but not a paired stranger, showing decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses through emotional contagion while they were socially interacting. In 2014, we further found that a rat in pain could also be shared by its paired cagemate 30 min after social interaction, showing long-term decreased pain threshold and increased pain responses, suggesting persistence of empathy for pain (empathic memory). We also mapped out that the medial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex, prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, is involved in empathy for pain in rats, suggesting that a neural network may be associated with development of pain empathy in the CNS. In the present brief review, we give a brief outline of the advances and challenges in study of empathy for pain in humans and animals, and try to provide a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for study of pain and its emotional comorbidity using laboratory animals.

  5. Meeting report: batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic activity in commercial animal diets--importance and approaches for laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-03-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the workshops showing that there is significant batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic content of commercial animal diets, and that this variability results in differences in experimental outcomes. A combination of methods were proposed to determine levels of total estrogenic activity and levels of specific estrogenic constituents in soy-containing, casein-containing, and other soy-free rodent diets. Workshop participants recommended that researchers pay greater attention to the type of diet being used in animal studies and choose a diet whose estrogenic activity (or lack thereof) is appropriate for the experimental model and end points of interest. Information about levels of specific phytoestrogens, as well as estrogenic activity caused by other contaminants and measured by bioassay, should be disclosed in scientific publications. This will require laboratory animal diet manufacturers to provide investigators with information regarding the phytoestrogen content and other estrogenic compounds in commercial diets used in animal research.

  6. Laboratory Animals and Zoonotic Infectious Disease%实验动物与人兽共患传染病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏咸柱; 高玉伟; 王化磊

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious disease constitute a tenacious and major social and economic problem, and also a huge threat to public-health and the state security. Laboratory animals play an irreplaceable role in research on prevention and control of zoonotic infectious disease. The paper was a review and prospect in such respects as harm of zoonotic infectious disease, the role of laboratory animal, the application of laboratory animal in the study of important zoonotic infectious disease, influence of zoonotic infectious disease on laboratory animal's health, the exploitation of neotype laboratory animals.%人兽共患传染病的社会危害严重、经济损失巨大,威胁着公共卫生乃至国家安全.作为重要支撑条件的实验动物在人兽共患传染病防控研究中发挥着不可替代的作用.本文从人兽共患传染病的危害、实验动物的作用、实验动物在重要人兽共患传染病研究中的应用、人兽共患传染病对实验动物健康的影响、人兽共患病研究中新型实验动物的开发等五个方面进行了综述和展望.

  7. Quality control for laboratory animals%实验动物的质量管理与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁磊(综述); 张新创(审校)

    2014-01-01

    我国通过建立的实验动物法律法规、管理制度、技术标准、许可证制度、动物质量检测体系等一系列措施,加大了对实验动物的管理力度。目的是提高和保证实验动物质量,提高实验动物科技水平和生命科学研究水平。同时,随着管理力度的加大和人们认识水平的提高及动物环境设施的改善,动物的福利也得到了很大的改善和提高,更有利于提高动物试验结果的准确性和可信性。%A series of management measures have been developed including laboratory animal law and regulation , manage-ment system, technical standard , licensing system, quality inspection system for laboratory animal , etc, so as to strengthen controlling of this aspect in China .The purpose is to improve and guarantee the quality of laboratory animal ,and improve level in laboratory animal science and in research of life science in a nationwide .Through the implementation of these measures , it has been made a great progress in laboratory animal quality and scientific research even in the whole life sci -ence research, meanwhile, animal experimental results have become accurate and reliable along with a better animal living enveronment and a reformed animal welfare .

  8. "Life in a germ-free world": isolating life from the laboratory animal to the bubble boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a specific technology, the germ-free "isolator," tracing its development across three sites: (1) the laboratory for the production of standard laboratory animals, (2) agriculture for the efficient production of farm animals, and (3) the hospital for the control and prevention of cross-infection and the protection of individuals from infection. Germ-free technology traveled across the laboratory sciences, clinical and veterinary medicine, and industry, yet failed to become institutionalized outside the laboratory. That germ-free technology worked was not at issue. Working, however, was not enough. Examining the history of a technology that failed to find widespread application reveals the labor involved in aligning cultural, societal, and material factors necessary for successful medical innovation.

  9. Ethics and Animal Experimentation in the Laboratory. A Critical Analysis of the Arguments for"Animal Rights"and"Animal Equality"

    OpenAIRE

    Tagha, Yuninui Eric

    2005-01-01

    Growing up as a child, we had a Dog. To us, it was like a means to an end. That is, hunting other animals for food and for protection, with no special care and treatment given to this animal. Butas days passed by I began to witness a wind of change against such actions. I was made to understand that we were committing two crimes-: using the Dog as a means to an end (for hunting and for eating animals). Today almost every newspaper has something to say about the treatment of animals by humans,...

  10. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim progress report, March 9, 1976--September 8, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Hjeresen, D.L.

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported on a broad and comprehensive series of biological experiments made under strictly controlled laboratory conditions to screen for possible effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals. Electric field strengths comparable to and exceeding those under existing and anticipated transmission line designs will be used. Dosimetry studies will complement the animal studies to establish the relationship between tissue dose and any observed biological effects. Information derived from this project will provide a better basis for evaluating potential hazards of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields and help define parameters to be studied in clinical evaluations on humans.

  11. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  12. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-10-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  13. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  14. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  15. Exposure setups for laboratory animals and volunteer studies using body-mounted antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Achim; Adami, C; Bolz, T; Rennings, A; Dorn, H; Rüttiger, L

    2007-01-01

    For two different in vivo exposure setups body-mounted antenna systems have been designed. The first setup is designed for investigation of volunteers during simulated mobile phone usage. The setup consists of a dual-band antenna for GSM/WCDMA with enhanced carrying properties, which enables exposure for at least 8 h a day. The 10 g averaged localised SAR--normalised to an antenna input power of 1 W--measured in the flat phantom area of the SAM phantom amounts to 7.82 mW g(-1) (900 MHz) and 10.98 mW g(-1) (1966 MHz). The second exposure setup is used for a laboratory behavioural study on rats. The design goal was a localised, well-defined SAR distribution inside the animals' heads at 900 MHz. To fulfil the biological requirements, a loop antenna was developed. For tissues around the ears, a localised SAR value of 50.12 W kg(-1) averaged over a mass of 2.2 g for an antenna input power of 1 W is obtained.

  16. Subcutaneous implants for long-acting drug therapy in laboratory animals may generate unintended drug reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-acting therapy in laboratory animals offers advantages over the current practice of 2-3 daily drug injections. Yet little is known about the disintegration of biodegradable drug implants in rodents. Objective: Compare bioavailability of buprenorphine with the biodegradation of lipid-encapsulated subcutaneous drug pellets. Methods: Pharmacokinetic and histopathology studies were conducted in BALB/c female mice implanted with cholesterol-buprenorphine drug pellets. Results: Drug levels are below the level of detection (0.5 ng/mL plasma within 4-5 days of implant. However, necroscopy revealed that interstitial tissues begin to seal implants within a week. Visual inspection of the implant site revealed no evidence of inflammation or edema associated with the cholesterol-drug residue. Chemical analyses demonstrated that the residues contained 10-13% of the initial opiate dose for at least two weeks post implant. Discussion: The results demonstrate that biodegradable scaffolds can become sequestered in the subcutaneous space. Conclusion: Drug implants can retain significant and unintended reservoirs of drugs.

  17. A review of toxicity studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-02-01

    We summarized the findings of in vivo toxicity studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in laboratory animals. The large majority addressed the pulmonary toxicity of SWCNTs in rodents. Inhalation, pharyngeal aspiration, and intratracheal instillation studies revealed that SWCNTs caused acute and chronic inflammation, granuloma formation, collagen deposition, fibrosis, and genotoxic effects in the lungs. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed SWCNTs was more potent than less dispersed ones. Airway exposure to SWCNTs also induced cardiovascular diseases in mice. Oxidative stress was caused by the administration of SWCNTs. Injected SWCNTs were distributed throughout most of the organs including the brain, mainly retained in the lungs, liver, and spleen, and eliminated through the kidney and bile duct. Orally administered SWCNTs are suggested to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood circulation in mice and rats. Although no definitive study on the carcinogenicity of SWCNTs is available at present, evidence of carcinogenicity has not been reported in toxicity studies cited in this review. Overall, the available data provides initial information on SWCNT toxicity. To further clarify their toxicity and risk assessment, studies should be conducted using well-characterized SWCNTs, standard protocols, and the relevant route and doses of human exposure.

  18. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp.): 'Other Pests' Occasionally Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-11-01

    Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.

  19. Wire-bottom versus solid-bottom rodent caging issues important to scientists and laboratory animal science specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D M

    2001-11-01

    Recent emphasis in the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, International, related to the availability of bedding in rodent cages raises regulatory and accreditation issues in the toxicology-laboratory setting. This article reviews the results of a recent survey of 12 United States-based pharmaceutical and contract toxicology laboratories. The perceived benefits and issues related to the use of wire-bottom and bedded caging for rodent studies are presented. The 1999 survey showed that more than 80% of the rodents in surveyed toxicology facilities were housed in wire-bottom cages. Long-term budget expenses related to supplies and waste disposal are assessed. Considerable short-term and long-term costs to programs would be associated with a change from wire-bottom to solid-bottom caging. A review of the past and recent literature related to animal preferences and cage-associated animal lesions is included. The importance of IACUC review of caging chosen by the investigative staff is emphasized.

  20. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  1. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Laboratory Animal Science Technology. Interim Report. Research 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Walter E.; Farnsworth, Wilbur M.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the necessary information for the writing of educational specifications for facilities to house career programs in laboratory animal science technology. The guide is also designed to: (1) assist planners in formation of creative solutions to the housing of desired educational programs, (2) prevent…

  2. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan; Ferdowsian, Hope; Durham, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than pre-AWA rates. However, when we attempted to determine those rates from published studies, data were too sparse to allow a rigorous statistical analysis; of 139 studies reporting primate self-harming behavior, only 9 contained data allowing estimation of self-harming behavior rates. We conclude that the current system of laboratory animal care and record keeping is inadequate to properly assess AWA impacts on primate psychological well being and that more is required to ensure the psychological well being of primates.

  3. Pain management standards in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Larry

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals sets standards for diverse laboratory animal care and use practices. It frames its standards as performance, engineering, and practice standards, with a strong emphasis on performance standards, allowing for multiple routes to clearly defined outcomes. Standards intended to be upheld rigorously are indicated through the use of must in the description, and those accommodating more flexibility are indicated through may and should statements. With respect to pain management standards, a fourth type of standard-the jurisdictional standard-has been prevalent through all 8 editions of the Guide. Under jurisdictional standards, specific methods and outcomes for measuring, preventing, or alleviating pain are not detailed, but the various jurisdictions of veterinarian, investigator, and IACUC are elaborated. Although data on pain management in laboratory animals has expanded greatly since the 1996 Guide, the eighth (2011) edition does not contain major new standards or guidance regarding animal pain management. Requirements for veterinary and IACUC involvement remain as in prior editions, and the duty of veterinarians and scientists to stay abreast of new developments is expected to drive refinement of animal pain management institution by institution. The current article details selected specific pain management standards in the 2011 Guide, lists topics in pain management for which the Guide does not set clear standards, and suggests possible standards for those topics.

  4. How to improve housing conditions of laboratory animals: The possibilities of environmental refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van

    2013-01-01

    Housing systems for captive animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic considerations, such as equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals and to maintain a certain degree of hygiene, with little or no consideration for animal welfare. Environmental

  5. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  6. Establishment of the laboratory animal strain database%实验动物品系数据库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琪; 夏霞宇; 秦川

    2015-01-01

    Objective To collect more than 200 kinds of species totaling more than 26,000 existing laboratory animals data worldwide to establish a largest and most comprehensive database of laboratory animal strains, based on the existing laboratory animal strain databases and related publications or references.Methods Based on MySQL database software to set up medium sized databases, and build search interface, input interface and database interface.Results In this work, a laboratory animal strain database was established, including data of 21596 mouse strains, 2062 rat strains, 13 monkey strains, 2 hamster strains, 5 dog strains, and 5 rabbit strains.We will gradually further improve the data to achieve regularly updated database of animal strains in the future.Discussions The establishment of this database will facilitate scientific researchers in our country to access and use domestic and foreign resources of laboratory animal strains, and provide links to introduce laboratory animal strain resources from European, American and other developed countries.%目的:基于国内外部分实验动物数据库和文献,收集整理世界上现有的200多种共计26000多个品系的实验动物数据,建立关系型检索数据库,使其成为世界上最大最全的实验动物品系数据库。方法构建基于My SQL数据库软件的中小型数据库,建立检索界面、录入界面和数据库接口。结果本文建立了实验动物品系数据库,已经收录小鼠品系数据21596条;大鼠品系数据2062条;猴品系数据13条;地鼠品系数据2条;犬品系数据5条;兔品系数据5条。以后会逐步完善数据,实现实验动物品系数据库的定期更新。讨论该数据库的建立方便我国科研人员查阅和使用国内外实验动物品系资源,为引进欧美日等发达国家的实验动物品系资源提供链接。

  7. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  8. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  9. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  10. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  11. Plastination of tissues and organs: interdisciplinary approach to replace laboratory animals that are in use for education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieski Vlatko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to apply the plastination as an alternative method for protection on animals that are used in education, experiments and research according the European Directive 86/609/EEC. A two years old female guinea pig is used as material. The dissection of muscles as well subcutaneous structures and organs from abdominal cavity is preformed immediately after the death of animal. The guinea pig is plastinated using the protocol for S10 plastination. The plastinated guinea pig has firm consistention, it is dry on hand touch, oddorless and free of any chemical substances. The dissected skeletal muscle enable to learn their topography and easy to understand their function. Because of permanent preservation, the organs from abdominal cavity retain their topographical position enabling complete view of anatomical relationship of organs like stomach, spleen, pancreas and left kidney are, the mesenteries with apart of thin and large intestines, the relationship between the ovary and the horns of the uterus. According the results, the S10 plastination technique can be use for developing an anatomical model from one laboratory animal witch can be used for education process in anatomy. The method of plastination is an important tool allowing 3.R concept to be aplied and widely accepted since plastinated models can reduce using the laboratory animals for education and research purposes.

  12. Monitoring Animal Activity Rhythms in the Laboratory: Four Easily Assembled Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1989-01-01

    The use of actographs for studying animal activity is discussed. Described are running recorders for rodents, perching and feeding recorders for birds, and tilting box recorders for studying the movement of reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods. (CW)

  13. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  14. Fundamental training for individuals involved in the care and use of laboratory animals: a review and update of the 1991 NRC Core Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Leticia V; Hrapkiewicz, Karen; Tear, Marianne; Anderson, Lynn C

    2007-01-01

    Public trust demands that individuals who do research, testing, or teaching with animals use humane, ethical, and scientifically sound methods. Furthermore, the Animal Welfare Act and the Public Health Service Policy require research institutions to provide basic training and to ensure that anyone who cares for and/or works with laboratory animals has the appropriate training or experience relevant to their job responsibilities. Institutions accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International must also provide training programs and ensure the qualifications of personnel. The primary goal of this training is to provide individuals with basic knowledge and to reinforce attitudes and behaviors that help to ensure humane animal care and use. This article provides an overview of the core training module outline and content from the 1991 report of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs, as well as pertinent updates for introducing personnel to information regarding the care and use of laboratory animals. Both mandatory and suggested training topics are reviewed, including relevant regulations and standards, ethical considerations, humane methods of animal experimentation and maintenance, and other pertinent topics. Although the fundamental training course content and delivery will vary depending on the nature and complexity of an institution's animal care and use program, this basic training provides the foundation for more in-depth training programs and supports humane and ethical animal care and use.

  15. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of selenium- containing supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50 ± 2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group--animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1--a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain growh in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2--animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 µg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3--animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 µg Se per 50 g body weight). Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in

  16. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service is making available a concept paper that describes a revised structure... paper we are making available for comment presents a structure we believe will give the NAHLN...

  17. An on-line automated sleep-wake classification system for laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, W; vanderWerf, D; Mirmiran, M

    1996-01-01

    A computerized sleep-wake classification program is presented that is capable of classifying sleep-wake states on-line in four animals simultaneously. Every 10 s the classification algorithm assigns sleep-wake states on the basis of the power spectrum of an EEG signal and the standard deviation of a

  18. Benzocaine-Induced Methemoglobinemia Attributed to Topical Application of the Anesthetic in Several Laboratory Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    constitute a SVwere variable because of the screening nature of the danger for stressed or ill animals. Other commonly0 study and the topical route of...coefficient ically restrained by administration of a single dose of of variability < 5%.12 xylazine and ketamine, adjusted for species and weight

  19. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  20. Animal Galloping and Human Hopping: An Energetics and Biomechanics Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Stan L.; Mineo, Patrick M.; Schaeffer, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates fundamental principles of mammalian locomotion. It provides opportunities to interrogate aspects of locomotion from biomechanics to energetics to body size scaling. It has the added benefit of having results with robust signal to noise so that students will have success even if not "meticulous" in…

  1. Invited review: Efficacy, metabolism, and toxic responses to chlorate salts in food and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Oliver, C E; Taylor, J B; Anderson, R C

    2012-11-01

    For over 100 yr, scientists have explored uses of sodium chlorate in agricultural applications. Sodium chlorate is a strong oxidizer, and thus can be very hazardous when not handled accordingly. Nevertheless, late 19th century agriculturists and scientists attempted to exploit the chemical properties of sodium chlorate as an herbicide and food preservative. It is the herbicidal utility that led to subsequent use of sodium chlorate in the agricultural industry since then. However, in 2000, USDA-ARS scientists proposed a new and targeted use of sodium chlorate against enterobacteria in food animal production. Specifically, when orally dosed in to cattle (Bos taurus), swine (Sus scrofa), broilers (Gallus gallus), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and sheep (Ovis aries), chlorate reduced the fecal shedding of common enteropathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Subsequent to this discovery, the efficacy of chlorate salts has been demonstrated in numerous production classes within species. Doses of sodium chlorate as low as 30 mg/kg BW, but typically 50 to 150 mg/kg BW, have been used to demonstrate efficacy against pathogens. Single or short-duration (food animals. In all species studied to date, the major biotransformation product of chlorate is chloride ion; chlorite is not present in tissues or excreta of chlorate dosed animals. Chlorate is rapidly eliminated in ruminants and nonruminants, primarily in urine; likewise, residual chlorate in tissues depletes rapidly. Application of any new chemical entity to food animal production carries with it a responsibility to understand adverse reactions that intended and nonintended exposures may have in target and (or) nontarget animals and an understanding of the pathways of elimination that occur after exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the published data regarding the efficacy, metabolism, and toxicology of chlorate salts in target (livestock) and nontarget species.

