WorldWideScience

Sample records for animals evolution effectiveness

  1. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  2. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-05

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stereopsis in animals: evolution, function and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and the underlying selective pressures in different animals. It also further prompts the question of whether all animals have evolved essentially the same algorithms to implement stereopsis. If so, this must be the best way to do stereo vision, and should be implemented by engineers in machine stereopsis. Conversely, if animals have evolved a range of stereo algorithms in response to different pressures, that could inspire novel forms of machine stereopsis appropriate for distinct environments, tasks or constraints. As a first step towards addressing these ideas, we here review our current knowledge of stereo vision in animals, with a view towards outlining common principles about the evolution, function and mechanisms of stereo vision across the animal kingdom. We conclude by outlining avenues for future work, including research into possible new mechanisms of stereo vision, with implications for machine vision and the role of stereopsis in the evolution of camouflage. PMID:28724702

  4. Stereopsis in animals: evolution, function and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda, Vivek; Read, Jenny C. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and th...

  5. Animal personalities : consequences for ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Max; Weissing, Franz J.

    Personality differences are a widespread phenomenon throughout the animal kingdom. Past research has focused on the characterization of such differences and a quest for their proximate and ultimate causation. However, the consequences of these differences for ecology and evolution received much less

  6. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...... and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  7. Evolution of transcriptional enhancers and animal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Marcelo; de Souza, Flávio S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering the genetic bases that drive animal diversity is one of the major challenges of modern biology. Although four decades ago it was proposed that animal evolution was mainly driven by changes in cis-regulatory DNA elements controlling gene expression rather than in protein-coding sequences, only now are powerful bioinformatics and experimental approaches available to accelerate studies into how the evolution of transcriptional enhancers contributes to novel forms and functions. In the introduction to this Theme Issue, we start by defining the general properties of transcriptional enhancers, such as modularity and the coexistence of tight sequence conservation with transcription factor-binding site shuffling as different mechanisms that maintain the enhancer grammar over evolutionary time. We discuss past and current methods used to identify cell-type-specific enhancers and provide examples of how enhancers originate de novo, change and are lost in particular lineages. We then focus in the central part of this Theme Issue on analysing examples of how the molecular evolution of enhancers may change form and function. Throughout this introduction, we present the main findings of the articles, reviews and perspectives contributed to this Theme Issue that together illustrate some of the great advances and current frontiers in the field. PMID:24218630

  8. Weird Animals, Sex, and Genome Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2018-02-15

    Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand. Here I describe some of those amazing animals and the insights on genome structure, function, and evolution they have afforded us. I also describe my sometimes-random walk in science and the factors and people who influenced my direction. Being a woman in science is still not easy, and I hope others will find encouragement and empathy in my story.

  9. The evolution of animal societies : An exploration of the effects of population structure, life-history and behavioural plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Why do animals invest time and resources in social interactions and help each other, when the natural world is driven by fierce competition? Cooperation indeed abounds in the natural world, where organisms form societies whose fabric is made by the seemingly selfless actions of individuals. In this

  10. A reconstruction of sexual modes throughout animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Daniel A; Ryan, Joseph F

    2017-12-06

    Although most extant animals have separate sexes, simultaneous hermaphrodites can be found in lineages throughout the animal kingdom. However, the sexual modes of key ancestral nodes including the last common ancestor (LCA) of all animals remain unclear. Without these data, it is difficult to infer the reproductive-state transitions that occurred early in animal evolution, and thus a broad understanding of the evolution of animal reproduction remains elusive. In this study, we use a composite phylogeny from four previously published studies, two alternative topologies (ctenophores or sponges as sister to the rest of animals), and multiple phylogenetic approaches to conduct the most extensive analysis to date of the evolution of animal sexual modes. Our analyses clarify the sexual mode of many ancestral animal nodes and allow for sound inferences of modal transitions that have occurred in animal history. Our results also indicate that the transition from separate sexes to hermaphroditism has been more common in animal history than the reverse. These results provide the most complete view of the evolution of animal sexual modes to date and provide a framework for future inquiries into the correlation of these transitions with genes, behaviors, and physiology. These results also suggest that mutations promoting hermaphroditism have historically been more likely to invade gonochoristic populations than vice versa.

  11. Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    2017-08-01

    A revised timeline for when algae became ecologically important among plankton in the ancient oceans reveals a link between chemical changes in those waters and the emergence of animals in marine ecosystems. See Letter p.578

  12. Evolution of cholinesterases in the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzementi, Leo; Chatonnet, Arnaud

    2010-09-06

    Cholinesterases emerged from a family of enzymes and proteins with adhesion properties. This family is absent in plants and expanded in multicellular animals. True cholinesterases appeared in triploblastic animals together with the cholinergic system. Lineage specific duplications resulted in two acetylcholinesterases in most hexapods and in up to four genes in nematodes. In vertebrates the duplication leading to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is now considered to be an ancient event which occurred before the split of osteichthyes. The product of one or the other of the paralogues is responsible for the physiological hydrolysis of acetylcholine, depending on the species lineage and tissue considered. The BChE gene seems to have been lost in some fish lineages. The complete genome of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae: cephalochordate) contains a large number of duplicated genes or pseudogenes of cholinesterases. Sequence comparison and tree constructions raise the question of considering the atypical ChE studied in this organism as a representative of ancient BChE. Thus nematodes, arthropods, annelids, molluscs, and vertebrates typically possess two paralogous genes coding for cholinesterases. The origin of the duplication(s) is discussed. The mode of attachment through alternative C-terminal coding exons seems to have evolved independently from the catalytic part of the gene. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  14. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  15. Evolution and inheritance of animal mitochondrial DNA: rules and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Zouros, Eleftherios

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been studied intensely for "its own" merit. Its role for the function of the cell and the organism remains a fertile field, its origin and evolution is an indispensable part of the evolution of life and its interaction with the nuclear DNA is among the most important cases of genome synergism and co-evolution. Also, mtDNA was proven one of the most useful tools in population genetics and molecular phylogenetics. In this article we focus on animal mtDNA and discuss briefly how our views about its structure, function and transmission have changed, how these changes affect the information we have accumulated through its use in the fields of phylogeny and population structure and what are the most important questions that remain open for future research.

  16. The magnitude of innovation and its evolution in social animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-08

    Innovative behaviour in animals, ranging from invertebrates to humans, is increasingly recognized as an important topic for investigation by behavioural researchers. However, what constitutes an innovation remains controversial, and difficult to quantify. Drawing on a broad definition whereby any behaviour with a new component to it is an innovation, we propose a quantitative measure, which we call the magnitude of innovation , to describe the extent to which an innovative behaviour is novel. This allows us to distinguish between innovations that are a slight change to existing behaviours (low magnitude), and innovations that are substantially different (high magnitude). Using mathematical modelling and evolutionary computer simulations, we explored how aspects of social interaction, cognition and natural selection affect the frequency and magnitude of innovation. We show that high-magnitude innovations are likely to arise regularly even if the frequency of innovation is low, as long as this frequency is relatively constant, and that the selectivity of social learning and the existence of social rewards, such as prestige and royalties, are crucial for innovative behaviour to evolve. We suggest that consideration of the magnitude of innovation may prove a useful tool in the study of the evolution of cognition and of culture. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The TALE face of Hox proteins in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabet, Samir; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Hox genes are major regulators of embryonic development. One of their most conserved functions is to coordinate the formation of specific body structures along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis in Bilateria. This architectural role was at the basis of several morphological innovations across bilaterian evolution. In this review, we traced the origin of the Hox patterning system by considering the partnership with PBC and Meis proteins. PBC and Meis belong to the TALE-class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors and act as generic cofactors of Hox proteins for AP axis patterning in Bilateria. Recent data indicate that Hox proteins acquired the ability to interact with their TALE partners in the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria. These interactions relied initially on a short peptide motif called hexapeptide (HX), which is present in Hox and non-Hox protein families. Remarkably, Hox proteins can also recruit the TALE cofactors by using specific PBC Interaction Motifs (SPIMs). We describe how a functional Hox/TALE patterning system emerged in eumetazoans through the acquisition of SPIMs. We anticipate that interaction flexibility could be found in other patterning systems, being at the heart of the astonishing morphological diversity observed in the animal kingdom.

  18. Why bacteria matter in animal development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2010-07-01

    While largely studied because of their harmful effects on human health, there is growing appreciation that bacteria are important partners for invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. Epithelia in metazoans do not only select their microbiota; a coevolved consortium of microbes enables both invertebrates and vertebrates to expand the range of diet supply, to shape the complex immune system and to control pathogenic bacteria. Microbes in zebrafish and mice regulate gut epithelial homeostasis. In a squid, microbes control the development of the symbiotic light organ. These discoveries point to a key role for bacteria in any metazoan existence, and imply that beneficial bacteria-host interactions should be considered an integral part of development and evolution.

  19. The ecology and evolution of animal medication: genetically fixed response versus phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2014-08-01

    Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication.

  20. Earth’s oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (∼1.8–0.8 billion years ago). PMID:27457943

  1. Plant vs. Animal, Which is the Most Prefer Understanding of Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Gardenia Mahbubah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution is one of the main subjects of biology taught in science colleges. Unfortunately, students seem less attention to this subject. In the subject of evolution, the lesson commonly uses the animal as a model to improve the students understanding. The purpose of this study is to compare the ability of tree thinking students who use animals and plants as a model in the evolution lesson. Tree thinking refers to an approach to evolution that emphasizes reading and interpreting phylogenetic tree. This study involved 20 undergraduate students enrolled in the evolution course for biology majors at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI. The tree thinking ability of students was measured using Tree Thinking Concept Inventory (TTCI of Naegle with a little modification. In this test, we analyzed student preferences using animal or plant models using phylogenetic tree diagrams. Results showed that students’ TTCI score was higher when using animal models (65.42% than plant models (55%. These results suggested that students remain to prefer animal models compare to plant models to study evolution. Nevertheless, the use of plants as models can be an alternative to learning evolution in the future.

  2. Cognitive Phenotypes and the Evolution of Animal Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Hauber, Mark E; Pence, Charles H; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Safran, Rebecca J; Stern, Caitlin A; Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'. We distinguish multiple cognitive phenotypes in the context of a JDM framework and highlight empirical approaches to characterize them as evolvable traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of microRNA diversity and regulation in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The ancient origin of miRNAs, their dramatic expansion in bilaterian animals and their function in providing robustness to transcriptional programmes suggest that miRNAs

  4. In silico evo-devo: reconstructing stages in the evolution of animal segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.; Davis, GK; Patel, NH; Peel, A; Akam, M; Couso, JP; Budd, GE; Seaver, EC; Minelli, A; Fusco, G; Tautz, D; Jacobs, DK; Hughes, NC; Fitz-Gibbon, ST; Winchell, CJ; Blair, SS; Wanninger, A; Kristof, A; Brinkmann, N; Chipman, AD; Richmond, DL; Oates, AC; Gold, DA; Runnegar, B; Gehling, JG; Jacobs, DK; Rivera, A; Weisblat, D; Williams, T; Blachuta, B; Hegna, TA; Nagy, LM; Balavoine, G; Peel, A; Bénazéraf, B; Pourquié, O; Mayer, G; Kato, C; Quast, B; Chisholm, RH; Landman, KA; Quinn, LM; Nakamoto, A; Hester, SD; Constantinou, SJ; Blaine, WG; Tewksbury, AB; Matei, MT; Nagy, LM; Williams, TA; Graham, A; Butts, T; Lumsden, A; Kiecker, C; François, P; Hakim, V; Siggia, ED; Fujimoto, K; Ishihara, S; Kaneko, K; Tusscher, KH; Hogeweg, P; Crombach, A; Hogeweg, P; Salazar-Ciudad, I; Newman, SA; Solé, RV; Pankratz, MJ; Jäckle, H; Crampin, EJ; Hackborn, WW; Maini, PK; Harper, JL; Rosen, BR; White, J; Tusscher, KHWJ; Petersen, CP; Reddien, PW; Martin, BL; Kimelman, D; Young, T; Rowland, JE; Ven, C; Bialecka, M; Novoa, A; Carapuco, M; Nes, J; Graaff, W; Duluc, I; Freund, J-N; Beck, F; Mallo, M; Deschamps, J; Meinhardt, H; Kappen, C; Schughart, K; Ruddle, FH

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of animal segmentation is a major research focus within the field of evolutionary–developmental biology. Most studied segmented animals generate their segments in a repetitive, anterior-to-posterior fashion coordinated with the extension of the body axis from a posterior growth zone.

  5. Effective Strategies for Teaching Evolution: The Primary Evolution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    When Chris Hatcher joined the Primary Evolution Project team at the University of Reading, his goal was to find effective strategies to teach evolution in a way that keeps children engaged and enthused. Hatcher has collaborated with colleagues at the University's Institute of Education to break the evolution unit down into distinct topics and…

  6. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  7. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  9. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  10. Effect of the animals on the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla Correa, Carmen Rosa

    2000-01-01

    Soil is defined here in terms of opposite arbitrary frontiers more than its functions. The animals of the soil are defined in relation to their effect on the soil. The animals that live in the soil and intimately related to they are part of the soil. The animals that live on the soil make him contributions. Many animals are anphi-habitants, that is to say, they live in the soil and a one atmosphere outside of the soil. Animal exopedonics (outside of the soil) and endopedonics (inside the soil) they are considered with regard to twelve activities: blended, accumulation, formation of pores, obstruction of pores, formation and peds destruction, regulation of the erosion of the soil, regulation of the movement of air and the soil, regulation of the liter of plants, regulation of the animal liter, regulation of the cycle of nutritious, regulation of the biota and production of element special. The animals participate in numerous processes of formation of the soil and they affect the use of the same one

  11. Ultra violet radiation : effects on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, P.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the evolutionary and historical events that have increased the susceptibility of certain genotypes of humanity and domestic animals to ultra violet radiation. Further it discusses the general effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on vertebrates and then the clinical syndromes seen in such animals as a result of prolonged exposure to this form of radiation. Finally it gives anecdotal comments on evidence for changes in the immediately above types of disease and describes the need for a better recording system for these conditions so that these hypothetical changes could be effectively monitored. (author). 12 refs

  12. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  13. Noise effects on reproduction— animal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.; Matsumura, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Noise effects on fetal development were observed in animals. While the copulatory function was not affected, birth rate decreased when the animals were exposed to noise. An increased number of stunted fetuses was observed when the animals were intermittently exposed. However, malformations in the fetuses increased with exposure to both intermittent and continuous noise. Two phases of hormonal change were observed in connection with noise exposure. One is the initial response phase, characterized by the increment of 11-OHCS in the adrenal gland. The other is the end phenomena phase, characterized by a disorder in central control. It is discussed that the disturbance of fetal development by exposure to noise is related to these changes in the hormonal condition.

  14. Novel scenarios of early animal evolution--is it time to rewrite textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how important phenotypic, developmental, and genomic features of animals originated and evolved is essential for many fields of biological research, but such understanding depends on robust hypotheses about the phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa to which the studied species belong. Molecular approaches to phylogenetics have proven able to revolutionize our knowledge of organismal evolution. However, with respect to the deepest splits in the metazoan Tree of Life-the relationships between Bilateria and the four non-bilaterian phyla (Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, and Cnidaria)-no consensus has been reached yet, since a number of different, often contradictory, hypotheses with sometimes spectacular implications have been proposed in recent years. Here, we review the recent literature on the topic and contrast it with more classical perceptions based on analyses of morphological characters. We conclude that the time is not yet ripe to rewrite zoological textbooks and advocate a conservative approach when it comes to developing scenarios of the early evolution of animals.

  15. INFORMATION SOCIETY EVOLUTION AND EFFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution and effects of the information society can be exemplified via many threads, both in hard and soft science, according to ones’ discipline and field. In this contribution, the speaker’s three decades of applied research acts as a vehicle to demonstrate development and impact via...... commercial product, national and international projects, and industry startups (including impactful third party research investigations) form the basis for discussion. Beyond this, a wider more generic perspective reflects on product adoption that illustrate todays’ contemporary e-society tendencies where...... recent influx and uptake of consumer-targeted artificial reality products point to society’s desire for alternative sensory experiences. Posited is how aligned with this desire there is a need for new ethical considerations in research as was found in the speaker’s research at the end of the 20th century...

  16. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Exbrayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since several years nanoparticles (NPs are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  17. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  18. Studying phenotypic evolution in domestic animals: a walk in the footsteps of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin used domesticated plants and animals as proof of principle for his theory on phenotypic evolution by means of natural selection. Inspired by Darwin's work, we developed an intercross between the wild boar and domestic pigs to study the genetic basis for phenotypic changes during domestication. The difference in coat color is controlled by two major loci. Dominant white color is due to two consecutive mutations in the KIT gene: a 450-kb duplication and a splice mutation. Black spotting is caused by the combined effect of two mutations in MC1R: a missense mutation for dominant black color and a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift. A major discovery made using this pedigree is the identification of a single-nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) that is underlying a quantitative trait locus affecting muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition. The mutation disrupts the interaction with a repressor and leads to threefold increased IGF2 expression in postnatal muscle. In a recent study, we have identified the IGF2 repressor, and this previously unknown protein, named ZBED6, is specific for placental mammals and derived from a domesticated DNA transposon.

  19. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE), Japanese formal education has also utilized animals for education. Japanese animal-rearing education is unique regarding the following two points: (1) it takes the form of "education through assisting animals" rather than "animals assisting education" and (2) animal rearing is embedded in formal education. While conventional AAE expects the benefit from the social support of animals, Japanese animal-rearing education expects benefit from nurturing and caring for animals. The present study aims to identify effective methods for using animals for education by highlighting the benefits of Japanese animal-rearing education. An overview of Japanese animal-rearing education is followed by a critical review of empirical studies of conventional AAE and Japanese animal-rearing education. Despite the differences in the educational styles, it was found that both systems commonly help children adapt to school. Additionally, conventional AAE were effective in enhancing cognitive and athletic ability of students and foster social skills, while Japanese animal-rearing education enhanced academic knowledge and skills and cultivated sympathy for animals and other people. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the experience of raising animals affects children's development for a long time even after children stop raising animals. In order to determine the effect of animal presence at school, however, more empirical studies with various viewpoints are necessary for both styles of education. Concerning Japanese animal-rearing education, the effects of the differences such as the amount of exposure to animals, developmental stage or character of individual children, the types of animals need to be controlled for a more sophisticated

  20. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakajima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE, Japanese formal education has also utilized animals for education. Japanese animal-rearing education is unique regarding the following two points: (1 it takes the form of “education through assisting animals” rather than “animals assisting education” and (2 animal rearing is embedded in formal education. While conventional AAE expects the benefit from the social support of animals, Japanese animal-rearing education expects benefit from nurturing and caring for animals. The present study aims to identify effective methods for using animals for education by highlighting the benefits of Japanese animal-rearing education. An overview of Japanese animal-rearing education is followed by a critical review of empirical studies of conventional AAE and Japanese animal-rearing education. Despite the differences in the educational styles, it was found that both systems commonly help children adapt to school. Additionally, conventional AAE were effective in enhancing cognitive and athletic ability of students and foster social skills, while Japanese animal-rearing education enhanced academic knowledge and skills and cultivated sympathy for animals and other people. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the experience of raising animals affects children’s development for a long time even after children stop raising animals. In order to determine the effect of animal presence at school, however, more empirical studies with various viewpoints are necessary for both styles of education. Concerning Japanese animal-rearing education, the effects of the differences such as the amount of exposure to animals, developmental stage or character of individual children, the types of animals need to be

  1. The triple helix of collagens - an ancient protein structure that enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Boudko, Sergei P; Rokas, Antonis; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-04-09

    The cellular microenvironment, characterized by an extracellular matrix (ECM), played an essential role in the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in animals (metazoans), and in the subsequent evolution of diverse animal tissues and organs. A major ECM component are members of the collagen superfamily -comprising 28 types in vertebrates - that exist in diverse supramolecular assemblies ranging from networks to fibrils. Each assembly is characterized by a hallmark feature, a protein structure called a triple helix. A current gap in knowledge is understanding the mechanisms of how the triple helix encodes and utilizes information in building scaffolds on the outside of cells. Type IV collagen, recently revealed as the evolutionarily most ancient member of the collagen superfamily, serves as an archetype for a fresh view of fundamental structural features of a triple helix that underlie the diversity of biological activities of collagens. In this Opinion, we argue that the triple helix is a protein structure of fundamental importance in building the extracellular matrix, which enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fraser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  3. The tubulins of animals, plants, fungi and protists implications for metazoan evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melvyn; Ludueña, Richard F.; Morejohn, Louis C.; Asnes, Clara; Hoffman, Eugene

    1984-03-01

    α-Tubulin subunits from trout (S. gairdneri) sperm tails, sea urchin (S. purpuratus) cilia, protistan alga (C. elongatum) flagella and rose (Paul's Scarlet) cytoplasm have been characterized by limited proteolytic cleavage with the enzymeStaphylococcus aureus protease and electrophoresis of the digestion products on SDS-PAGE. The resulting patterns corresponded to either of two major types representative of animal and non-animal α-tubulins, respectively. A total of 28 α-tubulins have now been characterized by this method. They are classified in this paper according to the type of cleavage pattern generated by the enzymeS. aureus protease. The implications of these results for metazoan evolution are discussed.

  4. Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, María Yanina; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Mu, Huawei; Heras, Horacio

    2017-11-20

    Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.

  5. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Bouron, A.; Lestaevel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137 Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading

  7. AMYGDALIN AND ITS EFFECTS ON ANIMAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is a natural compound whose anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity and other medicinal benefits have been known for many years. It has been isolated in 1830 by the French chemists Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard from kernels of the bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus. It is a major component of the seeds of prunasin family plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. It has been used as a traditional drug because of its wide range of medicinal benefits. Amygdalin can be used in medicine for preventing and treating migraine, hypertension, chronic inflammation, and other reaction source diseases. This review is focused on the effects of amygdalin on the animal system.

  8. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  9. Pharmacological Effects of Biotin in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron-Negrete, Leticia; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, it was found that vitamins affect biological functions in ways other than their long-known functions; niacin is the best example of a water-soluble vitamin known to possess multiple actions. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that serves as a covalently-bound coenzyme of carboxylases. It is now well documented that biotin has actions other than participating in classical enzyme catalysis reactions. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, reproduction, development, and immunity. The effect of biotin on these functions is related to its actions at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. The bestsupported mechanism involved in the genetic effects of biotin is the soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. Although there are commercially-available products containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin, the toxic effects of biotin have been poorly studied. This review summarizes the known actions and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological doses of biotin in animals and current information regarding biotin toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  11. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  12. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  13. Elemental magic, v.2 the technique of special effects animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gilland, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Design beautiful, professional-level animated effects with these detailed step-by-step tutorials from former Disney animator and animated effects expert Joseph Gilland. Filled with beautiful, full-color artwork, Elemental Magic, Volume II, breaks down the animated effect process from beginning to end-including booming explosions, gusting winds, magical incantations, and raging fires. He also breaks down the process of effects ""clean-up,"" as well as timing and frame rates. The companion website includes real-time footage of the author lecturing as he animates the drawings from the

  14. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although there are quite a few studies, the variety of methods, the complexity of t...

  15. Large-scale trends in the evolution of gene structures within 11 animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yandell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales--from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for "Comparative Genomics Library". Our results demonstrate that change in intron-exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.

  16. Is our heart a well-designed pump? The heart along animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettex, Dominique A; Prêtre, René; Chassot, Pierre-Guy

    2014-09-07

    A carrier system for gases and nutrients became mandatory when primitive animals grew larger and developed different organs. The first circulatory systems are peristaltic tubes pushing slowly the haemolymph into an open vascular tree without capillaries (worms). Arthropods developed contractile bulges on the abdominal aorta assisted by accessory hearts for wings or legs and by abdominal respiratory motions. Two-chamber heart (atrium and ventricle) appeared among mollusks. Vertebrates have a multi-chamber heart and a closed circulation with capillaries. Their heart has two chambers in fishes, three chambers (two atria and one ventricle) in amphibians and reptiles, and four chambers in birds and mammals. The ventricle of reptiles is partially divided in two cavities by an interventricular septum, leaving only a communication of variable size leading to a variable shunt. Blood pressure increases progressively from 15 mmHg (worms) to 170/70 mmHg (birds) according to the increase in metabolic rate. When systemic pressure exceeds 50 mmHg, a lower pressure system appears for the circulation through gills or lungs in order to improve gas exchange. A four-chamber heart allows a complete separation of systemic and pulmonary circuits. This review describes the circulatory pumping systems used in the different classes of animals, their advantages and failures, and the way they have been modified with evolution. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace,

  18. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  19. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  20. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  1. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  2. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  3. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  4. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias

    2008-08-01

    One of the outstanding challenges for evolutionary biologists is to understand how developmental plasticity can influence the evolutionary process. Developmental plasticity frequently involves parental effects, which might enable adaptive and context-dependent transgenerational transmission of phenotypic strategies. However, parent-offspring conflict will frequently result in parental effects that are suboptimal for parents, offspring or both. The fitness consequences of parental effects at evolutionary equilibrium will depend on how conflicts can be resolved by modifications of developmental processes, suggesting that proximate studies of development can inform ultimate questions. Furthermore, recent studies of plants and animals show how studies of parental effects in an ecological context provide important insights into the origin and evolution of adaptation under variable environmental conditions.

  5. Procoagulant snake venoms have differential effects in animal plasmas: Implications for antivenom testing in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana P; Scorgie, Fiona E; Lincz, Lisa F; O'Leary, Margaret A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are used to test toxic effects of snake venoms/toxins and the antivenom required to neutralise them. However, venoms that cause clinically relevant coagulopathy in humans may have differential effects in animals. We aimed to investigate the effect of different procoagulant snake venoms on various animal plasmas. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were measured in seven animal plasmas (human, rabbit, cat, guinea pig, pig, cow and rat). In vitro clotting times were then used to calculate the effective concentration (EC50) in each plasma for four snake venoms with different procoagulant toxins: Pseudonaja textilis, Daboia russelli, Echis carinatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma. Compared to human, PT and aPTT were similar for rat, rabbit and pig, but double for cat and cow, while guinea pig had similar aPTT but double PT. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were similar for all species. Human and rabbit plasmas had the lowest EC50 for P. textilis (0.1 and 0.4 μg/ml), D. russelli (0.4 and 0.1 μg/ml), E. carinatus (0.6 and 0.1 μg/ml) venoms respectively, while cat plasma had the lowest EC50 for C. rhodostoma (11 μg/ml) venom. Cow, rat, pig and guinea pig plasmas were highly resistant to all four venoms with EC50 10-fold that of human. Different animal plasmas have varying susceptibility to procoagulant venoms, and excepting rabbits, animal models are not appropriate to test procoagulant activity. In vitro assays on human plasma should instead be adopted for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Animal Dissections on Student Acquisition of Knowledge of and Attitudes toward the Animals Dissected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Terry L.

    A conflict exists over the use of animals in the classroom. One aspect of this use involved the dissection of animals. Animal protection advocates report that dissections constitute abuse of the animals dissected. The advocates state that what is learned by dissection could be more effectively learned by other means. Some science educators state…

  7. Neuropharmacologic responses of animals to extreme effects: exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, P.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    The functional state of neurochemical structures of male mice was investigated after their gamma-irradiation with 137 Cs (1.9 Gy/min) at a dose of 100 Gy. The animals were treated with the following drugs that produce selective effects on specific receptors: galanthamine, amizyl, arpenal, phenamine, phentolamine and obsidan, haloperidol, apomorphine, phenazepam, phenibut and strychnin. The results point to the development of heterologous desensibilization of receptors at early post-irradiation periods. The high effectiveness of agonists and antagonists of CNS transmitters in the nonirradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals may be considered as an indicator of post-radiation injury of specific receptors. These neuropharmacological interactions may obviously be modified in response to the combined effects of space flight factors

  8. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ferr?o-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, fe...

  9. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  10. Cyanotoxins: bioaccumulation and effects on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  11. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  12. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  13. Evolution of bright colours in animals: worlds of prohibition and oblivion [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the ability to hide in plain sight provides a major selective advantage to both prey and predator species, the emergence of the striking colouration of some animal species (such as many coral reef fish represents an evolutionary conundrum that remains unsolved to date. Here I propose a framework by which conspicuous colours can emerge when the selective pressures for camouflage are relaxed (1 because camouflage is not essential under specific prey/predator conditions or (2 due to the impossibility of reducing the signal-to-background noise in the environment. The first case is found among non-predator-species that possess effective defences against predators (hence a “Carefree World”, such as the strong macaws’ beaks and the flight abilities of hummingbirds. The second case is found in diurnal mobile fish of coral reef communities, which swim in clear waters against highly contrasting and unpredictable background (hence an "Hyper-Visible World”. In those contexts the selective pressures that usually come secondary to camouflage (such as sexual, warning, species recognition or territorial display are free to drive the evolution of brilliant and diverse colouration. This theoretical framework can also be useful for studying the conditions that allow for conspicuousness in other sensory contexts (acoustic, chemical, electrical, etc..

  14. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Refined control of cell stemness allowed animal evolution in the oxic realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Påhlman, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Animal diversification on Earth has long been presumed to be associated with the increasing extent of oxic niches. Here, we challenge that view. We start with the fact that hypoxia (cells continuously-and paradoxically......-regenerate animal tissue in oxygenated settings. Novel insights from tumour biology illuminate how cell stemness nevertheless can be achieved through the action of oxygen-sensing transcription factors in oxygenated, regenerating tissue. We suggest that these hypoxia-inducible transcription factors provided animals...... with unprecedented control over cell stemness that allowed them to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations. Thus, a refinement of the cellular hypoxia-response machinery enabled cell stemness at oxic conditions and, then, animals to evolve into the oxic realm. This view on the onset of animal diversification...

  16. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms.

  17. The CCK(-like) receptor in the animal kingdom: functions, evolution and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staljanssens, Dorien; Azari, Elnaz Karimian; Christiaens, Olivier; Beaufays, Jérôme; Lins, Laurence; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-03-01

    In this review, the cholecystokinin (CCK)(-like) receptors throughout the animal kingdom are compared on the level of physiological functions, evolutionary basis and molecular structure. In vertebrates, the CCK receptor is an important member of the G-protein coupled receptors as it is involved in the regulation of many physiological functions like satiety, gastrointestinal motility, gastric acid secretion, gall bladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, panic, anxiety and memory and learning processes. A homolog for this receptor is also found in nematodes and arthropods, called CK receptor and sulfakinin (SK) receptor, respectively. These receptors seem to have evolved from a common ancestor which is probably still closely related to the nematode CK receptor. The SK receptor is more closely related to the CCK receptor and seems to have similar functions. A molecular 3D-model for the CCK receptor type 1 has been built together with the docking of the natural ligands for the CCK and SK receptors in the CCK receptor type 1. These molecular models can help to study ligand-receptor interactions, that can in turn be useful in the development of new CCK(-like) receptor agonists and antagonists with beneficial health effects in humans or potential for pest control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-10-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in shaping animal

  19. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes. By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections

  20. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE), Japanese formal education has also utilized animals for education. Japanese animal-rearing education is unique regarding the following two points: (1) it takes the form of “education through assisting animals” rather than “animals assisting...

  1. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Picobirnavirus (PBV which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains.

  2. Effect of high plant protein cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent trends in weight loss diets have been formulated that led to a substantial increase in protein intake. It has however been established that high protein intake impacts negatively on already compromised kidney, while its effect on a healthy kidney remains unclear. Our aim therefore was to study the effect of animal ...

  3. Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, O.; Baines, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conference proceedings were published with the paper available on https://www.waset.org/abstracts/industrial-and-manufacturing-engineering/27685 The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies ...

  4. Toxic Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Animal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Beaulieu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the main toxic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids in animals. Toxic effects can be separated into acute and chronic classifications. Acute toxicity studies show that it is virtually impossible to die from acute administration of marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. Chronic toxicity involves lesions of airway and lung tissues, as well as problems of neurotoxicity, tolerance and dependence, and dysregulations in the immune and hormonal systems. Animal toxicity data, however, are difficult to extrapolate to humans.

  5. A review of the evolution of animal colour vision and visual communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D; Vorobyev, M

    2008-09-01

    The visual displays of animals and plants are often colourful, and colour vision allows animals to respond to these signals as they forage for food, choose mates and so-forth. This article discusses the evolutionary relationship between photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of four groups of land animals--birds, butterflies, primates and hymenopteran insects (bees and wasps)--, the colour signals that are relevant to them, and how understanding is informed by models of spectral coding and colour vision. Although the spectral sensitivities of photoreceptors are known to vary adaptively under natural selection there is little evidence that those of hymenopterans, birds and primates are specifically adapted to the reflectance spectra of food plants or animal visual signals. On the other hand, the colours of fruit, flowers and feathers may have evolved to be more discriminable for the colour vision of their natural receivers than for other groups of animals. Butterflies are unusual in that they have enjoyed a major radiation in receptor numbers and spectral sensitivities. The reasons for the radiation and diversity of butterfly colour vision remain unknown, but may include their need to find food plants and to select mates.

  6. Evolution of the PWWP-domain encoding genes in the plant and animal lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Venegas Raúl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conserved domains are recognized as the building blocks of eukaryotic proteins. Domains showing a tendency to occur in diverse combinations (‘promiscuous’ domains are involved in versatile architectures in proteins with different functions. Current models, based on global-level analyses of domain combinations in multiple genomes, have suggested that the propensity of some domains to associate with other domains in high-level architectures increases with organismal complexity. Alternative models using domain-based phylogenetic trees propose that domains have become promiscuous independently in different lineages through convergent evolution and are, thus, random with no functional or structural preferences. Here we test whether complex protein architectures have occurred by accretion from simpler systems and whether the appearance of multidomain combinations parallels organismal complexity. As a model, we analyze the modular evolution of the PWWP domain and ask whether its appearance in combinations with other domains into multidomain architectures is linked with the occurrence of more complex life-forms. Whether high-level combinations of domains are conserved and transmitted as stable units (cassettes through evolution is examined in the genomes of plant or metazoan species selected for their established position in the evolution of the respective lineages. Results Using the domain-tree approach, we analyze the evolutionary origins and distribution patterns of the promiscuous PWWP domain to understand the principles of its modular evolution and its existence in combination with other domains in higher-level protein architectures. We found that as a single module the PWWP domain occurs only in proteins with a limited, mainly, species-specific distribution. Earlier, it was suggested that domain promiscuity is a fast-changing (volatile feature shaped by natural selection and that only a few domains retain their promiscuity

  7. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  8. Effect of animal manures on soil properties, growth, nutrients status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative field study was carried out at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to determine effect of different animal manures on soil physical and chemical properties and performance of tomato (Lycopersicm esculentus Mill). Analysis of cattle (CM), goat (GM), pig (PG) and poultry (PM) manures showed that N, K, Ca ...

  9. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  10. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  11. Something gone awry: unsolved mysteries in the evolution of asymmetric animal genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The great diversity in genital shape and function across and within the animal phyla hamper the identification of specific evolutionary trends that stretch beyond the limits of the group under study. Asymmetry might be a trait in genital morphology that could play a unifying role in the evolutionary

  12. Causes and consequences of pathogenic processes in evolution: Implications from experimental epilepsy in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godlevsky, L.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Shandra, A.A.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Examples from experimental epilepsy in animals are used to illustrate the view that a crucial role of the transfer of mechanisms from compensatory into pathogenic (e.g. lethal ones in the course of a disease), is played by the power of pathologic stimuli. In the genesis of epilepsy it is suggested

  13. Phanerozoic pO2 and the early evolution of terrestrial animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C; Saltzman, Matthew R; Cramer, Bradley D; Payne, Jonathan L; Boyce, C Kevin

    2018-01-31

    Concurrent gaps in the Late Devonian/Mississippian fossil records of insects and tetrapods (i.e. Romer's Gap) have been attributed to physiological suppression by low atmospheric p O 2 Here, updated stable isotope inputs inform a reconstruction of Phanerozoic oxygen levels that contradicts the low oxygen hypothesis (and contradicts the purported role of oxygen in the evolution of gigantic insects during the late Palaeozoic), but reconciles isotope-based calculations with other proxies, like charcoal. Furthermore, statistical analysis demonstrates that the gap between the first Devonian insect and earliest diverse insect assemblages of the Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian Stage) requires no special explanation if insects were neither diverse nor abundant prior to the evolution of wings. Rather than tracking physiological constraint, the fossil record may accurately record the transformative evolutionary impact of insect flight. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  15. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  17. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews the relati...

  18. Biological effects of transuranium elements in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from life span studies of the biological effects of the transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 242 Cm) on laboratory animals following inhalation, skin absorption, or injection in various chemical forms. The dose levels at which major biological effects have been observed in experimental animals are discussed relative to the maximum permissible lung burden of 0.016 μCi for occupational exposures. Lung cancer has been observed at dose levels equivalent to about 100 times the maximum permissible lung burden. Current experiments directed towards determining whether health effects will occur at lower levels and the mechanisms by which α emitters induce cancer are reviewed. (U.S.)

  19. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  20. Evolution of glycosaminoglycans and their glycosyltransferases: Implications for the extracellular matrices of animals and the capsules of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Paul L

    2002-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (linear polysaccharides with a repeating disaccharide backbone containing an amino sugar) are essential components of extracellular matrices of animals. These complex molecules play important structural, adhesion, and signaling roles in mammals. Direct detection of glycosaminoglycans has been reported in a variety of organisms, but perhaps more definitive tests for the glycosyltransferase genes should be utilized to clarify the distribution of glycosaminoglycans in metazoans. Recently, glycosyltransferases that form the hyaluronan, heparin/heparan, or chondroitin backbone were identified at the molecular level. The three types of glycosyltransferases appear to have evolved independently based on sequence comparisons and other characteristics. All metazoans appear to possess heparin/heparan. Chondroitin is found in some worms, arthropods, and higher animals. Hyaluronan is found only in two of the three main branches of chordates. The presence of several types of glycosaminoglycans in the body allows multiple communication channels and adhesion systems to operate simultaneously. Certain pathogenic bacteria produce extracellular coatings, called capsules, which are composed of glycosaminoglycans that increase their virulence during infection. The capsule helps shield the microbe from the host defenses and/or modulates host physiology. The bacterial and animal polysaccharides are chemically identical or at least very similar. Therefore, no immune response is generated, in contrast to the vast majority of capsular polymers from other bacteria. In microbial systems, it appears that in most cases functional convergent evolution of glycosaminoglycan glycosyltransferases occurred, rather than direct horizontal gene transfer from their vertebrate hosts. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergence of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine desintegrations which lead to a disturbed supply of the vessels and afterwards to their sclerosis. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as festures of ageing while in irradiated animals they were manifested in an earlier period. After application of optimal amounts radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival

  2. Effects of Animal Venoms and Toxins on Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Prasongsook, Naiyarat

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a cocktail of proteins and peptides, targeting vital physiological processes. Venoms have evolved to assist in the capture and digestion of prey. Key venom components often include neurotoxins, myotoxins, cardiotoxins, hematoxins and catalytic enzymes. The pharmacological activities of venom components have been investigated as a source of potential therapeutic agents. Interestingly, a number of animal toxins display profound anticancer effects. These include toxins purified from snake, bee and scorpion venoms effecting cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptotic activity and neovascularization. Indeed, the mechanism behind the anticancer effect of certain toxins is similar to that of agents currently used in chemotherapy. For example, Lebein is a snake venom disintegrin which generates anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). In this review article, we highlight the biological activities of animal toxins on the multiple steps of tumour formation or hallmarks of cancer. We also discuss recent progress in the discovery of lead compounds for anticancer drug development from venom components. PMID:27471574

  3. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  4. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  5. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.

    1991-03-01

    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  6. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  7. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  8. Observations on the effect of flood on animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1948-01-01

    Summary. The flood plain of the Patuxent River is washed over periodically, and occasionally the entire bottomland is submerged to a depth of several feet. The effects of an unusually severe flood on the populations and home ranges of wood mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were studied by means of collecting the animals before, during, and after the flood. The flood had little or no effect on the size of the populations, and individuals showed remarkable ability to remain within their home ranges despite the flood.

  9. The evolution of the natriuretic peptides - Current applications in human and animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Januzzi, James L

    2009-05-01

    Although natriuretic peptides have played an important role in the fluid homeostasis of vertebrates for over several million years, their importance has only been noticed in the last few decades. Yet, the family of natriuretic peptides have since their discovery, drawn the attention of a broad spectrum of physicians and researchers involved in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis, including marine biologists, basic scientists, physicians and veterinarians. While all natriuretic peptides share a common phylogenetic background, due to differences in receptor-binding affinities, they have evolved into different hormones with clear distinct functions. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most studied member of the natriuretic peptide family, and together with its cleavage equivalent amino-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) these peptides have emerged as important cardiovascular serum markers. However, since their introduction, physicians involved in human or animal medicine have faced common but also different challenges in order to optimally interpret the diagnostic and prognostic value of these novel cardiovascular biomarkers.

  10. Late radiation effects in animals surviving lethal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L A

    1974-01-01

    Animals (rats, mice, dogs) survived lethal irradiation by means of prophylactic-therapeutic treatments or previously irradiated, were studied for late radiation effects: life span, cachexia and fat growing of hypophysical type, tissue or organ hypoplasia manifested by disturbed hemopoiesis, suppressed function of adrenal gland, etc., suppressed immune reactivity of the irradiated organism, atypical biochemical changes in DNA and protein metabolism, epilation, chronic dermatitis, ulcerations, reduced reproductivity or full sterility, damage of kidneys leading to nephrosclerosis, dishormonal states, cataracts, diffuse sclerotic processes, various kinds of malignant and non-malignant tumors. In these cases hemopoiesis compensated for a definite time peripheral blood composition, but during the late period it showed features of incompleteness: shorter life survival of erythrocytes and thrombocytes manifested by a decreased binding of labelled methionine in these blood elements, anemia and relative thrombocytopenia sometimes with an increased number of polychromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood and a decreased number of reticulocytes at the same time; lymphopenia and relative leucopenia with an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils. Decreased reproductivity and atypical biochemical changes available in the first generation of the irradiated animals showed the probable role of mutagenic factors in the emergency of some late radiation effects. A significant part of late radiation sequences were due to neuro-endocrine disintegrations. Some of the described late radiation effects were also observed in biological controls as features of ageing. After application of radioprotectors (AET, cysteamine, serotonin) a more marked protective effect is demonstrated in the early reactions (time survival till 30th day, DNA and protein metabolism, immune reactions) of the lethally irradiated animals.

  11. Effects of different ways of fasting in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Naderi Ghalenoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While fasting has been practiced for centuries, its beneficial effects was unknown until recently. This review tries to analyze the current literature of how fasting and intermittent fasting (IF could affect clinical pathological parameters, learning, mood and brain plasticity. The effects of different ways of fasting on metabolism and stress were also explored. Animal experiments have elucidated fasting and IF could exert positive effects on learning, mood and brain, plus metabolic functions such lowering plasma glucose and insulin level and improvement in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level, and an increased resistance to stress. Thus, more clinical studies are necessary to test the effectiveness of fasting and IF in preventing different diseases.

  12. Animal-Assisted Activities: Effects of Animals on Positive Emotional Display in Children in Inclusion Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Mazgaonkar, Gayatri

    2017-01-01

    Animals are commonly present in classrooms and may be an important tool in enhancing children’s experiences, especially in inclusion classrooms that provide integrative learning for both typically developing children and children with special needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of animal-assisted activities on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well was typically developing (TD) children in inclusion classrooms. Ninety-nine children from 15 inclus...

  13. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  14. Experimental animal data and modeling of late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This section is restricted to radiation-induced life shortening and cancer and mainly to studies with external radiation. The emphasis will be on the experimental data that are available and the experimental systems that could provide the type of data with which to either formulate or test models. Genetic effects which are of concern are not discussed in this section. Experimental animal radiation studies fall into those that establish general principles and those that demonstrate mechanisms. General principles include the influence of dose, radiation quality, dose rate, fractionation, protraction and such biological factors as age and gender. The influence of these factors are considered as general principles because they are independent, at least qualitatively, of the species studied. For example, if an increase in the LET of the radiation causes an increased effectiveness in cancer induction in a mouse a comparable increase in effectiveness can be expected in humans. Thus, models, whether empirical or mechanistic, formulated from experimental animal data should be generally applicable

  15. Effective average action for gauge theories and exact evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-11-01

    We propose a new nonperturbative evolution equation for Yang-Mills theories. It describes the scale dependence of an effective action. The running of the nonabelian gauge coupling in arbitrary dimension is computed. (orig.)

  16. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Effects of Wind on Virtual Plants in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. M. Derzaph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Growth-Flow method for animating the effect of wind on the motion and growth of virtual plant branches and leaves. The method incorporates changes to the growth rate when a plant is exposed to winds with speeds higher than a threshold. In particular, growth rate is reduced in branch elongation, increased in the branch radius, reduced in leaf length, and increased in leaf thickness. In addition, when a plant is exposed to wind for long time periods, the branch growth angle is changed to align more closely with the wind vector. The Growth-Flow method incorporates all these effects on growth and motion due to wind in one algorithm.

  18. Nature vs Nurture: Effects of Learning on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrani, Nagina

    In the field of Evolutionary Robotics, the design, development and application of artificial neural networks as controllers have derived their inspiration from biology. Biologists and artificial intelligence researchers are trying to understand the effects of neural network learning during the lifetime of the individuals on evolution of these individuals by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The conclusion of these analyses can help develop optimized artificial neural networks to perform any given task. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of learning on evolution. This has been done by applying Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning methods to the evolution of Artificial Neural Tissue controller. The controller has been assigned the task to collect resources in a designated area in a simulated environment. The performance of the individuals is measured by the amount of resources collected. A comparison has been made between the results obtained by incorporating learning in evolution and evolution alone. The effects of learning parameters: learning rate, training period, discount rate, and policy on evolution have also been studied. It was observed that learning delays the performance of the evolving individuals over the generations. However, the non zero learning rate throughout the evolution process signifies natural selection preferring individuals possessing plasticity.

  19. Interpreting the Effects of Pulse Remagnetization on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Wang, C. X.; Golash, H. N.; Hilburn, I. A.; Wu, D. A.; Crucilla, S. J.; Badal, Y. D.; Shimojo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of geomagnetic sensitivity by migratory and homing animals have puzzled biophysicists for over 70 years. Widely dismissed as biophysically implausible due to the lack of physiological ferromagnetic materials [e.g., D.R. Griffin, 1944, 1952], clear and reproducible responses to earth-strength magnetic fields is now firmly established in organisms ranging from Bacteria, Protists, and Animals from numerous phyla, including mollusks, arthropods, and the chordates. Behavior demands sensory transduction, as external stimuli only `get into the nervous system' through sensory cells specialized to transduce the physical stimulus into a modulated stream of action potentials in neurons. Three basic biophysical mechanisms could plausibly explain the biophysical transduction of geomagnetic cues, including electrical induction, hyperfine magnetic field effects on photo-activated free radicals (the `Quantum Compass'), or receptor cells containing biologically-precipitated crystals of a ferromagnetic mineral like magnetite (Fe3O4). The definitive test of a ferromagnetic receptor is the pulse-remagnetization experiment, in which you apply a brief, unidirectional magnetic pulse of about 1 mS in duration, configured to exceed the coercive force of the SD particles and reverse the orientation of the magnetic moment wrt to the crystal axis (typically, a pulse few tens of mT is adequate). A pulse configured in this fashion can be well below the dB/dt level needed to fire a sensory nerve through the induced electric fields. The pulse produces a permanent flip in magnetization direction, the same way information is coded on magnetic tape. Magnetotactic bacteria, exposed to such a pulse, reverse their magnetic swimming directions passively. There are now over 16 peer-reviewed papers in which this experiment has been applied to animals, including birds, all of which show clear and long-lasting effects of the pulse. Such a pulse would have no lasting effect on a quantum compass

  20. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  1. Effective evolution equations from quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold, Nikolai

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to provide a mathematical rigorous derivation of the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon equations, the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations and the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. We study the time evolution of the Nelson model (with ultraviolet cutoff) in a limit where the number N of charged particles gets large while the coupling of each particle to the radiation field is of order N^{−1/2}. At time zero it is assumed that almost all charges a...

  2. Effects of drought on the animal population in Eritrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldehiwet, Z; Haywood, S; Trafford, J

    1985-08-17

    Most nomads in Eritrea have lost their animals due to outright starvation or diseases aggravated by malnutrition, resulting in part from drought. Animals surviving the drought itself are succumbing to infectious diseases and ecto- and endoparasites. Affected animals include camels as well as bovine and caprine populations.

  3. Weak evidence for anticipatory parental effects in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, T; Nakagawa, S; English, S

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity relies on the presence of cues that enable organisms to adjust their phenotype to match local conditions. Although mostly studied with respect to nonsocial cues, it is also possible that parents transmit information about the environment to their offspring. Such 'anticipatory parental effects' or 'adaptive transgenerational plasticity' can have important consequences for the dynamics and adaptive potential of populations in heterogeneous environments. Yet, it remains unknown how widespread this form of plasticity is. Using a meta-analysis of experimental studies with a fully factorial design, we show that there is only weak evidence for higher offspring performance when parental and offspring environments are matched compared with when they are mismatched. Estimates of heterogeneity among studies suggest that effects, when they occur, are subtle. Study features, environmental context, life stage and trait categories all failed to explain significant amounts of variation in effect sizes. We discuss theoretical and methodological reasons for the limited evidence for anticipatory parental effects and suggest ways to improve our understanding of the prevalence of this form of plasticity in nature. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Visual sensory networks and effective information transfer in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Twomey, Colin R; Bode, Nikolai W F; Kao, Albert B; Katz, Yael; Ioannou, Christos C; Rosenthal, Sara B; Torney, Colin J; Wu, Hai Shan; Levin, Simon A; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-09-09

    Social transmission of information is vital for many group-living animals, allowing coordination of motion and effective response to complex environments. Revealing the interaction networks underlying information flow within these groups is a central challenge. Previous work has modeled interactions between individuals based directly on their relative spatial positions: each individual is considered to interact with all neighbors within a fixed distance (metric range), a fixed number of nearest neighbors (topological range), a 'shell' of near neighbors (Voronoi range), or some combination (Figure 1A). However, conclusive evidence to support these assumptions is lacking. Here, we employ a novel approach that considers individual movement decisions to be based explicitly on the sensory information available to the organism. In other words, we consider that while spatial relations do inform interactions between individuals, they do so indirectly, through individuals' detection of sensory cues. We reconstruct computationally the visual field of each individual throughout experiments designed to investigate information propagation within fish schools (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas). Explicitly considering visual sensing allows us to more accurately predict the propagation of behavioral change in these groups during leadership events. Furthermore, we find that structural properties of visual interaction networks differ markedly from those of metric and topological counterparts, suggesting that previous assumptions may not appropriately reflect information flow in animal groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual's choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems.

  6. Memory Effects on Movement Behavior in Animal Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Gurarie, Eliezer; Van Moorter, Bram; Goodwin, R. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An individual’s choices are shaped by its experience, a fundamental property of behavior important to understanding complex processes. Learning and memory are observed across many taxa and can drive behaviors, including foraging behavior. To explore the conditions under which memory provides an advantage, we present a continuous-space, continuous-time model of animal movement that incorporates learning and memory. Using simulation models, we evaluate the benefit memory provides across several types of landscapes with variable-quality resources and compare the memory model within a nested hierarchy of simpler models (behavioral switching and random walk). We find that memory almost always leads to improved foraging success, but that this effect is most marked in landscapes containing sparse, contiguous patches of high-value resources that regenerate relatively fast and are located in an otherwise devoid landscape. In these cases, there is a large payoff for finding a resource patch, due to size, value, or locational difficulty. While memory-informed search is difficult to differentiate from other factors using solely movement data, our results suggest that disproportionate spatial use of higher value areas, higher consumption rates, and consumption variability all point to memory influencing the movement direction of animals in certain ecosystems. PMID:26288228

  7. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  8. Some pregnancy-related effects of artemether in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiofor, Janet I; Kwanashie, Helen O; Anuka, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    Artemether, highly effective in multi-drug-resistant malaria is not routinely available for use in pregnancy due to the lack of adequate research data in animals and man. This study was therefore aimed at investigating some pregnancy-related effects of artemether. Artemether (1.5, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg i.p. daily for 7 days) did not produce changes in rat oestrous cycle. The drug did not prevent or prolong the rate of conception or parturition, cause pre-term delivery and affect litter size. Birth weight and growth rate of pups from artemether-pretreated dams were within the normal range. Artemether (48-480 microg/ml) had no agonist effect on the isolated uterine smooth muscles of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats and guinea pigs. However, the drug (24- 240 microg/ml) reduced oxytocin-induced contraction of uterine tissues concentration-dependently, particularly in pregnant uteri. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effect of Saraswatarishta in animal models of behavior despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma R Parekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saraswatarishta (SA is a herbo-mineral formulation consisting of 18 plants some of which are Medhyarasayanas. It has been claimed to be useful in treating central nervous system disorders. Objective: To evaluate antidepressant effect of ′Saraswatarishta′(SA alone and in combination with imipramine and fluoxetine in animal models of depression. Materials and Methods: After obtaining IAEC permission, 144 rats (n = 36/part were randomized into 6 groups- Group 1: Distilled water (1 mL, Group 2: Imipramine (30 mg/kg, Group 3: Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, Group 4: SA (1.8 mL/kg, Group 5: Imipramine + SA, Group 6: Fluoxetine + SA. Effects of study drugs were evaluated in forced swim test (FST with single exposure to FST (Part 1 and repeated exposure for 14 days (Part 2. In Part 3, reserpine was used with FST and effects of study drugs were evaluated against single exposure to FST. Same model was used with repeated exposures to FST (Part 4. In each part, rats were subjected to open field test (OFT for 5 min prior to final FST. The variables measured: Immobility time in FST; line crossing, rearing and defecation in the OFT. Results: In all four parts, individual drugs and combinations thereof produced significant decrease in immobility time as compared to control, and extent of decrease was comparable amongst these groups. However, values for combination of fluoxetine with SA group were found to be lesser than that for individual agents in Parts 2 and 3. Combination of SA with imipramine did not enhance its anti-depressant effect in any of the parts. OFT findings did not vary significantly amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Decreased immobility in FST and absence of generalized stimulation or depression of motor activity in OFT point towards potential antidepressant effect of Saraswatarishta. Its co-administration with fluoxetine showed more promising effects.

  10. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  11. Payoff non-linearity sways the effect of mistakes on the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-09-01

    The existence of cooperation is considered to require explanation, and reciprocity is a potential explanatory mechanism. Animals sometimes fail to cooperate even when they attempt to do so, and a reciprocator has an Achilles' heel: it is vulnerable to error (the interaction between two reciprocators can lead to an endless vendetta.). However, the strategy favored by natural selection is determined also by its interaction with other strategies. The relationship between two reciprocators leading to a collapse of cooperation through error does not straightforwardly imply that mistakes make the conditions under which reciprocity evolves stringent. Hence, mistakes may facilitate the evolution of reciprocity. However, it has been shown through the analysis of the interaction between reciprocators and unconditional defectors that the existence of mistakes makes the conditions for reciprocators stable against invasion by an unconditional defector more stringent, which indicates that mistakes discourage the evolution of reciprocity. However, this result is based on the assumption that the effects of cooperation are additive (payoff is linear), while the game played by real animals does not always display this feature. In such cases, the result may be swayed. In this paper, we remove this assumption, reexamining whether mistakes disturb the evolution of reciprocity. Using the analysis of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), we show that when extra fitness costs are present in cases where mutual cooperation is established, mistakes can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity; whereas, when the effect of cooperation is additive, mistakes always disturb the evolution of reciprocity, as has been shown previously. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  13. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, 252 Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by 60 Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use

  14. Analysis of a vinculin homolog in a sponge (phylum Porifera) reveals that vertebrate-like cell adhesions emerged early in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phillip W; Pokutta, Sabine; Mitchell, Jennyfer M; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Clarke, D Nathaniel; Nelson, William; Weis, William I; Nichols, Scott A

    2018-06-07

    The evolution of cell adhesion mechanisms in animals facilitated the assembly of organized multicellular tissues. Studies in traditional animal models have revealed two predominant adhesion structures, the adherens junction (AJ) and focal adhesions (FAs), which are involved in the attachment of neighboring cells to each other and to the secreted extracellular matrix (ECM), respectively. The AJ (containing cadherins and catenins) and FAs (comprising integrins, talin, and paxillin) differ in protein composition, but both junctions contain the actin-binding protein vinculin. The near ubiquity of these structures in animals suggests that AJ and FAs evolved early, possibly coincident with multicellularity. However, a challenge to this perspective is that previous studies of sponges-a divergent animal lineage-indicate that their tissues are organized primarily by an alternative, sponge-specific cell adhesion mechanism called "aggregation factor." In this study, we examined the structure, biochemical properties, and tissue localization of a vinculin ortholog in the sponge Oscarella pearsei ( Op ). Our results indicate that Op vinculin localizes to both cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts and has biochemical and structural properties similar to those of vertebrate vinculin. We propose that Op vinculin played a role in cell adhesion and tissue organization in the last common ancestor of sponges and other animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that sponge tissues are indeed organized like epithelia in other animals and support the notion that AJ- and FA-like structures extend to the earliest periods of animal evolution. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-10-22

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  16. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Molleman

    Full Text Available Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours. How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma, conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game, conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  17. Effects of conformism on the cultural evolution of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J

    2013-01-01

    Models of cultural evolution study how the distribution of cultural traits changes over time. The dynamics of cultural evolution strongly depends on the way these traits are transmitted between individuals by social learning. Two prominent forms of social learning are payoff-based learning (imitating others that have higher payoffs) and conformist learning (imitating locally common behaviours). How payoff-based and conformist learning affect the cultural evolution of cooperation is currently a matter of lively debate, but few studies systematically analyse the interplay of these forms of social learning. Here we perform such a study by investigating how the interaction of payoff-based and conformist learning affects the outcome of cultural evolution in three social contexts. First, we develop a simple argument that provides insights into how the outcome of cultural evolution will change when more and more conformist learning is added to payoff-based learning. In a social dilemma (e.g. a Prisoner's Dilemma), conformism can turn cooperation into a stable equilibrium; in an evasion game (e.g. a Hawk-Dove game or a Snowdrift game) conformism tends to destabilize the polymorphic equilibrium; and in a coordination game (e.g. a Stag Hunt game), conformism changes the basin of attraction of the two equilibria. Second, we analyse a stochastic event-based model, revealing that conformism increases the speed of cultural evolution towards pure equilibria. Individual-based simulations as well as the analysis of the diffusion approximation of the stochastic model by and large confirm our findings. Third, we investigate the effect of an increasing degree of conformism on cultural group selection in a group-structured population. We conclude that, in contrast to statements in the literature, conformism hinders rather than promotes the evolution of cooperation.

  18. Adaptive evolution and effective population size in wild house mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phifer-Rixey, M.; Bonhomme, F.; Boursot, P.; Churchill, G. A.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P.; Nachman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2012), s. 2949-2955 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : substitution * adaptation * evolution * effective population size * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  19. The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Sarah P; Connelly, Brian D; Dickinson, Katherine J; Kerr, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation-costly behavior that benefits others-faces one clear obstacle. Namely, cooperators are always at a competitive disadvantage relative to defectors, individuals that reap the benefits, but evade the cost of cooperation. One solution to this problem involves genetic hitchhiking, where the allele encoding cooperation becomes linked to a beneficial mutation, allowing cooperation to rise in abundance. Here, we explore hitchhiking in the context of adaptation to a stressful environment by cooperators and defectors with spatially limited dispersal. Under such conditions, clustered cooperators reach higher local densities, thereby experiencing more mutational opportunities than defectors. Thus, the allele encoding cooperation has a greater probability of hitchhiking with alleles conferring stress adaptation. We label this probabilistic enhancement the "Hankshaw effect" after the character Sissy Hankshaw, whose anomalously large thumbs made her a singularly effective hitchhiker. Using an agent-based model, we reveal a broad set of conditions that allow the evolution of cooperation through this effect. Additionally, we show that spite, a costly behavior that harms others, can evolve by the Hankshaw effect. While in an unchanging environment these costly social behaviors have transient success, in a dynamic environment, cooperation and spite can persist indefinitely. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  1. Density-dependent selection on mate search and evolution of Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Kramer, Andrew M; Bernhauerová, Veronika; Drake, John M

    2018-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high-density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density. We develop an individual-based, eco-genetic model to study how mating systems and fitness trade-offs interact with changes in population density to drive evolution of the rate at which males or females search for mates. Finite mate search rate triggers Allee effects in our model and we explore how these Allee effects respond to such evolution. We allow a population to adapt to several population density regimes and examine whether high-density populations are likely to reverse adaptations attained at low densities. We find density-dependent selection in most of scenarios, leading to search rates that result in lower Allee thresholds in populations kept at lower densities. This mainly occurs when fecundity costs are imposed on mate search, and provides an explanation for why Allee effects are often observed in anthropogenically rare species. Optimizing selection, where the attained trait value minimizes the Allee threshold independent of population density, depended on the trade-off between search and survival, combined with monogamy when females were searching. Other scenarios led to runaway selection on the mate search rate, including evolutionary suicide. Trade-offs involved in mate search may thus be crucial to determining how density influences the evolution of Allee effects. Previous studies did not examine evolution of a trait related to the strength of Allee effects under density variation. We emphasize the crucial role that mating systems, fitness

  2. Evolutive masing model, cyclic plasticity, ageing and memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoroff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. Such a model must include two basic features: Dissipative behaviour on each cycle (hysteresis loop); evolution of this behaviour during the material's life (cyclic hardening or softening, aging,...). However, if both aspects are present in most existing models, the balance between them may be quite different. Many metallurgical investigations have been performed about the microstructure and its evolution during cyclic loading, and it is desirable to introduce these informations in phenomenological models. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed to combine: the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, aging). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour

  3. Evolutive Masing model, cycling plasticity, ageing and memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoroff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed (Fougeres, Sidoroff, Vincent and Waille 1985) to combine - the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, - the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, - a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, ageing). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour. (orig./GL)

  4. Assessing Effectiveness of a Nonhuman Animal Welfare Education Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.

  5. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiation on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the present study primarily concerned with the effects of ionizing radiations on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals (mice). Different radiation intensities and different exposure schemes were used to irradiate both healthy and schistosoma mansoni infected animals. A group of uninfected and unirradiated animals were used as controls. Follow up studies were performed every 6 weeks for 30 weeks. These included histopathological studies of the liver damage at every observation periods for all animal groups

  6. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor...... production). To accomplish the analysis we have carried out a choice experiment. The results indicate that men have a significantly lower willingness to pay (WTP) for outdoor produced chicken than women, and that highly educated people have the highest WTP for outdoor produced chicken. Furthermore...