  2. Cytotoxic and pathogenic properties of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Darby

    Full Text Available Klebsiella oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in various clinical diseases in animals and humans. Studies suggest that in humans K. oxytoca exerts its pathogenicity in part through a cytotoxin. However, cytotoxin production in animal isolates of K. oxytoca and its pathogenic properties have not been characterized. Furthermore, neither the identity of the toxin nor a complete repertoire of genes involved in K. oxytoca pathogenesis have been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that several animal isolates of K. oxytoca, including the clinical isolates, produced secreted products in bacterial culture supernatant that display cytotoxicity on HEp-2 and HeLa cells, indicating the ability to produce cytotoxin. Cytotoxin production appears to be regulated by the environment, and soy based product was found to have a strong toxin induction property. The toxin was identified, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, as low molecular weight heat labile benzodiazepine, tilivalline, previously shown to cause cytotoxicity in several cell lines, including mouse L1210 leukemic cells. Genome sequencing and analyses of a cytotoxin positive K. oxytoca strain isolated from an abscess of a mouse, identified genes previously shown to promote pathogenesis in other enteric bacterial pathogens including ecotin, several genes encoding for type IV and type VI secretion systems, and proteins that show sequence similarity to known bacterial toxins including cholera toxin. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time, that animal isolates of K. oxytoca, produces a cytotoxin, and that cytotoxin production is under strict environmental regulation. We also confirmed tilivalline as the cytotoxin present in animal K. oxytoca strains. These findings, along with the discovery of a repertoire of genes with virulence potential, provide important insights into the pathogenesis of K. oxytoca. As a novel diagnostic tool, tilivalline

  3. Continuation of Support for the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    publication date) are in some stage of planning or production: Neural Regulation of Social Behavior (2009). Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of...associates (subscribers). ILAR strives to provide information and scientifically-based guidelines that will benefit the research enterprise and to...Pathobiology) Stephen Allen Smith, DVM, PhD Department of Biomedical Sciences & Pathobiology VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine ( Aquatic

  4. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  5. Select agent and toxin regulations: beyond the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenmayer, Robin J; Moore, Rashida M; Bright, Allison L; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Elkins, William R

    2012-05-01

    In the interval between the publication of the seventh and eighth editions of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), much has changed with regard to the regulation and funding of highly pathogenic biologic agents and toxins (Select Agents). Funding of research involving highly pathogenic agents has increased dramatically during this time, thus increasing the demand for facilities capable of supporting this work. The eighth edition of the Guide briefly mentions Select Agents and provides a limited set of references. Here we provide some background information regarding the relevant laws and regulations, as well as an overview of the programmatic requirements pertaining to the use of Select Agents, with a focus on use in animals.

  6. Biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small and large laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Rats and mice were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields up to 330 kV/m for durations as long as four months. No significant effects were found in the following major areas: metabolic status and growth; organ and tissue morphology; brain morphology; cardiovascular function; serum chemistry; reproduction; prenatal growth and development; teratology; bone growth; peripheral nerve function; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; susceptibility to viral infection; cell and membrane function; illness/malaise; and cytogenetics. Statistically significant effects of electric field exposures were observed in the following areas: bone fracture repair; neonatal development; neuromuscular function; endocrinology; hematology; neurochemistry; urine volume and chemistry; sympathetic nervous system; behavior. It is likely that many of the effects observed are secondary to chronic stimulation of the animal by the field. Our research efforts have shifted to an in-depth investigation of nervous system functions, with emphasis in behavior, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and dosimetry. Current and future research in these areas will focus on: relationship of effects to field strength and duration of exposure; recovery from observed effects; fundamental understanding of observed effects; fundamental understanding of interaction of field with animal (dosimetry); and biological significance of observed effects. (ERB)

  7. A review of toxicity studies on graphene-based nanomaterials in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2017-04-01

    We summarized the findings of toxicity studies on graphene-based nanomaterials (GNMs) in laboratory mammals. The inhalation of graphene (GP) and graphene oxide (GO) induced only minimal pulmonary toxicity. Bolus airway exposure to GP and GO caused acute and subacute pulmonary inflammation. Large-sized GO (L-GO) was more toxic than small-sized GO (S-GO). Intratracheally administered GP passed through the air-blood barrier into the blood and intravenous GO distributed mainly in the lungs, liver, and spleen. S-GO and L-GO mainly accumulated in the liver and lungs, respectively. Limited information showed the potential behavioral, reproductive, and developmental toxicity and genotoxicity of GNMs. There are indications that oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved in the toxicity of GNMs. The surface reactivity, size, and dispersion status of GNMs play an important role in the induction of toxicity and biodistribution of GNMs. Although this review paper provides initial information on the potential toxicity of GNMs, data are still very limited, especially when taking into account the many different types of GNMs and their potential modifications. To fill the data gap, further studies should be performed using laboratory mammals exposed using the route and dose anticipated for human exposure scenarios.

  8. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eSkrapits

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory species. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine. These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

  9. SkinEthic Laboratories, a company devoted to develop and produce in vitro alternative methods to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brugerolle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    SkinEthic Laboratories is a France-based biotechnology company recognised as the world leader in tissue engineering. SkinEthic is devoted to develop and produce reliable and robust in vitro alternative methods to animal use in cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. SkinEthic models provide relevant tools for efficacy and safety screening tests in order to support an integrated decision-making during research and development phases. Some screening tests are referenced and validated as alternatives to animal use (Episkin), others are in the process of validation under ECVAM and OECD guidelines. SkinEthic laboratories provide a unique and joined experience of more than 20 years from Episkin SNC and SkinEthic SA. Their unique cell culture process allows in vitro reconstructed human tissues with well characterized histology, functionality and ultrastructure features to be mass produced. Our product line includes skin models: a reconstructed human epidermis with a collagen layer, Episkin, reconstructed human epidermis without or with melanocytes (with a tanning degree from phototype II to VI) and a reconstructed human epithelium, i.e. cornea, and other mucosa, i.e. oral, gingival, oesophageal and vaginal. Our philosophy is based on 3 main commitments: to support our customers by providing robust and reliable models, to ensure training and education in using validated protocols, allowing a large array of raw materials, active ingredients and finished products in solid, liquid, powder, cream or gel form to be screened, and, to provide a dedicated service to our partners.

  10. 国家啮齿类实验动物种子中心简介%A Brief Introduction to National Resource Center for Rodent Laboratory Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秉飞

    2003-01-01

    National Resource Center (NRLARC) for Rodent Laboratory Animal was established in 1998, ratified by State Commission of Science and Technology. Subordinated to laboratory animal center For National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products. The major aims are: importing, collecting and conserving the variety of LA and strain of LA, studying new LA protection techniques, developing the new strain and varieties of LA and supplying the standard breeding of LA to several client both at home and abroad.

  11. 鱼类实验动物与剑尾鱼水生实验动物化%Studies on Swordtail as Laboratory Animal and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淑勤; 黄志斌; 石存斌; 潘厚军; 谭细畅

    2003-01-01

    Fishes play important roles in many research fields, such as pollution detection of water, biological accumulation of chemicals in the water and biomedicine. Fishes as laboratory animals have been given close attention by numerous researchers. But the research level is less developed and the standardized fishes strains are scarce. Our country have paid more attention to the research and application of fishes as laboratory animals, and made more efforts on the strains selection and culture.

  12. Effects of amiodarone on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of digoxin in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva-Stoytcheva, D; Kristeva, E

    1992-04-01

    Some pharmacokinetic interactions between digoxin and amiodarone were studied in experiments on rabbits. An increase of digoxin serum levels was established in amiodarone-treated rabbits (amiodarone 30 mg/kg s.c. for five days alone or together with digoxin). The calculated elimination half-life (t 1/2) and the area under the curve (AUC) of digoxin were increased and the digoxin clearance was decreased, being most pronounced in animals receiving amiodarone-digoxin combination for five days. There were no changes either in digoxin toxicity in amiodarone-treated guinea pigs or in serum levels of T4, T3 and TTH. The possible mechanisms of digoxin-amiodarone interactions are discussed.

  13. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Maciel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using Evans blue (EB vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host, either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  14. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  15. 重视和加强中国实验动物的研究%Value and Strengthen the Study of Laboratory Animals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈领; 胡景杰; 陈越; 任晓峰; 李长春

    2013-01-01

    At present, laboratory animal science is getting obviously important to biology. Although the institution and organization, rules and regulations is gradually improved, the gap is still exits compared with the international level. So, we should pay attention to and strengthen the study of laboratory animals in China, such as, the Standardization of laboratory animals, Laboratory Animalization of wild animals, animal welfare, 3 Rs techniques and the industrialization of laboratory animals, so as to promote the overall development of life sciences of China.%当前,实验动物对生物学和医学的重要性凸显.我国的实验动物组织机构和法规条例建设逐步完善,但与国际水准相比仍有差距.因此,应当重视和加强我国实验动物的研究,如实验动物标准化,野生动物实验动物化,动物福利,3Rs技术以及实验动物的产业化,以推动我国生命科学的整体发展.

  16. Can laboratory animals violate behavioural norms? Towards a preclinical model of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Simone; Zoratto, Francesca; Chiarotti, Flavia; Laviola, Giovanni

    2017-02-03

    Conduct disorder (CD), a disturbance characterised by excess rates of aggression - often associated with callousness, lack of empathy and shallow/deficient affect - is extremely prevalent (2-10%) in the juvenile population. CD symptoms are quantitative rather than qualitative in nature whereby, rather than exhibiting abnormal behaviours, CD patients indulge in normal behaviours at abnormal rates. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to CD aetiology, their precise contribution is yet to be determined. Experimental animal models may aid discriminating genetic vs. environmental effects and designing innovative therapeutic approaches. Here we discuss a theoretical framework potentially favouring the design of experimental models of CD. We suggest that the latter shall recapitulate the "norm violation" typical of the human disorder across the core domains involved in CD: aggression, callousness, empathy and emotionality. We first review how these domains have been operationalised in preclinical models; we then suggest that these experimental paradigms shall be combined with appropriate statistical tools to identify a subset of individuals consistently characterised by abnormal values in CD-relevant phenotypes.

  17. Solving an ethical issue involved in experimentation with animals in a brazilian teaching laboratory*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Natália I V; Viana, Henrique V; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; Silva, Thaís D N; Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Santos, Dilvani Oliveira; Castro, Helena C

    2004-11-01

    Changes are occurring within Brazilian institutes of higher education; currently several universities are reviewing their course offerings and teaching approaches to determine if they meet the needs of today's undergraduate students. When changes are made to the curriculum of experimental courses, there should be an understood guarantee that all efforts to avoid ethical and biosafety issues have been diligently considered. Ethical considerations lead us to create an alternative experimental session to be conducted that eliminated the use of rats, the conventional in vivo model employed for learning metabolism of glycogen in our university. To avoid possible biosafety issues, we prepared an alternative sample to simulate human urine, which we called guarurine. Using our new method, it is possible to verify positive results imitating a diabetic and starving people samples for detection of glucose and ketone. The alternative tool described herein is not only particularly suited to bypass the ethics of using animals for teaching, but also permits the discussion of significant aspects of pathological and physiological situations such as diabetics and starvation in a simple, safe, and interesting way.

  18. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Mumammad Aliyu; Abdullahi Ismail Musa; Muhammad Jaafar Kamal; Magaji Garba Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods:The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P Conclusions:These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  19. An inclined plane system with microcontroller to determine limb motor function of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wen; Young, Ming-Shing; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2008-02-15

    This study describes a high-accuracy inclined plane test system for quantitative measurement of the limb motor function of laboratory rats. The system is built around a microcontroller and uses a stepping motor to drive a ball screw, which changes the angle of the inclined plane. Any of the seven inclination speeds can be selected by the user. Two infrared (IR) LED/detector pairs function as interrupt sensors for objective determination of the moment that the rat loses its grip on the textured flooring of the starting area and slips down the plane. Inclination angle at the moment of IR interrupt (i.e. rat slip) is recorded. A liquid crystal display module shows the inclination speed and the inclination angle. The system can function as a stand alone device but a RS232 port allows connection to a personal computer (PC), so data can be sent directly to hard disk for storage and analysis. Experiments can be controlled by a local keypad or by the connected PC. Advantages of the presented system include easy operation, high accuracy, non-dependence on human observation for determination of slip angle, stand-alone capability, low cost and easy modification of the controlling software for different types of experiments. A fully functional prototype of the system is described. The prototype was used experimentally by a hospital group testing traumatic brain injury experiments, and some of their results are presented for system verification. It is found that the system is stable, accurate and easily used by investigators.

  20. Analysis of laboratory animal strain resources in USA%美国实验动物品种资源现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琪; 夏霞宇; 赵永坤

    2015-01-01

    实验动物是生命科学和生物医药创新研究等重要的支撑条件. 随着生命科学和生物医药产业的快速发展,实验动物、动物模型资源数量和种类都快速增加. 据统计,世界各地共培育着200多种共计26 000多个品系的实验动物,其中有2607个品系为常规实验动物. 美国是世界上实验动物资源大国,拥有最全的实验动物品系品种资源和保藏机构. 本文首次对美国实验动物资源进行了系统分析归类,以便为我国实验动物资源发展提供借鉴.%Laboratory animal is an important support condition in life science and biomedical research .With the rapid development of life science and biomedical industry, laboratory animals, and quantity and variety of animal model resource are rapidly increasing.According to the statistics, there are more than 200 kinds of a total of more than 26000 strains, including 2607 strains of conventional laboratory animals in the world .USA is a big country of laboratory animal resource in the world , with most of the laboratory animal breed resources and preservation organization .In this paper, we analyzed American laboratory animal re-sources, and provided references for the development of laboratory animal resource in China .

  1. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  2. A New Laboratory Animal Bedding and Padding Material%新型实验动物垫料--蒲草垫料的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪岩; 岳秉飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective Small-scale laboratory Animal to rodents breeding used bedding and padding that rely mainly on wooden bedding and padding more, This needs to consume a large amount of timber , very unfavorable protecting the natural environment. Studies have shown , a lot of kinds of timber because contain the harmful to animal material without suitable for making bedding and padding. So the work of research and develop new-type animal used as test bedding and padding very meaningful.

  3. 实验动物运输中的福利保障%The Welfare of Laboratory Animals during Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁春南; 李明; 黎绍明; 李保文

    2012-01-01

      Animal transportation may be intra-institutional, or between a commercial or noncommercial source and a research facility. For wildlife, transportation may occur between the capture site and field holding facilities. Many aspects of the animal transport may have an impact on animal welfare, such as handling, separation from fa-miliar conspecifics, possibly individual housing, confinement in an unfamiliar transport container, loading and un-loading, movement and vibrations during the journey, including acceleration and deceleration. Physical stress due to maintaining balance (especially larger animals), unfamiliar sights, sounds and smells, fluctuations in tempera-ture and humidity, withholding of food, or voluntary abstention from eating or drinking, disruption of light ( dark regime), new housing and care protocols at the end user establishment, including unfamiliar, humans and possibly new social groups or hierarchies are potential sources of stress for animals undergoing transport. Critical appraisal and refinement of all these organizational aspects of transport is essential if animal welfare is to be safeguarded during journeys.   The article briefly discuss the impacts of transport on animal welfare and the potential sources of stress for animals undergoing transport as well as the assessment measures of animal welfare during transport. Recommend general guidelines for humane transport of laboratory animals, and some valuable literature data. Recommend to read the original references for details.%  运输动物可能发生在各个动物生产或使用单位的内部,也可能发生在动物供应商与用户之间,对于野生动物,还可能会发生在捕捉地点与饲养设施之间。动物的运输过程中,许多的方面可能对动物福利产生直接的影响。包括搬运,从熟悉的同种中隔离及可能的单独饲养,被装载在不熟悉的运输容器中,装卸,运输途中的运动、震动、包括加速

  4. 稀有鮈鲫--一种新的鱼类实验动物%Rare Minnoe:A New Laboratory Animal in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文宣; 王剑伟

    2003-01-01

    As representative member of low-class vertebrate and aquatic ecosystem, fishes have high breeding ability with eggs external tertilized and transparent embryos developing synchronously outside the mother. They are used in researches of embryology, enetics, aquatic toxicology, behavioral science and environmental science. Ever since George using experimental gynogenesis method was published in nature in 1981, zebra fish, medaka and other fishes became favorite laboratory animals and played more and more important roles in the studies of genetics and environmental science. In 1990s, Chinese researchers began studying on rare minnow, swordtail, red crucian carp and other fishes as laboratory animals; consequently, a professional subgroup of Chinese Association for Laboratory Animal Sciences named Society of Experimental Aquatic Animal was set up in 2001 to promote researcher in this area.

  5. Recent experimental results of effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in laboratory animals - Relation to current regulations and guidance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Dieter, Hermann H; Hölzer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2017-03-02

    The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values. The present short overview describes the current regulations for PFAS and compares them with the outcome of several experimental studies in laboratory animals at low-level exposure to PFOA and PFOS. In addition, regulations for short-chain PFAS are presented which, due to lack of toxicological information, are evaluated according to the concepts of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) or the Health-related Indication Values (HRIV).

  6. 兽医在实验动物工作中的主要作用%The Major Role of Veterinary in Laboratory Animal Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小燕; 王超; 陈振文

    2012-01-01

    The roles of veterinary in laboratory animal management were summarized in present paper, which highlighted on veterinary action in construction, operation and management of laboratory animal facility. It also included important function of veterinary in designing and maintenance of laboratory animal facility, approval of laboratory animal both domestically and internationally. In addition, this paper illustrated the duty of veterinary in either laboratory animal health care, nurse and transportation, animal experiments design and performance, laboratory animal welfare supervising and management, evaluation and administration of biosafety, as well as control of drugs and castoff in animal experiments.%全面概述了兽医在实验动物工作中的作用,重点阐述了兽医在实验动物设施建设、运行与管理中的作用,包括兽医在实验动物设施设计、设施运行管理及国内、国际的实验动物认证中发挥的重要作用.同时阐明了兽医工作在实验动物健康保障和护理、运输管理、动物实验的设计与实施、实验动物福利监督与管理、生物安全的评价与管理中的作用以及兽医对实验动物各种药品和废弃物管理中的作用.