  7. Effect of probiotics and prebiotics on food animal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest interface between an animal’s internal milieu and its exterior environment. As such, it forms a physical barrier between both environments. However, the function of the GI tract in the well-being of an animal is more complex than this passive role. Th...

  8. The effect of parity on morphological evolution among phrynosomatid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufiero, C E; Gartner, G E A

    2014-11-01

    The shift from egg laying to live-bearing is one of the most well-studied transitions in evolutionary biology. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of this transition on morphological evolution. Here, we evaluated the effect of reproductive mode on the morphological evolution of 10 traits, among 108 species of phrynosomatid lizards. We assess whether the requirement for passing shelled eggs through the pelvic girdle has led to morphological constraints in oviparous species and whether long gestation times in viviparous species have led to constraints in locomotor morphology. We fit models to the data that vary both in their tempo (strength and rate of selection) and mode of evolution (Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) and estimates of trait optima. We found that most traits are best fit by a generalized multipeak OU model, suggesting differing trait optima for viviparous vs. oviparous species. Additionally, rates (σ(2) ) of both pelvic girdle and forelimb trait evolution varied with parity; viviparous species had higher rates. Hindlimb traits, however, exhibited no difference in σ(2) between parity modes. In a functional context, our results suggest that the passage of shelled eggs constrains the morphology of the pelvic girdle, but we found no evidence of morphological constraint of the locomotor apparatus in viviparous species. Our results are consistent with recent lineage diversification analyses, leading to the conclusion that transitions to viviparity increase both lineage and morphological diversification. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. WAYS OF REDUCTION OF ADVERSE FEEDING EFFECT ON ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of livestock requires maintaining and further increasing of the genetic potential, the basis for the manifestation of which is the adequite balanced feeding. Currently, one of the most urgent problems of livestock breeding is to find ways for reduction of the negative impact of various feeding factors on the animals. In industrial conditions, it is difficult to exclude various feed stresses, which lead to a decrease in productivity, survival rate and ill health of a...

  10. Animal and robot experiments to discover principles behind the evolution of a minimal locomotor apparatus for robust legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Richard; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    In the evolutionary transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, early walkers adapted to the challenges of locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud). Our previous biological and robotic studies have demonstrated that locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to both limb morphology and kinematics. Although reconstructions of early vertebrate skeletal morphologies exist, the kinematic strategies required for successful locomotion by these organisms have not yet been explored. To gain insight into how early walkers contended with complex substrates, we developed a robotic model with appendage morphology inspired by a model analog organism, the mudskipper. We tested mudskippers and the robot on different substrates, including rigid ground and dry granular media, varying incline angle. The mudskippers moved effectively on all level substrates using a fin-driven gait. But as incline angle increased, the animals used their tails in concert with their fins to generate propulsion. Adding an actuated tail to the robot improved robustness, making possible locomotion on otherwise inaccessible inclines. With these discoveries, we are elucidating a minimal template that may have allowed the early walkers to adapt to locomotion on land. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  11. Animal water balance drives top-down effects in a riparian forest-implications for terrestrial trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2016-08-17

    Despite the clear importance of water balance to the evolution of terrestrial life, much remains unknown about the effects of animal water balance on food webs. Based on recent research suggesting animal water imbalance can increase trophic interaction strengths in cages, we hypothesized that water availability could drive top-down effects in open environments, influencing the occurrence of trophic cascades. We manipulated large spider abundance and water availability in 20 × 20 m open-air plots in a streamside forest in Arizona, USA, and measured changes in cricket and small spider abundance and leaf damage. As expected, large spiders reduced both cricket abundance and herbivory under ambient, dry conditions, but not where free water was added. When water was added (free or within moist leaves), cricket abundance was unaffected by large spiders, but spiders still altered herbivory, suggesting behavioural effects. Moreover, we found threshold-type increases in herbivory at moderately low soil moisture (between 5.5% and 7% by volume), suggesting the possibility that water balance may commonly influence top-down effects. Overall, our results point towards animal water balance as an important driver of direct and indirect species interactions and food web dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Radiological effects on plants and animals from Clink during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Aquilonius, Karin; Skoog, Sofie; Huutoniemi, Tommi; Torudd, Jesper

    2011-03-01

    This report is the basis for the environmental impact study which is submitted in connection with applications for construction and operation of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility. The report presents the results of calculations of Clabs'/Clinks' contribution to dose rates for biota in the environment around the Simpevarp peninsula. The biota referred to in this report means plants and animals excluding humans. Calculations are for the reported releases from CLAB to air and water, and estimated future emissions from the CLAB and Clink, both for normal operation and any mishaps. For future emissions both so-called realistic and conservative estimates were used

  13. Real parameter optimization by an effective differential evolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Effective Differential Evolution (EDE algorithm for solving real parameter optimization problems over continuous domain. The proposed algorithm proposes a new mutation rule based on the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy through a linear decreasing probability rule. The proposed mutation rule is shown to promote local search capability of the basic DE and to make it faster. Furthermore, a random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme are merged to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, the scaling factor and crossover of DE are introduced as uniform random numbers to enrich the search behavior and to enhance the diversity of the population. The effectiveness and benefits of the proposed modifications used in EDE has been experimentally investigated. Numerical experiments on a set of bound-constrained problems have shown that the new approach is efficient, effective and robust. The comparison results between the EDE and several classical differential evolution methods and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants indicate that the proposed EDE algorithm is competitive with , and in some cases superior to, other algorithms in terms of final solution quality, efficiency, convergence rate, and robustness.

  14. Protective effect of Iris germanica L. in β-amyloid-induced animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Iris germanica L. in β-amyloid-induced animal model of alzheimer's disease. ... The day after surgery, animals in treatment groups received different doses of the aqueous extract of Iris by gavage for 30 days. Morris water maze test (MWM) was performed to assess the effects of I. germanica on learning ...

  15. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  16. Radiation Recoil Effects on the Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desiree

    The Yarkovsky effect is a radiation recoil force that results in a semimajor axis drift in the orbit that can cause Main Belt asteroids to be delivered to powerful resonances from which they could be transported to Earth-crossing orbits. This force depends on the spin state of the object, which is modified by the YORP effect, a variation of the Yarkovsky effect that results in a torque that changes the spin rate and the obliquity. Extensive analyses of the basic behavior of the YORP effect have been previously conducted in the context of the classical spin state evolution of rigid bodies (YORP cycle). However, the YORP effect has an extreme sensitivity to the topography of the asteroids and a minor change in the shape of an aggregate asteroid can stochastically change the YORP torques. Here we present the results of the first simulations that self-consistently model the YORP effect on the spin states of dynamically evolving aggregates. For these simulations we have developed several algorithms and combined them with two codes, TACO and pkdgrav. TACO is a thermophysical asteroid code that models the surface of an asteroid using a triangular facet representation and which can compute the YORP torques. The code pkdgrav is a cosmological N-body tree code modified to simulate the dynamical evolution of asteroids represented as aggregates of spheres using gravity and collisions. The continuous changes in the shape of an aggregate result in a different evolution of the YORP torques and therefore aggregates do not evolve through the YORP cycle as a rigid body would. Instead of having a spin evolution ruled by long periods of rotational acceleration and deceleration as predicted by the classical YORP cycle, the YORP effect is self-limiting and stochastic on aggregate asteroids. We provide a statistical description of the spin state evolution which lays out the foundation for new simulations of a coupled Yarkovsky/YORP evolution. Both self-limiting YORP and to a lesser

  17. Effect of animal mixing as a stressor on biomarkers of autophagy and oxidative stress during pig muscle maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-González, A; Potes, Y; Illán-Rodríguez, D; Vega-Naredo, I; Sierra, V; Caballero, B; Fàbrega, E; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Oliván, M; Coto-Montes, A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the postmortem evolution of potential biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant activity, TAA; superoxide dismutase activity, SOD and catalase activity, CAT) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of entire male ((Large White×Landrace)×Duroc) pigs subjected to different management treatments that may promote stress, such as mixing unfamiliar animals at the farm and/or during transport and lairage before slaughter. During the rearing period at the farm, five animals were never mixed after the initial formation of the experimental groups (unmixed group at the farm, UF), whereas 10 animals were subjected to a common routine of being mixed with unfamiliar animals (mixed group at the farm, MF). Furthermore, two different treatments were used during the transport and lairage before slaughter: 10 pigs were not mixed (unmixed group during transport and lairage, UTL), whereas five pigs were mixed with unfamiliar animals on the lorry and during lairage (mixed group during transport and lairage, MTL). These mixing treatments were then combined into three pre-slaughter treatments - namely, UF-UTL, MF-UTL and MF-MTL. The results show that MF-UTL and MF-MTL increased significantly the muscle antioxidant defense (TAA, SOD and CAT) at short postmortem times (4 and 8 h; Panimals, both at the farm and during transport and lairage, triggers postmortem muscle autophagy, which showed an earlier activation (higher expression of Beclin 1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio at 4 h postmortem followed by a decreasing pattern of this ratio along first 24 h postmortem) in the muscle tissues of animals from the MF-UTL and MF-MTL groups, as an adaptive strategy of the muscle cells for counteracting induced stress. From these results, we propose that monitoring the evolution of the main biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and muscle antioxidant defense (TAA, SOD, CAT) in the muscle tissue within the

  18. The improbability of dorso-ventral axis inversion during animal evolution, as presumed by Geoffroy Saint Hilaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, van den J.A.M.; Edsinger-Gonzales, E.; Schram, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of developmental genetics have lead to the resurrection of the old idea, first proposed in the early 19th century, that the dorso-ventral axis of deuterostomes, such as vertebrates, has been inverted during the course of evolution from that noted in protostomes, i.e.,

  19. Toxico-Neurological Effects of Piroxicam in Monogastric Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259.4 ± 51.9 mg/kg, rat (259.4 ± 69.6 mg/kg, rabbit (707.5 ± 130.8 mg/kg, cat (437.5 ± 128.1 mg/kg, guinea pig (218.7 ± 64.1 mg/kg, monkey (733.3 ± 83.3 mg/kg, broiler (285.3 ± 62.5 mg/kg, hen (638.3 ± 115.4 mg/kg, turkey (707.5 ± 130.8 mg/kg, pigeon (375 ± 55.9 mg/kg, and duck (311.3 ± 46.6 mg/kg. The acute toxicity signs of piroxicam at doses 207.5 mg/kg and above observed in the animals are torticollis, opisthotonos, somnolence, lethargy, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, generalized internal bleeding, anemia, congestion of the lung and liver, flaccid paralysis, cheesy lung, urinary incontinence, engorged urinary bladder, convulsive jerking of the limbs, lying in ventral recumbency, gasping for air, roaring, and death. Three out of six puppies died after being fed the carcasses of poisoned turkey, duck, and hen administered piroxicam at doses of 1000, 415, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. White flaky cheesy materials observed in turkeys were also observed in the gastrointestinal content of the puppies. Paleness of carcasses, watery crop content, dryness of pericardium, gastroenteritis, intestinal perforation, and whitish pericardium were observed in broilers. There were effusions in thoracic and abdominal cavities as seen in all other carcasses poisoned primarily by piroxicam. Administration of atropine (0.02 mg/kg led to survival of the remaining puppies. In conclusion, piroxicam is very to moderately toxic in

  20. Haematological and biochemical effects of polyphenolics in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, Arumugam; Sudha, Munusamy; Deepa, G; Sudha, M; Deivanai, K; Sadulla, S

    2008-07-01

    Polyphenols of natural and synthetic origin are exploited in tanning sector to convert putrescible skin/hide to non-putrescible leather. However, only 30-40% of the inputs have been taken up for processing, the remaining is released as unspent. The existing conventional wastewater treatment systems are inefficient in removing or degrading these unspent polyphenols and thus detrimental to ecosystem. The present study demonstrates the evaluation of impact of both synthetic and natural polyphenols on biochemical and haematological properties of blood and serum in animal models. The results reveal that concentrations of polyphenols play a major role. At higher concentrations, irrespective of their nature, there was a marked change in the lipid profile (81% reduction), followed by insignificant change in glucose levels, RBC and WBC counts and other haematological parameters. At lower concentrations, no significant changes in the above said properties were observed.

  1. Effective evolution equations from many-body quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedikter, Niels Patriz

    2014-01-01

    Systems of interest in physics often consist of a very large number of interacting particles. In certain physical regimes, effective non-linear evolution equations are commonly used as an approximation for making predictions about the time-evolution of such systems. Important examples are Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute Bose gases and degenerate Fermi gases. While the effective equations are well-known in physics, a rigorous justification is very difficult. However, a rigorous derivation is essential to precisely understand the range and the limits of validity and the quality of the approximation. In this thesis, we prove that the time evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime can be approximated by the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a cubic non-linear Schroedinger equation. We then turn to fermionic systems and prove that the evolution of a degenerate Fermi gas can be approximated by the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation (TDHF) under certain assumptions on the semiclassical structure of the initial data. Finally, we extend the latter result to fermions with relativistic kinetic energy. All our results provide explicit bounds on the error as the number of particles becomes large. A crucial methodical insight on bosonic systems is that correlations can be modeled by Bogolyubov transformations. We construct initial data appropriate for the Gross-Pitaevskii regime using a Bogolyubov transformation acting on a coherent state, which amounts to studying squeezed coherent states. As a crucial insight for fermionic systems, we point out a semiclassical structure in states close to the ground state of fermions in a trap. As a convenient language for studying the dynamics of fermionic systems, we use particle-hole transformations.

  2. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  3. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  4. Effect of a Brans--Dicke cosmology upon stellar evolution and the evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect which a variable G cosmology, such as Brans-Dicke, will have on the evolution of individual stars and of galaxies composed of these stars is examined in the hope that present day observation of globular clusters or giant elliptical galaxies will provide a test for the Brans--Dicke theory. The higher value of the gravitational coupling coefficient G in the past history of various Brans--Dicke universes is studied in detail. A low density, open universe is selected for study: fractional closure density = 0.2, present Hubble constant = km/s/Mpc, stellar formation at a red-shift of 5, and the Brans--Dicke parameter omega = 6. In this universe a set of stellar evolutionary tracks is computed from the Zero-Age Main Sequence through the Giant Branch to the Horizontal Branch for approximately solar composition, (Y,Z) = (0.25, 0.02). When compared at equivalent evolutionary phases, the luminosity of individual stars is found to increase greatly with G from the ZAMS to the HB. The higher G greatly speeds up the evolutionary time scale for the main sequence, and it decreases the core mass at the helium flash, leaving the luminosity of the tip of the GB and the HB unchanged. The net effect of a higher G on a cluster of stars is to increase the apparent mass at the turn-off and to reduce the lifetimes of all the evolutionary phases from the ZAMS to the HB by the same factor. Thus, the relative number density of stars in the major phases of stellar evolution is unchanged

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  6. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins

  7. [The effect of electromagnetic fields on living organisms: plants, birds and animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, constant and alternating, are a static element of the environment. They originate from both natural and man-made sources. Depending on the type of the field, its intensity and time of activity, they exert different effects on the natural world (plants and animals). Some animals utilize magnetic field of the earth for their own purposes.

  8. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  9. Applications of Animal Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Effects of Chronic Exercise on Emotionality in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    The psychological effects of exercise training are difficult to study in humans, but analogous emotionality changes in animals can be studied using simple measurements employed in emergence and open-field tests. The basis of these tests is that animals that are more emotional are more fearful when placed in a novel situation and will exhibit less…

  10. Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on a Student with an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Val Rae M.

    2008-01-01

    This single-subject action research project examines the effects of animal-assisted therapy on the self-esteem and classroom behaviors of a student with an emotional/behavioral disorder. An 18- year-old male attending a special education school in northeastern St. Paul participated in animal-assisted therapy research for four weeks. Quantitative…

  11. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  12. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON ANIMAL DIVERSITY IN BALI, INDONESSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Kasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bali is a small beautiful tropical island of Indonesia archipelago, lies between the continent of Asia and Australia, as well as the Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical archipelago, many kinds of biodiversity can be found. The island of Bali in particular, there are typical animal diversity that could not be investigated beyond such island, such as, Bali cattle, Bali dog, Bali starling and others. As time goes on, the existance of such biodiversity decreases in both body weight and population number. Both global warming/climate change and land use change are the main factors affecting such phenomenon. This study has been conducted by employing field observation as well as literature study. It was found that, the quality of purebred Bali cattle species decreases genetically that could be notified of smaller bodysize for both male and female. Land use change of agriculture activity to the hotels, house of living, roads and other infrastructures are the main factors for Bali cattle existence. For typical famous bird of Balistarling, the problem is because of deforestation which cause natural habitat loss, due to land use change for agricultural activity and house building by local people. In case of Bali dog, the mad dog of rabies is just introduce and spreading over Bali island, whichis formerly the island of Bali has been recognised as free zone area of the rabies. As consequence, suffering dogs must be eliminated by  mass killing cause decrease total number of such poor dog. Overall, it could be concluded that environmental degradations of land use change, deforestation and desease are the main causes of biodiversity decreasing number of the Bali cattle, Bali white starling and Bali dog respectively, beside global warming/climate change natural disaster. Key words: Environment, Bali cattle, Bali starling, Bali dog, Bali island.

  13. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON ANIMAL DIVERSITY IN BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Waya Kasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali is a small beautiful tropical island of Indonesia archipelago lies betweens the continent of Asia and Australia as well as the Indian and Pacific Ocean. As a tropical archipelago, of course, many kinds of biodiversity can be found over there. In the island of Bali in particular, there are typical animal diversity that could not be investigated beyond such island, such as, Bali cattle, Bali dog, Bali white starling and others. As time goes on, the existance of such biodiversity decreases in both quality and quantity. Both global warming/climate change and land use change are the main factors affecting such phenomenon. This study has been conducted by employing field observation as well as literature study. It was found that, the quality of purebred Bali cattle species decreases genetically that could be notified of smaller bodysize for both male and female. Land use change of agriculture activity to the hotels, house of living, roads and other infrastructures are the main factors for Bali cattle existancy. For typical famous bird of white starling, the problem is because of deforestation which cause natural habitat loss, due to land use change for agricultural activity and house building by local people. In case of Bali dog, the mad dog of rabies is just introduce and spreading over Bali island, whichis formerly the island of Bali has been recognised as free zone area of the rabies. As consequency, suffering dogs must be eliminated by a mass killing cause decrease total number of such poor dog. Overall, it could be concluded that environmental degradations of land use change, deforestation and desease are the main causes of biodiversity decreasing number of the Bali cattle, Bali white starling and Bali dog respectively, beside global warming/climate change natural disaster.

  14. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  15. Effect of reactive O+ implantation on the pearlite evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuchen; Chen Yuanru; Radjabov, T.D.; Muchadadiev, R.E.; Zhang Pingyu; Liu Hong

    1993-01-01

    In the experiment the Fe-0.45wt%C alloy was implanted by Ar+, N+, and by Ar+, N+, O+ ions separately. Beneath the surface implanted by Ar+ and N+ an Auger peak of nitrogen is apparent. After implanting O+, however, the oxygen profile along the depth takes the Gaussian distribution and the nitrogen level is very low. TEM observation shows that the cementite laminae of the pearlite are distorted severely and even broken into rods or spheroid particles. The pearlite evolutions may be interpreted by the thermal spike effect of ion-implantation and preferential combination of C and O

  16. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.

  17. 3-D Animation, NL Editing & Special Effects Software Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Visual Effects Team of the Indirect Fire Division is a team of highly skilled people with specialized training and experience in Multimedia Production. Utilizing...

  18. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a ... feed forage seeds or reproduction organs selectively and changes the ... The mean daily air temperature ...

  19. Do cavies talk?: The effect of anthropomorphic books on children's knowledge about animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Ganea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many books for young children present animals in fantastical and unrealistic ways, as wearing clothes, talking and engaging in human-like activities. This research examined whether anthropomorphism in children’s books affects children’s learning and conceptions of animals, by specifically assessing the impact of depictions (a bird wearing clothes and reading a book and language (bird described as talking and as having human intentions. In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw picture books featuring realistic drawings of a novel animal. Half of the children also heard factual, realistic language, while the other half heard anthropomorphized language. In Study 2, we replicated the first study using anthropomorphic illustrations of real animals. The results show that the language used to describe animals in books has an effect on children’s tendency to attribute human-like traits to animals, and that anthropomorphic storybooks affect younger children’s learning of novel facts about animals. These results indicate that anthropomorphized animals in books may not only lead to less learning but also influence children’s conceptual knowledge of animals.

  20. Do cavies talk? The effect of anthropomorphic picture books on children's knowledge about animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Patricia A; Canfield, Caitlin F; Simons-Ghafari, Kadria; Chou, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Many books for young children present animals in fantastical and unrealistic ways, such as wearing clothes, talking and engaging in human-like activities. This research examined whether anthropomorphism in children's books affects children's learning and conceptions of animals, by specifically assessing the impact of depictions (a bird wearing clothes and reading a book) and language (bird described as talking and as having human intentions). In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw picture books featuring realistic drawings of a novel animal. Half of the children also heard factual, realistic language, while the other half heard anthropomorphized language. In Study 2, we replicated the first study using anthropomorphic illustrations of real animals. The results show that the language used to describe animals in books has an effect on children's tendency to attribute human-like traits to animals, and that anthropomorphic storybooks affect younger children's learning of novel facts about animals. These results indicate that anthropomorphized animals in books may not only lead to less learning but also influence children's conceptual knowledge of animals.

  1. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  2. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  3. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  4. Evolution of the violin: The law of effect in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A; Cullen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As is true for most other human inventions, the origin of the violin is unknown. What is known is that this popular and versatile instrument has notably changed over the course of several hundred years. At issue is whether those evolutionary changes in the construction of the violin are the result of premeditated, intelligent design or whether they arose through a trial-and-error process. Recent scientific evidence favors the latter account. Our perspective piece puts these recent empirical findings into a comprehensive selectionist framework. According to this view, the many things we do and make--like violins--arise from a process of variation and selection which accords with the law of effect. Contrary to popular opinion, there is neither mystique nor romance in this process; it is as fundamental and ubiquitous as the law of natural selection. As with the law of natural selection in the evolution of organisms, there is staunch resistance to the role of the law of effect in the evolution of human inventions. We conclude our piece by considering several objections to our perspective. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. THE EFFECTS OF THE IONIZING RADIATION BACKGROUND ON GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    We find that the amount and nature of the assumed ionizing background can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution. Galaxy evolution simulations typically incorporate an ultraviolet background which falls off rapidly above z = 3; e.g., that of Haardt and Madau. However, this decline may be too steep to fit the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe constraints on electron scattering optical depth or observations of intermediate redshift (z ∼ 2-4) Lyα forest transmission. As an alternative, we present simulations of the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with UV backgrounds that decline more slowly at high redshift: both a simple intensity rescaling and the background recently derived by Faucher-Giguere, which softens the spectrum at higher redshifts. We also test an approximation of the X-ray background with a similar z dependence. We find for the test galaxies that an increase in either the intensity or hardness of ionizing radiation generically pushes star formation toward lower redshifts: although overall star formation in the simulation boxes is reduced by 10%-25%, the galaxies show a factor of ∼2 increase in the fraction of stars within a 30 kpc radius that are formed after z = 1. Other effects include late gas inflows enhanced up to 30 times, stellar half-mass radii decreased by up to 30%, central velocity dispersions increased up to 40%, and a strong reduction in substructure. The magnitude of the effects depends on the environmental/accretion properties of the particular galaxy.

  6. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  7. Evaluation of low dose ionizing radiation effect on some blood components in animal model

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shanshoury, H.; El-Shanshoury, G.; Abaza, A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to have lethal effects in blood cells. It is predicted that an individual may spend days, weeks or even months in a radiation field without becoming alarmed. The study aimed to discuss the evaluation of low dose ionizing radiation (IR) effect on some blood components in animal model. Hematological parameters were determined for 110 animal rats (divided into 8 groups) pre- and post-irradiation. An attempt to explain the blood changes resulting from both ...

  8. Thoughts on the cultural evolution of man. Developmental imprinting and transgenerational effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2007-01-01

    The biological evolution of man stopped since it has been conveyed to the objects, created by man. This paper introduces the concept of "conveyed evolution". Being part of the cultural evolution, the conveyed evolution is a continuation of the biological one. There are several similarities between the laws of biological and conveyed evolution, albeit the differences are important as well. Some laws of the conveyed evolution are described here. The conveyed evolution has man-made repair mechanisms (medicine, protection of environment) which defend man from harm. Man's fragility limits the progress of conveyed evolution. However, artificial compounds or environmental pollutants which are provoked by the conveyed evolution induce chemical (hormonal) imprinting in the developmental critical periods, which is transmitted to the progeny generations (transgenerational effect). This could cause evolutionary alterations without mutation.

  9. The oldest known priapulid-like scalidophoran animal and its implications for the early evolution of cycloneuralians and ecdysozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhuan; Xiao, Shuhai; Shao, Tiequan; Broce, Jesse; Zhang, Huaqiao

    2014-05-01

    Morphological phylogenetic analyses suggest that scalidophorans (priapulids, loriciferans, and kinorhynchs) and nematoids (nematodes and nematomorphs) form the ecdysozoan clade Cycloneuralia, which is a sister group to panarthropods. It has been proposed that extant priapulids and Cambrian priapulid-like scalidophorans, because of their conserved evolution, have the potential to illuminate the ancestral morphology, ecology, and developmental biology of highly derived ecdysozoans such as nematods and arthropods. As such, Cambrian fossils, particularly Markuelia and possibly olivooids, can inform the early evolution of scalidophorans, cycloneuralians, and ecdysozoans. However, the scalidophoran Markuelia is known exclusively as embryo fossils, and the olivooids have been alternatively interpreted as cnidarians or cycloneuralians. Here, we describe a post-embryonic scalidophoran fossil Eopriapulites sphinx new genus and species, which represents the oldest known scalidophoran, from the early Cambrian Period (∼535 Ma) in South China. E. sphinx is similar to modern scalidophorans in having an introvert armed with hollow scalids, a collar with coronal scalids, and a pharynx with pharyngeal teeth, but its scalids and pharyngeal teeth are arranged in a hexaradial pattern. Phylogenetically resolved as a stem-group scalidophoran, E. sphinx shares a hexaradial pattern with the hexaradial arrangement of certain anatomical structures in kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematoids, and Cambrian fossils such as Eolympia pediculata, which could also be a scalidophoran. Thus, the bodyplan of ancestral cycloneuralians may have had a component of hexaradial symmetry (i.e., some but not necessarily all anatomical parts are hexaradially arranged). If panarthropods are nested within paraphyletic cycloneuralians, as several molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest, the ancestral ecdysozoans may have been a legless worm possibly with a component of hexaradial symmetry. © 2014 Wiley

  10. Effect of processing on functional properties of animal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo, P; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2008-04-01

    A number of functional and physical properties such as solubility, foam capacity, emulsifying stability and interfacial tension were compared for standard plasma, plasma decationed by ion exchange and plasma deionized by ultrafiltration (UF). The changes in functional properties can determine the use of a protein as an additive to a food product or invalidate its use. All samples had good functional properties and hence could be used in the formulation of food products. Results showed that ion exchange and UF improved emulsifying capacity while having little effect on the other functional properties.

  11. Effect of haemopoietic system activation on radiosensitivity of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of these investigations was to study the influence of activation of erythropoiesis by carbon monoxide, blood letting and blood transfuzing, hypobaric hypoxia, fenylohydrazine induced hemolysis, pertussis vaccine and also sublethal irradiation and later polycythemia on the blood-forming system's ability to postirradiation regeneration after lethal and sublethal X ray irradiation on the whole body of mouse. Results were positive except pertusis vaccine which caused considerable decrease in survival of irradiated mice. Ionizing radiation and fenylohydrazine were the most effective. 21 refs.,5 tabs. (author)

  12. Greenhouse effect: Evolution of scientific message and its transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braicovich, L.; Amman, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, not anymore confined to scientific journals, is becoming a policy issue and, possibly, a nightmare in public opinion. In this analysis of the evolution of the scientific message and its transfer to policy makers and public opinion, the paper first considers, in general terms, the more recent trends in related research activity and in the transfer processes of the results. Then, a more detailed examination is made of the progress achieved in the years 1989-1990 through scientific research in various aspects of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that, for the time being, the scientific results leave many important points unresolved; policy decisions on the matter cannot therefore rely on present scientific knowledge as if it were firmly established

  13. Phenotypic plasticity and longevity in plants and animals: cause and effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M

    2009-10-01

    Immobile plants and immobile modular animals outlive unitary animals. This paper discusses competing but not necessarily mutually exclusive theories to explain this extreme longevity, especially from the perspective of phenotypic plasticity. Stem cell immortality, vascular autonomy, and epicormic branching are some important features of the phenotypic plasticity of plants that contribute to their longevity. Monocarpy versus polycarpy can also influence the kind of senescent processes experienced by plants. How density-dependent phenomena affecting the establishment of juveniles in these immobile organisms can influence the evolution of senescence, and consequently longevity, is reviewed and discussed. Whether climate change scenarios will favour long-lived or short-lived organisms, with their attendant levels of plasticity, is also presented.