  7. ESLAV/ECLAM/LAVA/EVERI recommendations for the roles, responsibilities and training of the laboratory animal veterinarian and the designated veterinarian under Directive 2010/63/EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirier, G M; Bergmann, C; Denais-Lalieve, D G

    2015-01-01

    on the role of the DV. The role and responsibilities of the DV include the development, implementation and continuing review of an adequate programme for veterinary care at establishments breeding and/or using animals for scientific purposes. The programme should be tailored to the needs of the establishment......Directive 2010/63/EU was adopted in September 2010 by the European Parliament and Council, and became effective in January 2013. It replaces Directive 86/609/EEC and introduces new requirements for the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. In particular, it requires...... that establishments that breed, supply or use laboratory animals have a designated veterinarian (DV) with expertise in laboratory animal medicine, or a suitably qualified expert where more appropriate, charged with advisory duties in relation to the well-being and treatment of the animals. This paper is a report...

  8. The Concept of the Three Rs in Biomedical Research The Ethical and Scientific Basis for the Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals --The British Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GC BANTIN

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction 1.1 THE CONCEPT OF ANIMAL CARE.Ethics and the developing demand for relevant legislation During the late 19th Century there was an increasing concern in the UK with respect to a aspects of illtreatment of animals. This was reflected in the thinking of the research community and in 1871 The British Association For the Advancement of Science issued a set of basic principles of animal experimentation.This was a response to the growing awareness by the BA of the need for an ethical approach to biomedical research and for the considerate treatment of laboratory animals.

  9. An externally head-mounted wireless neural recording device for laboratory animal research and possible human clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Li, Hao; Bull, Christopher; Borton, David A; Aceros, Juan; Larson, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new type of head-mounted wireless neural recording device in a highly compact package, dedicated for untethered laboratory animal research and designed for future mobile human clinical use. The device, which takes its input from an array of intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEA) has ninety-seven broadband parallel neural recording channels and was integrated on to two custom designed printed circuit boards. These house several low power, custom integrated circuits, including a preamplifier ASIC, a controller ASIC, plus two SAR ADCs, a 3-axis accelerometer, a 48MHz clock source, and a Manchester encoder. Another ultralow power RF chip supports an OOK transmitter with the center frequency tunable from 3GHz to 4GHz, mounted on a separate low loss dielectric board together with a 3V LDO, with output fed to a UWB chip antenna. The IC boards were interconnected and packaged in a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure which is compatible with both animal and human use (e.g. sterilizable). The entire system consumes 17mA from a 1.2Ahr 3.6V Li-SOCl2 1/2AA battery, which operates the device for more than 2 days. The overall system includes a custom RF receiver electronics which are designed to directly interface with any number of commercial (or custom) neural signal processors for multi-channel broadband neural recording. Bench-top measurements and in vivo testing of the device in rhesus macaques are presented to demonstrate the performance of the wireless neural interface.

  10. Changes of oxidation during use the food diet with deuterium depleted water in laboratory animals with purulent inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Artsybasheva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective — To identify quantitative changes of the deuterium content, the intensity of free radical oxidation and antioxidant status of the blood system, as well as the effect of water with a modified isotope composition with low deuterium content on indicators of free radical oxidation of tissues in laboratory animals under physiological conditions and in inflammatory processes. Materials and methods — The object of the study was blood and homogenates of organs (liver, kidney of male rats. The basis of the model of oxidative stress was a well-known model of wound healing proposed by L.A. Mamedov based on the surgical treatment of abscess model, and we performed its modification in the course of experimental studies. Determination of deuterium concentration in the plasma was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance. The method of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence was used for the detection of relatively unstable chemically active radicals in the plasma. Stable radicals detect by the EPR spectrometry. Results and Conclusion — Thus, it should be noted that blood plasma demonstrates reliable reduction in deuterium concentration when using deuterium depleted water that continues until the values of 90-100 ppm thereafter remaining practically unchanged. At the same time, deuterium depleted water affects prooxidant-antioxidant system of the body reducing the intensity of free radical oxidation and restoring the capacity of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  11. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo M P; Carvalho, Ana F U; Farias, Davi F; Cariolano, Nara G; Melo, Vânia M M; Queiroz, Maria G R; Martins, Alice M C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2009-06-01

    In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS) were assessed on eggs and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats). Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260microg/mL, causing 99.2 +/- 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200microg/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80 masculineC/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into watersoluble dialyzable (DF) and nondyalizable (NDF) fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7microg/mL) and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight) pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutelytreated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.

  12. Guidelines for the veterinary care of laboratory animals: report of the FELASA/ECLAM/ESLAV Joint Working Group on Veterinary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Baneux, P; Gomez de Segura, I A; Hau, J; Wolfensohn, S

    2008-01-01

    Veterinary professionals working in partnership with other competent persons are essential for a successful animal care and use programme. A veterinarian's primary responsibilities are defined by their own professional regulatory bodies, but in this area of work there are further opportunities for contribution, which will assist in safeguarding the health and welfare of animals used in research. These guidelines are aimed not only at veterinarians to explain their duties, and outline the opportunities to improve the health and welfare of animals under their care, but also at employers and regulators to help them meet their responsibilities. They describe the desirability for postgraduate education towards specialization in laboratory animal medicine and detail the many competencies necessary to fulfil the role of the laboratory animal veterinarian. They detail the need for veterinary expertise to promote good health and good welfare of animals used in biomedical research during husbandry as well as when under experimental procedures. Regulatory and ethical aspects are covered as are the involvement of the veterinarian in education and training of others working in the animal care and use programme. Managerial aspects, including occupational health and safety, are also areas where the veterinarian's input can assist in the successful implementation of the programme.

  13. Aquatic environment, housing, and management in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: additional considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Timothy J; Matthews, Monte

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and suggests consultations with persons experienced in caring for aquatic species. Here we present considerations that may add to the basic information presented in the Guide and offer some recommendations that may be useful for aquatic animal model caregivers and researchers.

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Ethics of Laboratory Animal in Hospital%医院实验动物福利伦理状况调查及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苑; 金盈盈; 吴安植; 朱雪琼; 连庆泉; 郑晓群

    2014-01-01

    Views of the medical workers on the laboratory animals were collected through questionnaires to learn the education on the ethics of laboratory animal welfare and how experimenters carry out animal experiments and some improvement suggestions were proposed for the ethical management of the hospital experiment.%采用问卷调查的方法,针对动物实验中的伦理问题向医务人员调查对实验动物的看法,了解实验动物福利伦理教育情况,实验人员如何进行动物实验等,为医院科研伦理管理提供可借鉴的改进建议。

  15. Impact of early life exposure to antiepileptic drugs on neurobehavioral outcomes based on laboratory animal and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Scharfman, Helen E

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of children under the age of 15, making it a very common neurological disorder in the pediatric population (Russ et al., 2012). In addition, ~0.4-0.8% of all pregnant women have some form of epilepsy (Hauser et al., 1996a,b; Borthen et al., 2009; Krishnamurthy, 2012). Despite the potential deleterious effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on the developing brain, their use is still required for seizure control in pregnant women (Krishnamurthy, 2012), and they represent the standard approach for treating children with epilepsy (Chu-Shore and Thiele, 2010; Quach et al., 2010; Verrotti et al., 2011). Even when AEDs are effective, there are potential side effects, including cognitive and affective changes or altered sleep and appetite. The consequences of AED exposure in development have been studied extensively (Canger et al., 1999; Modi et al., 2011a,b; Oguni, 2011). Despite intensive study, there is still debate about the long-term consequences of early life AED exposure. Here, we consider the evidence to date that AED exposure, either prenatally or in early postnatal life, has significant adverse effects on the developing brain and incorporate studies of laboratory animals as well as those of patients. We also note the areas of research where greater clarity seems critical in order to make significant advances. A greater understanding of the impact of AEDs on somatic, cognitive and behavioral development has substantial value because it has the potential to inform clinical practice and guide studies aimed at understanding the genetic and molecular bases of comorbid pathologies associated with common treatment regimens. Understanding these effects has the potential to lead to AEDs with fewer side effects. Such advances would expand treatment options, diminish the risk associated with AED exposure in susceptible populations, and improve the quality of life and health outcomes of children with epilepsy and children born to women who

  16. Transgenesis and animal welfare : implications of transgenic procedures for the well-being of the laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Miriam van der

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic animals play an important role in biomedical research. Their use as animal model is still increasing. Although the process of transgenesis may contribute to refinement of animal use, the application of the biotechnological procedures that are involved in the production of transgenic anima

  17. Environmental biochemistry of current environmental levels of heavy metals: preparation of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity for metallobiochemical experiments on laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, E; Goetz, L; Birattari, C; Bonardi, M

    1981-03-01

    Environmental toxicology research on dose-response relationships of heavy metals requires experiments on laboratory animals exposed to "low doses" of trace elements which should reflect "present or actual environmental levels" characteristic of polluted environments. Unfortunately no criteria exist to establish the "low doses" to which laboratory animals must be exposed, in practice the choice of the level used is made in an almost arbitrary manner. In order to define the "present environmental levels" of heavy metals which should be administered to laboratory animals an approach is suggested, based upon knowledge of the concentrations of trace elements in the diet, air and food as well as the fractions absorbed. Today daily intakes of trace elements by man are of the order of few micrograms or nanograms thus requiring the use of extremely sensitive analytical techniques to determine the very low amounts of heavy metals in tissues and cellular components. In these fields of research the use of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity appears particularly advantageous but requires considerable care during their preparation and use. The first part of this paper deals with a definition of the ranges of concentrations of trace elements which should be used for metabolic studies on laboratory animals when they are exposed via different routes such as ingestion, inhalation in injection; the second part describes the production of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity by proton activation in the cyclotron and by neutron irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Their use to label present levels of heavy metals under conditions adapted for biochemical purposes, as well as the preparation of different metal-labelled chemical species is also reported. Particular attention is directed to quality control of the radiotracer solutions which are administered to the animals including those of radioactivity concentrations, radioisotopic purity, radiochemical purity

  18. [Notification for intended animal research - remarks on the future procedures on the basis of the European Union Laboratory Animal Guideline 2010/63/EU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The new Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes causes a need of several changes in German animal welfare law. On the basis of the regulations in the Directive, adjustments of the existing notification procedures are unavoidable. The Directive includes provisions for a simplified administrative procedure which differs significantly from the existing notification procedures. In any case, an application process will be required for projects in the meaning of the Directive. This contribution comments on the conceivable changes of the existing notification procedure. The implementation of the provisions of the Directive into national law has to be done near-term as the Directive is applicable from January 1st 2013. In advance, political and legal procedures must be passed through, the adapted regulations are to be notified by the European Commission and last but not least the authorities and user establishments must have enough time to implement the necessary changes.

  19. Ethics and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Breeding and Transportation%实验动物饲养和运输的伦理与福利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科; 唐小江

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the conceptions; Laboratory animal welfare is that human should give good treatments to laboratory animals (positive factors) , which is mainly performed in animal breeding and transportation with "5F" as the basic theory, while ethics is of human should follow the principles in animal experiments (negative factors) , which is mainly carried out in the animal experiment with "3R" as basic theory. We also summarized the specific practices to keep welfare of laboratory animals breeding and transportation, such as environment, cages, bedding, density, feed, water, social and behavioral need, euthanasia, transportation, etc.%本文提出实验动物福利是人类应当给予实验动物的良好条件(正面因素),主要体现在动物的饲养和运输等过程,以“5F”为基本理论;伦理则是人类给予动物实验处理(负面因素)时应遵循的原则,主要体现在动物实验过程中,以“3R”为基本理论.同时总结了实验动物饲养和运输过程的实际经验,从环境、笼具、垫料、密度、饲料和饮水、社会和行为需要、安乐死、运输等方面,介绍了保障实验动物福利的具体做法.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. How long must they suffer? success and failure of our efforts to end the animal tragedy in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Scientific findings have revealed how much we have dramatically underestimated the intellectual, social and emotional capabilities of non-human animals, including their levels of self-consciousness and ability to suffer from psychological stress. In the 21st century, the field of animal ethics has evolved as a serious scientific discipline, and nowadays largely advocates that the way we treat animals, both legally and in practice, is morally wrong. Politics and legislation have reacted to these facts, to some extent, but neither current legislation nor current practice reflect the scientific and moral state-of-the-art. Too often, the will to change things is watered down in the decision-making process, e.g. in the drafting of legislation. In the field of animal experimentation there have been many genuine efforts by various players, to advance and apply the principles behind the Three Rs. However, the fundamental problem, i.e. the overall number of animals sacrificed for scientific purposes, has increased. Clearly, if we are serious about our will to regard animal experimentation as an ethical and societal problem, we have to put much more emphasis on addressing the question of how to avoid the use of animals in science. To achieve this goal, certain issues need to be considered: a) the present system of ethical evaluation of animal experiments, including testing for regulatory purposes, needs to be reformed and applied effectively to meet the legal and moral requirements; b) animal testing must be avoided in future legislation, and existing legislation has to be revised in that regard; c) resources from animal-based research have to re-allocated toward alternatives; and d) the academic curricula must be reformed to foster and integrate ethical and animal welfare issues.

  2. 医学生实验动物福利认知状况调查%Survey on the cognition of laboratory animals welfare of college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李印龙; 梁亚军; 刘永春; 宋爱芹; 邵凯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognition of laboratory animals welfare of college students for for spreading the knowledge of laboratory animals welfare .Methods 1187 medical students were selected as partici‐pants by stratified cluster sampling .The self‐made questionnaire was used to collect the cognition of laboratory ani ‐mals welfare of college students ,and the responding rate was 99 .83% .Results Only 24 .22% of the college students heard about the conception of laboratory animals welfare ,and 9 .79% of them knew the relevant laws of laboratory animals welfare .Students from different majors and classes had significantly different cognition of the conception of laboratory animals welfare and the agreement about reducing the numbers of animals in a single ex ‐periment (P< 0 .05) .The cognition of the details of animals experiment was also different among students from different majors and classes (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The college students knew very little about the laboratory animals welfare ,and some special teaching courses should be strengthened for spreading the knowledge of the labo ‐ratory animals welfare .%目的:了解医学生对实验动物福利的认知情况,为医学生实验动物福利知识的教育及普及提供依据。方法自制调查表,采用分层整群抽样的方法对某医学院校的1187名在校医学生进行问卷调查,问卷有效回收率为99.83%。结果仅有24.22%的医学生知道动物福利的概念,9.79%的医学生了解国内外有关动物福利的法律。不同年级、专业的医学生对动物福利的概念认知情况及赞成减少单次活体实验动物数量方面有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不同年级、专业医学生对最重要实验内容的认知差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论大学生对于实验动物福利的认知水平较低,需要在医学教育实践过程中有针对性地加大宣教力度。

  3. Research on the Legislation of Medical Laboratory Animal Protection%医学实验动物保护立法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 胡佩佩

    2016-01-01

    动物为人类的医学研究做出了巨大贡献,研究动物福利对发展生物医学和增进人类健康至关重要。但在医学实验研究中,虐待实验动物的现象时有发生,许多实验动物因此受到了极大的伤害和痛苦,甚至丧失了生命。于是关于实验动物保护的法律问题就成了人们关注的焦点,通过分析我国的立法现状及存在问题,阐述海外的相关法律制度,借鉴海外成功的立法经验,提出了符合我国国情的实验动物福利法律法规的对策和建议。%The animals have made huge contribution for the medical research of human life, and researching on animal welfare is crucial for developing biomedicine and enhancing human health. However, during the research of medical experiment, abusing laboratory animals happens a lot, many of them have suffered great damage and pain, even lose lives. Consequently, the legal issues related to the protection of laboratory animals become the focus con-cerned by people. Through analyzing the legislation status and existing problems in our country, elaborating the rel-evant legal institutions in foreign countries, as well as using the successful legislative experiences from abroad, this paper puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for the laboratory animal welfare act that accords with our national condition.

  4. Laboratory Animal Welfare Issues in Biomedical Research%生物医学研究中的实验动物福利问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建红; 刘田福; 武冬梅; 王锐利; 王海龙; 陈朝阳

    2001-01-01

    Animal welfare issues are facing each scientist i n biomedicalresearch.These problems are complex,involve a diversity of views ,and will not disa ppear in the future.Biomedical scientists need to be knowledgeable about the i ssues,develop sensitivity to the diversity of thought about these issues,and take an active stance toward animal welfare.Scientists must go beyond compliance and use skills to maximize well-being of experimental animals.It is essential that scientists should advocate animal well-being and adhere to appropriate guidelines for animal care and use when conducting research with laboratory animals .%动物福利问题形式多样,涉及科学进步和社会发展的多个层次。在生物医学研究过程中,每位科学家都应正确看待这些问题,增进对问题多样性的了解,倡导人道的使用和管理实验动物,并采取积极有效措施,遵循有关的规章制度和操作要求扩大动物福利,推进我国实验动物标准化进程和生物医学事业的发展。

  5. Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedes aegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M.P. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biological effects of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (WEMOS were assessed on eggs and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and on its toxicity upon laboratory animals (Daphnia magna, mice and rats. Crude WEMOS showed a LC50 value of 1260µg/mL, causing 99.2 ± 2.9% larvae mortality within 24 h at 5200µg/mL, though this larvicidal activity has been lost completely at 80ºC/10 min. WEMOS did not demonstrate capacity to prevent egg hatching. After extensive dialyses of the crude WEMOS into watersoluble dialyzable (DF and nondyalizable (NDF fractions, only DF maintained its efficacy to kill larvae. Acute toxicity evaluations on daphnids (EC50 of 188.7µg/mL and mice (LD50 of 446.5 mg/kg body weight pointed out to low toxicity. Despite the thymus hypertrophy, WEMOS revealed to be harmless in orally and subacutelytreated rats. In conclusion, WEMOS has thermostable bioactive compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae with apparent molecular mass lower than 12 kDa and moderately toxic potential.Neste trabalho, o extrato aquoso das sementes de Moringaoleifera (EASMO foi avaliado quanto aos seus efeitos biológicos sobre ovos e larvas de Aedes aegypti no 3ºestágio de desenvolvimento e sua toxicidade sobre animais de laboratório(Daphnia magna, camundongos e ratos. O EASMO bruto revelou uma CL50 de 1.260 µg/mL, causando 99, 2 ± 2, 9% de mortalidade em 24 h na concentração de 5.200 µg/mL, embora o mesmo não tenha sido capaz de impedir a eclosão dos ovos. A atividade larvicida extinguiu-se após aquecimento do extrato a 80ºC/10 min. Diálises sucessivas do EASMO bruto resultaram em duas frações solúveis em água (Fração dializável, FD; Fração nãodializável, FND, dentre as quais apenas a FD mostrou ação larvicida. Testes de toxicidade aguda realizadosem dáfnias (CE50 de 188, 7 µg/mL e camundongos (DL50 de446,5 mg/kg de peso corpóreo evidenciaram baixa toxicidade. Apesar da hipertrofia tímica, o EASMO mostrou ser

  6. Development of Self-learning System for Laboratory Animal Science%实验动物学自助学习软件的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡樱; 杨斐; 俞伊军; 高诚

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a self-learning software for laboratory animal science based on the technology of computer assisted learning. Methods The framework of the software was designed on the basis of animal category, meanwhile, all the points in laboratory animal science were organized through two classes of subjects, then ,different kinds of information were matched and integrate into the program by using Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 and C#. Results The whole software includes an entrance with the function of selecting animal and some learning interfaces offering information about the first or second subjects, all these were established on the relationship between database and process of the program. Conclusion The self-learning system for Laboratory Animal Science developed in this study is expected to be a practical tool in self-teaching, self-training and searching information, it also provide a primary computer assisted learning environment for Laboratory Animal Science.%目的 研发一种基于计算机辅助学习技术的实验动物学自助学习系统软件.方法 采用基于动物种类的设计构建软件框架,通过两级主题组织实验动物学科知识点,运用Microsoft Visual Studio 2010和Microsoft.NET Framcwork 4.0以及C#语言编程,对专业资料进行整合与匹配.结果 建立了从动物种类出发的软件入口以及分别对应一级主题和二级主题的各级学习界面,由此构成整个软件,并完成实验动物学资料库和软件流程的对接.结论 研发了实验动物学自助学习系统软件,可作为实验动物学自助学习和培训以及资料查询的工具,并初步构建实验动物学的计算机辅助学习环境.

  7. [Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenotropil and piracetam in laboratory animals with experimental cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetov, M N; Epishina, V V

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotective properties of phenotropil and piracetam were studied in Wistar rats with low and high sensitivity with respect to cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in the brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenotropil and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations, retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions in animals with gravitational cerebral ischemia, increased the survival of experimental animals, and favored the restoration of local cerebral flow upon the occlusion of carotid arteries.

  8. Establishment of the Standard for Laboratory Animal Practitioner in China%中国实验动物从业人员标准的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔琪; 郑志红; 魏强; 秦川

    2016-01-01

    The development of laboratory animal science plays a supporting role in the biomedical field, pharmacy and other fields.It is an important symbol to measure the level of science and technology in each countries in the world. The quality of employees directly affects the speed and quality of the development of laboratory animal industry.The purpose of this standard is to regulate the requirements of animal practitioners, to strengthen the training and qualification certification, and to promote the quality of employees.%实验动物科学发展对生物医学、药学等领域研究起到支撑作用,是衡量一个国家科技水平的重要标志。从业人员素质直接影响实验动物行业发展的速度和质量。本标准制定的目的是规范实验动物从业人员要求,加强培训和资质认证工作,以推动从业人员素质提高。

  9. [Evaluation of authorised experiments on laboratory animals with regard to the aim of the research to be carried out, its scientific usefulness and its medical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindl, T; Weichenmeier, I; Labahn, D; Gruber, F P; Völkel, M

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-up to our recent study about the suffering of laboratory animals in experiments, we investigated if results obtained from animal experiments performed in accordance with the German animal welfare act were published, and if these led to consequences in the medical field, especially in published medical literature. According to the German animal welfare act animal experiments must be applied for at a local ethics committee which approves these experiments. All applications (51) made between 1991 and 1993 were examined in co-operation with some of the authors and the authorities. The follow-up procedures were split into two parts: First the declared aims of the proposals were evaluated against the applicants" own arguments with regard to the pain suffered by the animals. Secondly, it was evaluated if these proposals led to relevant publications in the scientific literature and if these results led to improvements in respective fields of research. A ranking was established from zero (no results were published within 8 years) to three (all the proposed goals were effectively reached and published). Only one third of the proposals reached grade three, and in nearly 40% of the proposals either no relevant publications were found or these proposals were never realised. Differentiation of the research in applied and basic research revealed that basic research per se results in a much higher percentage of grade three (over 56%). No research was done whether or not the scientific findings were applied to humans. Further details were evaluated: 1. In comparison to regulations proposed by the Swiss Veterinarian Inspectorate (BVET), in nearly 60% of the cases the suffering of the animals was underestimated. 2. In some cases despite negative results in animal experiments this research led to successful application in the treatment of human diseases 3. The research leading to grade three was predominantly done on mice and rats. 4. An evaluation of the competence of

  10. Energy budgets of animals: behavioral and ecological implications. Progress report. [Egg laying in laboratory by desert lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1975-05-01

    Climate effects on biomass requirements for mammal and reptile maintenance, growth, and reproduction and implications for climate-influenced population dynamics were explored using computer simulations. The simulations revealing critical shortages of appropriate data have led to the design of experiments to acquire the needed information. The development of a technique to induce repeated egg laying in the laboratory for reproduction studies of some desert lizards was accomplished this year. (CH)

  11. Animal Welfares of Laboratory Non-Human Primates%非人灵长类动物实验中的动物福利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乾生

    2003-01-01

    While comparing non-human primates with human beings, it is not hard to conclude certain similarities between these two based on aspects such as morphological anatomy, biochemistry functioning and so on. As a result, nonhuman primates often play an important role in life scientific researches. These primates are always used as "Stand-Ins"for human beings. In the processes of toxicological testing of new drugs, some drugs, especially drugs of genic projects or biological medicines are requiring uses of primates as part of the new drug testing. Therefore, the morality and ethics of using non-human primates have to be emphasised by people. After all, this is one of the issues that concerns with the expectations of meeting the international scientific research standards by our national laboratory animal sciences.In fact, the moral and ethical problems of non-human primates experiments is related to the matters of animal welfares.

  12. 猪带绦虫实验动物模型的建立%Laboratory animal models for Taenia solium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贝妮; 王丹; 王哲; 赵权

    2013-01-01

    为建立猪带绦虫实验动物模型,本实验通过口服激活、未激活囊尾蚴和尾静脉注射激活的囊尾蚴感染昆明小鼠、BALB/c小鼠、SD大鼠、豚鼠、金黄地鼠、沙鼠,对各种鼠体内的绦虫的感染、生长发育及寄生部位等生物学特性进行研究.在感染45 d的金黄地鼠体内检出可见虫体,检出的虫体多数吸附在小肠.本实验建立了猪带绦虫的实验动物模型,使得解决猪带绦虫实验材料的来源问题成为可能,也为猪带绦虫的深入研究奠定了基础.%To establish the animal models for Taenia solium,the Kunming mice,BALB/c mice,SD rots,guinea pigs,golden hamsters and gerbils were infected with activated or not activated cysticerci via oral and tail vein injection of activated cysticerci,respectively.The tapeworm infection,growth and development,and parasite location were examed in artificially infected animals.In addition,the visible parasites only detected in the golden hamster at 45 days post infection and the majority parasites were detected in the small intestine.The primary established animal model for T.solium would facilitate further study for T.solium in vivo.

  13. [Anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in experimental tests on laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramentinoli, G; Pezzoli, C; Catto, E

    1975-12-05

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) always plays an important role in the metabolism of catecholamines. Since the importance of the latter in the inflammatory process has been reported by several Authors, we examined the effect of SAMe in various tests of acute inflammation (carrageenin and white egg oedema) and chronic inflammation (cotton pellet induced granuloma, adjuvant induced arthritis). Considering the positive results we have obtained and being aware that many drugs with antiinflammatory activity also have an antalgic activity, we examined the effects of a treatment with SAMe on animals subjected to analgesic tests: hot plate and streching by acetic acid in mice.

  14. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A J; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R

    1989-05-01

    Eleven species of small African wild mammals, laboratory rabbits, guinea pigs, and Syrian hamsters were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Low-titered viremia followed by development of antibody was observed in scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis), Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus), white tailed rats (Mystromys albicaudatus), bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster), striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), and guinea pigs. The maximum viremic titer in 4 scrub hares was 10(1.7-4.2) 50% mouse lethal doses/ml. Viremia was detected in 1/17 infected laboratory rabbits. Antibody response was only detected in South African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis), highveld gerbils (T. brantsii), Namaqua gerbils (Desmodillus auricularis), 2 species of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis and M. coucha), and Syrian hamsters. The results of the study indicate that a proportion of infected scrub hares develop CCHF viremia of an intensity shown in the Soviet Union to be sufficient for infection of feeding immature ixodid ticks, but that South African hedgehogs and wild rodents are unlikely to be of importance as maintenance hosts of the virus in southern Africa.

  15. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  16. 疾病和污染的屏障或实验动物科学屏障的进展%Barriers to Disease and Contamination or Barriers to progress in Laboratory Animal Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯蒂芬·德莱维

    2003-01-01

    As we enter a new era of laboratory sciences it is important not to loose sight of the important use of barriers.This presentation will offer a brief history of barrier design and re-affirm the importance of the barrier and monitoring of the effectiveness to the present generation of laboratory animal scientists.

  17. 我国实验动物垫料质量控制的研究%The Study on Quality Control of Laboratory Animal Bedding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉; 尹良宏; 车路平; 卢胜明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare the levels of the certain harmful substances and microbiological levels in the different laboratory animal bedding materials come from the different producing areas and widely used in Beijing region, so as to provide references for constituting local standard of laboratory animal bedding. Method Physical characteristics, and chemical and microbiological pollution levels of different bedding materials were determined according to the methods in force. Result The levels of heavy metals, organophosphorous pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, and other drug residues in corn core and wood shaving bedding materials from different producing areas could meet the requirement of GB 14924.2-2001. However, microbiological levels in all these bedding materials exceeded the limits to some degree. Conclusion These results can be used as references for constituting local standard of laboratory animal bedding.%目的 对北京地区大量使用的不同材质、不同产地的实验动物垫料进行研究,了解不同材质垫料有害物质水平,为实验动物垫料地方标准的制定提供参考.方法 按照现行方法,对垫料原材料进行物理特性、化学污染物及微生物污染物水平检测.结果 若依据《GB 14924.2-2001实验动物配合饲料卫生标准》的规定,各产地的玉米芯垫料及刨花垫料都符合对重金属、有机磷、有机氯农药及其它有机农药污染的要求,而微生物污染,都有不同程度的超标.结论 本实验结果可作为制定实验动物垫料地方标准的参考.

  18. 广州管圆线虫动物感染实验研究%Infection of laboratory animals with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓梅; 李富华; 李彦忠; 陶洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in laboratory animals was determined to provide an experimental basis for further investigation of Angiostrongyliusis cantonensis in Yunnan. Methods Four types of laboratory animals - SD rats. Kunming mice, guinea pigs and rabbits - were artificially infected with the third-stage larvae of A. Cantonensis isolated from Achatina fulica and the prevalence of infection was observed. Results Mice were not infected with A. Cantonensis. Adult A. Cantonensis were not obtained from guinea pigs and rabbits infected with A. Cantonensis, and a few larvae were found. Worms were found in the liver, heart, lungs, and cerebrum of rats after different periods of infection with A. Cantonensis. Conclusion Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits are not suitable as final hosts of A. Cantonensis. SD rats are an ideal for a laboratory animal model of A. Cantonensis infection.%目的 观察不同动物实验感染广州管圆线虫情况,为进一步研究云南省广州管圆线虫病提供实验依据. 方法 从褐云玛瑙螺中分离广州管圆线虫第Ⅲ期幼虫,人工感染SD大鼠、昆明小鼠、豚鼠和家兔,观察感染情况. 结果 小鼠未能感染广州管圆线虫;豚鼠、家兔在感染广州管圆线虫后未获得成虫,仅发现少量幼虫寄生;感染不同时间后可在大鼠脊髓、脑、心和肺等部位发现各期广州管圆线虫. 结论 动物实验证明小鼠、豚鼠和家兔不是广州管圆线虫的适宜终末宿主,大鼠可作为广州管圆线虫感染理想的实验动物.

  19. Management and Countermeasure of Laboratory Animal Import and Export in China%我国实验动物进出口工作的管理和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦红; 黄维振

    2012-01-01

    According to the elaborating of laboratory animal import and export relevant laws and regulations, this article analyzed the import and export of animal problems in the management process, proposed the solving measures, and provided the theory and practice to the workers engaged in laboratory animals issues.%通过对实验动物进出口相关法规的阐述,分析实验动物进出口管理过程中存在的问题,提出解决的对策,为从事实验动物工作者提供理论与实践依据.

  20. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  1. The relative magnitude of transgene-specific adaptive immune responses induced by human and chimpanzee adenovirus vectors differs between laboratory animals and a target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew D J; Guzman, Efrain; Spencer, Alexandra J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Charleston, Bryan; Hill, Adrian V S; Cottingham, Matthew G

    2015-02-25

    Adenovirus vaccine vectors generated from new viral serotypes are routinely screened in pre-clinical laboratory animal models to identify the most immunogenic and efficacious candidates for further evaluation in clinical human and veterinary settings. Here, we show that studies in a laboratory species do not necessarily predict the hierarchy of vector performance in other mammals. In mice, after intramuscular immunization, HAdV-5 (Human adenovirus C) based vectors elicited cellular and humoral adaptive responses of higher magnitudes compared to the chimpanzee adenovirus vectors ChAdOx1 and AdC68 from species Human adenovirus E. After HAdV-5 vaccination, transgene specific IFN-γ(+) CD8(+) T cell responses reached peak magnitude later than after ChAdOx1 and AdC68 vaccination, and exhibited a slower contraction to a memory phenotype. In cattle, cellular and humoral immune responses were at least equivalent, if not higher, in magnitude after ChAdOx1 vaccination compared to HAdV-5. Though we have not tested protective efficacy in a disease model, these findings have important implications for the selection of candidate vectors for further evaluation. We propose that vaccines based on ChAdOx1 or other Human adenovirus E serotypes could be at least as immunogenic as current licensed bovine vaccines based on HAdV-5.

  2. 健全伦理审查机制促进实验动物管理工作%Consummating ethics censorship system to promote administration of laboratory animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培梁; 王元占; 鲁鸿

    2009-01-01

    Based on the development of ethics of laboratory animal in our and foreign countries and the related problems in our country, the necessity and feasibility of construction of the ethics censorship sys-tem about the laboratory animal were discussed and some adviees were raised to promote administration of la-boratory animal.%针对我国实验动物伦理学工作中存在的问题,提出了建立和完善伦理学审查制度的必要性和可行性,并建议采取相应措施,以推进我国的实验动物伦理工作.

  3. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

  4. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  5. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen eGargili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4 in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates and higher conversion efficiency index. Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  6. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  7. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  8. Ethic and welfare problems of laboratory animals science in China%我国实验动物科学带来的动物伦理及福利问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玫蕾

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory animal is the animal with artificial feeding in the certain conditions, having the particular biological characteristics for scientific research. They are indispensable props of life science and have made great contributions and sacrifices for human health and development. Laboratory animal science is an important branch of life science, including laboratory animal and animal experiment. Along with development of mankind society, economy and civilization, now the realm of laboratory animal science is confronted with the problems of animal welfare and animal ethics. In our country, the main problems of animal welfare and animal ethics in laboratory animal science lie below: relative rules and laws are absent, while no established restriction or punishment could be found to restrict those actions such as maltreating laboratory animals. Several technical operations going against laboratory animal ethics still exist. The emotional conflicts also exist between zoophilists and animal experimenters. The appearance of animal ethic in China is mainly due to the rapid progress of the national economy and that of the international relationship at the same time, and the education in these years, which promoted communications between cultures from East and West, by the way changed social opinions greatly. Since recent more than ten years, animal ethic research has achieved great development at the laboratory animal science field in our country. The appearance of the laboratory animal monuments and import of the "3R" theory serve as the main indication of the great development that achieved. Such things are our goals: improving living conditions of laboratory animals, forbidding the phenomenon of maltreating laboratory animals to death, standardizing the rules of operation on animal experiments, establishing correlate laws and polices, founding the committee of animal ethics and group of specialists, consolidating international communion, promoting the development of

  9. Eliminating animal facility light-at-night contamination and its effect on circadian regulation of rodent physiology, tumor growth, and metabolism: a challenge in the relocation of a cancer research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchy, Robert T; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Dauchy, Erin M; Hill, Cody R; Mao, Lulu; Belancio, Victoria P; Slakey, Lauren M; Hill, Steven M; Blask, David E

    2011-05-01

    Appropriate laboratory animal facility lighting and lighting protocols are essential for maintaining the health and wellbeing of laboratory animals and ensuring the credible outcome of scientific investigations. Our recent experience in relocating to a new laboratory facility illustrates the importance of these considerations. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that animal room contamination with light-at-night (LAN) of as little as 0.2 lx at rodent eye level during an otherwise normal dark-phase disrupted host circadian rhythms and stimulated the metabolism and proliferation of human cancer xenografts in rats. Here we examined how simple improvements in facility design at our new location completely eliminated dark-phase LAN contamination and restored normal circadian rhythms in nontumor-bearing rats and normal tumor metabolism and growth in host rats bearing tissue-isolated MCF7(SR(-)) human breast tumor xenografts or 7288CTC rodent hepatomas. Reducing LAN contamination in the animal quarters from 24.5 ± 2.5 lx to nondetectable levels (complete darkness) restored normal circadian regulation of rodent arterial blood melatonin, glucose, total fatty and linoleic acid concentrations, tumor uptake of O(2), glucose, total fatty acid and CO(2) production and tumor levels of cAMP, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters, as well as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, serine-threonine protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, γ-histone 2AX, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