  14. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  15. Time evolution of quenched state and correlation to glassy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.; Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Cetin, O.; Durust, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, dynamic changes generated by the driving current were studied in superconducting bulk polycrystalline YBCO sample via transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves). The evolution of nonlinear V-t curves was interpreted in terms of the formation of resistive and nonresistive flow channels and the spatial reorganization of the transport current in a multiply connected network of weak-link structure. The dynamic re-organization of driving current could cause an enhancement or suppression in the superconducting order parameter due to the magnitude of the driving current and coupling strength of weak-link structure along with the chemical and anisotropic states of the sample as the time proceeds. A nonzero voltage decaying with time, correlated to the quenched state, was recorded when the magnitude of initial driving current is reduced to a finite value. It was found that, after sufficiently long waiting time, the evolution of the quenched state could result in a superconducting state, depending on the magnitude of the driving current and temperature. We showed that the decays in voltage over time are consistent with an exponential time dependence which is related to the glassy state. Further, the effect of doping of organic material Bis dimethyl-glyoximato Copper (II) to YBCO could be monitored apparently via the comparison of the V-t curves corresponding to doped and undoped YBCO samples

  16. The evolution of unconditional strategies via the 'multiplier effect'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Dall, Sasha R X

    2011-03-01

    Ostensibly, it makes sense in a changeable world to condition behaviour and development on information when it is available. Nevertheless, unconditional behavioural and life history strategies are widespread. Here, we show how intergenerational effects can limit the evolutionary value of responding to reliable environmental cues, and thus favour the evolutionary persistence of otherwise paradoxical unconditional strategies. While cue-ignoring genotypes do poorly in the wrong environments, in the right environment they will leave many copies of themselves, which will themselves leave many copies, and so on, leading genotypes to accumulate in habitats in which they do well. We call this 'The Multiplier Effect'. We explore the consequences of the multiplier effect by focussing on the ecologically important phenomenon of natal philopatry. We model the environment as a large number of temporally varying breeding sites connected by natal dispersal between sites. Our aim is to identify which aspects of an environment promote the multiplier effect. We show, if sites remain connected through some background level of 'accidental' dispersal, unconditional natal philopatry can evolve even when there is density dependence (with its accompanying kin competition effects), and cues that are only mildly erroneous. Thus, the multiplier effect may underpin the evolution and maintenance of unconditional strategies such as natal philopatry in many biological systems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  18. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from... the effectiveness of these products only when: (1) There is a reasonably well-understood...

  19. Anthropometric evolution and classification of pre-scholar and scholar students from public education: Relation to food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Pissaia Savitsky

    2012-12-01

    decrease on the stature deficit on children from 0 to 6 years old (p<0.01 and a decrease on low weight (p<0.01, of weight and height of children from 6 to 12 years old (p=0.97. Results show an increase on children´s weight, especially on children under 6 years old, where there is a need for preventive attitudes, in order to reduce the DCNT. In this context the increase on quality and/or quantity of animal origin products in the children´s diet at school must be evaluated and reformulated substituting carbohydrates for animal food from several sources (poultry, fish, bovine meat, eggs, milk, etc. Sustainability of public education has to deal with nutritional factors and the end of the animal food chain to aim better education and better citizens.

  20. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Aharonowiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. A potential new therapeutic approach for MS is cell transplantation which may promote remyelination and suppress the inflammatory process. METHODS: We transplanted human embryonic stem cells (hESC-derived early multipotent neural precursors (NPs into the brain ventricles of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS. We studied the effect of the transplanted NPs on the functional and pathological manifestations of the disease. RESULTS: Transplanted hESC-derived NPs significantly reduced the clinical signs of EAE. Histological examination showed migration of the transplanted NPs to the host white matter, however, differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes and remyelination were negligible. Time course analysis of the evolution and progression of CNS inflammation and tissue injury showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process in transplanted animals, which was correlated with the reduction of both axonal damage and demyelination. Co-culture experiments showed that hESC-derived NPs inhibited the activation and proliferation of lymph node-derived T cells in response to nonspecific polyclonal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of transplantation was not related to graft or host remyelination but was mediated by an immunosuppressive neuroprotective mechanism. The attenuation of EAE by hESC-derived NPs, demonstrated here, may serve as the first step towards further developments of hESC for cell therapy in MS.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  4. Evolution of shear stress, protein expression, and vessel area in an animal model of arterial dilatation in hemodialysis grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A.; Misra, Khamal D.; Glockner, James F.; Mukhopadyay, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the wall shear stress, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9), and the inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and -2 (TIMP-2)), and vessel area over time in a porcine model for hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Materials and methods In 21 pigs, subtotal renal infarction was performed and 28 days later, a PTFE graft was placed to connect the carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein. Phase contrast MR was used to measure blood flow and vessel area at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after graft placement. Wall shear stress was estimated from Poiseuille’s law. Animals were sacrificed at day 3 (N=7), day 7 (N=7), and day 14 (N=7) and expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were determined at the grafted and control arteries. Results The mean wall shear stress of the grafted artery was higher than the control artery at all time points (P<0.05). It peaked by day 3 and decreased by days 7–14 as the vessel area nearly doubled. By days 7–14, there was a significant increase in active MMP-2 followed by a significant increase in pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 (P<0.05, grafted artery versus control). TIMP-1 expression peaked by day 7 and then decreased while TIMP-2 expression was decreased at days 7–14. Conclusions The wall shear stress of the grafted artery peaks by day 3 with increased MMP-2 activity by days 7–14 followed by pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 and the vessel area nearly doubled. PMID:20123196

  5. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  6. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A when utilized in animals with trigeminal sensitization induced a antinociceptive effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio J Piovesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose of the study was evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A in an experimental model of trigeminal neuralgia. Method Neuropathic pain was induced by surgical constriction of the infraorbital nerve in rats. A control group underwent a sham procedure consisting of surgical exposure of the nerve. Subgroups of each group received either BoNT/A or isotonic saline solution. The clinical response was assessed with the -20°C test. Animals that underwent nerve constriction developed sensitization; the sham group did not. Results The sensitization was reversed by BoNT/A treatment evident 24 hours following application. Pronociceptive effect was observed in the sham group following BoNT/A. Conclusion BoNT/A has an antinociceptive effect in sensitized animals and a pronociceptive effect in non-sensitized animals.

  7. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  8. Effects of Geometry and Kinematics on Animals Leaping Out of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Brian; Myeong, Jihye; Virot, Emmanuel; Kim, Ho-Young; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Leaping out of water is a phenomenon exhibited by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic animals, such as frogs and whales. In this study, we aim to elucidate the effects of geometric and kinematic conditions on the propulsive and drag force required for an animal to jump through the water interface. A simple mechanism was designed to measure the propulsive thrust produced by a flapping appendage. In a separate experiment to measure the opposing drag, simplified models of animals are 3D printed and fitted with pressure sensors. The model is accelerated from rest and covers a range of Re from 103 to 105. Using a high-speed camera and pressure sensors, we observed a deformation of the free surface prior to water exit, and correlated this to the drag force. Finally, we discuss a scaling law to describe the general physics which allow animals to leap out of water. NSF EAPSI.

  9. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Side-effects of application of manure from AFCF treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hees, M. van; Brouwer, S. de; Vandenhove, H.

    1996-01-01

    AFCF (ammonium-ferric-hexacyano-ferrate) is a very effective caesium binder. Mixed with the animal feed, presented in the form of salt licks or introduced into the rumenas slow release boll, this compound is an efficient countermeasure to limit the gastro-intestinal uptake of radiocaesium by farm animals and wild ruminants. Less than 1 % of the ingested AFCF is excreted in urine or secreted in milk, suggesting that it crossed the gastro-intestinal tract unabsorbed and is finally excreted in faeces together with the caesium bound in the gut. This means that AFCF from treated animals returns directly to pastures while animals are grazing or that it can be spread on fields fertilized with animal manure. Although no toxicological problems have been observed on animals given hexacyanoferrates in the recommended doses, the fate of this molecule in the environment after excretion is not well documented. Except for limited data obtained in Norway and in the CIS, practically no information is available regarding its action on the availability of Cs present in the soil, nor concerning potential side-effects of its possible degradation to cyanides and other materials with a concomitant release of bound Cs over long periods of time. (author)

  11. MINERAL PROFILE EVOLUTION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual minerals and antibacterial activity were investigated in 5 medicinal plants (pot marigold - Calendula officinalis, burdock - Arctium lappa, celandine - Chelidonium majus, basil- Ocimum basilicum, thyme - Thymus vulgaris using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS technique and antibiogram  method. The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 12 strains isolated from milk microflora, belonging to Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia and Bacillus genera. The obtained results show the best antibacterial effect with  Arctium lappa ethanol extracts, having inhibition areas of 6.3 to 17.5 mm, with an average of 9.0 mm and the highest determined mineral being Calcium. The results obtained open the prospect of using these medicinal plants as an alternative to be used for the control and cure of some mineral deficiencies or for preventing various diseases of the animals.

  12. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  13. The relationship of animal experiments in predicting the effects on intrauterine radiation effects in the human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent, R.L.; Beckmann, D.A.; Jensh, R.P.; Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA

    1986-01-01

    Although animal studies cannot be used to predict human disease, they can be utilized to study the mechanisms and the risk of radiation embryological effects reported in humans. The radiation embryological effects dealing with sterility, tumor development, life span studies and certain aspects of central nervous system functions cannot be so evaluated because of marked discordance in development or function between the rodent and human. It is important to recognize that, although the effects are markedly different, all stages of gestation have pathological effects following intrauterine radiation. There is no stage that will not be affected by 50 cGy: death in the preimplantation period; major malformations during early organogenesis; minor malformations during later organogenesis; histogenetic depletion, disorganization and cell depletion in midgestation; and cell depletion during the later part of gestation. The threshold dose for each of these effects is approximately 20 cGy, except during late gestation when permanent effects may not be produced at this low dose. All radiation embryological effects are multicellular phenomenona and, since it is unlikely that they are stochastic phenomena, the risks are not linearly related to radiation dose. The only exception may be the lethal effect produced on the first day of gestation. The present maximum permissible exposure of 0.5 cGy per years is appropriate for women of reproductive age exposed to radiation in the work place. Exposures from diagnostic radiation below 5 cGy present such a small or non-measurable risk, that counselors can support the continuation of wanted pregnancies. Inadvertant or medically necessary radiographic examinations present no greater concern whether in the first or second half of the menstrual cycle since pre-ovulation exposures or post-conception exposures before the first missed menstrual period of 5 cGy or less present a similar minimal risk. (orig.)

  14. Effectively managing partnership evolution: a case study from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishuk, Brian S

    Given the continued proliferation of public/ private partnerships as vehicles for sharing best practices, lessons learned and actionable information, the keys to their success become more important to identify. Effective partnerships enhance the resilience of their respective members, which, in turn, improves community resilience. Thus, identifying the attributes of a successful partnership should be a high priority for those looking to foster collaboration between the public and private sectors. This paper will illustrate with two case studies how successful partnerships creatively leverage opportunities and manage the evolution of public/private relationships, while always seeking to institutionalise these collaborative efforts. The first will discuss briefly the development of the most important national partnership within the financial sector. The other focuses on a public/private task force in Chicago, composed of public safety agencies and representatives of critical infrastructure, which owes its existence to an unexpected research project and that needed to be restructured in light of experience. The manner in which the task force formed and evolved yields many lessons for partnerships interested in remaining relevant and effective.

  15. A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, G.E.; Koren, H.; Aissa, M.

    1989-01-01

    Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O 3 in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O 3 mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O 3 . The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O 3 dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid markers. The feasibility of estimating O 3 dose to alveoli of animals and humans was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of 18 O-labeled O 3 in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. The feasibility of using lung lavage fluid protein measurements to quantify the O 3 toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased lung lavage protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm O 3 for 2 h with intermittent periods of heavy exercise. The validity of using the lavage protein marker to quantify the response in animals has already been established. The positive results obtained in both the 18 O 3 and the lavage protein studies reported here suggest that it should be possible to obtain a direct comparison of both alveolar dose and toxic effect of O 3 to alveoli of animals or humans

  16. Effect of laser irradiation for healing of the skin-muscle wounds of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Veremei, Eduard I.; Pancovets, Evgeniy A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study the medical effect of low-intensity laser influence on healing of skin- muscle wounds of agricultural animals. We used the laser radiation of low intensity for cub's therapy: to sucking-pigs after herniotomy and castration, to cattle cubs after skin- muscle wounds. The animals were kept under clinical observation up to their recovery. The recuperation dynamic was observed by changing of blood quotients, leukograms, sizes of inflammatory edema, general behavior of animals. The positive dynamic of blood quotients of the experimental animal groups was really higher than that in control. The analysis of wound healing after laser influence shows that wound surface of experimental group was to a great extent smaller in comparison with control group of animals. So, these facts testify about anti-inflammatory action of laser radiation, which hastens regenerative and rehabilitative processes. Analysis of the obtained experimental data has revealed the positive influence of laser irradiation on the dynamics of wound adhesion of agricultural animals.

  17. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Nakanishi

    Full Text Available In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B. In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B, during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs.

  18. The Effect of Watching Iranian Religious Animations on Religion Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Razawi Tousi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are so much in favor of media productions and they criticize its religious notions and TV productions has a great influence on making a true attitude towards spirituality and religion so possibility of influence Iranian religious Animation on the religious behavior of audiences was studied with use the role of schools in gathering homogeneous audience. This research was done on a number of students aged 12-18 in 8 different non- governmental schools, educational region 2 in Tehran. The research analyzed the examinees in 4 test groups and 4 control groups to observe the effect of religious animation on the students' religious behavior. Using pairing t-test, one sample t-test and variance analysis (ANOVA, the research examined the effect of age, gender and religious precedent in student's behavior. The findings prove that watching religious animation strengthens their religious behavior considering gender and religious precedent.

  19. Age and Gender Related Renal Side Effects of Cisplatin in Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2017-06-25

    Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Correlations in double parton distributions. Effects of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Keane, Shane; Kasemets, Tomas; Vrije Univ., Amsterdam

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of scale evolution on double parton distributions, which are needed to compute multiple hard scattering processes. Assuming correlations between longitudinal and transverse variables or between the parton spins to be present at a low scale, we study how they are affected by evolution to higher scales, i.e. by repeated parton emission. We find that generically evolution tends to wash out correlations, but with a speed that may be slow or fast depending on kinematics and on the type of correlation. Nontrivial parton correlations may hence persist in double parton distributions at the high scales relevant for hard scattering processes.

  1. The effects of extrinsic stress on somatic markers and behavior are dependent on animal housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzard, Damien; Mumby, Dave G; Sandi, Carmen; Poirier, Guillaume L; van der Kooij, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Properties of the environment play an important role in animal wellbeing and may modulate the effects of external threats. Whereas stressors can affect emotion and impair cognition, environmental enrichment may prevent the occurrence of such negative sequelae. Animals exposed to semi-natural group-housing experience a complex environment; whereas environmental enrichment might protect against stressors, a socially-enriched environment(SEE) could entail aggressive inter-male encounters with additive stress effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to external stressors, footshocks and forced swimming, on adrenal gland and body weights as well as on behavior in rats housed under SEE or standard, non-enriched environment (NEE), conditions. We found that SEEs reduced the anxiogenic effects of stress. Moreover, SEEs improved the performance in an operant task and prevented the increase in impulsive behavior produced by external stressors on NEE animals. Whereas these findings are indicative of stress-buffering effects of SEEs, adrenal gland weights were increased while total body weights were decreased in SEE rats, suggesting that SEEs may simultaneously exacerbate physiological measurements of stress. Finally, in the SEE, total aggressive behaviors and body wounds were paradoxically reduced in animals that received external stressors in comparison to non-stressed controls. The consequences of the external stressors applied here are not uniform, varying according to the housing condition and the outcome considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of visual fatigue under the effect of 3D animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Shuo; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Jhou, Fong-Yi; Lin, David Pei-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Visual fatigue is commonly encountered in modern life. Clinical visual fatigue characteristics caused by 2-D and 3-D animations may be different, but have not been characterized in detail. This study tried to distinguish the differential effects on visual fatigue caused by 2-D and 3-D animations. A total of 23 volunteers were subjected to accommodation and vergence assessments, followed by a 40-min video game program designed to aggravate their asthenopic symptoms. The volunteers were then assessed for accommodation and vergence parameters again and directed to watch a 5-min 3-D video program, and then assessed again for the parameters. The results support that the 3-D animations caused similar characteristics in vision fatigue parameters in some specific aspects as compared to that caused by 2-D animations. Furthermore, 3-D animations may lead to more exhaustion in both ciliary and extra-ocular muscles, and such differential effects were more evident in the high demand of near vision work. The current results indicated that an arbitrary set of indexes may be promoted in the design of 3-D display or equipments.

  3. Energy dependence of the Cronin effect from nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Kovner, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of dense partonic systems has been suggested as a novel physics mechanism relevant for the dynamics of p-A and A-A collisions at collider energies. Here we study to what extent the description of Cronin enhancement in the framework of this nonlinear evolution is consistent with the recent observation in √(s)=200 GeV d-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation numerically for several initial conditions encoding Cronin enhancement. We find that the properly normalized nuclear gluon distribution is suppressed at all momenta relative to that of a single nucleon. For the resulting spectrum of produced gluons in p-A and A-A collisions, the nonlinear QCD evolution is unable to generate a Cronin-type enhancement, and it quickly erases any such enhancement which may be present at lower energies

  4. Effects of Roads on Animal Abundance: an Empirical Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Fahrig

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We attempted a complete review of the empirical literature on effects of roads and traffic on animal abundance and distribution. We found 79 studies, with results for 131 species and 30 species groups. Overall, the number of documented negative effects of roads on animal abundance outnumbered the number of positive effects by a factor of 5; 114 responses were negative, 22 were positive, and 56 showed no effect. Amphibians and reptiles tended to show negative effects. Birds showed mainly negative or no effects, with a few positive effects for some small birds and for vultures. Small mammals generally showed either positive effects or no effect, mid-sized mammals showed either negative effects or no effect, and large mammals showed predominantly negative effects. We synthesized this information, along with information on species attributes, to develop a set of predictions of the conditions that lead to negative or positive effects or no effect of roads on animal abundance. Four species types are predicted to respond negatively to roads: (i species that are attracted to roads and are unable to avoid individual cars; (ii species with large movement ranges, low reproductive rates, and low natural densities; and (iii and iv small animals whose populations are not limited by road-affected predators and either (a avoid habitat near roads due to traffic disturbance or (b show no avoidance of roads or traffic disturbance and are unable to avoid oncoming cars. Two species types are predicted to respond positively to roads: (i species that are attracted to roads for an important resource (e.g., food and are able to avoid oncoming cars, and (ii species that do not avoid traffic disturbance but do avoid roads, and whose main predators show negative population-level responses to roads. Other conditions lead to weak or non-existent effects of roads and traffic on animal abundance. We identify areas where further research is needed, but we also argue that the

  5. Effect of a wildlife conservation camp experience in China on student knowledge of animals, care, propensity for environmental stewardship, and compassionate behavior toward animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexell, Sarah M.

    The goal of conservation education is positive behavior change toward animals and the environment. This study was conducted to determine whether participation in a wildlife conservation education camp was effective in positively changing 8-12 year old students': (a) knowledge of animals, (b) care about animals, (c) propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship, and (d) compassionate behavior toward animals. During the summer of 2005, 2 five-day camps were conducted at 2 zoological institutions in Chengdu, China. The camp curriculum was influenced by theory and research on the following: conservation psychology, social learning theory, empathy and moral development theory, socio-biological theory, constructivist theory, and conservation science. Camp activities were sensitive to Chinese culture and included Chinese conservation issues. Activities were designed to help children form bonds with animals and care enough about them to positively change their behavior toward animals and the environment. This mixed methods study triangulated quantitative and qualitative data from six sources to answer the following: (1) Did camp increase student knowledge of animals? (2) Did camp increase student caring about animals? (3) Did camp increase student propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship? (4) Did camp affect student compassionate behavior toward animals? A conservation stewards survey revealed significant increases on pre-post, self-report of knowledge, care, and propensity. Pre-post, rubric-scored responses to human-animal interaction vignettes indicated a significant increase in knowledge, and stable scores on care and propensity. Qualitative data from student journals, vignettes, and end-of-camp questionnaires demonstrated knowledge, caring, and propensity, and revealed the emergent theme empathy. To address question 4, instructors tallied campers' behavior toward animals using a student behavior ethogram. Occurrence of positive behaviors was

  6. The effects of radiation on the diseases of aging in experimental animals: gerontological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, C.F.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Broerse, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effect of different types and doses of ionizing radiation on the induction of mammary tumours in rats and the role of ovarian hormones in tumour indication is reported. The occurrence of other diseases in the irradiated animals is also studied and compared to those occurring in non-irradiated controls. (Auth.)

  7. Effective Assessments of Integrated Animations--Exploring Dynamic Physics Instruction for College Students' Learning and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, King-Dow; Yeh, Shih-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to give effective assessments of three major physics animations to upgrade college students' learning achievements and attitudes. All college participants were taken from mechanical and civil engineering departments who joined this physics course during the 2011 academic year. Three prime objectives of physics…

  8. Gender Effects When Learning Manipulative Tasks from Instructional Animations and Static Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mona; Castro-Alonso, Juan C.; Ayres, Paul; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Humans have an evolved embodied cognition that equips them to deal easily with the natural movements of object manipulations. Hence, learning a manipulative task is generally more effective when watching animations that show natural motions of the task, rather than equivalent static pictures. The present study was completed to explore this…

  9. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been devised to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats, and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines have been reviewed, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to human is discussed

  10. Supporting Multimedia Learning with Visual Signalling and Animated Pedagogical Agent: Moderating Effects of Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. M.; Ozogul, G.; Reisslein, M.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of visual signalling to relevant information in multiple external representations and the visual presence of an animated pedagogical agent (APA). Students learned electric circuit analysis using a computer-based learning environment that included Cartesian graphs, equations and electric circuit diagrams. The…

  11. Ecological effects and animal risk assessment of radiation pollution in Russia and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ecological after-effects of long-term radiation pollution, animal biodiversity changes and life-cycle assessment of model species of soil invertebrates mammals, birds, reptiles have been studied in 1968-1994 in the former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazachstan). There has been observed an initial reduction of animal biodiversity community structure in Kyshtym (south Ural) and Chernobyl polluted areas and a low return to the former ecosystems. The secondary changes and side-effects for the active migrants (insects, birds, mammals) have been registered. The most valid bioindicators and biomarkers of radioactive pollution may be stable populations of reptiles, birds, earthworms, centipede, microarthropods. The radioactive soil pollution exerts the greatest impact on the permanent soil dwelling animals. As direct effects it has been seen the appreciable reduction of population density disturbance of the breeding process, degradation of species diversity community structure. In fact a soil with high level 90 Sr and a radiation 1--3 R/day containing 10-fold reduction of population soil inhabit millipedes earthworms, insect larvae, Enchytraeidae aranea. The accumulation of radionuclides by terrestrial and soil animals effects of trophic levels, zoogenical radionuclides migration have been studied in polluted ecosystems of South Ural and Chernobyl

  12. Effects of hazardous environments on animal performance. Final report, Mar 88-Mar 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.R.

    1992-03-01

    Using a variety of experimental methods and procedures, animal models are used to measure the effects on performance of combat threats and countermeasures for such threats. The ultimate usefulness of such measurements in animal models will depend on extrapolations from performance changes in animals to performance changes in humans performing tasks of military relevance. This report describes several tasks in use for performance assessments in animals, and the results of experiments using these tasks to estimate performance threats from chemical warfare agents and from chemical countermeasures to these agents, as well as the efficacy of such countermeasures in reducing deleterious effects of threat agents. The use of rodents to characterize changes in neural structure and function concomitant with near-lethal exposures to chemical threat agents is also illustrated. Efforts to make rodents more closely resemble primates in their sensitivity to anticholinesterases through the use of carboxylesterase inhibitors are reported. Development of a primate model for thermal stress effects in chemical warfare defense is also described. The application of primate performance assessment techniques to the medical question of hyperbaric oxygen treatment effects on carbon monoxide toxicity is also presented.

  13. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  14. Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Ward, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the

  15. Effects of Cueing by a Pedagogical Agent in an Instructional Animation: A Cognitive Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a pedagogical agent that cued relevant information in a story-based instructional animation on the cardiovascular system. Based on cognitive load theory, it was expected that the experimental condition with the pedagogical agent would facilitate students to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant…

  16. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  17. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, researchers have reviewed some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to humans is discussed

  18. 76 FR 60503 - Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and Submission.'' The purpose of this document is to provide sponsors guidance in preparation of study protocols for review by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation. The recommendations included in this guidance are intended...

  19. The Reliability and Effectiveness of a Radar-Based Animal Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-22

    This document contains data on the reliability and effectiveness of an animal detection system along U.S. Hwy 95 near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The system uses a Doppler radar to detect large mammals (e.g., deer and elk) when they approach the highway. T...

  20. Effects of an Animal-Assisted Intervention on Reading Skills and Attitudes in Second Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E.; Mueller, Megan K.; Gibbs, Debra M.; Alper, Jean A.; Freeman, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Reading skills are an important component of academic success for school-age youth, and are associated with increased academic performance and positive attitudes about school. The presence of an animal appears to reduce stress during reading. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effects of a 6-week after-school…

  1. Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Okada, Shinpei; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Park, Hyuntae; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi; Oshio, Takuya; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Honda, Takuya; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this review were to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of animal-assisted therapy (AAT). Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which AAT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to October 31, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, GHL, WPRIM, and PsycINFO. We also searched all Cochrane Database up to October 31, 2012. Eleven RCTs were identified, and seven studies were about "Mental and behavioral disorders". Types of animal intervention were dog, cat, dolphin, bird, cow, rabbit, ferret, and guinea pig. The RCTs conducted have been of relatively low quality. We could not perform meta-analysis because of heterogeneity. In a study environment limited to the people who like animals, AAT may be an effective treatment for mental and behavioral disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol/drug addictions, and is based on a holistic approach through interaction with animals in nature. To most effectively assess the potential benefits for AAT, it will be important for further research to utilize and describe (1) RCT methodology when appropriate, (2) reasons for non-participation, (3) intervention dose, (4) adverse effects and withdrawals, and (5) cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Jigsaw and Animation Techniques on Students' Understanding of Concepts and Subjects in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymus, Kemal; Karacop, Ataman; Simsek, Umit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of jigsaw cooperative learning and animation versus traditional teaching methods on students' understanding of electrochemistry in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in three different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2007-2008 academic year. The…

  3. The Reliability and Effectiveness of a Radar-Based Animal Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This document contains data on the reliability and effectiveness of an animal detection system along U.S. Hwy 95 near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The system uses a Doppler radar to detect large mammals (e.g., deer and elk) when they approach the highway. T...

  4. [Effect of the proteolytic enzyme papain on the body organs and systems of experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, V M; Storozhuk, V T; Trofimenko, S P; Shabash, E G; Markelov, S I

    1983-01-01

    When administered intravenously and intraarterially papaine (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) produces no toxic effects on respiration, arterial pressure, brain and intracranial circulation. Intrapleural, intraperitoneal and interstitial administration of papaine solutions in doses under 4.5 mg/kg produces no local or general changes on the part of experimental animals' organism.

  5. General constraints on the effect of gas flows in the chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The basic equations for the chemical evolution of galaxies in which the 'simple' closed box model is modified to allow any form of inflow or outflow are examined. It is found that there are quite general limiting constraints on the effects that such flows can have. Some implications for the actual chemical evolution of galaxies are discussed, and the constraints should also be useful in understanding the behaviour of detailed numerical models of galactic chemical evolution involving gas flows. (author)

  6. The effect of proteins from animal source foods on heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Valenzuela, Carolina; Brito, Alex; Weinborn, Valerie; Flores, Sebastián; Arredondo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Forty-five women (35-45 year) were randomly assigned to three iron (Fe) absorption sub-studies, which measured the effects of dietary animal proteins on the absorption of heme Fe. Study 1 was focused on heme, red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), RBCC+beef meat; study 2 on heme, heme+fish, chicken, and beef; and study 3 on heme and heme+purified animal protein (casein, collagen, albumin). Study 1: the bioavailability of heme Fe from Hb was similar to heme only (∼13.0%). RBCC (25.0%) and RBCC+beef (21.3%) were found to be increased 2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, when compared with heme alone (pProteins from animal source foods and their digestion products did not enhance heme Fe absorption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The effectiveness of 3D animations to enhance understanding of cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Dylan N; Broadhurst, Henry; Clarke, Stephen P; Farrell, Michael; Bennett, David; Mosley, John R; Mellanby, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is one of the most important orthopedic diseases taught to veterinary undergraduates. The complexity of the anatomy of the canine stifle joint combined with the plethora of different surgical interventions available for the treatment of the disease means that undergraduate veterinary students often have a poor understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of CCL rupture. We designed, developed, and tested a three dimensional (3D) animation to illustrate the pertinent clinical anatomy of the stifle joint, the effects of CCL rupture, and the mechanisms by which different surgical techniques can stabilize the joint with CCL rupture. When compared with a non-animated 3D presentation, students' short-term retention of functional anatomy improved although they could not impart a better explanation of how different surgical techniques worked. More students found the animation useful than those who viewed a comparable non-animated 3D presentation. Multiple peer-review testing is required to maximize the usefulness of 3D animations during development. Free and open access to such tools should improve student learning and client understanding through wide-spread uptake and use.

  8. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  9. Air pollution and climate change. Effects on vegetation, animals, and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellburn, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the effects of air pollution and climate change on the biosphere. The emphasis is on the biochemical processes caused by specific pollutants in plants, animals, and humans, but global aspects of air pollution are gone into as well, e.g. greenhouse effect, acid rain, ozone depletion and forest decline. The reader is given a comprehensive outline of this interdisciplinary problem field. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions: the possible role of oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBeetz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade it has become more widely accepted that pet-ownership and animal-assistance in therapy and education may have a multitude of positive effects on humans. Here, we review the evidence from 67 original studies on human-animal interactions (HAI which met our inclusion criteria with regard to sample size, peer-review and standard scientific research design. Among the well-documented effects of HAI in humans of different ages, with and without special medical or mental health conditions are benefits for: social attention, social behavior, interpersonal interactions and mood; stress-related parameters such as cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure; self-reported fear and anxiety; and mental and physical health, especially cardiovascular diseases. Limited evidence exists for positive effects of HAI on: reduction of stress-related parameters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine; improvement of immune system functioning and pain management; increased trustworthiness of and trust towards other persons; reduced aggression; enhanced empathy and improved learning. We propose that the activation of the oxytocin system plays a key role in the majority of these reported psychological and psychophysiological effects of HAI. Oxytocin and HAI effects largely overlap, as documented by research in both, humans and animals, and first studies found that HAI affects the oxytocin system. As a common underlying mechanism, the activation of the oxytocin system does not only provide an explanation, but also allows an integrative view of the different effects of HAI.

  11. The effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Josianne; Colegrave, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to evolve in novel environments and monitored both their change in fitness and variance in fitness after evolution. Sex affected the repeatability of evolution by changing the importance of the effect of selection, chance, and ancestral constraints on the outcome of the evolutionary process. In particular, the effects of sex were highly dependent on the initial genetic composition of the population and on the environment. Given the lack of a consistent effect of sex on repeatability across the environments used here, further studies to dissect in more detail the underlying reasons for these differences as well as studies in additional environments are required if we are to have a general understanding of the effects of sex on the repeatability of evolution. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  13. Comparative aspects of animal and human data on somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1986-10-01

    This report contains presentations at the 17th Symposium organized by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, which took place in Chiba, Japan, from 11 to 12 December 1985. Unlike in the previous symposiums dealing with cellular and molecular levels, the present symposium discussed somatic effects of ionizing radiation at the organic level in conjunction with epidemiological data. This report is divided into five sections: the first is explanation for UNSCEAR's and ICRP's views of human and animal data in the current assessment of radiation health risks; the second covers comparison of epidemiological and animal experimental data on the dose-effect relationship for carcinogenesis, together with problems in epidemiological and experimental studies; the third discusses significance and problems in animal experiments on modifying factors of radiation carcinogenesis; the fourth deals with studies on carcinogenesis mechanism, aiming at elucidating their significance and potential role in the risk evaluation for humans; and the last section is a compilation of panel discussion of differences in humans and animals, giving a proposal for future research. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Tuition vs. Intuition: Effects of Instruction on Naive Theories of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Calabi, Prassede

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a major obstacle to evolution understanding is an essentialist view of the biological world. The present study investigated the effects of formal biology instruction on such misconceptions. Participants (N = 291) completed an assessment of their understanding of six aspects of evolution (variation, inheritance,…

  15. How adaptive learning affects evolution: reviewing theory on the Baldwin effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We review models of the Baldwin effect, i.e., the hypothesis that adaptive learning (i.e., learning to improve fitness) accelerates genetic evolution of the phenotype. Numerous theoretical studies scrutinized the hypothesis that a non-evolving ability of adaptive learning accelerates evolution of

  16. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  17. Comparison between the effects of animal and plant basal diets on productivity of Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, known as m ad cow disease , make the European commission to take an action for preventing the spread of such disease by banning the feeding ruminant tissue and animal by-products to farm animals. This study suggested to compare between two basal diets originated from either plants or animal and their effects on some physiological parameters related to the bird growth. A total number of 800 one day old unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into two groups containing 400 birds each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 100 birds. Group one the birds were fed on animal diet and group two fed on plant diet. The two diets contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 4% fat and contains 3200 Kcal/kg diet in starter, while the layer diet contained 21% CP and 4% fat and contains 3000 Kcal/kg diet. Growth data were obtained by weighing the quails individually every week until 6 th weeks, 6 th months and 1 2th months. Eggs were collected daily and weighed for eight months starting from the onset of first egg lying. At 8 th month, a sample of 8 quails was sacrificed, organ weighted and blood samples were collected. Carcass composition was performed to determine % fat, % protein, % ash and total moisture. Hematological and histological parameters, liver and kidney functions, total protein, albumin, globulin, estradiol, testosterone, cholesterol and total lipids were evaluated. The results showed significant increase in body weights gain in one and three weeks only in animal protein diet but no difference were shown between animal and plant diet after 4 weeks and until 12 month. No difference between animal and plant diets were noted in total dry solids (TDS), fat %, ash and protein of TDS and egg production. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, total protein, albumin, hematological parameters and total lipids showed non-significant values. The histological parameters

  18. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytus Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake, intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding, and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

  19. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

  20. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EFFECT OF USING SHORT SILENT ANIMATIONS ON EFL LEARNERS WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Marashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of short silent animations on pre-intermediate EFL learners writing. A homogenized group of 60 participants was non-randomly chosen and assigned as the control and experimental groups. Those in the control group watched five short animations with dialogue, while those in the experimental group had five short animations which were silent. The procedure lasted 10 sessions. In both groups, the participants were asked to write five writings regarding the subjects of the animations during the term and each of the writings should have contained a minimum of 90 and maximum of 140 words. The participants were provided both oral and written feedback. At the end of the instruction, a sample PET writing posttest was administered to both groups, an independent samples t-test was run on the mean scores of the two groups, and the results (t = -2.02, p = 0.037˂0.05 revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group.

  3. Evaluation of protective effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. in an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalremruta, Vanphawng; Prasanna, Gurunath S

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. Age/weight-matched female Wistar albino rats were grouped into five groups. (Group I- V) (n = 8). Group I served as naïve control and II served as stress control. Except for group I animals, other group animals were subjected to forced swimming every day for 15 minutes to induce a state of chronic fatigue and simultaneously treated with ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM) 150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. and Imipramine (20 mg.kg b.w.), respectively. Duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of oxidative biomarkers at the end of the study. Treatment with EEAM (150 and 250 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in a statistically significant and dose dependent reduction (P immobility, reduction in anxiety and increase in locomotor activity. Dose dependent and significant reduction in LPO level and increase in CAT and SOD was observed in extract treated animals. The results are suggestive of potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS.

  4. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  5. Effect of site-specific heterogeneous evolution on phylogenetic reconstruction: a simple evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqun; Su, Zhixi; Zhong, Yang; Gu, Xun

    2009-07-15

    Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous evolution may mislead phylogenetic analysis, which has been neglected for a long time. We evaluate the effect of heterogeneous evolution on phylogenetic analysis, using 18 fish mitogenomic coding sequences as an example. Using the software DIVERGE, we identify 198 amino acid sites that have experienced heterogeneous evolution. After removing these sites, the rest of sites are shown to be virtually homogeneous in the evolutionary rate. There are some differences between phylogenetic trees built with heterogeneous sites ("before tree") and without heterogeneous sites ("after tree"). Our study demonstrates that for phylogenetic reconstruction, an effective approach is to identify and remove sites with heterogeneous evolution, and suggests that researchers can use the software DIVERGE to remove the influence of heterogeneous evolution before reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

  6. [Regulatory effect of Erbao granules on brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Du, Y; Wang, S

    2000-10-01

    To study the regulatory effect of Erbao granules (EBG) on central and peripheral brain-gut peptide in juvenile animal model of anorexia. Juvenile rat model of anorexia was established by imitating the major cause of infantile anorexia and treated with EBG. The cholocystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentration in hypothalamus, antrum pyloricum and peripheral blood were examined by radioimmunoassay. CCK-8 concentration in hypothalamus and plasma in the model rats increased (P anorexia model.

  7. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors in the context of animals and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.A.; Kocher, D.C.; Real, A.G.; Chambers, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation weighting factors have long been employed to modify absorbed dose as part of the process of evaluating radiological impact to humans. Their use represents an acknowledgement of the fundamental difference in energy deposition patterns of charged and uncharged particles, and how this can translate into varying degrees of biological impact. Weighting factors used in human radiation protection are derived from a variety of endpoints taken from in-vitro experiments that include human and animal cell lines, as well as in-vivo experiments with animals. Nonetheless, the application of radiation weighting factors in the context of dose assessment of animals and plants is not without some controversy. Specifically, radiation protection of biota has largely focused on limiting deterministic effects, such as reduced reproductive fitness. Consequently, the application of conventional stochastic-based radiation weighting factors (when used for human protection) appears inappropriate. While based on research, radiation weighting factors represent the parsing of extensive laboratory studies on relative biological effectiveness. These studies demonstrate that the magnitude of a biological effect depends not just on dose, but also on other factors including the rate at which the dose is delivered, the type and energy of the radiation delivering the dose, and, most importantly, the endpoint under consideration. This article discusses the efforts taken to develop a logical, transparent, and defensible approach to establishing radiation weighting factors for use in assessing impact to non-human biota, and the challenges found in differentiating stochastic from deterministic impacts.

  9. The Effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius on Thermoregulation in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin Na; Do, Moon Ho; Her, You Ri

    2015-01-01

    We devised a study using animal models of hyperthermia and hypothermia and also attempted to accurately assess the effects of Panax ginseng (PG) and Panax quinquefolius (PQ) on body temperature using these models. In addition, we investigated the effects of PG and PQ in our animal models in high and low temperature environments. The results of our experiments show that mice with normothermia, hyperthermia, and hypothermia maintained their body temperatures after a certain period in accordance with the condition of each animal model. In our experiments of body temperature change in models of normal, low, or high room temperature, the hyperthermic model did not show any body temperature change in either the PG- or PQ-administered group. In the normal and low room temperature models, the group administered PG maintained body temperature, while the body temperature of the PQ-administered group was lower than or similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, the fact that PG increases body temperature could not be verified until now. We also showed that the effect of maintaining body temperature in the PG-administered group was superior in a hypothermia-prone low temperature environment. PMID:25709709

  10. Computer animation in teaching science: Effectiveness in teaching retrograde motion to 9th graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Kristin Elmstrom

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether an instructional approach which includes computer animations is more effective than a traditional textbook-only approach in helping ninth grade students learn an abstract concept, in this case planetary retrograde motion. This investigation uses a quasi-experimental design with convenient sampling. The independent variable is the type of instruction provided to students; traditional text-based instruction (control group) compared to traditional instruction which also includes the viewing of 4 computer animations (treatment). Two conditions of the treatment examine the relative advantage of the order of the presentation of the animations and text-based instruction, as well as the quality of understanding and the retention of the learning over time. The dependent variable is student achievement which is measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Comparison of the independent variable to the dependent variable based upon the results from a Repeated Measure Factorial Design in ANOVA indicates that the treatment is an effective instructional technique. The posttest1 mean score of the treatment groups was significantly greater than the posttest1 mean score of the control group. Further posthoc tests indicate that there was no significant difference between the two treatments (1 and 2); read/animation versus animation/read. However, there was a significant difference in the mean score depending on the pathway, students enrolled in the A pathway achieved a significantly higher mean score after the treatment than students in the B pathway. The A pathway (n = 185) represent the larger heterogeneous population of students as compared to the B pathway (n=16) which includes students with lower cognitive abilities and special needs. When all of the students are included in the analysis the results indicate that students do not retain their understanding of the concept. However, when the students in the B

  11. Effect of epinephrine on cerebral and myocardial perfusion in an infant animal preparation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, C L; Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Traystman, R; Rogers, M C

    1986-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 2-week-old piglets. We determined intrathoracic vascular pressures, cerebral (CBF) and myocardial blood flows (MBF), and cerebral oxygen uptake during conventional CPR in this infant animal preparation and contrasted these results with those of previous work on adult animals. We further examined the effects of the infusion of epinephrine on these pressures and flows and on cerebral oxygen uptake, which has not been previously evaluated in adult preparations. Conventional CPR was performed on pentobarbital-anesthetized piglets with a 20% sternal displacement with the use of a pneumatic piston compressor. Chest recoil was incomplete, leading to an 18% to 27% reduction in anteroposterior diameter during the relaxation phase. Aortic and right atrial pressures in excess of 80 mm Hg were generated. These pressures are greater than those generally obtained in adult animals with similar percent pulsatile displacements. CBF and MBF were also initially greater than those reported in adult animals undergoing conventional CPR. However, when CPR was prolonged beyond 20 min, aortic pressure fell and CBF and MBF declined to the near-zero levels seen in adult preparations. At 5 min of CPR, CBF and MBF were 24 +/- 7 and 27 +/- 7 ml . min-1 x 100 g-1 (50% and 17% of the values during cardiac arrest), respectively. With the continuous infusion of epinephrine (4 micrograms/kg/min) in another group of animals, MBF was significantly greater at 20 min of CPR and CBF and cerebral O2 uptake were greater at 35 min of CPR as a result of higher perfusion pressures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effects of MVA85A vaccine on tuberculosis challenge in animals: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashangura, Rufaro; Sena, Emily S; Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The existing Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides partial protection against tuberculosis (TB). The modified vaccinia ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) aims to boost BCG immunity. We evaluated the animal evidence supporting the testing of MVA85A in humans. Methods: Our protocol included in vivo preclinical studies of the MVA85A booster with BCG compared with BCG alone, followed by a TB challenge. We used standard methods for systematic review of animal studies, and summarized mortality, measures of pathology and lung bacterial load. The comprehensive literature search was to September 2014. Two independent investigators assessed eligibility and performed data extraction. We assessed study quality and pooled bacteria load using random effect meta-analysis. Findings: We included eight studies in 192 animals. Three experiments were in mice, two in guinea pigs, two in macaques and one in calves. Overall, study quality was low with no randomization, baseline comparability not described and blinding not reported. For animal death (including euthanasia due to severe morbidity), studies were underpowered, and overall no benefit demonstrated. No difference was shown for lung pathology measured on an ordinal scale or bacterial load. The largest mortality trial carried out in macaques had more deaths in the MVA85A vaccine group, and was published after a trial in South Africa had started recruiting children. Conclusions: This independent assessment of the animal data does not provide evidence to support efficacy of MVA85A as a BCG booster. More rigorous conduct and reporting of preclinical research are warranted, and we believe the results of studies should be publicly available before embarking on trials in humans, irrespective of the findings. PMID:26351306

  13. Mixing pleasures: review of the effects of drugs on sex behavior in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohmader, Karla S; Pitchers, Kyle K; Balfour, Margaret E; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-06-01

    Drugs of abuse act on the brain circuits mediating motivation and reward associated with natural behaviors. There is ample evidence that drugs of abuse impact male and female sexual behavior. First, the current review discusses the effect of drugs of abuse on sexual motivation and performance in male and female humans. In particular, we discuss the effects of commonly abused drugs including psychostimulants, opiates, marijuana/THC, and alcohol. In general, drug use affects sexual motivation, arousal, and performance and is commonly associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Second, studies on effects of systemic administration of drugs of abuse on sexual behavior in animals are reviewed. These studies analyze the effects on sexual performance and motivation but do not investigate the effects of drugs on risk-taking behavior, creating a disconnect between human and animal studies. For this reason, we discuss two studies that focus on the effects of alcohol and methamphetamine on inhibition of maladaptive sex-seeking behaviors in rodents. Third, this review discusses potential brain areas where drugs of abuse may be exerting their effect on sexual behavior with a focus on the mesolimbic system as the site of action. Finally, we discuss recent studies that have brought to light that sexual experience in turn can affect drug responsiveness, including a sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine in female and male rodents as well as enhanced drug reward in male rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D geospatial visualizations: Animation and motion effects on spatial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Papatheodorou, Konstantinos; Mastorokostas, Paris; Hilas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), in combination with high quality raster graphics provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of the globe (virtual globe) and amazing navigation experience over the terrain through earth browsers. In addition, the adoption of interoperable geospatial mark-up languages (e.g. KML) and open programming libraries (Javascript) makes it also possible to create 3D spatial objects and convey on them the sensation of any type of texture by utilizing open 3D representation models (e.g. Collada). One step beyond, by employing WebGL frameworks (e.g. Cesium.js, three.js) animation and motion effects are attributed on 3D models. However, major GIS-based functionalities in combination with all the above mentioned visualization capabilities such as for example animation effects on selected areas of the terrain texture (e.g. sea waves) as well as motion effects on 3D objects moving in dynamically defined georeferenced terrain paths (e.g. the motion of an animal over a hill, or of a big fish in an ocean etc.) are not widely supported at least by open geospatial applications or development frameworks. Towards this we developed and made available to the research community, an open geospatial software application prototype that provides high level capabilities for dynamically creating user defined virtual geospatial worlds populated by selected animated and moving 3D models on user specified locations, paths and areas. At the same time, the generated code may enhance existing open visualization frameworks and programming libraries dealing with 3D simulations, with the geospatial aspect of a virtual world.

  15. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (β = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass ≤1 M J and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of β = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a ∼ 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  16. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body’s response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. PMID:28298266

  17. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body's response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  19. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-03-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.

  20. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G. dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline. Methods: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Results: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Conclusion: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.

  1. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 mosquito, skin, bacteria , primate REPORT...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here

  2. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country

  3. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Christophe; Jornayvaz, François R.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. PMID:28534852

  4. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  5. Animal mdels for the study of the effects of spaceflight on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    Animal models have been used extensively to study the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. The rat has been the animal used most extensively, but some studies have also been carried out utilizing mice and rhesus monkeys. Hindlimb unloading of rats and mice is a ground-based model that has been utilized to determine the effects of spaceflight-type conditions on the immune systems. The results using this model have shown that hindlimb unloading results in alterations of functional rodent immune responses, including cytokine production, blastogenesis of leukocytes, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, neutrophil activity, and resistance to infection. Distribution of leukocyte subtypes was not affected by hindlimb unloading. Studies on rats flown in space have demonstrated that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in cytokine production, alterations in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors, alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, and alterations in natural killer cell function. When pregnant rats were flown in space, although the immune responses of the pregnant mothers were altered by exposure to spaceflight, no effects of spaceflight on the immune responses of the offspring were observed. In one study, rhesus monkeys were flown in space and their immune status was evaluated upon their return to earth. Results of that study showed alterations in the ability of monkey immune cells to produce cytokines, express cytokine receptors, and respond to colony stimulating factor. Therefore, it is clear that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in immune responses of the test animals. These changes are similar to those observed for humans that have flown in space, and demonstrate that the animal models are appropriate for studying the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Although use of the hindlimb unloading model on the ground has indicated that exposure to the model also

  6. Effect of LIPUS on inflammatory factors, cell apoptosis and integrin signaling pathway in osteoarthritis animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Cai Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS on inflammatory factors, cell apoptosis and integrin signaling pathway in osteoarthritis animal models. Methods: Male New Zealand white rabbits were selected as the experimental animals and randomly divided into sham group, osteoarthritis model group (OA group and LIPUS intervention group (LIPUS group, animal models with osteoarthritis in hind limb knee joint were established and then given LIPUS intervention. 6 weeks after the intervention, the articular cartilage was separated to detect the expression of inflammatory factors, cell apoptosis molecules and integrin signaling pathway molecules. Results: OPN, NO, IL-1β, TNF-α, Fas, FasL, LC3-II, Beclin-1, Integrinβ1, FAK, ERK1/2, JNK, p38MAPK, MMP-1 and MMP-3 protein expression in articular cartilage of OA group were significantly higher than those of Sham group while Col-I and Col-II protein expression were significantly lower than those of Sham group; OPN, NO, IL-1β, TNF-α, Fas, FasL, LC3-II, Beclin-1, Integrinβ1, FAK, ERK1/2, JNK, p38MAPK, MMP-1 and MMP-3 protein expression in articular cartilage of LIPUS group were significantly lower than those of OA group while Col-I and Col-II protein expression were significantly higher than those of OA group. Conclusion: LIPUS has inhibiting effect on the inflammation, apoptosis and integrin signaling pathway in articular cartilage of osteoarthritis animal models, and it can promote the repair of articular cartilage.

  7. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction: animation versus dispatcher through a cellular phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Minhong; Park, Incheol; Chung, Hyun Soo; Yoo, Sun K; Shim, Hoshik; Kim, Seungho

    2008-04-01

    We developed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction programme using motion capture animation integrated into cellular phones. We compared the effectiveness of animation-assisted CPR instruction with dispatcher-assisted instruction in participants with no previous CPR training. This study was a single blind cluster randomized trial. Participants were allocated to either animation-assisted CPR (AA-CPR; 8 clusters, 44 participants) group or dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR; 8 clusters, 41 participants). The overall performance and time of each step of CPR cycle were recorded on a checklist by 3 assessors. The objective performances were evaluated using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter Manikin. Differences between the groups were compared using an independent t-test adjusted for the effect of clustering. The AA-CPR group had a significantly better checklist score (pCPR cycle (pCPR group. In an objective assessment of psychomotor skill, the AA-CPR group demonstrated more accurate hand positioning (68.8+/-3.6%, p=0.033) and compression rate (72.4+/-3.7%, p=0.015) than DA-CPR group. However, the accuracy of compression depth (p=0.400), ventilation volume (p=0.977) and flow rate (p=0.627) were below 30% in both groups. Audiovisual animated CPR instruction through a cellular phone resulted in better scores in checklist assessment and time interval compliance in participants without CPR skill compared to those who received CPR instructions from a dispatcher; however, the accuracy of important psychomotor skill measures was unsatisfactory in both groups.

  8. Combined effect of hormones and radioprotective substances in case of animal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, D.; Bodo-Sekejchidinch, K.; Ehanta, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of anabolic and other relative preparations used in the national therapy in combination with radioprotective compounds tested earlier in experiments with animals was studied. The investigations were carried out on albino male mice of CFLP line. X-ray exposure was carried out with the help of a TNH-250 type unit for deep irradiation (630 R and 800 R doses). For gamma irradiation, a 60 Co facility was utilized. AET radioprotective compounds (S 2 -beta-aminoethylisothiouronium-bromide-hydrobromide) and ixeprin (bis-alfa-propinyl-glycyl-sodium disulfide) were used. Nerobolyl (norandrostenolon-phenylpropionate) and retabolyl (norandrostenolon-decanoat) were studied among anabolic hormones. Experiments were also conducted using retandrolom (testosteron-phenylpropionate) which did not belong to anabolics but was used in oncology as a supporting agent. Three days prior to the irradiation, intraperitoneal injections of nerobolyl (10 mg/kg) dissolved in oil for injections, ratabolyl (50 mg/kg) and retandrol (25 mg/kg) began to be made to groups of animals, 15 mice in each. Control groups received intraperitoneally only 0.5 ml of oil. In another series of experiments hormones were used even after the irradiation. Radioprotectors were introduced, as a rule, 20 min. prior to the radiation exposure. Ixeprin, as an effective radioprotector, was introduced 3 hours after the irradiation. When evaluating the results of the experiments, the number of animals which survived during 30 days after the irradiation and the rate of mortality were taken into consideration, gain in weig was also taken into accout. A single introduction of an anabolic in combination with a radioprotector (AET or ixeprin) usually did not contribute to an increase of the survival rate of irradiated animals

  9. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis

  10. The role of veterinary team effectiveness in job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

  11. Effect of users' opinion evolution on information diffusion in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hengmin; Kong, Yuehan; Wei, Jing; Ma, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The process of topic propagation always interweaves information diffusion and opinion evolution, but most previous works studied the models of information diffusion and opinion evolution separately, and seldom focused on their interaction of each other. To shed light on the effect of users' opinion evolution on information diffusion in online social networks, we proposed a model which incorporates opinion evolution into the process of topic propagation. Several real topics propagating on Sina Microblog were collected to analyze individuals' propagation intentions, and different propagation intentions were considered in the model. The topic propagation was simulated to explore the impact of different opinion distributions and intervention with opposite opinion on information diffusion. Results show that the topic with one-sided opinions can spread faster and more widely, and intervention with opposite opinion is an effective measure to guide the topic propagation. The earlier to intervene, the more effectively the topic propagation would be guided.

  12. TERMS OF TRADE EVOLUTION, CAUSES AND EFFECTS: CASE STUDY ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms of trade are meant to show the ratio by which a country is different in the level and dynamics of revenues from the exchange made by different categories of products on the external markets. The level of recorded revenues from the commercialization of products and services varies from country to country, and there is rarely a mutually beneficial exchange situation from these operations. Trade efficiency analysis lies in the determination of the terms of trade. In the current paper, international developments are analyzed based on net terms of trade index used by UNCTAD. Statistical data are provided by the World Bank, where export and import price index and the volume of imports and exports by countries were considered. The classification of the countries has been done according to the geographical orientation and based on the purchasing power parity, thus creating two tables, the first table highlighting seven regions, and the second table with seven categories of states including OPEC and non-OPEC members. The terms of trade evolution are influenced by certain important factors in the production process of goods and services. Some of these factors are mentioned: labour productivity; changes in commodity prices; yet, only the last factor is examined in this paper. Based on World Bank commodity price data, the evolution of major energy inputs such as crude oil, gas, coal, and major industrial raw materials such as aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, zinc, silver, gold, platinum and iron was analysed and interpreted. For Romania, the data on terms of trade evolution shows a dramatic situation. If terms of trade development presented a cyclical evolution, the economy as a whole would send an optimistic message. In contrast, the data presented in the following paper will show that our country has registered continuous depreciation of the terms of trade ratio, with a direct impact on external trade balance deficits, a rising external debt

  13. Effects of rotation on the evolution of primordial stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.; Maeder, A.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Although still beyond our observational abilities, Population III stars are interesting objects from many perspectives. They are responsible for the re-ionisation of the inter-galactic medium. They also left their chemical imprint in the early Universe, which can be deciphered in the most metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy. Aims: Rotation has been shown to play a determinant role at very low metallicity, bringing heavy mass loss where almost none was expected. Is this still true when the metallicity strictly equals zero? The aim of our study is to answer this question, and to determine how rotation changes the evolution and the chemical signature of the primordial stars. Methods: We have calculated seven differentially-rotating stellar models at zero metallicity, with masses between 9 and 200 M⊙. For each mass, we also calculated a corresponding model without rotation. The evolution is followed up to the pre-supernova stage. Results: We find that Z=0 models rotate with an internal profile Ω(r) close to local angular momentum conservation, because of a very weak core-envelope coupling. Rotational mixing drives an H-shell boost due to a sudden onset of the CNO cycle in the shell. This boost leads to a high 14N production, which can be as much as 106 times higher than the production of the non-rotating models. Generally, the rotating models produce much more metal than their non-rotating counterparts. The mass loss is very low, even for the models that reach critical velocity during the main sequence. It may however have an impact on the chemical enrichment of the Universe, because some of the stars are supposed to collapse directly into black holes. They would contribute to the enrichment only through their winds. While in that case non-rotating stars would not contribute at all, rotating stars may leave an imprint on their surrounding. Due to the low mass loss and the weak coupling, the core retains a high angular momentum at the end of the

  14. The analgesic effect of tramadol in animal models of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kumi; Umehara, Masato; Homan, Takashi; Okamoto, Ken; Oka, Michiko; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2014-03-06

    (±)-Tramadol hydrochloride (tramadol) is a widely used analgesic for the treatment of cancer pain and chronic pain. Although many animal studies have shown antinociceptive effects of tramadol in both acute and chronic pain, little is known about the effect of tramadol in putative animal models of fibromyalgia. In this study, we compared the antiallodynic effects of oral administration of tramadol in two kinds of rat chronic pain models, neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) and reserpine-induced myalgia (RIM). In PSL rats, the threshold for responses induced by tactile stimulation with von Frey filaments was significantly decreased seven days after the operation, suggesting that the operation induced tactile allodynia. Orally administered tramadol showed a potent and dose-dependent antiallodynic effect on PSL-induced allodynia. In RIM rats, the threshold was significantly decreased five days after reserpine treatment. Orally administered tramadol also attenuated reserpine-induced tactile allodynia. To explore the mechanism of the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in RIM rats, we investigated the effect of the opioid antagonist naloxone on the tramadol-induced analgesic effect in these rats. The effect of tramadol was partially antagonized by naloxone, suggesting that the opioid receptor is involved at least in part in the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in RIM rats. These data indicate that orally administered tramadol produced improvement in both PSL rats and RIM rats at similar doses and provide evidence that the opioid system is partly involved in the analgesic effect of tramadol in RIM rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  16. Effect of animal products and extracts on wound healing promotion in topical applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-06-01

    Wound healing is a natural process of body reaction to repair itself after injury. Nonetheless, many internal and external factors such as aging, comorbidity, stress, smoking, alcohol drinking, infections, malnutrition, or wound environment significantly affect the quality and speed of wound healing. The unsuitable conditions may delay wound healing process and cause chronic wound or scar formation. Therefore, many researches have attempted to search for agents that can accelerate wound healing with safety and biocompatibility to human body. Widely studied wound healing agents are those derived from either natural sources including plants and animals or chemical synthesis. The natural products seem to be safer and more biocompatible to human tissue. This review paper demonstrated various kinds of the animal-derived products including chitosan, collagen, honey, anabolic steroids, silk sericin, peptides, and proteoglycan in term of mechanisms of action, advantages, and disadvantages when applied as wound healing accelerator. The benefits of these animal-derived products are wound healing promotion, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity, moisturizing effect, biocompatibility, and safety. However, the drawbacks such as allergy, low stability, batch-to-batch variability, and high extraction and purification costs could not be avoided in some products.

  17. Comparison of in vitro toxicological effects of biomass smoke from different sources of animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography. There are currently neither standardized experimental systems for dung biomass smoke research nor studies assessing the health impacts of different types of dung smoke. Here, we used a novel reproducible exposure system to assess outcomes related to inflammation and respiratory infections in human airway cells exposed to six different types of dung biomass smoke. We report that dung biomass smoke, regardless of species, is pro-inflammatory and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and JNK transcription factors; however, dung smoke also suppresses interferon responses after a challenge with a viral mimetic. These effects are consistent with epidemiological data, and suggest a mechanism by which the combustion of animal dung can directly cause lung diseases, promote increased susceptibility to infection, and contribute to the global health problem of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of meteorite impacts on the atmospheric evolution of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lê Binh San; Karatekin, Ozgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Early in its history, Mars probably had a denser atmosphere with sufficient greenhouse gases to sustain the presence of stable liquid water at the surface. Impacts by asteroids and comets would have played a significant role in the evolution of the martian atmosphere, not only by causing atmospheric erosion but also by delivering material and volatiles to the planet. We investigate the atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles with an analytical model that takes into account the impact simulation results and the flux of impactors given in the literature. The atmospheric loss and the delivery of volatiles are calculated to obtain the atmospheric pressure evolution. Our results suggest that the impacts alone cannot satisfactorily explain the loss of significant atmospheric mass since the Late Noachian (approximately 3.7-4 Ga). A period with intense bombardment of meteorites could have increased the atmospheric loss; but to explain the loss of a speculative massive atmosphere in the Late Noachian, other factors of atmospheric erosion and replenishment also need to be taken into account.