  10. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  11. An implantable blood glucose monitoring device for laboratory animals%植入式实验动物血糖动态监测装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田云杰; 卓俊骐; 王磊; 沙洪

    2016-01-01

    目的 设计、研制一种用于实验动物的全植入式血糖浓度检测系统,通过一次植入手术可获得实验动物自然状态下经无线方式传输的动态血糖监测数据.方法 监测系统包括植入体和体外接收端两部分.植入体尺寸设计为11.5 mm×16.0 mm×5.0 mm,不超过实验大鼠体积的1/10.以SOF-SENSOR植入式葡萄糖传感器及其外围三电极伏安测量电路为核心,采用锂电池和稳压芯片构建供电,测量数据通过CC2540低功耗蓝牙系统芯片无线传输至体外.植入体外层包裹医用硅胶材料,以保护电路和提高植入体生物相容性.结果 体外验证实验表明,本系统可在2~34 mmol/L范围较准确地测量葡萄糖浓度(r=0.996 7),平均标准误差为0.193 mmol/L,灵敏度为9.24 nM(mmol/L),能够满足设计要求.结论 植入式实验动物血糖动态监测装置体积小,适合植入.体外血糖测量验证实验表明本装置的血糖测量范围、准确性、灵敏度及标准误差等均能满足设计要求.此装置有望为糖尿病病理和药效学研究提供重要的技术支持.%Objective To design a fully implantable blood glucose concentration detection system used for laboratory animals,to get measurement data of blood glucose which can be transmitted wirelessly when animals are in nature state.Methods The system included in vivo and in vitro part.The implant included an implantable glucose sensor SOF-SENSOR with three electrodes volt-ampere circuit as the core of the module,and power supply module adopted lithium battery and voltage chip,while the wireless data transmission unit used CC2540 chip.In vivo part was coated by medical silica to make it safe and biocompatible.Results The final mechanical size of the implant was 11.5 mm×16.0 mm×5.0 mm,which was less than one tenth of the volume of laboratory rat and satisfied the design requirements.The results of the in vitro studies showed that the effective measuring range of the system

  12. Suggestions about the Job Training on the Laboratory Animal Employees%关于实验动物从业人员岗位培训的几点建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志满; 柳怀玉; 洪花; 佟晓华; 田之宁

    2011-01-01

    生命科学的快速发展对实验动物从业人员的素质提出了更高的要求,为此建议实验动物学岗位培训应根据管理、实验和饲养岗位的不同,按各自的需要分类培训,并组织、编写实验动物学岗位系列培训教材,在培训过程中充分利用网络的实验动物教学资源,注重多媒体演示教材的制作与利用,充分发挥远程教育在实验动物岗位培训中的作用.%The rapid development of life science puts forward higher requirements to the quality of the laboratory animal employees. This paper suggests that the job training on the laboratory animal should be classified based on different management, experiment and feeding positions according to their needs, and organize the preparation of training materials series of experimental zoology jobs. In the training process, we should use the experimental animals teaching resources in the network focus on the production and use of the multimedia presentation materials and give full play to the role of distance education in the job training on the laboratory animal.

  13. Role of the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries' Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) in the 2007 equine influenza emergency animal disease response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, M G; Fraser, G C; Gaul, W N

    2011-07-01

    A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was used to manage the laboratory data and support planning and field activities as part of the response to the equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007. The database structure of the LIMS and the system configurations that were made to best handle the laboratory implications of the disease response are discussed. The operational aspects of the LIMS and the related procedures used at the laboratory to process the increased sample throughput are reviewed, as is the interaction of the LIMS with other corporate systems used in the management of the response. Outcomes from this tailored configuration and operation of the LIMS resulted in effective provision and control of the laboratory and laboratory information aspects of the response. The extent and immediate availability of the information provided from the LIMS was critical to some of the activities of key operatives involved in controlling the response.

  14. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  15. Evaluation of Short-Term Bioassays to Predict Functional Impairment. Development of Hepatic Bioassays in Laboratory Animals, Directory of Institutions/Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    ARE ALSO INVOLVED IN HEPATOTOXICITY TESTING. 21 ORGANI ZATI ON: FOOD AND DRUG RESEARCH LABORATORIES EAST ORANGE NEW JERSEY 07078 H. FEINMAN (201)677...University of Toronto Farber, J.L. Temple University Feinman , H. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Folk, R. Monsanto Company Fowler, E. Union Carbide

  16. Construction of Four Stages and Four Levels Medical Laboratory Animal Course System%四阶段四层次医学实验动物学教学模式的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师长宏; 张海; 王四旺; 施新猷

    2012-01-01

    Medical laboratory animal course system with predominant medical feature and compliance to the national regulations was constructed through four stages of learning on the basic theory, experimental practice, application practice and in-service training. Teaching contents should be rationally adjusted according to the teaching requirements of different subjects and the diathesis structure of teaching objects. The teaching of the laboratory animal should be differentiated among post-graduates, undergraduate students, the professional students of medical experimentation and the professional students of laboratory animal. The four-level teaching emphasis and syllabus should be formulate to intensify the fusion of laboratory animal and medical biology, sequentially the characteristic of the subject will be highlighted.%通过基础理论、实验操作、应用实践和在职培训四个阶段学习,构建医学特色突出,符合国家法规的医学实验动物学课程体系.针对不同学科专业的培养要求,以及教学对象的素质结构,合理调整教学内容,区别对待研究生、本科生、医学实验专业技术学生和实验动物学专业学员的实验动学教学,制订四层次教学重点与大纲,强化实验动物学与医学生物学的融合,突出专业特点.

  17. Critical analysis for physical adaptation and implementation of new procedures in the IPEN'S laboratory animal division; Analise critica para adequacao fisica e implantacao de novos procedimentos na divisao de animais de laboratorio do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Elizabeth Brigadao de Faria

    2009-07-01

    The production and the supply of high quality laboratory animals have fundamental importance for the accomplishment of vanguard scientific research, with reproducibility and universality. The quality of those animals depends, largely, of the available facilities for their production and lodging, to assure the demanded sanitary control and animals' welfare, in agreement with the ethical principles that control the activity. The facilities also have to fill out other requirements, such as: the functionality of the environments to make possible the suitable and efficient handling of the animals, facilitating the execution of the routine activities; the respect to ergonomic principles to provide a safe environment and the operators' well being. The facilities design is of vital importance so that the mentioned requirements can be reached. The project of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) Animal House Facilities was accomplished in the year of 1964. However, by that time there were not the current recommendations with respect to the sanitary, genetic and environmental controls. The facility was planned with the objective of being a production unit and a local for keeping of defined animals from sanitary, genetic and environmental point of view. Nevertheless, the original unit drawing presents an unsuitable distribution of the area where animals are stocked and also different activities are performed. The Animal House Facilities occupy an area of 840 m2, with one pavement, where the production areas and the stock of original animal models of the own Institution are distributed, as well as the maintenance of animals from other national or foreigner institutions. It supplies rats and mice for biological tests of radiopharmaceutical lots, produced in IPEN, before they be sent to hospitals and clinics spread out in Brazil, for use in Nuclear Medicine. It also supplies rats and mice for tests of dental materials, for tests with growth hormones and for

  18. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  19. [Comparative sensitivity of several laboratory animals to infection by nasal instillation of the saprophytic phase of Emmonsia crescens Emmons & Jellison, 1960: frequency and intensity of parasitism, histological reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau-Lebreuil, M T

    1975-11-21

    Comparative observations were made on the development of Emmonsia crescens in the lungs of laboratory rats and mice, golden hamsters and guinea pigs after a nasal instillation of a heavy suspension of the saprophytic phase of the fungus. 95% of 80 experimental rats were found to be parasited against 80% of 200 inoculated mice, while only 30% of 70 hamsters and all of 4 guinea pigs showed an infection. The lungs of the mice, rats and guinea pigs were frequently more heavily infected than those of the hamsters. In addition, the adiaspores obtained from the mice and rats had, on average, a diameter double those from the hamsters and their walls were thicker. Thus, the laboratory mice and rats were shown to be better hosts of E. crescens than were golden hamsters.

  20. Small Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  1. 医学院校实验动物伦理学问题的思考%Thinking of the Laboratory Animals Ethical Issues in Medical Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文欣; 刘宗昱; 付文玉; 王晓晓; 马璐璐

    2014-01-01

    Animal experiment is an indispensable means of medical research ,laboratory animals has an indispensable role for the development of medicine ,with the increasing development of society and the progress of mankind ,the experimental animals ethical issues have also been widespread concern ,The focus of attention is mainly gathered in the development of experimental animals ethical issues ,pres-ent situation ,there is a problem ,the status of legislation ,the need for the implementation of other aspects ,how to correctly understand and treat experimental animal life ,and how scientific ,rational and humane use of laboratory animals for scientific research and so on .Medical schools as medical students entering medical first step in the door ,and animal experiments in medical education and re-search is of great significance ,the status quo of the School of Medicine of animal experiments and to treat animal experiments views and analysis lead to ethics problems in order to explore the experimen-tal animal ethics-related issues in the School of Medicine study .%动物实验是医学研究中必不可少的手段,因此实验动物对于医学的发展有着重要作用。随着社会的日益发展和人类的进步,实验动物伦理问题也受到人们的广泛关注,关注的焦点主要聚集在实验动物伦理问题的发展、现状、存在问题、立法状况、实施的必要性等方面,如何正确认识和对待实验动物的生命,如何科学、合理而人道地使用实验动物进行科学研究等方面。医学院校作为医学生迈入医学大门的第一步,在医学院校进行相关实验教学和研究是必不可少的,而动物实验在医学教育及研究中更是具有十分重要的意义,故针对医学院动物实验的现状及对待动物实验的看法等问题,并分析其引发的伦理学问题,从而探讨医学院医学研究中实验动物伦理学相关的问题。

  2. 实验动物设施消毒与灭菌的化学药剂选择%Selection of Chemical Reagent for Asepsis and Steriolizations of Laboratory Animal Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温泽锋; 郑振辉

    2011-01-01

    ln order to achive the reliable asepsis and sterilization in laboratory animal facilities, the selection of chemical reagents should base on the chemical characteristics of the reagent, aseptic methods and features of laboratory animal facilities. Chlorine dioxide is recommended because its utility does nol harm to the environment.%通过对实验动物设施消毒灭菌常用化学药剂化学性质及其在使用过程中综合因素的比较分析,为正确选择适合的消毒灭菌试剂和方法提供科学依据,同时着重介绍了二氧化氯作为一种绿色环保的化学药剂在动物设施消毒灭菌中的优势,建议在实验动物设施的消毒灭菌中加以推广应用.

  3. itative Research of Occupational Injury Experiences of Laboratory Animal Workers%实验动物从业人员职业伤害体验的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鋆娴; 马小琴

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨实验动物从业人员职业伤害的内心体验,为针对性开展职业防护教育及健康管理提供依据。[方法]采用质性研究中的现象学研究方法,深入访谈12名实验动物从业人员,对访谈资料运用Colaizzi分析法进行分析、整理、提炼主题。[结果]提炼出3个主题:职业伤害的类别(物理伤害、化学伤害、生物伤害);职业伤害的情绪体验(恐惧与担忧、无奈与自卑);最需要得到的帮助(“被重视”、知识支持、更先进便捷的防护用具和硬件设施)。[结论]实验动物行业管理层应重视从业人员职业健康及防护工作,加大财力、物力的投入,加强职业防护教育,以最大限度地减少职业伤害对从业人员身心健康造成的不良影响。%Objective] To discuss the inner experiences of occupational injury of laboratory animal workers, and provide basis for conducting targeted occupational protective education and health management. [Methods] The phenomenological methodology was used in the study. 12 laboratory animal workers were participated in non-structured interview regarding the experiences of occupational injury. [Results] 3 themes were found including:category of occupational injury(physical injury, chemical injury, biological injury); emotional experiences of occupational injury(fears and concerns, helplessness and self-abasement); help most needed(more attention, knowledge supports, advanced and convenient protective equipment and hardware facilities). [Conclusion] Management of experimental animal industry should lay great emphasis on occupational health and protection of laboratory animal workers, increase both financial and material resources, and enhance occupational protection education, in order to maximize bad physical and psychological effects from occupational injury.

  4. 创伤致实验动物深静脉血栓形成的研究%Detection of traumatic deep venous thrombosis of laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琴; 张东辉; 许永华; 李建瑛; 是文辉; 李佳佳; 马娜; 王军文

    2011-01-01

    为观察创伤致实验动物深静脉血栓形成及其组织学变化,分别选用犬、新西兰兔及Wistar大鼠作为实验动物,进行骨科有创手术过程,其中犬24条进行人为股骨颈骨折钢板内固定手术,新西兰兔20只行单侧肢股骨骨折后髋人字石膏固定术,Wistar大鼠30只行单侧肢体(左后肢)骨缺损性骨折后髋人字石膏固定术。以大体解剖,血管彩超,血管组织学,血常规等指标进行检测深静脉血栓的形成。结果受试犬中有10条犬在术后4周内陆续死亡,尸检可见心脏内形成鸡脂样血栓,另有4条犬在术后6周及8周死亡,尸检心脏内见到血栓,其余犬饲养至48周,未见血栓形成,总体血栓形成率为58.3%;新西兰兔手术后饲养至8周,患肢每周进行血管彩超检测,未检测到血栓形成,但术部有大量囊性积液;30只大鼠术后9d内镜检肢体深静脉血栓形成率为77.8%。本试验表明骨科有创手术可致实验动物深静脉血栓形成,不同种属间有差异,犬及大鼠的发生率比兔要高,在用实验动物进行骨科的相关研究课题及临床兽医进行手术时要采取必要的预防措施。%Dogs,rabbits and Wistar rats were used for invasive orthopedic surgery to detect the formulation of traumatic deep venous thrombosis(DVT) and investigate the pathologic changes. 24 dogs received plate fixation of manmade femoral neck fractures; 20 New Zealand rabbits were undertaken plaster immobilization after unilateral limb comminuted fractures;30 Wistar rats received plaster immobilization after unilateral limb ununited fractures. Gross anatomy, vascular ultrasound, vascular pathology and blood parameters were tested to detect deep venous thrombosis of the animals. 10 dogs died within 4 weeks after surgery,autopsy showed chicken fat like thrombus formed in their hearts,and another 4 dogs died at 6 and 8 weeks after surgery,with the thrombus in

  5. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  6. Influencing factors of animal cell culture techniques in vitro and strategies of prevention and control in sterile cell laboratory%影响细胞体外培养的因素及无菌环境防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡沈荣; 蓝贤勇; 陈宏; 雷初朝

    2012-01-01

    The technology of animal cell culture has a rapid development in the modern biological science. In recent years, this technique from a simple experimental operation has extended to the life sciences, bio-medicine and other research disciplines and production areas, and it has become a widely used technical means. Currently, many biotechnology researches are inseparable from the technology of cell culture. This paper introduces the basic operation of cell culture methods, then mainly introduces the main influencing factors of animal cells culture in vitro, and the strategies of prevention and control in the sterile cell laboratory.%动物细胞培养是现代生物科学中发展十分迅速的一种实验技术.近年来,动物细胞培养技术已从单纯的实验操作扩展到生命科学、生物医药学等多个学科的研究和生产领域,成为广泛采用的技术手段,许多生物技术科学研究都离不开细胞培养.从细胞培养的基本操作方法人手,介绍了影响动物细胞体外培养的主要因素,以及对细胞实验室无菌环境的防控策略.

  7. 9 CFR 391.4 - Laboratory services rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory services rate. 391.4 Section 391.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... AND LABORATORY ACCREDITATION § 391.4 Laboratory services rate. The rate for laboratory...