  20. Effect of direct contact with iron on gas evolution behavior of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1998-01-01

    Dry Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), incombustible solid LLW, generated from nuclear power stations is planed to be solidified with cement backfill in drums. The solidified dry LLW will be buried to shallow underground at Rokkasyo LLW Disposal Center. It is well known that corrosion of aluminum and hydrogen gas evolution occur in high pH environments such as mortar. Gas evolution from aluminum is likely to effect the leachability of solidified dry LLW with mortar. Though aluminum removal from dry LLW is planed, a small amount of aluminum will be actually included in dry LLW. Large effects of pH and temperature on corrosion rate of aluminum and gas evolution were recognized in our previous study. It was also found that 1.5 mole hydrogen gas evolves while 1 mole aluminum corrodes under 60degC. Actually aluminum in drums is likely to contact with carbon steel of which main element is iron. The gas evolution behavior of aluminum is expected to be affected by its direct contact with iron. Therefore, effect of direct contact with iron on gas evolution behavior of aluminum was studied. The corrosion rate of aluminum increased by contacting it with iron in simulating mortar environments. The amount of gas evolution from aluminum was reduced by contacting with iron. The reduction in gas evolution was considered to result from the change of cathode reaction from hydrogen evolution to oxygen reduction. When aluminum contacts with iron, the corrosion and gas evolution behavior of aluminum is significantly affected oxygen in environment. (author)

  1. Using the ferret as an animal model for investigating influenza antiviral effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort towards the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titre of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness.

  2. Potential Suitable Methods for Measuring the Effects of Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapy: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machová K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are companions of humans since time beyond memory and their use in rehabilitation processes is increasingly frequent. Dogs can be used for animal-assisted activities (AAA as well as animal-assisted therapy (AAT. The effects, however, have not been fully demonstrated, reasons for this including difficulties in providing evidence of positive action. According to previous studies, there is a decrease in heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure reduction, more positive mood as well as warming of muscles, which promotes relaxation of spastic areas. Regulation of hormone levels might also occur as a result of AAA/AAT. Indeed, increases in oxytocin levels and decreases of cortisol have been found. However, a unified methodology for clear measuring the entire impact of AAA/AAT on patients is missing. This survey evaluated different methods for measuring the effects of AAA/AAT, with results showing that the most suitable ones, selected on the basis of the effect of rehabilitation, comprise thermography, spectral analysis of heart rate, electromyography (EMG, polyelectromyography (PEMG, and blood sampling. Because AAT making use of dogs has not yet been recognized as an official method of treatment, it is very important to find out objective means to evidence its beneficial effects. Highlights:

  3. Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Robert M; Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Palmer, Todd M; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. We factorially manipulated two principal sources of disturbance in African savannas, fire and elephants, and measured their independent and interactive effects on the numerically dominant vertebrate (the arboreal gekkonid lizard Lygodactylus keniensis) and invertebrate (a guild of symbiotic Acacia ants) animal species in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna. Elephant exclusion alone (minus fire) had negligible effects on gecko density. Fire alone (minus elephants) had negligible effects on gecko density after 4 months, but increased gecko density twofold after 16 months, likely because the decay of fire-damaged woody biomass created refuges and nest sites for geckos. In the presence of elephants, fire increased gecko density nearly threefold within 4 months of the experimental burn; this occurred because fire increased the incidence of elephant damage to trees, which in turn improved microhabitat quality for geckos. However, this synergistic positive effect of fire and elephants attenuated over the ensuing year, such that only the main effect of fire was evident after 16 months. Fire also altered the structure of symbiotic plant-ant assemblages occupying the dominant tree species (Acacia drepanolobium); this influenced gecko habitat selection but did not explain the synergistic effect of fire and elephants. However, fire-driven shifts in plant-ant occupancy may have indirectly mediated this effect by increasing trees' susceptibility to elephant damage. Our

  4. The Possible Effects of Depleted Uranium (DU) Ammunition on the Environment and in Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, T.; Popovic, D.; Stevanovic, J.; Koracevic-Filipovic, M.; Jovic, S.; Todorovic, D.; Radenkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    As stated by the official reports, during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999 approximately 500.000 missiles were used i.e. 3600 kg of uranium oxide, yielding activity of 18,3x1010 Bq entered the environment. Yugoslav Federal Ministry of Defense announced that 8 locations in the region of Vranje, Bujanovac and Lustica Peninsula, outside Kosovo/Metohia, were hit by DU ammunition and were isolated afterwards. The soil was contaminated with 200.000-250.000 Bq uranium/kg soil but this was mainly agricultural land, far from urban areas. The report stated that no DU ammunition was used above 44th parallel. The paper presents the preliminary results of the study on environmental and animal health effects due to the use of DU ammunition during NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. The samples of animal blood (sheep, caws), soils and vegetation (corps, grass, leaves) were collected randomly in the region of Bujanovac (Novo Selo, Borovac) in the spring/fall of 2003. The hematological and some biochemical parameters of the peripheral blood were analyzed: concentration of hemoglobin, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, eozinophiles, neutrophiles, serumamiloidA (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and malondialdehide in erythrocytes and blood serum. The samples were analyzed by classical manual counting methods, spectrophotometry (by Drapkin) and ELISA immunological technique. Blood samples from the control group of animals on a farm in the vicinity of Belgrade were taken and analyzed for the same parameters, too. The samples of soils and vegetation were dried up and analyzed for the contents of uranium and other natural and man made radionuclides by standard gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). The results are to be correlated with the data on the concentration of DU that entered the environment during the bombing, as well as with the data of the long-term measurements of uranium concentrations in the environment and human

  5. The Effect of Stress, Attitudes, and Behavior on Safety during Animal Handling in Swedish Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Pinzke, Stefan; Keeling, Linda J; Lundqvist, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Working with livestock is a hazardous activity, and animals have been found to be the most frequent injury source on dairy farms. Understanding the risk factors for injury and the causal relationships related to injuries and animal handling is important for developing prevention strategies and effective safety interventions. This study examined stress and handler attitude as possible risk factors for animal handling injuries in dairy farming, in particular when moving cows. Twelve dairy farms were visited on two occasions representing different stress levels: when cows were being moved to milking (low stress) and to hoof trimming (high stress). Behavioral observations of handlers and cows were performed, and questionnaires were completed on attitudes (risk acceptance, safety locus of control, and attitudes toward cows) and stress (perceived stress/energy level and job strain). The injury risks were found to be higher when moving cows to hoof trimming compared with moving cows to milking and gentle, moderately forceful, and forceful interactions were more frequently used. When moving cows to milking, observed risk situations were related only to the perceived energy level of the handler. When moving cows to hoof trimming, injury risks were correlated to job strain and time spent in the risk zone (defined as the area where the handler could be hit by the cow's head or hind legs). The time spent in the risk zone was positively correlated with job strain, age, and experience. Attitudes were not found to have significant impact on safety but were to some extent indirectly involved. These results suggest that the main focus in injury reduction work should be on reducing the time the handler spends in close proximity to animals during aversive procedures and on minimizing cow fear and stress by proper handling techniques and appropriate design of handling facilities.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  7. Chemical cocktails in aquatic systems: Pesticide effects on the response and recovery of >20 animal taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Relyea, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Natural systems are often exposed to individual insecticides or combinations of multiple insecticides. Using an additive and substitutive design, we examined how populations and communities containing >20 animal taxa are affected by four insecticides applied individually and as a mixture for 18 wks in aquatic mesocosms. The four insecticides had distinct lethal effects on the response and recovery of cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, isopods, and amphibians but not snails. The lethal effect on cladocerans and copepods induced trophic cascades that facilitated algal blooms and abiotic changes (higher pH and dissolved oxygen, but lower light transmission). Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a lag effect reducing cladocerans and spring-breeding amphibian abundance. The reduction in spring-breeding amphibian abundance led to cascading indirect effects on summer-breeding amphibians. Finally, the mixture treatment had lethal effects throughout the community that led to long-term effects on amphibian mass and unique indirect consequences on phytoplankton and abiotic variables. - Highlights: • Insecticides had unique direct and indirect effects on response and recovery. • Due to lag effects, endosulfan was more toxic than expected based on 4d tests. • Variation in oviposition phenology led to positive effects on amphibians. • Lethal direct effects of mixtures were pervasive and led to unique indirect effects. - Insecticides applied individually and in a mixture have complex direct and indirect consequences on aquatic system response and recovery

  8. Neuroprotective effects of estrogen in CNS injuries: insights from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Narayan Raghava,1 Bhaskar C Das,2 Swapan K Ray1 1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Among the estrogens that are biosynthesized in the human body, 17β-estradiol (estradiol or E2 is the most common and the best estrogen for neuroprotection in animal models of the central nervous system (CNS injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and ischemic brain injury (IBI. These CNS injuries are not only serious health problems, but also enormous economic burden on the patients, their families, and the society at large. Studies from animal models of these CNS injuries provide insights into the multiple neuroprotective mechanisms of E2 and also suggest the possibility of translating the therapeutic efficacy of E2 in the treatment SCI, TBI, and IBI in humans in the near future. The pathophysiology of these injuries includes loss of motor function in the limbs, arms and their extremities, cognitive deficit, and many other serious consequences including life-threatening paralysis, infection, and even death. The potential application of E2 therapy to treat the CNS injuries may become a trend as the results are showing significant therapeutic benefits of E2 for neuroprotection when administered into the animal models of SCI, TBI, and IBI. This article describes the plausible mechanisms how E2 works with or without the involvement of estrogen receptors and provides an overview of the known neuroprotective effects of E2 in these three CNS injuries in different animal models. Because activation of estrogen receptors has profound implications in maintaining and also affecting normal physiology, there are notable impediments in translating E2 therapy to the clinics for neuroprotection in CNS injuries in humans. While E2 may not yet be the sole molecule for

  9. A Catalog of Stellar Evolution Profiles and the Effects of Variable Composition on Habitable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Truitt, Amanda; Young, Patrick A.; Spacek, Alexander; Probst, Luke; Dietrich, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar evolution models for 0.5 - 1.2 \\Msol at scaled metallicities of 0.1 - 1.5 Z\\sol and O/Fe values of 0.44 - 2.28 O/Fe\\sol. The time dependent evolution of habitable zone boundaries are calculated for each stellar evolution track based on stellar mass, effective temperature, and luminosity parameterizations. The rate of change of stellar surface quantities and the surrounding habitable zone position are strong functions of all three quantities explored. The range of orbits tha...

  10. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P; Kelly, John P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rodent diets. The only treatment-related changes occurred with vitamin A and peroxide. The typical and high-end doses of gamma irradiation reduced the vitamin A level of the cat diet to 42% and 30% of the untreated value, respectively—levels below recommended allowances for growth and reproduction. Only the higher irradiation dose reduced vitamin A in the rodent diet, and neither dose altered the canine diet. Pasteurization reduced the vitamin A content of the cat diet to 50% of its original level, which was within the recommended level for this species. Irradiation increased the peroxide content of all 3 animal diets: by approximately 11-fold with the typical dose and by 14- to 25-fold with the high-end dose. Therefore gamma irradiation can have profound, selective effects on the vitamin A and peroxide contents of dry diets, and caution is advised when feeding such diets long-term and exclusively to SPF animals, particularly cats. Furthermore, pasteurization (with its fewer deleterious effects) may represent an alternative method of decontaminating diets for rodents, dogs, and cats. PMID:19049256

  11. Effects of grain size evolution on mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Falko; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of planetary mantle materials is strongly dependent on temperature, pressure, strain-rate, and grain size. In particular, the rheology of olivine, the most abundant mineral of the Earth's upper mantle, has been extensively studied in the laboratory (e.g., Karato and Wu, 1993; Hirth and Kohlstedt, 2003). Two main mechanisms control olivine's deformation: dislocation and diffusion creep. While the former implies a power-law dependence of the viscosity on the strain-rate that leads to a non-Newtonian behaviour, the latter is sensitively dependent on the grain size. The dynamics of planetary interiors is locally controlled by the deformation mechanism that delivers the lowest viscosity. Models of the dynamics and evolution of planetary mantles should thus be capable to self-consistently distinguish which of the two mechanisms dominates at given conditions of temperature, pressure, strain-rate and grain size. As the grain size can affect the viscosity associated with diffusion creep by several orders of magnitude, it can strongly influence the dominant deformation mechanism. The vast majority of numerical, global-scale models of mantle convection, however, are based on the use of a linear diffusion-creep rheology with constant grain-size. Nevertheless, in recent studies, a new equation has been proposed to properly model the time-dependent evolution of the grain size (Austin and Evens, 2007; Rozel et al., 2010). We implemented this equation in our mantle convection code Gaia (Hüttig et al., 2013). In the framework of simple models of stagnant lid convection, we compared simulations based on the fully time-dependent equation of grain-size evolution with simulations based on its steady-state version. In addition, we tested a number of different parameters in order to identify those that affects the grain size to the first order and, in turn, control the conditions at which mantle deformation is dominated by diffusion or dislocation creep. References Austin

  12. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nilforooshan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. Specifically, the animation focused on the LEED category of Sustainable Site. Results of a study with 68 students show that viewing the animation led to an increase in subjects’ declarative knowledge by 15%. Compared to traditional learning methods (e.g. reading assignments with static images, viewing the animation led to significantly higher declarative knowledge gains.

  13. Dynamic modelling of hydrogen evolution effects in the all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Al-Fetlawi, H.; Walsh, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    A model for hydrogen evolution in an all-vanadium redox flow battery is developed, coupling the dynamic conservation equations for charge, mass and momentum with a detailed description of the electrochemical reactions. Bubble formation at the negative electrode is included in the model, taking into account the attendant reduction in the liquid volume and the transfer of momentum between the gas and liquid phases, using a modified multiphase-mixture approach. Numerical simulations are compared to experimental data for different vanadium concentrations and mean linear electrolyte flow rates, demonstrating good agreement. Comparisons to simulations with negligible hydrogen evolution demonstrate the effect of gas evolution on the efficiency of the battery. The effects of reactant concentration, flow rate, applied current density and gas bubble diameter on hydrogen evolution are investigated. Significant variations in the gas volume fraction and the bubble velocity are predicted, depending on the operating conditions.

  14. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Crooks, Steven M.; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Jeakyeong

    2014-01-01

    Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four…

  15. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  16. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlan, Gy.; Lakatos, L.; Dezsi, Z.; Hatvani, I.; Pintye, E.; Karmazsin, L.; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen

    1982-01-01

    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body 60 Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals. (L.E.)

  17. Effects of the thermal environment on animal production in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of heat stress in animal production can be solved by an interdisciplinary approach whereby the engineer, animal scientist and animal physiologist can all interact. By understanding the principles associated with heat flow between an animal and its environment it is possible to predict the potential success of an animal production system. This review analyses the nature of the thermal environment and the way in which it can affect production. Methods for alleviating heat stress are also described. (author)

  18. Effect of radiation treatment on protein quality and vitamin content of animal feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of autoclaving and irradiation on the protein quality and vitamin content of various nutrients of laboratory animal diets. The protein quality and its amino acid composition was not significantly affected by a radiation dose as high as 7.0 Mrad, whereas the protein quality of autoclaved diet (102 0 C for 5 minutes) was significantly affected. Vitamin B 1 , B 0 and α-tocopherol appeared to be affected by irradiation, whereas autoclaving reduced the levels of vitamins A, B 1 and E. (author)

  19. Osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium-239 dependent on the age and sex of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyakov, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (2.5μ curie-kg) was administered to male and female rats at the age of 1,6 and 12 months. Besides, one-month-old rats were momentarily given 5μ curie-kg. It has been found that the highest sensitivity to osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium is exhibited by six-month-old animals; a lesser one - by one-month-old, and the least one - by 12-month-old rats. Males of all age groups are almost twice more sensitive than females

  20. Adaptive evolution of body size subject to indirect effect in trophic cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Meng; Hao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    Trophic cascades represent a classic example of indirect effect and are wide-spread in nature. Their ecological impact are well established, but the evolutionary consequences have received even less theoretical attention. We theoretically and numerically investigate the trait (i.e., body size of consumer) evolution in response to indirect effect in a trophic cascade system. By applying the quantitative trait evolutionary theory and the adaptive dynamic theory, we formulate and explore two different types of eco-evolutionary resource-consumer-predator trophic cascade model. First, an eco-evolutionary model incorporating the rapid evolution is formulated to investigate the effect of rapid evolution of the consumer's body size, and to explore the impact of density-mediate indirect effect on the population dynamics and trait dynamics. Next, by employing the adaptive dynamic theory, a long-term evolutionary model of consumer body size is formulated to evaluate the effect of long-term evolution on the population dynamics and the effect of trait-mediate indirect effect. Those models admit rich dynamics that has not been observed yet in empirical studies. It is found that, both in the trait-mediated and density-mediated system, the body size of consumer in predator-consumer-resource interaction (indirect effect) evolves smaller than that in consumer-resource and predator-consumer interaction (direct effect). Moreover, in the density-mediated system, we found that the evolution of consumer body size contributes to avoiding consumer extinction (i.e., evolutionary rescue). The trait-mediate and density-mediate effects may produce opposite evolutionary response. This study suggests that the trophic cascade indirect effect affects consumer evolution, highlights a more comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary force. The modeling approaches provide avenue for study on indirect effects from an evolutionary perspective

  1. Effects of Using Graphics and Animation Online Problem-Based Learning on Visualization Skills among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, A.; Samsudin, M. A.; Zain, A. N. Md.; Hamzah, N.; Ismail, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    The Engineering Drawing subject develops skills in geometry drawing becoming more professional. For the concept in Engineering Drawing, students need to have good visualization skills. Visualization is needed to help students get a start before translating into a drawing. So that, Problem Based Learning (PBL) using animation mode (PBL-A) and graphics mode (PBL-G) will be implemented in class. Problem-solving process is repeatedly able to help students interpret engineering drawings step work correctly and accurately. This study examined the effects of PBL-A online and PBL-G online on visualization skills of students in polytechnics. Sixty eight mechanical engineering students have been involved in this study. The visualization test adapted from Bennett, Seashore and Wesman was used in this study. Results showed significant differences in mean scores post-test of visualization skills among the students enrolled in PBL-G with the group of students who attended PBL-A online after effects of pre-test mean score is controlled. Therefore, the effects of animation modes have a positive impact on increasing students’ visualization skills.

  2. Effects of Hypericum perforatum on turning behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dalla Vecchia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the slow and progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the (substantia nigra pars compact. Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum is a plant widely used as an antidepressant, that also presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the effects of H. perforatum on the turning behavior of rats submitted to a unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle as an animal model of PD. The animals were treated with H. perforatum (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, v.o. for 35 consecutive days (from the 28th day before surgery to the 7th day after. The turning behavior was evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgery, and the turnings were counted as contralateral or ipsilateral to the lesion side. All tested doses significantly reduced the number of contralateral turns in all days of evaluation, suggesting a neuroprotective effect. However, they were not able to prevent the 6-OHDA-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the lesioned striatum. We propose that H. perforatum may counteract the overexpression of dopamine receptors on the lesioned striatum as a possible mechanism for this effect. The present findings provide new evidence that H. perforatum may represent a promising therapeutic tool for PD.

  3. The effect of disgust and fear modeling on children's disgust and fear for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Cakır, Kübra; Põldsam, Liine; Reynolds, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Disgust is a protective emotion associated with certain types of animal fears. Given that a primary function of disgust is to protect against harm, increasing children's disgust-related beliefs for animals may affect how threatening they think animals are and their avoidance of them. One way that children's disgust beliefs for animals might change is via vicarious learning: by observing others responding to the animal with disgust. In Experiment 1, children (ages 7-10 years) were presented with images of novel animals together with adult faces expressing disgust. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for these disgust-paired animals compared with unpaired control animals. Experiment 2 used the same procedure and compared disgust vicarious learning with vicarious learning with fear faces. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals again increased as a result of disgust vicarious learning, and animals seen with disgust or fear faces were also rated more disgusting than control animals. The relationship between increased fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals was mediated by disgust for the animals. The experiments demonstrate that children can learn to believe that animals are disgusting and threatening after observing an adult responding with disgust toward them. The findings also suggest a bidirectional relationship between fear and disgust with fear-related vicarious learning leading to increased disgust for animals and disgust-related vicarious learning leading to increased fear and avoidance. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Disgust and Fear Modeling on Children’s Disgust and Fear for Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is a protective emotion associated with certain types of animal fears. Given that a primary function of disgust is to protect against harm, increasing children’s disgust-related beliefs for animals may affect how threatening they think animals are and their avoidance of them. One way that children’s disgust beliefs for animals might change is via vicarious learning: by observing others responding to the animal with disgust. In Experiment 1, children (ages 7–10 years) were presented with images of novel animals together with adult faces expressing disgust. Children’s fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for these disgust-paired animals compared with unpaired control animals. Experiment 2 used the same procedure and compared disgust vicarious learning with vicarious learning with fear faces. Children’s fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals again increased as a result of disgust vicarious learning, and animals seen with disgust or fear faces were also rated more disgusting than control animals. The relationship between increased fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals was mediated by disgust for the animals. The experiments demonstrate that children can learn to believe that animals are disgusting and threatening after observing an adult responding with disgust toward them. The findings also suggest a bidirectional relationship between fear and disgust with fear-related vicarious learning leading to increased disgust for animals and disgust-related vicarious learning leading to increased fear and avoidance. PMID:24955571

  5. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  6. Animal-assisted intervention in dementia: effects on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Engström, Gabriella

    2014-02-01

    There is a need to develop nonpharmacological treatments and methods which can serve as alternatives or complements to medications in dementia care. Previous research indicates that animal-assisted intervention (AAI) can be beneficial. The purpose of the present pilot project was to evaluate effects of AAI on quality of life (QoL) in people with dementia in four Swedish nursing homes. A pretest/posttest research design was used. Twenty people (12 women, 8 men; aged 58 to 88) were included. Nine people completed the intervention which comprised 10 training sessions with a certified therapy dog team. QoL improved in the expected direction after the intervention (p = .035). Even though the effects of AAI may not be discernible over longer periods of time, there are still immediate effects which can promote better QoL for people living with dementia diseases.

  7. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guiné) in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, T C; Morato, G S; Takahashi, R N

    1991-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", "pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacological properties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid--acetylcholine--and hypertonic saline--induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests. P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its popular use as an analgesic.

  8. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Colafrancesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL and diabetic retinopathy (DR. GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye and diabetes (DT was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  9. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  10. Deposition, translocation, and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO 2 --UO 2 fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  11. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L

    2006-07-01

    1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions

  12. Cluster evolution and critical cluster sizes for the square and triangular lattice Ising models using lattice animals and Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, G.; Kooi, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Growth and decay of clusters at temperatures below T-c have been studied for a two-dimensional Ising model for both square and triangular lattices using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the enumeration of lattice animals. For the lattice animals, all unique cluster configurations with their internal

  13. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  14. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  15. Laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Lone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review pertains the laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals. To improve artificial insemination, laser is sensitive and cost effective technique, when compared to other conventional methods. Laser may have both positive and negative effects on spermatozoa functions. Since the effects of light are mediated by reactive oxygen species, and the levels of these reactive oxygen species following irradiating spermatozoa with laser may be responsible for determining the effects of laser on sperm. Dose of laser may be regarded as of great significance and this dosage of laser may be responsible for determining its effects on spermatozoa. Optimum dosage of laser for improving seminal attributes may vary among various species and this need to be standardized in each of them. The beneficial effects include improving sperm livability, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling response, mitochondrial function and computer-aided sperm analysis parameters. The increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, in laser irradiated cells may be responsible for enhanced sperm quality parameters. Improving fertility with laser irradiated spermatozoa has been reported in few species like boar and need to be elaborated in other species. In conclusion laser may be regarded as an easy, cheap and time saving technology for improving artificial insemination; in addition, laser may have various potential applications in the field of reproductive biotechnology as well as in livestock farms and veterinary polyclinics.

  16. Binding energy effects in cascade evolution and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    The MARLOWE model was extended to include a binding energy dependent on the local crystalline order, so that atoms are bound less strongly to their lattice sites near surfaces or associated damage. Sputtering and cascade evolution were studied on the examples of self-ion irradiations of Cu and Au monocrystals. In cascades, the mean binding energy is reduced ∼8% in Cu with little dependence on the initial recoil energy; in Au, it is reduced ∼9% at 1 keV and ∼15% at 100 keV. In sputtering, the mean binding energy is reduced ∼8% in Cu and ∼15% in Au with little energy dependence; the yields are increased about half as much. Most sites from which sputtered atoms originate are isolated in both metals. Small clusters of such sites occur in Cu, but there are some large clusters in Au, especially in [111] targets. There are always more large clusters with damage-dependent binding than with a constant binding energy, but only a few clusters are compact enough to be regarded as pits

  17. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  18. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis, in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  20. Effect of microbial processes on transuranium elements behaviour in soil, plants and animal organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uajldung, R.Eh.; Garlend, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Results of preliminary studies discussed in the present paper bring about the supposition that concentration and chemical from of an element in a plant play an essential role in variation of its availability for animals consuming plants. That is why any assessment of long-term behaviour of transuranium elements in terrestrialenvironment should be based on determination of factors affecting solubility and forms of soluble compounds in soil. These factors include concentration and chemical form of the element migrating to soil; effect of the properties of soil on element distribution between solid and liquid phases; effect soil processes on kinetics of sorption reactions, concentration of transuranium elements, forms of soluble and non-soluble chemical compounds

  1. Effects of chronic administration of drugs of abuse on impulsive choice (delay discounting) in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Barry; Mendez, Ian A; Mitchell, Marci R; Simon, Nicholas W

    2009-09-01

    Drug-addicted individuals show high levels of impulsive choice, characterized by preference for small immediate over larger but delayed rewards. Although the causal relationship between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice in humans has been unclear, a small but growing body of literature over the past decade has shown that chronic drug administration in animal models can cause increases in impulsive choice, suggesting that a similar causal relationship may exist in human drug users. This article reviews this literature, with a particular focus on the effects of chronic cocaine administration, which have been most thoroughly characterized. The potential mechanisms of these effects are described in terms of drug-induced neural alterations in ventral striatal and prefrontal cortical brain systems. Some implications of this research for pharmacological treatment of drug-induced increases in impulsive choice are discussed, along with suggestions for future research in this area.

  2. Effect of latrogenic trauma on the bone scintigram: an animal study. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Moitoza, J.; Heaphy, J.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An animal study was performed to assess the effect on the Tc-99m phosphate bone scintigram of injury by needle aspiration or drill hole to metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas in immature and mature bones. Results showed that in 12 immature rabbits such trauma to metaphyseal regions had no effect on the bone image. Similar metaphyseal trauma in two mature dogs showed definite abnormalities on the bone image, but in one mature rabbit, no abnormality could be identified by scintigram. Diaphyseal trauma always gave a definitely abnormal bone image. Extrapolation of these results to humans should be cautious, but it suggests that needling or drilling in metaphyseal regions in neonates or young children probably does not affect later bone images

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Effects of selective bile duct ligation on liver parenchyma in young animals: histologic and molecular evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Coelho, Maria Cecília M; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Santos, Maria Mercês; Ferraz da Silva, Luiz Fernando; Bendit, Israel; Tannuri, Uenis

    2012-03-01

    The mechanisms of increased collagen production and liver parenchyma fibrosis are poorly understood. These phenomena are observed mainly in children with biliary obstruction (BO), and in a great number of patients, the evolution to biliary cirrhosis and hepatic failure leads to the need for liver transplantation before adolescence. However, pediatric liver transplantation presents with biliary complications in 20% to 30% of cases in the postoperative period. Intra- or extrahepatic stenosis of bile ducts is frequent and may lead to secondary biliary cirrhosis and the need for retransplantation. It is unknown whether biliary stenosis involving isolated segments or lobes may affect the adjacent nonobstructed lobes by paracrine or endocrine means, leading to fibrosis in this parenchyma. Therefore, the present study aimed to create an experimental model of selective biliary duct ligation in young animals with a subsequent evaluation of the histologic and molecular alterations in liver parenchyma of the obstructed and nonobstructed lobes. After a pilot study to standardize the surgical procedures, weaning rats underwent ligation of the bile ducts of the median, left lateral, and caudate liver lobes. The bile duct of the right lateral lobe was kept intact. To avoid intrahepatic biliary duct collaterals neoformation, the parenchymal connection between the right lateral and median lobes was clamped. The animals were divided into groups according to the time of death: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after surgical procedure. After death, the median and left lateral lobes (with BO) and the right lateral lobe (without BO [NBO]) were harvested separately. A group of 8 healthy nonoperated on animals served as controls. Liver tissues were subjected to histologic evaluation and quantification of the ductular proliferation and of the portal fibrosis. The expressions of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), desmin, and transforming growth factor β1 genes were studied by molecular analyses

  5. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S

    2015-02-15

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  7. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Vladislav; Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

    2013-01-01

    Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  8. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  9. Combined effect of incorporated 90Sr, alcohol, and tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits

  10. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  11. DIRECT AIR BLAST EXPOSURE EFFECTS IN ANIMALS, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, PROJECT 4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAEGER, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF); LEE, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF)

    1953-12-31

    Project 4.2 was designed to study direct (primary) air blast injury, in animals, from an atomic weapon in the range of 20 to 50 psi under circumstances affording protection against missiles, thermal and ionizing radiation and to estimate the probable direct air blast hazard in man. The pressure levels at which atomic weapons direct air blast injuries occur will determine, to a large extent, the number of blast casualties likely to be encountered. It is probable that fatal overpressures are not reached until well within the range at which indirect (secondary) blast, thermal and ionizing radiation are practically certain to prove fatal. Only in special situations affording partial protection from other injuries are blast injuries likely to be of practical importance. Two animal species of widely different body weights (700 rats and 56 dogs) were exposed, together with air pressure recorders, in aluminum cylinders, covered by sandbags and dirt but open at both ends, at seven stations distributed within the intended overpressure range of 20 to 50 psi of Shot 10« About 200 rats were likewise exposed in Shot 9. Unfortunately, the destructive effect of the air blast of Shot 10 was much greater than anticipated. Many of the exposure cylinders were displaced and their contents destroyed. Only a partial recovery of the animals was possible due to the excessive radioactive contamination which greatly limited the time in the area. Most of the animals were dead upon recovery. Those living were in a state of severe shock. Autopsy findings showed remarkably few traumatic lesions and lung hemorrhages in spite of the rough treatment and high overpressure to which they were subjected. The rats recovered from Shot 9 were exposed to a recorded pressure of 18 to 2k psi. The autopsy findings showed moderate lung hemorrhage in most of the animals undoubtedly due to direct air blast injury. The findings were typical of those seen following exposure to air blast from HE or in the shock

  12. [Radiobiological effects on plants and animals within Semipalatinsk Test Site (Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolin, E M; Geras'kin, S A; Minkenova, K S

    2008-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the main place of nuclear devices tests in the former Soviet Union. From 1949 to 1989 about 460 nuclear explosions have been carried out at STS. Radioactive contamination of STS territory has the extremely non-uniform character. The main dose-forming radionuclides are 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, as well as 154Eu, 60CO, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The greatest specific activity of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground are n x 10(3) kBk/kg, 152Eu - 96 kBk/kg, 154Eu - 10.4 kBk/kg, 60Co - 20.5 kBk/kg, 241Am - 15 kBk/kg. However, up to now, within STS sites exists where gamma-dose rate comes to 60 microGy/h, that is enough for induction reliable biological effects in animals and plants. Inhabiting territory of STS plants and animals are characterized by increased level of mutagenesis, changes of morpho-anatomic indices and parameters of peripheral blood, by the increase of asymmetry bilateral indices, change of composition and structure of communities.