  8. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Panorama brasileiro do Programa de Boas Práticas de Laboratório. Impacto na redução do uso de animais | Brazilian Good Laboratory Practices Perspective. Impact on reduction in animal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rosa dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Boas Práticas de Laboratório, sistema da qualidade que abrange o processo organizacional e as condições nas quais estudos não clínicos são realizados, visa garantir a uniformidade, consistência, confiabilidade, reprodutibilidade, qualidade e integridade dos testes. O Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis introduziu formalmente a Boas Práticas de Laboratório em 1994. Em 1995, o INMETRO iniciou o Programa BPL para reconhecimento e monitoramento baseados em procedimentos, normas, regulamentos administrativos e legais, que estabelecem orientações, políticas e diretrizes para a Coordenação Geral de Acreditação atuar, com total responsabilidade e autoridade, como Autoridade Brasileira de Monitoramento aos princípios das BPL. Estudos BPL são reconhecidos pelos países membros e não membros com adesão plena, aos atos da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico em função do acordo de mútua aceitação de dados e promove redução do número de animais utilizados devido a não repetição dos testes e adoção de métodos alternativos validados. No Brasil, há 31 instalações BPL ativas e cinco realizam testes toxicológicos in vivo. A Resolução Normativa no 17/2014 do Conselho Nacional de Controle da Experimentação Animal estabelece que os testes utilizando animais que tenham métodos alternativos validados reconhecidos pelo Conselho sejam substituídos em até cinco anos, sendo essencial a ampliação da base laboratorial BPL. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Good Laboratory Practice (GLP, a quality system covering the organizational process and the conditions under which non-clinical studies are conducted, aims to ensure uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of the safety tests. The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources formally introduced GLP

  10. Application of Module Teaching Method in the Teaching of Laboratory Animal Science in Higher Institutions of Chinese Medicine%模块教学法在高等中医药院校实验动物学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小泉; 陈来; 陈丽玲; 张洁; 徐彭; 李姗姗

    2014-01-01

    Referenced to basis laboratory animal knowledge , courses on laboratory animals could be divided into three individual mod-ules, including two theoretical modules ( standardized laboratory animal culture , utilization of standardized laboratory animal to perform animal experiments ) , and one practical module ( animal experiment handling techniques and animal model making ) .Basis on these module units , multi-elemental , stagewise , and omnibearing laboratory animal course groups could be established .Theoretical mod-ules should be instructed by teachers from laboratory animal center , while practical module should be lectured by teachers with high scientific research ability from basis medical school .These measures can insure students grasp and understand the basis theories on la-boratory animals in a short period , meanwhile, these measures also cultivate integrated dispositions and experiment -handling capaci-ty, which will strengthen the basic ability of students for the future work of science and technology of animal experiments .%以实验动物学基本知识点为主线,将实验动物学课程分解为两个理论模块(标准化实验动物的培养、利用标准化实验动物进行动物实验)和一个实践模块(动物实验操作基本技术及模型制作)这样三个相对独立的模块。以模块为单元,构建多元化、分段式、全方位的实验动物学模块化课程群。理论模块由实验动物中心的教师讲授,动物实验实训板块由基础医学院科研能力出众的教师承担。这样既保证了学生在有限的时间内掌握和理解实验动物学的基础理论,同时培养了学生的综合素质和动手能力,为今后学生从事动物实验科技工作奠定基础。

  11. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  12. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  13. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  14. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  15. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  16. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  17. HMX: Acute Toxicity Tests in Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-30

    loss of mobility and laboured breathing. Observations noted at post mortem examination included red staining around mouth and nose, subdural haemorrhage...was shaved from an area 4 x 6 cm across the scapular region with electric clippers. Two courses of intradermal injections were given, one on either

  18. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  19. The Bacteria and Mycoplasma Monitoring in the Laboratory Animal Facility by Using Sentinel Mice%实验动物设施内哨兵鼠对病原菌监控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马元元; 孔申申; 陶迎红; 杨国生; 李雪迎

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过使用哨兵鼠的监控探讨我院实验动物屏障环境中病原菌的产生途径.方法 选择27只ICR小鼠、27只Nu/+裸鼠和27只SD大鼠作为哨兵鼠,分为实验组(手术组、非手术组)和正常对照组,实验组通过更换“脏垫料”进行饲养,对照组按正常饲养方式饲养,每隔3个月送检27只哨兵鼠进行检测,共送检3次.结果 正常对照组3次均未检测到病原菌,实验组在冬季月份未检测到病原菌感染,春、夏二季检测到病原菌感染,三个季节的病原菌感染率有显著性差异,P=0.012,其中春季较冬/夏季感染率有显著性差异,P=0.004,另两个季节之间差异不显著;病原菌感染率随着动物饲养量的增减而升高或降低;实验组中手术组病原菌感染率较非手术组略高;大鼠的病原菌感染率略高于小鼠.结论 屏障环境内实验鼠群的病原菌感染可能与季节、饲养量、频繁实验操作、动物种类等有直接关系.%To investigate the spread of bacteria and mycoplasma in the laboratory animal' s barrier environment in our hospital by using sentinel mice. Method A total 27 ICR mice, 27 Nu/ + nude mice and 27 SD rats were observed as "sentinel mice", divided into experimental groups (surgical group and non-surgical group) and normal control group. The animals in experimental groups were housed by different "dirty bedding" exposure. Those in the normal control group were housed with the normal breeding procedure. 27 sentinel mice were examined every three months, three times in all. Results Bacteria and mycoplasma infection was not detected in normal control group at all, compared with the higher infection rates in experimental groups. The infections occurred more frequently during spring, then summer, but were not able to be detected during winter season. The infection rates in three seasons showed statistical difference (P =0.012) , especially during spring, showed significant statistical difference

  20. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  1. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  4. Reference values for the production of the aqueous fraction of the tear film measured by the standardized endodontic absorbent paper point test in different exotic and laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rogério R; Lima, Leandro; Przydzimirski, Andreise C; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous fraction of the tear film and the horizontal palpebral fissure length (HPFL) were measured in exotic and laboratory animals, specifically saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola), chestnut-bellied seed-finches (Sporophila angolensis), red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus). These species possess small eyes making it difficult to perform the typical Schirmer tear test. Measurement of the aqueous fraction of the tear was performed using the standardized endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (PPTT), accomplished with manual restraint by a single operator. The following results were obtained: saffron finches (n = 42)-HPFL (4.46 ± 0.09 mm) and PPTT (5.10 ± 0.26 mm); chestnut-bellied seed-finches (n = 38)-HPFL (4.77 ± 0.05 mm) and PPTT (4.11 ± 0.34 mm); red-eared sliders (n = 56)-HPFL (8.59 ± 0.08 mm) and PPTT (8.79 ± 0.38 mm); rats (n = 60)-HPFL (6.45 ± 0.09 mm) and PTT (6.18 ± 2.06 mm); and mice (n = 22)-HPFL (3.59 ± 0.27 mm) and PPTT (4.39 ± 1.45 mm).

  5. Chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine labeled with Iodine-131. Biological distribution in laboratory animals; Marcacao do cloridrato de N-isopropil-p-iodoanfetamina com Iodo-131. Distribuicao biologica em animais de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza; Muramoto, Emiko; Carvalho, Olga Goncalves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical class in the utilization of chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labeled with 123 I, for brain perfusion evaluation. Studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of IMP with 131 I using nucleophilic substitution: temperature and, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and relation IMP mass/radioiodo activity, and stability of the final product. Radiochemistry purity method used showed to be efficient, quick and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed in mice to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The principal elimination route 131 I-IMP was the urinary. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and biological behavior in laboratory animals, we concluded that the studied radiopharmaceutical presents all ideal characteristics for clinical use in brain studies in nuclear medicine. (author)

  6. Separation of haemopoietic cells for biochemical investigation. Preparation of erythroid and myeloid cells from human and laboratory-animal bone marrow and the separation of erythroblasts according to their state of maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F L; Beswick, T M; Chesterton, C J

    1981-03-15

    The separation of haemopoietic bone-marrow cells by centrifugation through discontinuous density gradients of Percoll is described. This method was used to prepare fractions enriched in erythroblasts, myeloid blast cells or reticulocytes from bone marrow of anaemic and non-anaemic rabbits, from the marrow of other anaemic laboratory animals and from human samples. It is a simple, rapid, reproducible and inexpensive technique that can be readily adapted to suit individual requirements. Secondly, a convenient method is presented for the separation of large quantities of bone-marrow cells into fractions enriched in erythroblasts at different stages of maturation, by velocity sedimentation through a linear gradient of 1-2% sucrose at unit gravity. In vitro, erythroblasts adhere together strongly via a mechanism almost certainly involving a beta-galactoside-specific surface lectin termed erythroid developmental agglutinin. Since the efficiency of cell-separation techniques depends heavily on the maintenance of a single cell suspension in which each unit can move independently, the presence of an adhesive molecule at the cell surface is of considerable significance. The effect of washing the marrow with a lactose-containing medium, which has been shown to remove the agglutinin, was therefore investigated in relation to both methods. The separation on Percoll gradients is considerably enhanced by this treatment. In addition, the unit-gravity sedimentation gradient can be loaded with 5-10 times more cells after lactose extraction in comparison with intact marrow. Although enrichment is less, a useful fractionation according to maturation is still obtained.

  7. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  8. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  9. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  10. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  11. Establishment of laboratory animal models of hydatid disease through inoculating mice and rabbits with echinococcus granulosus protoscolices%异源接种建立小鼠和兔包虫病动物模型的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 叶彬; 邹晓毅; 武卫华; 韩秀敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用人工接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴感染法建立小鼠与兔包虫病动物模型.方法 6周龄昆明小鼠经皮穿刺腹腔内接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液,新西兰大白兔于腹部手术后肝脏接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液.接种原头蚴6个月后剖检动物,观察小鼠腹腔和新西兰大白兔肝脏内包虫囊生长情况.结果 接种羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴6个月后,小鼠腹腔内包囊生成率为95%,新西兰大白兔肝内包囊生成率为50%.光镜观察见在小鼠腹腔和兔肝脏形成的囊泡具有与羊肝脏棘球蚴囊壁类似的类上皮细胞层和板层状结构.3种动物体内棘球蚴均有原头蚴.结论 以羊源细粒棘球绦虫原头蚴悬液接种昆明小鼠腹腔和新西兰大白兔肝脏,可以建立小鼠和兔包虫病动物模型.%Objective To establish laboratory animal models of hydatid disease in mice and rabbits with sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Methods Kunming mice at 6 weeks of age were inoculated with the suspension of sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in the abdomen. New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with the suspension of sheep-derived Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in the liver after surgical operation in the abdominal region. The hydatid cysts in the animals were observed by naked eyes and optical microscopy in 6 months after inoculation. Results At the observation time point, the hydatid cysts were found in the abdominal cavities of 95% experimental mice (19/20) and in the liver of 50% experimental rabbits (4/8). Compared with those derived from the sheep liver, the hydatid cysts had similar epithelioid cell layer and lamellar structure but thinner cyst wall. Protoscolices were found in the hydatid cysts derived from all animals. Conclusion The animal models of hydatid disease can be established by inoculating mice and rabbits with the suspension of Echinococcus granulosus

  12. 实验动物呼吸系统主要器官比较组织学研究%Comparative study of the histology of respiratory organs in six laboratory animal species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴芳; 王丽; 王涛; 宋蜀伶; 赵玺龙; 徐文漭; 胡奇婵; 李涛; 王媛媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain histological data of the respiratory organs of laboratory animals and provide standard reference data for pathological inspection, toxicological studies and drug safety evaluation. Methods Thirty ordinary adult rhesus monkeys, 20 KM mice, 20 SD rats, 18 Japanese white rabbits, 16 Beagle dogs, and 20 Tupaia belangeri were included in this study. After intravenous anesthesia, the animals were sacrificed by femoral artery bleeding,and the trachea and lungs were removed, fixed in 10% formalin, and paraffin sections were stained with HE. The histological structure of the trachea and lungs was observed by light microscopy. The similarities and differences of the trachea and lung structures were compared among the different animal species. Results ( 1 ) The goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium; There were more goblet cells in the Beagle dogs and Japanese white rabbits than in the SD rats, KM mice and Tupaia belangeri, and their secretion was mainly neutral mucus in most animal species, but neutral and acidic mucus in Beagle dogs. (2) Distribution of submucosal glandular acini; There were most numerous submucosal glandular acini in the Beagle dogs, less numerous in the rhesus monkeys, SD rats, KM mice, and Tupaia belangeri, and least acini of submucosal mixed glands in the Japanese white rabbits. (3) The bronchial branches; The bronchial tree in the Beagle dogs, rhesus monkeys and Japanese white rabbits was composed of lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, small bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles. In the SD rats, KM mice and Tupaia belangeri, it was composed of only bronchioles, terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles. (4) Histological structure of bronchioles; The bronchioles of Beagle dogs and rhesus monkeys had an intact circular smooth muscle layer, which was a thin circular layer or lack of it in the SD rats, KM mice, Tupaia belangeri and Japanese white rabbits. There was a small amount of goblet cells in

  13. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  14. Surto de varíola murina em camundongos suíços em biotério: Relato de caso An outbreak of mousepox in swiss mice in a laboratory animal facility: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Diniz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suíços foram alojados em um biotério com instalações e condições de manejo adequadas para uma criação de animais convencionais sadios. Após 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte súbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clínicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana após foram observadas lesões generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, nódulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alterações como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gânglios. Amostras do fígado, baço e de lesões da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantóide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Após 72 horas foram detectadas lesões necróticas típicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de células Vero e detectado efeito citopático após 72 horas. O diagnóstico da varíola murina foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, lesões, cultivo e na identificação do vírus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  17. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  18. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. 融水小型猪的实验动物化系列研究概述%Brief report of series study on Rongshui miniature pig as laboratory animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施赫赫; 唐小江; 陈淦; 刘科; 刘运忠; 王绪敏; 高翔; 贺争鸣; 余细勇; 赖良学

    2015-01-01

    The provenances of Rongshui miniature pigs ( RMPs) were purchased from Rongshui, Guangxi, in 2012.130 RMPs were transported to Sanshui, Guangdong,China, which were breed according to the laboratory animal standards.83 RMPs were selected randomly from the first filial generations ( F1 ).The basic data were collected including breed characteristics, reproductive performance, grow curve, hematology, biochemical markers of serum and urine, organ coefficient, Chromosome analysis.According to the national and local standards, the quality control standards of RMP were set up including microbiological, parasitic, environment and facilities, fodder, pathology, genetic.The results showed that RMPs adapt to the climate of Guangdong.The natural mating and conceive rate was 88.3% with the pregnancy of 112 days.The average number of firstborn and still-born was 6.1 and 7.9 respectively.RMP was small body size with the adult body weight of 17.21 ±5.20 kg and 16.35 ±5.23 kg in female and male respectively.RMP was very tame.The mitochondrial genome analysis suggested RMP belonged a typical miniature pig breed in China, which is ancient than Lanyu pig.RMP could be breed as a new kind of laboratory animal.%融水小型猪的种源来自广西融水县,2012年被引到广东繁育并测定了基础数据,包括种质特性、繁殖性能、生长曲线、血液学指标、血生化指标、脏器系数、染色体分析。参照国家和地方有关实验动物标准,初步建立了融水小型猪微生物与寄生虫、环境与设施、饲料、病理学、遗传学等质量控制标准。融水小型猪能适应当地气候,繁殖良好,自然受孕率为88.3%,妊娠期平均112 d,初产平均胎产仔6.1头,经产平均产仔7.9头。融水小型猪体型小,雌雄成年体重(6月龄)分别为17.21±5.20 kg和16.35±5.23 kg,性情温顺,线粒体DNA分析表明融水小型猪比兰屿猪更为古老。通过标准化的饲养管理与质量控制

  20. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  1. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  2. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  3. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  4. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  5. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  6. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  8. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  10. 修订实验动物概念的定义对中国实验动物行业发展的重要性和意义探讨%Necessity and importance of amendment of the key concepts of laboratory animals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金东庆; 朱冠

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal industry forms an independent, comprehensive system responsible for the production, use and management of laboratory animals.Great advances have been made in this field in China over the more than thirty years of development.However, due to the great development and changes during this long time, there are also some issues which need to be amended and changed.To compare the concepts of experimental animals in China and developed countries such as USA.The key concepts on the laboratory animals are not well or clearly defined in the regulatory documents in China, which hinder the healthy development and effective regulation in this field, as well as the care and use of laboratory animals in research and education.In this article, we discuss the necessity of timely amendment and standardization of the key concepts and definitions related to laboratory animals, and the importance and impact of the key concepts on the development of animal industry in China.%中国实验动物行业经过30多年的发展逐步形成一个独立的、完整的、封闭的生产、使用和管理体系,科学准确的实验动物概念不仅对实验动物行业本身,对动物生产和使用、保护、福利和伦理,对生命科学及相关行业和产业,科学普及和教育等事业都有着十分重要的意义和作用。通过我国实验动物的概念同美国的相比较,发现我国实验动物的概念存在定义不到位,范围不清晰,界限模糊等问题,造成生产、使用和管理中的一系列困惑和难题,影响和限制了实验动物行业的发展,也给相关行业带来了严重的后果和影响。因而适时修改实验动物概念的定义是必要的,有着积极的、现实的、客观的作用和影响。

  11. A New Way of Maintaining Disinfection of Laboratory Animal Barrier Environment and Housing Facilities%一种实验动物屏障环境及设施维持性消毒的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶尤松; 代解杰; 仝品芬; 孙晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨实验动物屏障环境及设施维持性消毒的新方法.方法 用浓度为0.21 mg/m3的臭氧和1%的84消毒液或0.1%的新洁尔灭对实验动物屏障环境及设施进行维持性消毒;用血琼脂培养基进行落下菌培养.一周后观察血平皿内落下菌的个数.结果 经维持性消毒后.屏障环境空气落下菌检测平均为2.1个/血平皿,符合国标关于环境技术指标中沉降菌最大平均浓度的要求.结论 该种消毒方法有利于屏障环境微生物的控制,效果明显、操作简便、安全、利于推广.%Abstract: Objective To search a new way of laboratory animals barrier environment and housin facilities for maintaining disinfection. Method The following disinfectants were U8ed in this experiment :0. 21 mg/m3 ozone and 1% 84-disinfectant or 0. 1% bromogeramine. Then the falling bacteria was incubated for a week in 37 with blood agar medium, and the fallen bacteria count was carried out. Result The fallen bacterium in the barrier environment and housing facilities was average 2. I per plate after maimtaining disinfection,which was in keeping with the demands of environment technology target in national standard. Conclusion The disinfecting method was good for the control of barrier environment and housing facilitiess microbe, and it had the characten of effect obvious.operate simple、safe and use easy.

  12. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  13. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  14. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  15. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  16. Animal models for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  17. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  18. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  19. 21 CFR 58.90 - Animal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal care. 58.90 Section 58.90 Food and Drugs... FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Testing Facilities Operation § 58.90 Animal care. (a) There shall be standard operating procedures for the housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals. (b)...