  13. Effect of atomoxetine on hyperactivity in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Su Jin; Kim, Chang Ju; Lee, Yeon Jung; Hong, Minha; Han, Juhee; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivity related behaviors as well as inattention and impulsivity are regarded as the nuclear symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine on the motor activity in relation to the expression of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor based on the hypothesis that DA system hypofunction causes ADHD symptoms, which would correlate with extensive D2 receptor overproduction and a lack of DA synthesis in specific brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, and hypothalamus. Young male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animal models of ADHD, were randomly divided into four groups according to the daily dosage of atomoxetine and treated for 21 consecutive days. The animals were assessed using an open-field test, and the DA D2 receptor expression was examined. The motor activity improved continuously in the group treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 1 mg/Kg/day than in the groups treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 0.25 mg/Kg/day or 0.5 mg/Kg/day. With respect to DA D2 receptor immunohistochemistry, we observed significantly increased DA D2 receptor expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs as compared to the WKY rats. Treatment with atomoxetine significantly decreased DA D2 expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs, in a dose-dependent manner. Hyperactivity in young SHRs can be improved by treatment with atomoxetine via the DA D2 pathway.

  14. Effect of intraoperative PEEP application on colonic anastomoses healing: An experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Mehmet; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Bilgili, Hasan; Türkoğlu, Yıldız; Karadeniz, Ümit; Aydoğ, Gülden; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Özer, İlter; Akoğlu, Musa

    2015-07-27

    This study aimed to assess the effect of intraoperative PEEP intervention on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rabbits. Thirty-two New Zealand type male rabbits were divided into two groups of sixteen animals each. Following ventilation with tracheostomy, colonic resection and anastomosis were performed in both groups. While 10 cm H2O PEEP level was applied in Group I (PEEP), Group II (ZEEP) was ventilated without PEEP throughout the surgery. Half of the both PEEP and ZEEP group animals were killed on the third postoperative day, while the remaining half on the seventh. Anastomotic bursting pressures, the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline, and histological assessments were performed. Besides, intraoperative oxygen saturation and postoperative arterial blood gas parameters were also compared. On the first postoperative day, both arterial oxygen tension (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) in the PEEP group were significantly higher than in the ZEEP group. On the seventh postoperative day, the bursting pressures of the anastomoses were significantly higher in the PEEP group, however the hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in the PEEP group than that in the ZEEP group. At day 7, PEEP group was significantly associated with increased neoangiogenesis compared with the ZEEP group. The anastomotic healing process is positively influenced by the intraoperative PEEP application.

  15. Effect of atomoxetine on hyperactivity in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Moon

    Full Text Available Hyperactivity related behaviors as well as inattention and impulsivity are regarded as the nuclear symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.To investigate the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine on the motor activity in relation to the expression of the dopamine (DA D2 receptor based on the hypothesis that DA system hypofunction causes ADHD symptoms, which would correlate with extensive D2 receptor overproduction and a lack of DA synthesis in specific brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus.Young male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, animal models of ADHD, were randomly divided into four groups according to the daily dosage of atomoxetine and treated for 21 consecutive days. The animals were assessed using an open-field test, and the DA D2 receptor expression was examined.The motor activity improved continuously in the group treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 1 mg/Kg/day than in the groups treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 0.25 mg/Kg/day or 0.5 mg/Kg/day. With respect to DA D2 receptor immunohistochemistry, we observed significantly increased DA D2 receptor expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs as compared to the WKY rats. Treatment with atomoxetine significantly decreased DA D2 expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs, in a dose-dependent manner.Hyperactivity in young SHRs can be improved by treatment with atomoxetine via the DA D2 pathway.

  16. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg

    2010-01-01

    Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where...... records exist for the parents). Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to the sire-dam model). Conclusions The new algorithm to estimate genetic parameters via Gibbs sampling solves the bias problems typically occurring in animal...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...

  17. [Effects of soybean isoflavone on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Su, Yi-xiang; Wang, Wen-wei; Li, An-le; Liu, Cun-li; Wang, Yi-long; Hu, Wan-li

    2007-07-01

    To study the effects of soybean isoflavone (SI) on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. All 70 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the levels of total cholesterol (TC) in serum: hyper-lipoid group, estrogen group, low-dose SI group, middle-dose SI group, high-dose SI group, sham group and normal control groups. Bilateral ovaries were extirpated except sham and normal control groups. Except the rats in normal control group, the other rats were fed with high fat diet. Body weight was weighted ad unam vice per week. The estrogen, different dose of SI or deionized water were fed with intragastric administration for 12 weeks. Vena caudalis serum were collected after being ovariectomized, administered for 4 w, 8 w and killed. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and bone density were measured etc. To interfere of estrogen and SI might recover AKP enzyme activity after its being ovariectomized. There almost sowed no differences between high dose SI intervention and estrogen on bone density and microstructure. Bone loss due to being ovariectomized was relieved after SI intervention. SI might protect cardiocyte myofilament and mitochondrial ultramicrostructure. There was mirror image in estrogen, high dose SI group resembling the normal control group, and there was obvious damage in hyper-lipoids group. There should be effects of high dose SI on bone metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. Serum AKP enzyme activity and bone density should have significantly recovered, the serum level of calcium and phosphorus were maintained after high dose intervened but no significant effects for low dose of SI.

  18. Effects of milrinone on left ventricular cardiac function during cooling in an intact animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveita, Torkjel; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-08-01

    Due to adverse effects of β-receptor agonists reported when applied during hypothermia, left ventricular (LV) cardiac effects of milrinone, a PDE3 inhibitor which mode of action is deprived the sarcolemmal β-receptor-G protein-PKA system, was tested during cooling to 15 °C. Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume changes using a Millar pressure-volume conductance catheter. Core temperature was reduced from 37 to 15 °C (60 min) using internal and external heat exchangers. Milrinone, or saline placebo, was given as continuous i.v. infusions for 30 min at 37 °C and during cooling. In normothermic controls continuous milrinone infusion for 90 min elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) significantly. Significant differences in cardiac functional variables between the milrinone group and the saline control group during cooling to 15 °C were found: Compared to saline treated animals throughout cooling from 33 to 15 °CSV was significantly elevated in milrinone animals, the index of LV isovolumic relaxation, Tau, was significantly better preserved, and both HR and CO were significantly higher from 33 to 24 °C. Likewise, during cooling between 33 and 28 °C also LVdP/dt(max) was significantly higher in the milrinone group. Milrinone preserved LV systolic and diastolic function at a significantly higher level than in saline controls during cooling to 15 °C. In essential contrast to our previous results when using β-receptor agonists during hypothermia, the present experiment demonstrates the positive inotropic effects of milrinone on LV cardiac function during cooling to 15 °C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  20. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nabe-Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. To circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (IBMs of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of four species with contrasting life-history characteristics: skylark (Alauda arvensis, vole (Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle (Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider (Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify the population implications of experimental modifications of landscape configuration and composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Starting with a real agricultural landscape, we progressively reduced landscape complexity by (i homogenizing habitat patch shapes, (ii randomizing the locations of the patches, and (iii randomizing the size of the patches. The first two steps increased landscape fragmentation. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on the long-term persistence of animal populations by measuring equilibrium population sizes and time to recovery after disturbance. Patch rearrangement and the presence of corridors had a large effect on the population dynamics of species whose local success depends on the surrounding terrain. Landscape modifications that reduced population sizes increased recovery times in the short-dispersing species, making small populations vulnerable to increasing disturbance. The species that were most strongly affected by large disturbances fluctuated little in population sizes in years when no perturbations took place. SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional approaches to the management and conservation of populations use either classical methods of population analysis, which fail to adequately account for the spatial configurations

  1. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  2. Dose and effect relationship of radiation induced cancer and its influencing factors in experimental animals, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsaku; Sato, Fumiaki; Eto, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    The data of risk evaluation of external irradiation were integrated with animal experiments from the aspects of qualitative generalizations of characteristics of radiation induced tumors. Studies covered competition of cause of death, figure of dose-to-effect relationship, characteristics of low dose rate of irradiation, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high LET radiation, effects of feactionated irradiation, complex actions with chemical substances, effects of protectional medium, differences of radiosensitivity by species and strains, and age dependency of sensitivities. Competition of cause of death by time length of latent period and degree of malignancy of the disease. Discussion on competition of death suggested the following idea: 1) incidence of tumor induction in the individual level did not correspond to transformation in the cellular level, and 2) relative incidence of tumor induction after a certain dose of whole body irradiation did not indicate the relative sensitivity of each tissue, for the relationship between tumor incidence and exposure dose was not a linear relationship. The dose-to-effect relationship of tumor induction was decided by following factors: i) sensitivity on transformation of cells, ii) sensitivity on the death of potential tumor cells, and iii) competition of the cause of death. Tumor induction by low dose rate irradiation was also studied by comparing qualitative and quantitative differences between high dose rate single irradiation and a series of low dose rate irradiation. (Serizawa, K.)

  3. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of in-cascade defect clustering on near-term defect evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of in-cascade defect clustering on the nature of the subsequent defect population are being studied using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the simulations illustrates the strong influence of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state on subsequent defect evolution. The large differences in mobility and stability of vacancy and interstitial defects and the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades have been shown to be significant factors affecting the evolution of the defect distribution. In recent work, the effects of initial cluster sizes appear to be extremely important.

  5. The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.

    In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  6. Dynamical effects of successive mergers on the evolution of spherical stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical investigations are carried out to study the dynamical effects of high-mass stars formed out of successive mergers among tidally captured binaries on the evolution of spherical stellar systems. It is assumed that all tidally captured systems become mergers in order to maximize these effects. Stellar systems with N greater than about 10 to the 7th are susceptible to merger instability which may lead to the formation of a central black hole. It is shown that globular clusters are likely to achieve postcollapse expansion due to three-body binary heating and stellar evolution, while galactic nuclei can easily be overcome by the merger instability in the core. 25 references

  7. The evolution of energy costs and their effect on the competitiveness of Spanish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Diaz, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of energy costs in the Spanish manufacturing and its evolution during the period 2000-2010. We carry out a descriptive analysis to firstly, determine the share of energy expenses on total operating expenses and personnel costs, and compare it with that registered in other European countries. Secondly, we analyze the evolution of the energy expenditure in relation to the output value created throughout the decade 2000-2010 and decompose such variation into a price effect and a quantity effect. (Author)

  8. Non unitarity effects in the time evolution of one body observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de

    1982-01-01

    We present a formal derivation of the exact dynamics of the one body density matrix. Its essential ingredients are shown to be: a) a mean field unitary time evolution, b) irreducible non unitary corrections to it (collision effects) and c) the time evolution of initial state correlations (which contributes to both a) and b). The qualitative importance of collision effects to the expectation value of one body operators is discussed and a quantitative study is carried out within the framework of an exactly soluble model, the non unitary contributions vary from 10% to over 100%

  9. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses. Cognitive and behavioral changes were retested 1 week and 1 month later, and remained elevated. In addition, a visual search task demonstrated that fear-related vicarious learning creates an attentional bias for novel animals, which is moderated by increases in fear beliefs during learning. The findings demonstrate that vicarious learning leads to lasting changes in all 3 of Lang's anxiety response systems and is sufficient to create attentional bias to threat in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Real-time system for studies of the effects of acoustic feedback on animal vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eSkocik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavioral and neural responses to distorted auditory feedback can help shed light on the neural mechanisms of animal vocalizations. We describe an apparatus for generating real-time acoustic feedback. The system can very rapidly detect acoustic features in a song and output acoustic signals if the detected features match the desired acoustic template. The system uses spectrogram-based detection of acoustic elements. It is low-cost and can be programmed for a variety of behavioral experiments requiring acoustic feedback or neural stimulation. We use the system to study the effects of acoustic feedback on birds' vocalizations and demonstrate that such an acoustic feedback can cause both immediate and long-term changes to birds’ songs.

  11. A comparison of various methods of blood sampling in mice and rats: Effects on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harikrishnan, Vs; Hansen, Axel K; Abelson, Klas Sp

    2018-01-01

    -puncture activity and anxiety levels of rats and mice were measured using an elevated plus maze test and an open field test. Stress levels 24 h post-puncture were assessed by analysing faecal corticosteroid metabolites. Sucrose intake and faecal corticosteroid levels were not affected by the blood sampling...... procedures. Rats showed reduced activity in the open field test and an increased level of anxiety in the elevated plus maze test following retrobulbar plexus puncture and isoflurane anaesthesia. In mice, nest building activity was affected in all the groups compared with the control group, except for animals...... subjected to facial vein puncture. Retrobulbar sinus puncture, tail vein puncture and sublingual puncture in mice resulted in reduced activity and increased anxiety. We conclude that, of the tested methods, puncture of the tail vein and the sublingual vein have the least adverse effects in rats, whereas...

  12. Effects of Martensite Development on Lattice Strain Evolution during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mclieia2

    discussed for various effects of material parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. ... unsteady oscillatory free convective flow is of very high ... boundary layer or unsteady temperature conditions. ... porous media.

  13. Effects of vitamin D analog on bladder function and sensory signaling in animal models of cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Bennett; Redman, T Lawton; Zvara, Peter

    2013-02-01

    To measure the effects of nonhypercalcemic vitamin D receptor agonist elocalcitol on bladder function in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and on bladder function and sensory nerve activity in a mouse with acetic acid-evoked bladder irritation. Female Wistar rats and male Balb/C mice were gavaged once daily with elocalcitol diluted in miglyol 812 (treatment group) or miglyol alone (control group). On experimental day 12, polyethylene tubing was implanted into the urinary bladder in all the animals. In the mice, a bipolar electrode was positioned under a single postganglionic bladder nerve. At 48 hours after surgery, bladder function was measured in awake, freely moving rats during bladder filling with 0.9% NaCl and both bladder function and sensory nerve activity was measured in awake, restrained mice during continuous intravesical infusion of 0.9% NaCl followed by 0.25% acetic acid. In rats, the treatment group showed a significant increase in bladder capacity and decrease in number of nonvoiding bladder contractions. In mice, the filling pressure during saline infusion was similar in both groups; however, during acetic acid infusion, the average filling pressure was significantly increased (47%) in the control group but not in the elocalcitol treatment group. The firing rate at filling pressure for the treatment group was 3.6-fold and 2.7-fold lower than that in the control group during the saline and acetic acid infusion, respectively. Oral treatment with elocalcitol suppressed signs of detrusor overactivity in both animal models and exerted strong suppressive effect on urinary bladder sensory signaling during filling in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  15. Interactive Multimedia-Based Animation: A Study of Effectiveness on Fashion Design Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiana, W.

    2018-01-01

    The learning process is believed will reach optimal results if facilitated by diversity of learning’s device from aspects of the approach, method, media or it’s evaluation system, in individually, groups, or as well as classical. One of the learning’s Device can be developed in an attempt to improve the results of the study is Computer Based Learning (CBL). CBL was developed aim to help students to understand the concepts of the learning material which presented interactively by the system and able to provide information and learning process better. This research is closely related to efforts to improve the quality of Fashion design in digital format learning, with specific targets to generate interactive multimedia-based animation as effective media and learning resources for fashion design learning. Applications that are generated may be an option for delivering learning material as well as to engender interest in learning as well as understanding with students against the subject matter so that it can improve the learning achievements of students. The instruments used to collect data is a test sheet of mastering the concept which developed on the basis of indicators understanding the concept of fashion design, the material elements and principles of fashion design as well as application on making fashion design. As for the skills test is done through test performance to making fashion design in digital format. The results of testing against the mastery of concepts and skills of fashion designing in digital formatted shows that experimental group obtained significantly higher qualifications compared to the control group. That means that the use of interactive multimedia-based animation, effective to increased mastery of concepts and skills on making fashion design in digital format.

  16. Effect of acid deposition on soil animals and microorganisms: influence on structures and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Principal effects of acid stress on the soil subsystem are increase or decrease in faunal and microfloral populations, changes in species assemblages and overall reductions in several soil microbiological processes. Little is known about the effects on nitrogen transformation (ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). Some possible but hypothetical scenarios for the effect of acidification stress on the forest ecosystem level are: (1) Inhibition of decomposition leads to an accumulation of litter. Immission and other disturbances may lead to humus disintegration and nitrate leaching; (2) Inhibition of mineralization reduces the availability of plant nutrients; (3) Decrease of the microfauna may cause disturbances of matter microcycling in the root zone; (4) Increase of the mesofauna may enhance the gracing pressure on mycorrhizal mycelia for even fine roots; (5) Decrease of the macrofauna (especially earthworms) lead to less bioturbation which impairs the buffer capacity of the litter and topsoil. A general outcome of liming experiments is stimulation of decomposition and mineralization: (1) Increased in nutrient arailability could lead to increased productivityin nutrient limited stands; (2) More irregular effects of animals on microbial activity may result in low stability of the soil-litter system and high liability to perturbations. (orig./vhe)

  17. Anxiolytic effects of GLYX-13 in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Jin-Xu; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Li-Ming; Ran, Yu-Hua; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Yu; Li, Yun-Feng; Xiong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of GLYX-13, an NMDA receptor glycine site functional partial agonist, to alleviate the enhanced anxiety and fear response in both a mouse and rat model of stress-induced behavioral changes that might be relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies over the last decades have suggested that the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most consistent findings in stress-related disease. Herein, we used these animal models to further investigate the effect of GLYX-13 on the stress hormone levels and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. We found that exposure to foot shock induced long-lasting behavioral deficiencies in mice, including freezing and anxiety-like behaviors, that were significantly ameliorated by the long-term administration of GLYX-13 (5 or 10 mg/kg). Our enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that long-term administration of GLYX-13 at behaviorally effective doses (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of both corticosterone and its upstream stress hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone in rats subjected to the TDS procedure. These results suggest that GLYX-13 exerts a therapeutic effect on PTSD-like stress responding that is accompanied by (or associated with) modulation of the HPA axis, including inhibition of stress hormone levels and upregulation of hippocampal GR expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Behavioural effects of PNU-282987 and stress in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicens, Paloma; Heredia, Luis; Torrente, Margarita; Domingo, José L

    2017-01-01

    Cholinergic deficits play an important role in both cognitive and behavioural alterations in Alzheimer's disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible therapeutic role of PNU-282987 (PNU), an α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor agonist, and the possible effects of stress in precipitating the onset of behavioural deficits in animals with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease. B6C3-Tg mice with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease and wild-type mice either with or without restraint stress received 0- or 1-mg/kg PNU. At 12 months old, mice were evaluated for activity levels, anxiety-like levels, and spatial learning and memory. Data did not show the effects of PNU on activity and anxiety-like behaviour. No effect of PNU on acquisition of a spatial learning task was detected, but a reversal of stress effects on retention in the Morris water maze was observed in transgenic mice. Further studies are needed in order to better understand the role of α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor agonists in motor activity, anxiety, and spatial learning and memory and to develop more accurate pharmacological treatment of psychopathological diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Finite element simulation of texture evolution and Swift effect in NiAl under torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, Thomas; Glüge, Rainer; Klöden, Burghardt; Skrotzki, Werner; Bertram, Albrecht

    2007-09-01

    The texture evolution and the Swift effect in NiAl under torsion at 727 °C are studied by finite element simulations for two different initial textures. The material behaviour is modelled by an elastic-viscoplastic Taylor model. In order to overcome the well-known shortcomings of Taylor's approach, the texture evolution is also investigated by a representative volume element (RVE) with periodic boundary conditions and a compatible microstructure at the opposite faces of the RVE. Such a representative volume element takes into account the grain morphology and the grain interaction. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. It is shown that the modelling of a finite element based RVE leads to a better prediction of the final textures. However, the texture evolution path is not accounted for correctly. The simulated Swift effect depends much more on the initial orientation distribution than observed in experiment. Deviations between simulation and experiment may be due to continuous dynamic recrystallization.

  20. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The evolution of myiasis in humans and other animals in the Old and New Worlds (part II): biological and life-history studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jamie R; Wallman, James F; Otranto, Domenico; Wall, Richard; Pape, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Myiasis, which is the dipteran parasitism of living vertebrates, occurs in several forms - ranging from benign to fatal, opportunistic to obligate - and seems to have evolved through two distinct routes: saprophagous and sanguinivorous. However, the convergent evolution of morphological and life-history traits seems to have had a major role in confusing the overall picture of how myiasis evolved and this simplistic division is further complicated by the existence of both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic species of myiasis-causing Diptera, the evolutionary affinities of which remain to be resolved. As discussed in part I of this review, if we are to elucidate how the different forms of parasitism arose, it is essential to separate the evolution of the various groups of myiasis-causing flies from the evolution of the myiasis habit per se. Accordingly, whereas we focused on recent landmark phylogenetics studies in part I, we use this framework to analyse relevant biochemical, immunological, behavioural, biogeographical and fossil evidence to elucidate the evolution of myiasis in part II.

  2. The Russian petroleum tax system: evolution, effects and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The investment climate in the Russian petroleum industry was the subject of this discourse. Legal uncertainties, particularly in taxation, have been identified as having had an inhibiting effect on investment incentives for all enterprises, domestic and foreign. For example, until recently taxes have been based on gross production revenues rather than on profits. Extensive and frequent changes in recent years have been moving towards a more profit related structure, with marked effect on investment incentives for both domestic and foreign companies. Passing of the Law on Production Sharing, and amendments to the Tax Code proposed in 1996, which are aimed at encouraging investment, were described. Further changes to make the Law on Production Sharing and the Tax Code more consistent with each other, and most of all, greater tax stability, were suggested as the most effective incentives to creating an improved investment climate. 1 ref., 1 tab., 30 figs

  3. Life-span studies in 226Ra-injected animals: Effect of low doses, effect of a decorporative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeters, G.E.R.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    1986-01-01

    A life-span radiation effects study was performed in mice injected with several doses of 226 Ra. The study included 788 male C57Bl mice. For the removal of the 226 Ra, half the mice were treated daily with a diet 5% of which was sodium-alginate. The experiment revealed that mice that received the lowest dose of 226 Ra lived significantly longer than controls, and, despite appreciable skeletal removal of 226 Ra as a result of decorporative treatment, no biological benefit was observed in treated animals. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Ecological effects of aphid abundance, genotypic variation, and contemporary evolution on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-07-01

    Genetic variation and contemporary evolution within populations can shape the strength and nature of species interactions, but the relative importance of these forces compared to other ecological factors is unclear. We conducted a field experiment testing the effects of genotypic variation, abundance, and presence/absence of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) on the growth, leaf nitrogen, and carbon of two plant species (Brassica napus and Solanum nigrum). Aphid genotype affected B. napus but not S. nigrum biomass explaining 20 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. Averaging across both plant species, the presence/absence of aphids had a 1.6× larger effect size (Cohen's d) than aphid genotype, and aphid abundance had the strongest negative effects on plant biomass explaining 29% of the total variation. On B. napus, aphid genotypes had different effects on leaf nitrogen depending on their abundance. Aphids did not influence leaf nitrogen in S. nigrum nor leaf carbon in either species. We conducted a second experiment in the field to test whether contemporary evolution could affect plant performance. Aphid populations evolved in as little as five generations, but the rate and direction of this evolution did not consistently vary between plant species. On one host species (B. napus), faster evolving populations had greater negative effects on host plant biomass, with aphid evolutionary rate explaining 23% of the variation in host plant biomass. Together, these results show that genetic variation and evolution in an insect herbivore can play important roles in shaping host plant ecology.

  5. Effects of Martensite Development on Lattice Strain Evolution during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mclieia2

    earth body. In chemical processes, turbo machinery, water treatment power generation and aerospace technology, unsteady oscillatory free convective flow is of very high importance. ... rotating. it was shown that the effects of magnetic field and rotating ... magnetic field. In the absence of rotation, the magnetic field.

  6. Evolution of tunnelling causality and the 'Hartman-Fletcher effect'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Zaichenko, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    A new concept of the macroscopic tunneling time is added to our previous definition of the microscopic tunnelling time. The formally accusal jump of a time advance near the forward barrier wall is interpreted as a result of the superposition and interference of incoming and reflected waves. The reality 'H.-F. effect' is confirmed

  7. The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni Sadi; Umar, Hasibuan; Jenny, M.; Adria, P.M.; Murni Indrawatmi

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 6 0Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

  8. Animal-Assisted Activity: Effects of a Complementary Intervention Program on Psychological and Physiological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepps, Peggy; Stewart, Charles N; Bruckno, Stephen R

    2014-07-01

    Animal-assisted activity is the use of trained animals for the therapeutic, motivational, or educational benefit of patients. Subjects of this study were 218 patients hospitalized on the mental health unit of a community hospital with an existing, complementary animal-assisted activity program. Half of the patients participated in a 1-hour session of animal-assisted activity. The other half, who served as a comparison group, participated in a 1-hour stress management program. It was hypothesized that an animal-assisted activity program would improve ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain and the associated physiological measures of stress and discomfort. Self-report ratings of depression, anxiety, and pain were collected before and after treatment sessions, and blood pressure, pulse, and salivary cortisol were measured. There were significant decreases in depression (P animal-assisted activity program, comparable to those in the more traditional stress management group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. An embodiment effect in computer-based learning with animated pedagogical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E; DaPra, C Scott

    2012-09-01

    How do social cues such as gesturing, facial expression, eye gaze, and human-like movement affect multimedia learning with onscreen agents? To help address this question, students were asked to twice view a 4-min narrated presentation on how solar cells work in which the screen showed an animated pedagogical agent standing to the left of 11 successive slides. Across three experiments, learners performed better on a transfer test when a human-voiced agent displayed human-like gestures, facial expression, eye gaze, and body movement than when the agent did not, yielding an embodiment effect. In Experiment 2 the embodiment effect was found when the agent spoke in a human voice but not in a machine voice. In Experiment 3, the embodiment effect was found both when students were told the onscreen agent was consistent with their choice of agent characteristics and when inconsistent. Students who viewed a highly embodied agent also rated the social attributes of the agent more positively than did students who viewed a nongesturing agent. The results are explained by social agency theory, in which social cues in a multimedia message prime a feeling of social partnership in the learner, which leads to deeper cognitive processing during learning, and results in a more meaningful learning outcome as reflected in transfer test performance.

  10. Effect of flecainide on atrial fibrillatory rate in a large animal model with induced atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselkilde, Eva Z.; Carstensen, Helena; Haugaard, Maria M.

    2017-01-01

    caused a decrease in AFR in all animals and restored sinus rhythm in the animals with induced AF. In the control animals, AFR increased from 269 ± 36 fpm to a plateau of 313 ± 14 fpm before decreasing to 288 ± 28 fpm during the last 10% of the AF episodes preceding spontaneous conversion (P 

  11. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. Th...

  12. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  13. Elevated mazes as animal models of anxiety: effects of serotonergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone H. Pinheiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews reported results about the effects of drugs that act upon the serotonergic neurotransmission measured in three elevated mazes that are animal models of anxiety. A bibliographic search has been performed in MEDLINE using different combinations of the key words X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin and 5-HT, present in the title and/or the abstract, with no time limit. From the obtained abstracts, several publications were excluded on the basis of the following criteria: review articles that did not report original results, species other than the rat, intracerebral drug administration alone, genetically manipulated rats, and animals having any kind of experimental pathology. The reported results indicate that the effect of drugs on the inhibitory avoidance task performed in the elevated T-maze and on the spatio temporal indexes of anxiety measured in the X and plus mazes correlate with their effect in patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. In contrast, the drug effects on the one-way escape task in the elevated T-maze predict the drug response of panic disorder patients. Overall, the drug effects assessed with the avoidance task in the T-maze are more consistent than those measured through the anxiety indexes of the X and plus mazes. Therefore, the elevated T-maze is a promising animal model of generalized anxiety and panic disorder.No presente artigo, revisamos resultados publicados relatando efeitos de drogas que atuam na neurotransmissão serotonérgica medidos em três labirintos elevados, que são modelos animais de ansiedade. Realizamos uma busca bibliográfica no MEDLINE, usando diferentes combinações das palavras-chave: X-maze, plus-maze, T-maze, serotonin e 5-HT, presentes no título ou no resumo, sem limite de tempo. Dos resumos obtidos, vários foram excluídos com base nos seguintes critérios: artigos de revisão que não continham resultados originais, espécies diferentes do rato, apenas inje

  14. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, Tim; Balderer, Werner P.; Leuenberger, Fanny; Newcomer, Michelle; Cyr, Gary; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O− in a matrix of O2−. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals. PMID:21776211

  15. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann T. Freund

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O– in a matrix of O2–. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

  16. Effect of National Football League games on small animal emergency room caseload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Rondeau, Mark P; Shaw, Scott P; Rush, John E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate whether games of popular professional football teams have an effect on small animal emergency room caseload and percentage of dogs and cats that subsequently are hospitalized, are euthanatized, or die following admission to veterinary emergency rooms located within a dedicated fan base. Prospective study. 818 dogs and cats admitted to the emergency room. During the 2007 New England Patriots (NEP) football season, small animal emergency room caseload was recorded for Sunday (4-hour blocks, 8:00 AM until 12:00 midnight) and Monday night (7:00 PM to 11:00 PM). Number of dogs and cats that subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized was recorded. Mean game importance rating (GIR) was determined for NEP games (scale, 1 [mild] to 3 [great]). Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 12:00 noon to 4:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 1.7) versus non-NEP games was not different. Mean +/- SD percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 4:00 PM to 8:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.4) versus non-NEP games was significantly different (18 +/- 5% and 25 +/- 7% of daily caseload, respectively). Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 8:00 PM to 12:00 midnight on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.1) versus non-NEP games was not different. Game type (NEP vs non-NEP) during emergency room admission did not influence whether dogs and cats subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized. Professional sporting events may influence veterinary emergency room caseloads.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres S Moore [Asteraceae] ethanolic leaf extract in some experimental animal paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, Cephas T; Kamadyaapa, Dave R; Gondwe, Mavuto; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine some in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres leaf ethanolic extract (HCE) in experimental animal paradigms. The acute effects of HCE on blood pressure were studied in anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats challenged with intravenous hypotonic saline infusion after a 3.5-hour equilibration for four hours of one-hour control, 1.5-hour treatment and 1.5-hour recovery periods. HCE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Sub-chronic hypotensive effects of HCE were examined in weanling Dahl saltsensitive (DSS) genetically hypertensive rats, which progressively develop hypertension with age, treated with HCE (80 mg/kg) every third consecutive day for seven weeks. Isolated atrial muscle strips, portal veins and descending thoracic aortic rings of healthy normotensive Wistar rats were used to investigate the vascular effects of HCE. Acute HCE administration caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in blood pressure in the normotensive anaesthetised Wistar rats. DSS hypertensive rats treated with HCE displayed low arterial blood pressure and heart rate values from weeks five to seven. HCE produced concentrationdependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. HCE also evoked concentration-dependent relaxation responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings and portal veins isolated from healthy normotensive Wistar rats. The vasorelaxant effects of HCE in intact aortic rings were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished by adding endothelial- derived factor (EDRF) inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of the extract is mediated via EDRF-dependent and independent mechanisms. The results of the study suggest that the hypotensive action of HCE is elicited, in part, directly by decreasing myocardial contractile performance and total peripheral vascular

  18. {sup 3}He retention and structural evolution in erbium tritides: Phase and aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.S., E-mail: zlxs77@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.; Wang, W.D.; Liu, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, S.M., E-mail: pengshuming@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ding, W.; Long, X.G.; Cheng, G.J.; Liang, J.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Fu, Y.Q. [Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He retention of Er tritide films were investigated. • The α phase in Er tritide films had no apparent effect on {sup 3}He release/retention. • Tritium content in the β phase showed significant effects on {sup 3}He retention. • Evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase. • Effects of phase changes on structure evolution of Er tritides were investigated. - Abstract: Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He release/retention and crystal lattice evolution during aging of erbium (Er) tritide films were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The contents of α phase and γ phase in the Er tritide films showed significant different effects on {sup 3}He release/retention. The initial tritium stoichiometry or excess tritium atoms accommodated in the octahedral sites and the microstructure (i.e., the texture and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide inclusions) played an important role for the {sup 3}He release and the evolution of {sup 3}He bubbles in the β phase Er tritide films. In the β + γ region, evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase, which could result in a strongly anisotropic lattice dilation and an earlier inflection point of the expansion rate of (1 1 1) lattice parameter. A preferred occupation of {sup 3}He in basal plane of the hexagonal γ phase and the lattice expansion along the hexagonal direction were identified.