  20. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  1. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  2. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  3. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  4. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  5. Animation Showing Backshell and Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation zooms in on the backshell and parachute, about 300 meters to the south of the Phoenix lander. In the distance, about 9 miles or 15 kilometers away, is a range of hills. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: The World of Animals, Animal Life, Four Legged and Otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This instructional package contains three animal life units developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. "The World of Animals" is a survey course of the animal kingdom (excluding man) and involves the students in many laboratory investigations and group activities. Typical animals of South Florida and unusual animals of the…

  7. Doenças de ovinos diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica Animal da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (1996-2010 Sheep diseases diagnosed at the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (1996-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a pecuária ovina cresceu significativamente no Brasil. Concomitantemente, grupos de pesquisas e laboratórios de diagnósticos realizam estudos retrospectivos com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios técnico-científicos para os médicos veterinários. Desta forma, realizou-se um estudo de prevalência nos arquivos do Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica Animal (LAP da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS no período de Janeiro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2010. O Laboratório de Bacteriologia da UFMS e o Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul forneceram apoio diagnóstico nos casos de mannheimiose pulmonar e scrapie, respectivamente. Os laudos da espécie ovina foram revisados e agrupados em conclusivos e inconclusivos, dos quais foram excluídos os casos experimentais e de outros estados e países. Os casos conclusivos foram classificados de acordo com a etiologia da doença. Os exames da espécie ovina somaram 331 laudos (3,97 % de um total de 8.333 casos diagnosticados no período. Destes, foram excluídos sessenta e quatro (19,3% casos experimentais e materiais oriundos de outros estados ou países. Dos 267 casos remanescentes, 87 (32,6% foram inconclusivos e 180 (67,4% considerados conclusivos, sendo 60 (33,3% doenças infecciosas e parasitárias; 45 (25% intoxicações e toxi-infecções; 41 (22,8% "lesões sem causa definida"; 22 (12,2% doenças metabólicas e nutricionais; 10 (5,6% foram classificadas como "outros distúrbios" e 2 (1,1% neoplasmas. A hemoncose, intoxicação por Brachiaria spp., pleuropneumonias, broncopneumonias, pneumonias fibrinonecrosante ou fibrinossupurativa sem causa definida e a intoxicação por cobre foram as doenças mais prevalentes no período estudado. Dois casos de scrapie foram diagnosticados no período.Sheep farming has increased significantly in Brazil during the last decades. Concurrently, research groups and diagnostic laboratories

  8. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  9. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. 实验动物从业人员职业伤害和自我防护与其焦虑、抑郁水平的相关性%The Relationship among Laboratory Animal Workers'Occupational Injury, Self-protection and Anxiety,Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小琴; 徐鋆娴

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate occupational injury , self-protection and anxiety , depression a-mong laboratory animal workers and analyze their relationship ,thus providing direction for self -protection and occupational health guidance .Methods:237 laboratory animal workers from Hangzhou , Wenzhou , Shanghai by cluster sampling ,were investigated with Self -rating Anxiety Scale ( SAS ) , Self-rating De-pression Scale(SDS)and self-made questionnaire.Results:The score of laboratory animal workers'anxi-ety and depression were higher than the national norm ,and laboratory animal workers who both had anxie-ty and depression emotional state accounted for 24 .9%.Their occupational injuries mainly came from physical (dust exposure and bites or scratches of rats ),chemical(direct contact with chemical sanitizer or reagent),biological(contact with laboratory animals of unknown bacterial and pathogens and laboratory animal allergy) .The most ignored protective measures were serum antibody level monitoring and vaccina -tion.Their anxiety and depression were positively correlated with occupational injury ,but were negatively correlated with self-protection.Conclusion:Laboratory animal management should put emphasis on psy-chological situation ,and provide mental therapy if necessary ,in order to further improve their self -pro-tection and reduce the threat of occupational .%目的:探讨实验动物从业人员职业伤害和自我防护及焦虑、抑郁状况,并分析它们间的相关性,为其职业自我防护和心理健康提供指导。方法:采用整群抽样法,使用自制职业伤害及自我防护问卷、Zung焦虑自评量表( SAS)和Zung抑郁自评量表( SDS)对237名实验动物从业人员的职业伤害和自我防护现状与焦虑、抑郁水平进行调查。结果:实验动物从业人员焦虑、抑郁均高于常模水平,且抑郁和焦虑状态并存的实验动物从业人员占24.9%。他们职业伤害的主要来源为

  14. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  15. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  16. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  17. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  18. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  19. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  20. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  1. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  2. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  3. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  4. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  5. 21 CFR 58.43 - Animal care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal care facilities. 58.43 Section 58.43 Food... LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Facilities § 58.43 Animal care facilities. (a) A testing facility shall have a sufficient number of animal rooms or areas, as needed, to assure proper:...

  6. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  7. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

  8. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  9. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  10. 3-D Rat Brain Phantom for High-Resolution Molecular Imaging: Experimental studies aimed at advancing understanding of human brain disease and malfunction, and of behavior problems, may be aided by computer models of small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Wilt, G.; Vervloet, M.; Visscher, R.; Booij, J.; Gerrits, M.; Ji, C.; Ramakers, R.; Van der Have, F.

    2009-01-01

    With the steadily improving resolution of novel small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography devices, highly detailed phantoms are required for testing and optimizing these systems. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) digital and physical phantom

  11. Use of sentinel animals for the microbiological monitoring program in laboratory rats and mice%大鼠、小鼠微生物学质量监测中的哨兵动物设置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小燕; 潘裕; 樊海艇; 张超超; 汤家铭; 蔡贞贞

    2014-01-01

    建立并执行全面的实验动物质量监测,对于确保人员、动物健康和福利,以及实验研究结果的真实性、有效性和可重复性是非常重要的。在实验动物中设置相应的哨兵动物能有效监测实验动物质量。本文对实验动物微生物质量监测中哨兵鼠选择,哨兵鼠与被监测动物接触方式、时间,哨兵鼠放置位置,每笼哨兵鼠代表被监测群体的鼠笼数,以及检测数量、检测频率和项目做一综述。%It is very important to establish and execute the all -sided experimental animal quality monitoring in order to guarantee human health , animal health and welfare as well as the authenticity , validity, and repeatability of the experimental research results.Setting corresponding sentinel animals in the experiment can effectively monitor the quality of experimental animals.This article gives a general review of the selection of sentinel rats in the microbiological quality monitoring of the experiment animals , contact form and time between the sentinel rats and the rats being monitored , the placement of sentinel rats, and the number of rat cages being monitored by each cage of sentinel rats , as well as the test quantity, test frequency and the project.

  12. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  13. 药理学实验教学中加强实验动物伦理学教育的思考%Consideration on Strengthen the Ethical Education of Laboratory Animal in Pharmacology Experimental Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪; 张慧楠; 贾敏; 周颖; 罗晓星; 孟静茹

    2015-01-01

    This paper points out the experimental animal ethics education in pharmacology teaching and the im-portance of the experiment,it is good to raises the student good humanity accomplishment and scientific research quality, and promote medical research and life ethics of benign interaction.It also expounds the basic content of ex-perimental animal ethics education,including:animal welfare, the 3R principle, AAALAC accreditation and analy-sis of the experimental animal welfare legislation status, raises questions about animal ethics education problems and thinking in the pharmacology experiment teaching in ourschool.The experimental animal ethics education should become an important part of pharmacology experimental teaching, which enhanced the students′s ethical awareness to better understand and respect for life, and contribute to the sustainable development of medical and pharmaceutical research.%指出了实验动物伦理学教育在药理学教学及实验中的重要性,有培养学生良好的人文素养和科研素质、促进医药研究与生命伦理观的良性互动的作用;阐述了实验动物伦理学教育的基本内容,包括动物福利、“3R”原则、AAALAC认证,并分析了实验动物福利的立法状况;引发了关于我校药理学实验教学中动物伦理学教育的问题与思考:将实验动物伦理教育融入实验教学过程应成为药理学教学的重要内容,既能够增强医药相关专业学生的伦理意识,更好的了解和尊重生命,也有助于促进医药研究的可持续发展。

  14. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  15. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  16. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  17. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  18. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  19. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  20. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  1. U.S. Judge's Ruling Sets Up New Battle over Care of Lab Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    A federal court decision overturning federal regulations requiring research institutions to present plans for care and use of laboratory animals has renewed debate over laboratory animal welfare. University scientists fear new, stricter Department of Agriculture regulations will result. (MSE)

  2. Prevention of occupational risks in animal experimentation; Prevencion de riesgos laborales en experimentacion animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Palacio, J. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the main specific risks for those working with laboratory animals in a Research Center such as CIEMAT. First we present the general biological risks, their laws and rules. Next, we development the specific risks associated with the laboratory animals, zoonotic diseases and allergies. then we deal with the risks that can be consequence of working with laboratory animals, ionizing radiations, chemical products, genetically modified organisms, liquid nitrogen management, bio containment and human samples management. As they are subjects of interest, we also include the workers health assesment for those exposed to biological agents, including recommendations about hygiene and disinfections. (Author)

  3. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  4. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  5. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviou

  6. 9 CFR 391.5 - Laboratory accreditation fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory accreditation fees. 391.5... AND LABORATORY ACCREDITATION § 391.5 Laboratory accreditation fees. (a) The annual fee for the initial... fiscal year 2006; $4,500.00 for fiscal year 2007; and $4,500.00 for fiscal year 2008. (b)...

  7. 9 CFR 590.580 - Laboratory tests and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory tests and analyses. 590.580... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Laboratory § 590.580 Laboratory tests and analyses. The official plant, at their expense, shall make tests...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  9. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing. The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  11. La evaluación del dolor experimental en el laboratorio: los modelos de dolor neuropático en animales Evaluation of experimental pain in the laboratory: models of neuropathic pain in animal's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Baños

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pese a los avances realizados en los últimos años, el dolor neuropático constituye aún un serio problema asistencial. Los tratamientos disponibles sólo permiten aliviar adecuadamente un tercio de los pacientes. Los modelos experimentales pueden contribuir a conocer la fisiopatología de este cuadro clínico, así como a probar nuevos fármacos. Existen básicamente dos tipos de modelos, aquellos que realizan una lesión en el nervio periférico y los que causan alteraciones en el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de sus limitaciones, los modelos animales pueden contribuir a avanzar en el conocimiento de este síndrome y algunos de ellos pueden ayudar a predecir la utilidad terapéutica de nuevos medicamentos. Obviamente, sólo los ensayos clínicos bien diseñados permitirán conocer su eficacia real en el ámbito clínico.In spite of the advancement of pain research in the last decade, the therapy of neuropathic pain is still an unresolved issue. Available treatments only adequately improve only a third of patients. Experimental models may contribute to the knowledge of its pathophysiology, as well as to the development of new drugs. Basically, two types of animal models are available: those that cause a lesion in the peripheral nerves and those that injury the central nervous system. Beyond these limitations, animal models may help to improve the knowledge of neuropathic pain and some of them have predictive value on the usefulness of analgesic efficacy of new drugs. Obviously, only well-designed, controlled clinical trials will permit to establish their actual efficacy in the clinical setting.

  12. Immunoblot profiles of sera from laboratory rats naturally infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis and technicians exposed to infected animal facilities Imunoeletroforese do soro de ratos naturalmente infectados com Mycoplasma pulmonis e bioteristas expostos a biotérios infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Oliveira Delgado

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pulmonis have been isolated in about 10(5 CFU/mL from tracheal aspirates of rats from conventional animal facilities in São Paulo. The mycoplasma transmission by aerosol may happen from an infected rat to a healthy one at distances up to 120 cm. This condition also favors the technicians contamination. As this infection is unknown in humans, in this study the immunoblot profiles to M. pulmonis of sera from rats were compared to those presented by animal facility technicians. About 32 proteins from 11 to 230 kDa (kilodaltons were recognized by the sera from rats naturally infected with M. pulmonis. Sera from technicians responsible for the cleaning and sanitation of cages of infected animals for more than seven years recognized about 10 proteins of this bacteria. Sera from individuals with shorter working time or that had never been exposed to such environment recognized few proteins. Proteins about 117 and 95 kDa were recognized by human and rat sera and by the negative controls. Although a positive human serum against M. pulmonis is unknown, this study established a temporary profile of protein recognition of human serum against such mycoplasma.Mycoplasma pulmonis foi isolado em aproximadamente 10(5 UFC/mL do lavado traqueal de ratos mantidos em biotérios convencionais da cidade de São Paulo. A transmissão do micoplasma por aerossol pode ocorrer entre os animais em até 120 cm. Esta condição favorece a sua transmissão para os bioteristas que também são expostos a este microrganismo. Como esta colonização é desconhecida em humanos, as imunoeletroforeses dos soros destes indivíduos foram comparados à com os dos ratos. Aproximadamente 32 proteínas de 11 a 230 kDa foram reconhecidas pelo soros dos ratos naturalmente infectados com M. pulmonis. Os soros dos bioteristas que estão envolvidos por mais de 7 anos na higenização das caixas com animais infectados reconheceram cerca de 10 proteínas deste microrganismo. O soro

  13. Animation of Phoenix's Wrist Unlatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation shows what happened underneath Phoenix's Robotic Arm wrist on Sol 3. The pin that goes through the loop is what holds the wrist in place. The rotation of the wrist pops the pin free. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  15. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  16. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  17. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  18. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  19. Laboratory research at the clinical trials of Veterinary medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZHYLA M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the importance of laboratory test methods, namely pathomorfological at conduct of clinical trials. The article focuses on complex laboratory diagnostics at determination of clinical condition of animals, safety and efficacy of tested medicinal product.

  20. Device for contaminating laboratory animals by inhalation of radioactive aerosols; Description d'un dispositif permettant la contamination d'animaux de laboratoire par inhalation d'aerosols radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M.; Rouvroy, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The contamination enclosure is made up of a sphere to which are attached an aerosol generator, containers adapted to the animals to be used, and the atmospheric sampling system. The sphere is placed in a protective glove-box, the latter being itself protected by an introduction chamber fitted with locking access lids. A detailed description is given of the working principle. As an example, some results are given concerning the contamination of rats by a plutonium oxide aerosol: characteristics of the powder (mean diameter 0.50 {mu} - standard deviation: 1.4), examination and evolution of the atmospheric activity as a function of time, evaluation of the retention by the lungs by means of histological and autoradiographic examinations. (authors) [French] L'enceinte de contamination est constituee par une 'sphere' a laquelle sont associes un generateur d'aerosols, des conteneurs adaptes aux animaux utilises et le systeme d'echantillonnage d'atmosphere; la sphere est contenue dans une boite a gants de protection; elle-meme munie de sas d'introduction a systeme de couvercles verrouillables. Les principes de fonctionnement sont detailles. A titre d'exemple, quelques resultats concernant l'empoussierage de rats par de l'oxyde de plutonium sont donnes: caracteristiques de la poudre (diametre moyen 0,50 {mu} - ecart type: 1,4), etude et evolution de l'activite atmospherique en fonction du temps, mise en evidence de la retention pulmonaire par examens histologique et autoradiographique. (auteurs)

  1. Exploration of laboratory animal standard of domesticated and bred Tupaia belangeri and construction of a technology platform of a Tupaia belangeri model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection%树鼩驯养繁殖实验动物标准及丙型肝炎动物模型技术平台建设的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓梅; 夏雪山; 代解杰

    2011-01-01

    At present, the Tupaia belangeri used for biomedical studies is mainly sourced from wild field capture.Due to the variation of interindividual differences, there are still some shortages in the homogeneity and the repeatability of experiments on those animals. There are problems demanding prompt solution on a series of basic scientific questions such as the management, critical techniques for breeding and the animal quality control standard in Tupaia belangeri. A lot of researches have reported that the Tupaia belangeri has a huge exploitation potential on the liver disease research compared with other laboratory animals. In the studies of animal models of hepatitis, there are problems need to be solved promptly on the cell culture system of HCV (hepatitis C virus), the infection dosage and route of HCV infection, the RNA, the antibody and the pathological examination after HCV infection in vivo and in vitro, and also how to evaluate the animal model.This paper will briefly discuss the above mentioned questions, in order to provide a scientific basis for implementing experimental animalization and the use of the Tupaia belangeri in HCV disease studies.%目前用于生物医学研究的树鼩大多数来源于野生捕获,由于个体间的差异较大,其实验结果的均匀性和可重复性较差,亟待解决树鼩人工饲养设施条件、繁殖关键技术、动物质量标准等一系列基础科学问题.许多文献报道了树鼩与其他实验动物比较,在肝病研究中具有巨大的开发应用潜力,在丙型肝炎动物模型研究中,亟待解决丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)细胞培养体系、HCV病毒感染剂量与感染途径、HCV病毒对树鼩体外、体内感染后病毒核酸检测、抗体检测和病理检测等技术方法的建立及动物模型评价标准问题.本文就上述问题系统性地进行初步报道,旨在为树鼩早日实现实验动物化和丙型肝炎疾病研究中应用提供科学依据.

  2. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  3. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  5. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  6. Development and implement of a disaster plan in a laboratory animal care and use program%浅谈实验动物饲养管理和使用计划中“灾难计划”的制定和实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆嘉琦; 刘吉宏; 周艳; 葛立军; 王建飞

    2014-01-01

    As a vital component in an overall laboratory animal care and use program , development of a disaster plan plays a critical role for every research institution .Currently, most of domestic institutions would draw up an“emergency operation plan , EOP”, but ignoring a practicable “business continuity plan , BCP” in establishing a disaster plan.In this article, we will discusse about the definition of disaster , how to set up an EOP, and how to establish a thorough BCP , in order to show an integrated and professional disaster plan in laboratory animal care and use program .%作为一个健全的实验动物饲养管理和使用计划的必须组成部分,“灾难计划( disaster plan )”的制定对任何研究机构均是非常重要的。目前,国内多数实验动物饲养和使用机构均会制定一份突发事件下的紧急预案( emergency operation plan , EOP),但多数机构均没有制定完善的运营连续性计划( business continuity plan , BCP )。本文将就“灾难计划”中“灾难”的定义、如何制定和实施完善的“紧急预案”、如何制定和实施完善的“运营连续性计划”等内容分别进行浅述,以期呈现一个完整并专业的实验动物饲养管理和使用计划中的“灾难计划”。

  7. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  9. Teaching Cardiovascular Integrations with Computer Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nils S.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer-based instructional unit in cardiovascular physiology. The program (which employs simulated laboratory experimental techniques with a problem-solving format is designed to supplement an animal laboratory and to offer students an integrative approach to physiology through use of microcomputers. Also presents an overview of the…

  10. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  11. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  12. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  13. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  14. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  17. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  18. 9 CFR 54.11 - Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. 54.11 Section 54.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. (a) State, Federal, and...

  19. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  20. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Emily L C Shepard; Wilson, Rory P.; Rees, W. Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustin; Vosper, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of “energy landscapes,” which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well...

  1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  3. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  4. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  5. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  6. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  7. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  8. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  9. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  10. Auditing laboratory rodent biosecurity programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William P; Horn, Mandy J; Cooper, Dale M; Klein, Hilton J

    2013-10-22

    A rodent biosecurity program that includes periodic evaluation of procedures used in an institution's vivarium can be used to ensure that best practices are in place to prevent a microbial pathogen outbreak. As a result of an ongoing comprehensive biosecurity review within their North American and European production facilities, the authors developed a novel biosecurity auditing process and worksheet that could be useful in other animal care and use operations. The authors encourage other institutions to consider initiating similar audits of their biosecurity programs to protect the health of their laboratory animals.

  11. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  12. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  13. Current therapies in exotic animal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Kent, Michael S; Théon, Alain

    2004-09-01

    The majority of information on oncology therapies has been reported in humans, canine, and feline patients, and laboratory animals with experimentally induced tumors. A variety of treatments,including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and others have been used with exotic animals. There are many species of exotic pets, and anatomic differences, as well as husbandry and nutritional requirements, must be taken into account to provide optimal care. By providing a broad overview of therapies and considerations for treatment, this article is intended to provide the practitioner with an overview of approach and options when addressing oncology cases in exotic animals.

  14. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  15. 实验动物皮肤病原真菌多重 PCR 检测方法的建立与初步应用%Development and application of a multiplex PCR assay for pathogenic dermatophytes in laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢进; 冯育芳; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立石膏样毛癣菌(Tm)、石膏样小孢子菌(Mg)、犬小孢子菌(Mc)和猴类毛癣菌(Am)的多重PCR检测方法,用于实验动物皮肤病原真菌的快速检测。方法根据Genbank公布的四种皮肤病原真菌的18S-28S rRNA序列设计特异性引物,通过引物、dNTP、TaqDNA聚合酶浓度及退火温度和时间的优化,建立四种皮肤病原真菌的多重PCR体系。经特异性和敏感性检验后,对15份人工感染真菌大鼠毛和260份实验动物毛发样本进行检测。结果所建多重PCR方法能够有效区分四种皮肤病原真菌,产生192 bp( Tm)、460 bp( Mg)、290 bp( Mc)和602 bp( As)的目的片段,最低检测限分别为5.9 pg/μL、6.6 pg/μL、9.5 pg/μL和5.1 pg/μL。被检的15份人工感染样本扩增结果准确,260份毛发样本中未检测出四种真菌。结论所建立的多重PCR方法能够同时对实验动物中的四种皮肤病原真菌进行快速的检测,具有较高的应用价值。%Objective To develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction ( mPCR) assay for detection of four pathogenic dermatophytes [Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Tm), Microsporum gypseum (Mg), Microsporum canis (Mc), and Arthroderma simii ( As) ] in laboratory animals, which could be used rapidly and simultaneously for direct detection of those four pathogens.Methods We designed 5 specific primers according to 18S-28S rRNA sequences of the four pathogenic dermatophytes reported in Genbank. The four mPCR assays were established through optimizing the concentration of primers, dNTP, TaqDNA polymerase and the annealing temperature.After verifying the specificity and sensibility, this method was used to detect 15 hair samples with artificial infection and 260 samples taken from laboratory animals.Results This mPCR technique can distinguish the four dermatophytes by producing 192 bp( Tm) ,460 bp( Mg) , 290 bp( Mc) and 602 bp( As) fragments

  16. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmenta...

  17. Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia NILSSON; Kirsten RAUN; Fei-fei YAN; Marianne O LARSEN; Mads TANG-CHRISTENSEN

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world.Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition,including pharmacological intervention.However,there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter,and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an improvement in human health.Hence,it is important to test potential new drugs in a valid translational model early in their development.In the current mini-review,a number of monogenetic and polygenic models of obesity will be discussed in view of their translational character.

  18. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns.

  19. Testing Experimental Compounds against Leishmaniasis in Laboratory Animal Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    available in recombinant form (eg. rIFN-gamma, rGM-CSF), and have been previously evaluated in the treatment of humans (88,98,135). The mode of action...diseases and useful for molecular 0 biological studies. DNA viruses have been found in Amoeba (30), double stranded RNA viruses have been found in Giardia ...viruses have been found in Amoeba (1), double stranded RNA viruses have been found in Giardia (2) and Trichomonas (3) and circular DNAs have been

  20. Testing Experimental Compounds against Leishmaniansis in Laboratory Animal Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Leishmania donovani, L. m. mexicana, L. m. ama- zonensis, L. tropica , and L. braziliensis guyanensis. J. Immunol. (In preparation). 18. Chapman, W.L., Jr...Report) L IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ,19. KEY WORDS (Continue an revere* side ftnocessavy and Identify by block number) Leishmania donovani Amastigote...PAGE(WImhM Data ,ntw0 • Leishmania ED 90 ED 50 subspecies Cell Type PCP A PCP A mexicana mexicana 1090 521 290 150 braziliensis guyanensis 90 25 21 07

  1. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  2. Functional Role for Humoral Antibodies in Leishmaniasis in Laboratory Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    lymphocytes, in the induction of 4 intracellular parasiticidal activity has been demonstrated for Trypanosoma cruzi (Nogueira et al., 1977) and for...M. Wittner. 1977. Trypanosoma cruzi : infection of normal and activated mouse macrophages. Exp. Parasitol. 41:385-396. Mackaness, G.B. 1970. The...in vitro for killing Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. J. Immunol. 123:2544-2549. Nogueira, N., S. Gordon, and Z. Cohn. 1977. Trypanosoma cruzi : modification

  3. First validation of acoustic rhinometry in laboratory animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Tovalidatetheaccuracyofacousticrhinometry(AR)usedinlaboratory animalsinordertobetterinterprettheincreasingnumberofclinicalanimaltrials. Method: AR isanon-invasivemethodusingsoundreflectiontomeasurecross- sectionalareaasafunctionofdistanceinanasalcavity.Wedidpostmortem studiesinguineapi...

  4. First validation of acoustic rhinometry in laboratory animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune

      Objective: Tovalidatetheaccuracyofacousticrhinometry(AR)usedinlaboratory animalsinordertobetterinterprettheincreasingnumberofclinicalanimaltrials.   Method: AR isanon-invasivemethodusingsoundreflectiontomeasurecross- sectionalareaasafunctionofdistanceinanasalcavity.Wedidpostmortem studiesinguin...

  5. Testing Experimental Compounds against Leishmaniasis in Laboratory Animal Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    buoyant density analysis, monoclonal antibody typ- ing, and infectivity for sandflies . 2. In Vivo Screening a. Visceral Leishmaniasis Six groups of 6...the case in "pian bois" where vectors are anthoprophilic and multiple lesions (>0) abound (37). Whether environmental temperature has any effect upon...buoyant density, iso-enzymes, reaction with monoclonal antibody and development in sandflies (#3). Each of these was grown in 250 ml BA flasks overlaid

  6. Taenia solium: current understanding of laboratory animal models of taeniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, A; Avila, G; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; León-Cabrera, S; Cruz-Rivera, M; Garza, A; Gómez, B; Aguilar, L; Terán, N; Velasco, S; Benítez, M; Jimenez-Gonzalez, D E

    2010-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.

  7. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-09

    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a solvent...in explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  8. Development of a laboratory animal model for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R L; Turfrey, B A; Smith, K

    1982-01-01

    Guinea pigs, gerbils, voles, golden hamsters and Chinese hamsters exposed to experimental infection with Moraxella bovis by ocular instillation or associated routes showed transient infections only and no clinical signs. Five strains of mice were of similarly low susceptibility but another, the C57 Bl strain, was relatively susceptible and treatment with corticosteroid before infection regularly produced keratoconjunctivitis. This system therefore offers a promising model for studies on infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

  9. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  10. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  13. Endovascular training with animals versus virtual reality systems: an economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, M.; Hellstrom, M.; Gothlin, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative costs of a virtual reality (VR) laboratory and an animal laboratory for endovascular skills training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cost data extracted from a previous experiment was used to perform a financial analysis according to the guidelines published by the National...... Institutes of Health. The analysis compared the purchase or rental of a Procedicus Vascular Interventional System Trainer to the rental of an animal laboratory. RESULTS: The VR laboratory course cost $3,434 per trainee versus $4,634 in the animal laboratory according to the purchase-versus-rental analysis....... The cost ratio was 0.74 in favor of the VR laboratory. Cost ratio sensitivity analysis ranged from 0.25 in favor of the VR laboratory to 2.22 in favor of the animal laboratory. The first-year potential savings were $62,410 assuming exclusive use of the VR laboratory. The 5-year training savings totaled...

  14. A REVIEW ON ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Devi* and Ramica Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As described by the world health organization (WHO, depression is the most common and serious disorder leading to suicide. Numbers of synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of this fatal disease, but are associated with serious complications. A wide diversity of animal models has been used to examine antidepressant activity. These range from relatively simple models sensitive to acute treatment, to highly sophisticated models. The number of validated animal models for affective disorders is large and still growing. A basic understanding of the underlying disease processes in depression is lacking, and therefore, recreating the disease in animal models is not possible. For the animal model of depression, the relevance, reliability and reproducibility in laboratories need to be focused, currently used models of depression attempt to produce quantifiable correlates of human symptoms in experimental animals and the animal modeling remains a potentially important approach towards understanding neurochemical and neurobiological mechanisms in depression. Animal models of depression attempt to represent some aspect of the etiology, symptomatology and treatment of the disorders, in order to facilitate their scientific study. Hence, this review deals with animal models that are beneficial for evaluating the potential of antidepressants. The present review further discusses the ability of currently available animal models for depression to investigate the novel hypothesis.

  15. LABORATORY MODELS FOR SCREENING ANALGESICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex unpleasant phenomenon composed of sensory experiences that include time, space, intensity, emotion, cognition and motivation. Analgesics are the agents, which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS or by peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical and technical problems. Philosophically, there is a problem that pain cannot be monitored directly in animals but can only be measured by examining their responses to nociceptive stimuli. The observed reactions are almost always motor responses ranging from spinal reflexes to complex behavior. The animal models employed for screening of analgesic agents, include Pain-state models based on the use of thermal stimuli, mechanical stimuli, electrical stimuli and chemical stimuli. The neuronal basis of most of the above laboratory models is poorly understood, however their application is profitable in predicting analgesic activity of newly discovered substances.

  16. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander. Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol. Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened. The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe. Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  18. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  20. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  1. Comparison of the morphological heterogeneity of mast cells in different tissues of 6 types of common laboratory animals%常用实验动物不同组织部位肥大细胞异质性的组织学特点比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 朱萍妹; 刘巧玲; 潘华; 周光兴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨并比较六种常用实验动物不同部位肥大细胞异质性的形态学特点。方法应用麻醉后处死的方法,取小鼠、大鼠、豚鼠、兔、犬和猴的皮肤、肺脏、乙状结肠和脾脏组织,经4%中性缓冲甲醛溶液或Bouin’ s液固定后,制作常规组织切片,分别作HE、甲苯胺蓝、阿尔新蓝-藏红和P物质免疫组织化学染色,镜下观察并应用彩色病理图像分析软件进行形态学分析;另取皮肤组织固定于磷酸缓冲戊二醛溶液,制作常规超薄切片,透射电镜下观察肥大细胞超微结构。结果六种动物不同组织中肥大细胞各有其分布特点,且在形态大小、异染性及染色特性等方面表现各异,肥大细胞密度和形态学参数差异有显著性( P<0.05);豚鼠、犬和猴皮肤肥大细胞颗粒具有特殊亚微结构;小鼠皮肤组织内可见P物质免疫阳性肥大细胞和神经纤维,犬脾脏内可见P物质免疫阳性肥大细胞。结论在六种实验动物的同一组织中以及同一种动物不同组织中,肥大细胞具有明显的异质性,此异质性对采用实验动物开展与肥大细胞功能相关的动物实验研究具有重要参考价值。%Objective To compare and explore the morphological characteristics of mast cells in different tissues of 6 types of common laboratory animals.Methods Ten healthy adult SPF Kunming mice, 10 SD rats, 10 Hartley guinea pigs, 10 New Zealand rabbits, 6 beagle dogs and 6 Macaca mulata ( male:female=1:1, for all) were used in this study. The animals were sacrificed by euthanasia, samples of the skin, lung, spleen and sigmoid colon were taken from mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey, and fixed in formalin and Bouin’ s solution.Paraffin sections were stained with toluidine blue and Alcian blue-safranin O, respectively.The mouse skin and dog spleen were immunohistochemically stained for substance P.A color pathological

  2. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  3. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  4. Human Safety in Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117

  5. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  6. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective. PMID:28298815

  7. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  8. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  9. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  10. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  11. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  12. Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V

    2004-10-01

    Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics and Darwin's publication on the Origin of Species, defending the biological similarities between man and animal, contributed to the increase of animal experimentation. The increasing demand for high standard animal models together with a critical view on the use of animals led to the development of Laboratory Animal Science in the 1950s with Russell and Burch's three R's of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as guiding principles, a field that can be defined as a multidisciplinary branch of science, contributing to the quality of animal experiments and to the welfare of laboratory animals. The increased interest in and concern about animal welfare issues led to legislative regulations in many countries and the establishment of animal ethics committees.

  13. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  14. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  15. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  16. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  17. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  18. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  19. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  20. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  1. The Workshop on Animal Botulism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarin, Hanna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Woudstra, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    A workshop on animal botulism was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in June 2012. Its purpose was to explore the current status of the disease in Europe by gathering the European experts in animal botulism and to raise awareness of the disease among veterinarians and others involved in biopreparedness....... Animal botulism is underreported and underdiagnosed, but an increasing number of reports, as well as the information gathered from this workshop, show that it is an emerging problem in Europe. The workshop was divided into 4 sessions: animal botulism in Europe, the bacteria behind the disease, detection...... conclusions drawn from these discussions were that there is an urgent need to replace the mouse bioassay for botulinum toxin detection with an in vitro test and that there is a need for a European network to function as a reference laboratory, which could also organize a European supply of botulinum antitoxin...

  2. Using Live Tissue Laboratories to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. Allen; Noonan, Ann Cassidy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the use of animal laboratories has decreased in medical and basic science programs due to lack of trained faculty members, student concerns about animal welfare, and the increased availability of inexpensive alternatives such as computer simulations and videos. Animal laboratories, however, have several advantages over alternative forms…

  3. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  4. Bringing macromolecular machinery to life using 3D animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid rise in the use of three-dimensional (3D) animation to depict molecular and cellular processes. Much of the growth in molecular animation has been in the educational arena, but increasingly, 3D animation software is finding its way into research laboratories. In this review, I will discuss a number of ways in which 3d animation software can play a valuable role in visualizing and communicating macromolecular structures and dynamics. I will also consider the challenges of using animation tools within the research sphere.

  5. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  6. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  7. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  8. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  11. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  12. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  13. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  14. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  15. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  16. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  17. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  18. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  19. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  20. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  1. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  3. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  4. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  5. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  6. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  7. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  8. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  9. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  10. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  11. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  13. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  14. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  15. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  16. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  17. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  18. CNAL Held International Proficiency Testing Workshop On Animal Quarantine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ From 14th to 16th, July 2004, CNAL held International Proficiency Testing Workshop on Animal Quarantine in TianJin, China. Approximately 50 experts from AQSIQ (General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection & Quarantine of the People's Republic of China) and Ministry of Agriculture who are engaged in the technical and management activities of animal quarantine laboratories attended the workshop.

  19. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  20. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria...... of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates...... animal associated C. difficile strains worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in strain distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen....

  1. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  2. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types of...

  3. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  4. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  5. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  6. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  7. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  8. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  9. Animal Care Use Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  10. Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D; Kolata, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the storage and processing capabilities of the human working memory system co-vary with individuals' performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks. The ubiquitous nature of this relationship suggests that variations in these processes may underlie individual differences in intelligence. Here we briefly review relevant data which supports this view. Furthermore, we emphasize an emerging literature describing a trait in genetically heterogeneous mice that is quantitatively and qualitatively analogous to general intelligence (g) in humans. As in humans, this animal analog of g co-varies with individual differences in both storage and processing components of the working memory system. Absent some of the complications associated with work with human subjects (e.g., phonological processing), this work with laboratory animals has provided an opportunity to assess otherwise intractable hypotheses. For instance, it has been possible in animals to manipulate individual aspects of the working memory system (e.g., selective attention), and to observe causal relationships between these variables and the expression of general cognitive abilities. This work with laboratory animals has coincided with human imaging studies (briefly reviewed here) which suggest that common brain structures (e.g., prefrontal cortex) mediate the efficacy of selective attention and the performance of individuals on intelligence test batteries. In total, this evidence suggests an evolutionary conservation of the processes that co-vary with and/or regulate "intelligence" and provides a framework for promoting these abilities in both young and old animals.

  11. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  12. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  13. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  14. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  15. Towards an animated JPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  16. 酶联免疫法与间接血凝法检测实验动物家兔弓形虫抗体的结果比较%Comparison between the results of testing TOX-Ab in laboratory animal-rabbit using ELISA and IHA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘严; 李彩云; 陈啸天; 张超; 潘学营

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析比较酶联免疫法(ELISA)和间接血凝法(IHA)在本实验室检测实验用家兔弓形虫特异性抗体的可行性。方法应用ELISA和IHA两种方法平行检测实验感染弓形虫的12只家兔阳性血清和未感染过弓形虫的30只正常家兔阴性血清中的弓形虫特异性抗体。比较两种方法敏感性、特异性、检测效率及Youden指数并运用kappa值进行一致性的评价。结果 IHA法的敏感性41.67%,特异性93.33%,ELISA法的敏感性100%,特异性100%。ELISA方法的敏感性、特异性、检测效率及Youden指数都在IHA方法之上。两种方法的总符合率是78.57%。kappa值=0.3998。结论 ELISA法与IHA法在本次平行检测中的一致性较差。ELISA方法敏感性、特异性明显优于IHA方法,更适用于实验动物家兔的弓形虫特异性抗体的检测。%ObjectiveTo analyze and compare the feasibility of using ELISA and IHA in our laboratory for testing specific TOX-Ab in laboratory rabbit.Methods Used ELISA and IHA methods for a parallelized testing of the specific TOX-Ab contained in both the positive serum of 12 rabbits infected with toxoplasma gondii and negative serum of 30 uninfected rabbits, thus to compare the sensibility, specificity, testing efficiency and Youden index between the two methods before applying Kappa values for a consistency evaluation.Results The sensibility and specificity of IHA was 41.67% and 93.33% respectively, while that for ELISA are both 100%. The sensibility, specificity, testing efficiency and Youden index for ELISA are higher than that of IHA. The total consistency rate for such two methods was 78.57% with Kappa value equals to 0.3998.Conclusion The consistency between the use of ELISA and IHA for this parallelized testing is relatively poor, and ELISA is notably better than IHA in terms of sensitivity and specificity, therefore it is more suitable to be applied in the testing of the specific TOX-Ab in laboratory

  17. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  18. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  19. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  20. Magnetocardiogram Measurement of Laboratory Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Ahn, San; Kwon, H. C. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We have developed a high-Tc SQUID magnetocardiogram (MCG) system for small laboratory animals. White noise of the measurement system was about 30 fT/ Hz{sup 1/2}when measured in a magnetically shielded room. We optimized the measurement position to obtain clear MCG wave from rat's small heart by using grid measurements. With the optimization, the MCG signal was successfully detected with the peak amplitude of about 30 pT. We could observe well defined P-, QRS-, and T-waves from the rat MCG. The results suggest that the developed system has a strong potential to monitor the progress of the heart disease model by using a laboratory rat.