  19. Molecular evidence of fungal signatures in the marine protist Corallochytrium limacisporum and its implications in the evolution of animals and fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C; Raghukumar, S.; Kasbekar, D.P.; Raghukumar, C

    and ergosterol, in one of the isolates. These features, as well as the sterol C-14 reductase gene involved in the sterol pathway of animals and fungi were detected in the organism. Phylogenetic trees based on the α-AAR gene suggested that Corallochytrium...

  20. Special effects used in creating 3D animated scenes-part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In present, with the help of computer, we can create special effects that look so real that we almost don't perceive them as being different. These special effects are somehow hard to differentiate from the real elements like those on the screen. With the increasingly accesible 3D field that has more and more areas of application, the 3D technology goes easily from architecture to product designing. Real like 3D animations are used as means of learning, for multimedia presentations of big global corporations, for special effects and even for virtual actors in movies. Technology, as part of the movie art, is considered a prerequisite but the cinematography is the first art that had to wait for the correct intersection of technological development, innovation and human vision in order to attain full achievement. Increasingly more often, the majority of industries is using 3D sequences (three dimensional). 3D represented graphics, commercials and special effects from movies are all designed in 3D. The key for attaining real visual effects is to successfully combine various distinct elements: characters, objects, images and video scenes; like all these elements represent a whole that works in perfect harmony. This article aims to exhibit a game design from these days. Considering the advanced technology and futuristic vision of designers, nowadays we have different and multifarious game models. Special effects are decisively contributing in the creation of a realistic three-dimensional scene. These effects are essential for transmitting the emotional state of the scene. Creating the special effects is a work of finesse in order to achieve high quality scenes. Special effects can be used to get the attention of the onlooker on an object from a scene. Out of the conducted study, the best-selling game of the year 2010 was Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. This way, the article aims for the presented scene to be similar with many locations from this type of games, more

  1. Effect of self-interaction on the evolution of cooperation in complex topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu'e.; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chang, Shuhua

    2017-09-01

    Self-interaction, as a significant mechanism explaining the evolution of cooperation, has attracted great attention both theoretically and experimentally. In this text, we consider a new self-interaction mechanism in the two typical pairwise models including the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift games, where the cooperative agents will gain extra bonus for their selfless behavior. We find that under the mechanism the collective cooperation is elevated to a very high level especially after adopting the finite population analogue of replicator dynamics for evolution. The robustness of the new mechanism is tested for different complex topologies for the prisoner's dilemma game. All the presented results demonstrate that the enhancement effects are independent of the structure of the applied spatial networks and the potential evolutionary games, and thus showing a high degree of universality. Our conclusions might shed light on the understanding of the evolution of cooperation in the real world.

  2. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  3. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  4. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Activity: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chieffi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we provide a review of current knowledge regarding the role played by physical activity (PA in preventing age-related cognitive decline and reducing risk of dementia. The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline. Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes. These structural changes are often associated with improved cognitive performance. Importantly, the brain regions that benefit from PA are also those regions that are often reported to be severely affected in dementia. Animal model studies provided significant information about biomechanisms that support exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity, such as angiogenesis and upregulation of growth factors. Among the growth factors, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the neuropeptide orexin-A. The beneficial effects of PA may represent an important resource to hinder the cognitive decline associated with aging.

  6. Effects of stroke education using an animated cartoon and a manga on elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Yokota, Chiaki; Miyashita, Fumio; Amano, Tatsuo; Shigehatake, Yuya; Oyama, Satoshi; Itagaki, Naruhiko; Okumura, Kosuke; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    Stroke education for the youth is expected to reduce prehospital delay by informing the bystander of appropriate action to take and providing knowledge to prevent onset of stroke in future. Previously, we developed effective teaching materials consisting of an animated cartoon and a Manga for junior high school students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of our educational materials for stroke education taught by schoolteachers to elementary school children. Using our teaching materials, a 30-minute lesson was given by trained general schoolteachers. Questionnaires on stroke knowledge (symptoms and risk factors) and action to take on identification of suspected stroke symptoms were filled out by school children before, immediately after, and at 3 months after completion of the lesson. A total of 219 children (aged 10 or 11 years) received the stroke lesson. Stroke knowledge significantly increased immediately after the lesson compared with before (symptoms, P Manga that was previously used for junior high school students was feasible for elementary school children. However, revision of the materials is required for better retention of stroke knowledge for children. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pleiotropic effects of a methyl donor diet in a novel animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Shorter

    Full Text Available Folate and other methyl-donor pathway components are widely supplemented due to their ability to prevent prenatal neural tube defects. Several lines of evidence suggest that these supplements act through epigenetic mechanisms (e.g. altering DNA methylation. Primary among these are the experiments on the mouse viable yellow allele of the agouti locus (A(vy. In the Avy allele, an Intracisternal A-particle retroelement has inserted into the genome adjacent to the agouti gene and is preferentially methylated. To further test these effects, we tested the same diet used in the Avy studies on wild-derived Peromyscus maniculatus, a native North American rodent. We collected tissues from neonatal offspring whose parents were fed the high-methyl donor diet as well as controls. In addition, we assayed coat-color of a natural variant (wide-band agouti = A(Nb that overexpresses agouti as a phenotypic biomarker. Our data indicate that these dietary components affected agouti protein production, despite the lack of a retroelement at this locus. Surprisingly, the methyl-donor diet was associated with defects (e.g. ovarian cysts, cataracts and increased mortality. We also assessed the effects of the diet on behavior: We scored animals in open field and social interaction tests. We observed significant increases in female repetitive behaviors. Thus these data add to a growing number of studies that suggest that these ubiquitously added nutrients may be a human health concern.

  8. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON SINR IN LONG TERM EVOLUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Parikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ongoing demands for high speed broadband communications, network providers are opting for the next generation of mobile technologies like LTE and LTE-Advanced. Standardized by 3GPP, these technologies aim to meet the requirements of higher data rates, low latency, and wider mobility, in varying environments without affecting the quality of service of a network. With higher mobility, the various network performance parameters like signal to interference to noise ratio, throughput, received signal strength indicator etc. get affected. This paper highlights the effect of mobility on signal to interference to noise ratio (SINR characteristics of an IMT-A system in various test environments like In-house (INH, Urban Micro (UMi, Urban Macro (UMa, Rural Macro (RMa, and Suburban Macro (SMa. Simulations have been carried out to obtain spatial plots and SINR vs CDF plots in various test environments, at different user equipment speeds, emphasizing the effects of user equipment speed on the fast fading channel gainsand SINR of the system. By varying the UE speeds from 0 km/hr to 360 km/hr there was an increase in the minimum SINR value required for acceptable performance in a system. It was observed that for given system parameters, the minimum SINR required in RMa environment increased from -5dB to 1dB, in SMa environment it increased from -6dB to -2dB, and in case of UMa environment it increased from -4dB to 1dB, when the UE speed was increased from 0km/hr to 360km/hr. To address the problem of poor SINR in high mobility systems, 3GPP has introduced the technique of Moving Relays. It is used to improve the SINR and hence the channel quality for UEs moving at high speeds in LTE systems.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs.

  10. Can Animations Effectively Substitute for Traditional Teaching Methods? Part II: Potential for Differentiated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Santos, Rhodora; Dano, Judith B.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    Animations were prepared using Adobe Flash MX and tested on elementary (3rd-5th grade) and secondary chemistry students. A pre- and post-test study was used to compare the learning gains of students who received the animations with those who received textbook reading time and discussion in class. The control and experimental groups were further…

  11. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  12. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  13. Air pollution by fluorine in Poland and its toxic effect on humans, animals and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, J.; Schalenkowa, I.

    1970-01-01

    The accumulation and distribution of fluorine compounds in plants and animals in the vicinity of emitters of fluorine are reported. The sensitivity and the differences in the accumulating capacity of various plants and animals are discussed. The significance of the problems for the human population is pointed out.

  14. The Effect That Comparing Molecular Animations of Varying Accuracy Has on Students' Submicroscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil; Hansen, Sarah J. R.; Villalta-Cerdas, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examined how a group of seventeen first semester General Chemistry students responded when they were shown contrasting molecular animations of a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction between solid copper and aqueous silver nitrate for which they first viewed a video of the actual experiment. The animations contrasted…

  15. Effects of Caffeine and Warrior Stress on Behavioral : An Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    typically in the form of food (e.g., chocolate ) and drinks (e.g., coffee, tea, energy drinks, and soft drinks), improves attention and performance...administration in an animal model of neuroleptic therapy . Journal of neuroscience methods 146:159-64 81. Schmidt MV, Muller MB. 2006. Animal models of anxiety

  16. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  17. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdhadip Dey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging, are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to

  18. The effects of 3D interactive animated graphics on student learning and attitudes in computer-based instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye Sun

    Visuals are most extensively used as instructional tools in education to present spatially-based information. Recent computer technology allows the generation of 3D animated visuals to extend the presentation in computer-based instruction. Animated visuals in 3D representation not only possess motivational value that promotes positive attitudes toward instruction but also facilitate learning when the subject matter requires dynamic motion and 3D visual cue. In this study, three questions are explored: (1) how 3D graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with 2D graphics; (2) how animated graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with static graphics; and (3) whether the use of 3D graphics, when they are supported by interactive animation, is the most effective visual cues to improve learning and to develop positive attitudes. A total of 145 eighth-grade students participated in a 2 x 2 factorial design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four computer-based instructions: 2D static; 2D animated; 3D static; and 3D animated. The results indicated that: (1) Students in the 3D graphic condition exhibited more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the 2D graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of 3D graphic condition and that of 2D graphic condition. However, students in the 3D graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the 2D graphic condition. (2) Students in the animated graphic condition exhibited slightly more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the static graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of animated graphic condition and that of static graphic condition. However, students in the animated graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the static graphic condition. (3) Students in the 3D animated graphic condition

  19. Effects of Melt Processing on Evolution of Structure in PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Dai, Patrick Shuanghua; Oyebode, Elizabeth; Cebe, Peggy; Capel, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    We report on the effects of melt processing temperature on structure formation in Poly(ether-ether-ketone), PEEK. Real time Small Angle X-ray Scattering, SAXS, and thermal analysis are used to follow the melting behavior after various stages of processing. Assignment of peaks to structural entities within the material, the relative perfection of the crystals, and the possibility of their reorganization, are all influenced by the melt processing history. With the advent of high intensity synchrotron sources of X-radiation, polymer scientists gain a research tool which, when used along with thermal analysis, provides additional structural information about the crystals during growth and subsequent melting. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic polymer with a very high glass transition temperature (145 C) and crystal melting point (337 C). PEEK has been the subject of recent studies by X-ray scattering in which melt and cold crystallization were followed in real-time. X-ray scattering and thermal studies have been used to address the formation of dual endothermic response which has been variously ascribed to lamellar insertion, dual crystal populations, or melting followed by re-crystallization. Another important issue is whether all of the amorphous phase is located in interlamellar regions, or alternatively whether some is located in "pockets" away from the crystalline lamellar stacks. The interpretation of scattering from lamellar stacks varies depending upon whether such amorphous pockets are formed. Some groups believe all of the amorphous phase is interlamellar. This leads to selection of a smaller thickness for the crystals. Other groups suggest that most amorphous phase is not interlamellar, and this leads to the suggestion that the crystal thickness is larger than the amorphous layer within the stacks. To investigate these ideas, we used SAXS and Differential Scanning Calorimetry to compare results of single and dual stage melt crystallization of PEEK using a

  20. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  1. EMC-effect and QCD evolution of the threequark nucleon picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, L.A.; Shakhbazyan, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the EMC-effect can be explained in the framework of the QCD evolution of the threequark nucleon picture. In comparing with the experimental data it is found that the effective radius of nucleon, which is in the iron nucleus, increases by 10% as compared with the free nucleon case. A comparison with experimental data in the region of 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.65 is made

  2. Effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Peter R; England, Laura J; Dover, Jeffrey S; Ross, E Victor; Harford, Robert; Derienzo, Damian; Bogle, Melissa; Uebelhoer, Nathan; Jacoby, Mark; Pope, Karl

    2006-03-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to heat skin and promote tissue tightening and contouring. Cosmetic fillers are used to soften deep facial lines and wrinkles. Patients who have had dermal fillers implanted may also benefit from or are candidates for monopolar RF skin tightening. This study examined the effect of RF treatment on various dermal filler substances. This is the second part of a two-part study. A juvenile farm pig was injected with dermal fillers including cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), polylactic acid (PLA) (Sculptra), liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) (Radiesse), and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Skin injected with dermal fillers was RF-treated using a 1.5-cm2 treatment tip and treatment levels typically used in the clinical setting. Fillers were examined histologically 5 days, 2 weeks, or 1 month after treatment. Histological specimens were scored for inflammatory response, foreign body response, and fibrosis in order to assess the effect of treatment on early filler processes, such as inflammation and encapsulation. Each filler substance produced a characteristic inflammatory response. No immediate thermal effect of RF treatment was observed histologically. RF treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in the inflammatory, foreign body, and fibrotic responses associated with the filler substances. Monopolar RF treatment levels that are typically used in the clinical setting were employed in this animal study. RF treatment resulted in measurable and statistically significant histological changes associated with the various filler materials. Additional clinical and histological studies are required to determine the optimal timing of monopolar RF treatment and filler placement for maximal potential aesthetic outcome. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of Arjunarishta in high-fat fed animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant A. Shengule

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arjunarishta (AA, a formulation used as cardiotonic is a hydroalcoholic formulation of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Wight and Arn. (TA belonging to family Combretaceae. Objective: To evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta on high-fat diet fed animals. Materials and methods: High-fat diet fed (HFD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated with phytochemically standardized Arjunarishta (1.8 ml/kg, and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (TAHA (250 mg/kg and rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg, for 3 months. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, blood biochemistry, liver triglyceride and systolic blood pressure were performed in all the groups. Effect of these drugs on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α were studied in liver tissue using Quantitative Real-time PCR. Results: HFD increased fasting blood glucose, liver triglyceride, systolic blood pressure and gene expression of TNF-α, IRS-1 and PGC-1α. Treatment of AA and TAHA significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These treatments significantly decreased gene expression of TNF-α (2.4, 2.2 and 2.6 fold change; increased IRS-1 (2.8, 2.9 and 2.8 fold change and PGC-1α (2.9, 3.7 and 3.3 fold change as compared to untreated HFD. Conclusion: Anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta may be mediated by decreased TNF-α and increased PGC-1α and IRS-1. Keywords: Rosuvastatin, Type 2 diabetes, Insulin sensitizer genes, Arjunarishta

  4. [Effects of xenon and krypton-containing breathing mixtures on clinical and biochemical blood indices in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul', A R; Bogacheva, M A; Shkurat, T P; Pavlov, B N

    2007-01-01

    Effects of 24-hr breathing air mixtures containing xenon (XBM) and krypton (KBM) were compared in terms of hormonal status, and blood biochemical indices and morphology in laboratory animals. Some changes observed in blood and hormone indices could be a nonspecific adaptive response. Hence, we should elicit whether these effects are quickly reversible or long. For several indices krypton was a more favorable factor than xenon. However, some of its effects invite to delve into effects of different krypton concentrations on organism.

  5. Experimental animal studies on effects of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, J; Hulshof, M C.C.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sminia, P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Radiobiology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wondergem, J [Department of Occupational Health and Risk Assessment, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, Leiden (Netherlands); Zee van der, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyperthermia Unit, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: From the experimental studies reported in the literature it may be concluded that the maximum tolerable heat dose in CNS is 42{sup o}C to 42.5{sup o}C for 40 to 60 min or 43{sup o}C for 10 to 30 min. This in spite of diversity in animal species studied, as well as the different endpoints for assessment of effects, the different parts of CNS treated, differences in procedures used for anesthesia, thermometry and heating techniques applied. The effects of hyperthermia are expressed immediately or within a few days after treatment and heat injury to neural tissue apparently results in neurological abnormalities which, unless lethal, are transient in most cases. Histological studies show irreversible lesions after high heat dose, characterized by coagulation necrosis. Thermal injury to normal neural tissue is repaired by fibrotic or gliotic scarring. Surviving neuronal elements my be responsible for functional recovery from heat injury, which is, however, dependent on the injured volume and anatomical site of the lesion. Hence, the data indicate a correlation between the exposed volume and toxicity of the heat treatment. The relatively high heat dose tolerated in interstitial heating can be ascribed to this volume effect, since the heated volume of normal neural tissue generally was small and not responsible for vital functions. Late effects, many months after treatment have not been reported. The spinal cord data on maximum tolerable heat dose, point in the same direction as the data on the brain. All studies show that, as with brain, the spinal cord is sensitive to heat. The maximum tolerated heat dose of the cervical part after local hyperthermia lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42.5{sup o}C, or less than 30 min at 43{sup o}C. No late effects were reported. The observations on neurology and heat sensitivity of the spinal cord in mice are very similar to those of the rat. There is good evidence indicating that white matter is more heat resistant than

  6. Experimental animal studies on effects of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haveman, J.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Sminia, P.; Wondergem, J.; Zee van der, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: From the experimental studies reported in the literature it may be concluded that the maximum tolerable heat dose in CNS is 42 o C to 42.5 o C for 40 to 60 min or 43 o C for 10 to 30 min. This in spite of diversity in animal species studied, as well as the different endpoints for assessment of effects, the different parts of CNS treated, differences in procedures used for anesthesia, thermometry and heating techniques applied. The effects of hyperthermia are expressed immediately or within a few days after treatment and heat injury to neural tissue apparently results in neurological abnormalities which, unless lethal, are transient in most cases. Histological studies show irreversible lesions after high heat dose, characterized by coagulation necrosis. Thermal injury to normal neural tissue is repaired by fibrotic or gliotic scarring. Surviving neuronal elements my be responsible for functional recovery from heat injury, which is, however, dependent on the injured volume and anatomical site of the lesion. Hence, the data indicate a correlation between the exposed volume and toxicity of the heat treatment. The relatively high heat dose tolerated in interstitial heating can be ascribed to this volume effect, since the heated volume of normal neural tissue generally was small and not responsible for vital functions. Late effects, many months after treatment have not been reported. The spinal cord data on maximum tolerable heat dose, point in the same direction as the data on the brain. All studies show that, as with brain, the spinal cord is sensitive to heat. The maximum tolerated heat dose of the cervical part after local hyperthermia lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42.5 o C, or less than 30 min at 43 o C. No late effects were reported. The observations on neurology and heat sensitivity of the spinal cord in mice are very similar to those of the rat. There is good evidence indicating that white matter is more heat resistant than grey matter as data

  7. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  8. Biological effects of daily inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Filipy, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters, C57BL mice, and specific-pathogen-free rats were exposed simultaneously in groups of 16 animals each for 90 hours per week to aerosols consisting of radon plus 3000--6000 Working Levels of radon-daughters with and without 18 mg/m 3 carnotite uranium ore dust. Condensation nuclei concentrations ranged from 2000--4000 per ml and from 90,000--120,000 per ml in the chamber without and with uranium ore dust, respectively. At 4 months of exposure only one of the rodents remained alive. Histopathology of radon-daughter exposed mice includes acute interstitial pneumonitis, severe pulmonary congestion, and supperative rhinitis; mice inhaling radon-daughters with ore showed these lesions plus macrophage proliferation, alveolar septal cell hyperplasia, and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters showed proliferating lesions characterized by alveolar septal thickening, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, septal fibrosis, and occasionally adenomatoid metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters with ore dust showed similar effects plus granulomatous response and intense septal fibrosis. Rats inhaling radon-daughters showed lesions similar to those of hamsters but more focalized with classic radiation pneumonitis; rats exposed to radon-daughters with ore showed similar lesions, with greater consolidation and pneumoconiosis. These findings will be discussed in relation to pulmonary pathology in uranium miners

  9. Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Muscle Injury Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Almeida dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review was performed to identify the role of photobiomodulation therapy on experimental muscle injury models linked to induce oxidative stress. EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL were searched for studies published from January 2006 to January 2016 in the areas of laser and oxidative stress. Any animal model using photobiomodulation therapy to modulate oxidative stress was included in analysis. Eight studies were selected from 68 original articles targeted on laser irradiation and oxidative stress. Articles were critically assessed by two independent raters with a structured tool for rating the research quality. Although the small number of studies limits conclusions, the current literature indicates that photobiomodulation therapy can be an effective short-term approach to reduce oxidative stress markers (e.g., thiobarbituric acid-reactive and to increase antioxidant substances (e.g., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. However, there is a nonuniformity in the terminology used to describe the parameters and dose for low-level laser treatment.

  10. Effect of x irradiation on the vascularization of experimental animal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Y; Ogawa, F; Nishiguchi, H; Tanaka, N; Murakami, K [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1975-03-01

    The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on blood vessels and tumor growth in two animal tumor systems: a third generation isoplants of a mammary cancer and a spontaneously arising squamous cell carcinoma. Single cell suspensions were transplanted into a C3H and a C3Hf mouse respectively. They were irradiated once with 2000 rad when the tumors reached about 8 mm in diameter. Microangiography was performed at a constant temperature and pressure, and a contrast medium containing lead-oxide and gelatin was flushed the vena cava for 10 min. at 120 mmHg. Tumor shrinkage was followed by continuous regrowth. The basic vasculature of the mammary carcinoma consisted of abundant large and fine blood vessels corkscrewed or stretched from the periphery of the tumor to its center in complex reticular networks. One day after irradiation there were small scattered avascular areas which, by the third day formed a large central necrosis. Supervascularization was also observed, indicating that some hypoxic tumor cells could be reoxygenized. In 5 days vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor. Conversely, The squamous cell carcinoma showed peripheral and central vascularization with abundant vascular and avascular areas and extravasion in the large avascular area. Two days after irradiation the vessels were dilated. At 3 days peripheral fine vessels were damaged but the central vasculature remained intact. Unlike the mammary carcinoma, supervascularization was not the typical finding. At 5 days, vascularization was similar to that of a nonirradiated tumor.

  11. A Cost-Effective Approach to Producing Animated Infographics for Immunology Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Bellei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia resources such as video and animations are increasingly used to enhance student engagement and understanding, particularly when teaching cognitively complex concepts.  However, the creation of animation is time-consuming and hence, expensive compared to the creation of graphics. Recognizing this and the challenges students face in learning immunology, we describe here a process of a multi-disciplinary collaboration that produced a series of 3-minute animated infographics videos for tertiary-level immunology teaching within an Australian university. We evaluate the benefit of these and their merit as supplemental curriculum resources to enhance learning.

  12. Effect of plant-animal interactions on individual performance and population dynamics of Scorzonera hispanica

    OpenAIRE

    Červenková, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The population dynamics of plants with regard to plant-animal interactions is a remarkably complex topic. To look into how individual life stages are influenced in different directions by various animals is beyond the scope of a single paper. For each of the studies described below, I and my co-authors attempted to collect data that would cover as much of the plant life cycle as possible, focusing on interactions between plants and different animals during the flowering period and their conse...

  13. The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ciobotaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features as A.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with β cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.

  14. Effect of animal manure on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical composition of essential oil in cumin (Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad ahmadiyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure on soil prepares essential elements and increase water holding capacity and quality of plants. To study the effects of animal manure on yield and its components, nutrients absorption, chemical composition and its percentages on Cuminum cyminum this experiment was conducted at the agricultural researcher station of Zahak-Zabol, during 2003 – 2004 in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Animal manure significantly enhanced number of umbers per plant, number of seed per plant, biological and seed yield. Use of animal manure had not significant affect on Ca, Mg, Fe, P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu and protein percentage in cumin seed but decreased Na concentration. Animal manure significantly enhanced cumin aldehyde and ρ-cymene and decrease β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene in cumin oil. A relationship or correlation exists between the main components of cumin oil. This study showed that animal manure enhances seed yield, oil percentage and qualitative chemical composition in cumin oil.

  15. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  16. Modeling the Effects of Ecosystem Fragmentation and Restoration: Management Models for Mobile Animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisk, Thomas D; Battin, James; Brand, Arriana; Ries, Leslie; Hampton, Haydee; Noon, Barry R

    2003-01-01

    .... Non-indigenous invasive plants can also reduce and destroy forage for livestock and wildlife, displace native plant species, increase fire frequency, reduce recreational opportunities, and can poison domestic animals...

  17. Human Novelty Response to Emotional Animal Vocalizations: Effects of Phylogeny and Familiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scheumann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Darwin (1872 postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity, we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species. Using an auditory oddball novelty paradigm, ERPs were recorded in response to task-irrelevant novel sounds, comprising vocalizations varying in their degree of phylogenetic relationship and familiarity to humans. Vocalizations were recorded in affiliative and agonistic contexts. Offline, participants rated the vocalizations for valence, arousal, and familiarity. Correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between a posteriorly distributed early negativity and arousal ratings. More specifically, a contextual category effect of this negativity was observed for human infant and chimpanzee vocalizations but absent for other species vocalizations. Further, a significant correlation between the later and more posteriorly P3a and P3b responses and familiarity ratings indicates a link between familiarity and attentional processing. A contextual category effect of the P3b was observed for the less familiar chimpanzee and tree shrew vocalizations. Taken together, these findings suggest that early negative ERP responses to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations may be influenced by evolutionary retained mechanisms, whereas the later orienting of attention (positive ERPs may mainly be modulated by the prior experience.

  18. A Study Of The Effects Of Computer Animated Character Body Style On Perception Of Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cissell, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if there is a difference in viewer perception of computer animated character facial expressions based on character body style, specifically, realistic and stylized character body styles. Participants viewed twenty clips of computer animated characters expressing one of five emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise and fear. They then named the emotion and rated the sincerity, intensity, and typicality of each clip. The results indicated that for recognition, participa...

  19. Effects of urbanization on animal behaviour : patterns, underlying mechanisms and ultimate causes

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ana Catarina Sequeira Nunes Coutinho de

    2014-01-01

    Human-altered environmental conditions affect many species at the global scale. An extreme form of anthropogenic alteration is the existence and rapid increase of urban areas. A key question is how animals cope with urbanization. In order to live in cities, animals have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to the urban novel environment.The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate (i) the existence of behavioural changes related to the urbanization process, (ii) the ultimate...

  20. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  1. Anti-tumor effects of metformin in animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that metformin can reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in diabetes patients. However, the direct anti-HCC effects of metformin have hardly been studied in patients, but have been extensively investigated in animal models of HCC. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies evaluating the effects of metformin on HCC.We collected the relevant studies by searching EMBASE, Medline (OvidSP, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed Publisher, and Google Scholar. Studies were included according to the following inclusion criteria: HCC, animal study, and metformin intervention. Study quality was assessed using SYRCLE's risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures: tumor growth (tumor volume, weight and size, tumor number and incidence.The search resulted in 573 references, of which 13 could be included in the review and 12 included in the meta-analysis. The study characteristics of the included studies varied considerably. Two studies used rats, while the others used mice. Only one study used female animals, nine used male, and three studies didn't mention the gender of animals in their experiments. The quality of the included studies was low to moderate based on the assessment of their risk of bias. The meta-analysis showed that metformin significantly inhibited the growth of HCC tumour (SMD -2.20[-2.96,-1.43]; n=16, but no significant effect on the number of tumors (SMD-1.05[-2.13,0.03]; n=5 or the incidence of HCC was observed (RR 0.62[0.33,1.16]; n=6. To investigate the potential sources of significant heterogeneities found in outcome of tumor growth (I2=81%, subgroup analyses of scales of growth measures and of types of animal models used were performed.Metformin appears to have a direct anti-HCC effect in animal models. Although the intrinsic limitations of animal studies, this systematic review could provide an important reference for future

  2. Prediction of the health effects of inhaled transuranium elements from experimental animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Thomas, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although animal experiments are conducted to obtain data that can be used to predict the consequences of exposure to alpha-emitting elements on human health, scientists have been hesitant to project the results of animal experiments to man. However, since a human data base does not exist for inhaled transuranics, the animal data cannot be overlooked. The paper describes the derivation of linear non-threshold response relationships for lung cancer in rats after inhalation of alpha-emitting transuranium elements. These relationships were used to calculate risk estimates, which were then compared with a value calculated from the incidence of lung cancer in humans who had been exposed to sources of radiation other than the transuranics. Both estimates were compared with the estimated cancer risk associated with the annual whole-body dose limit of 5 rems for occupational exposure. The rat data suggest that the risk from a working lifetime exposure of 15 rem/a to the lungs from transuranium elements may be 5 times the risk incurred with a whole-body exposure of 5 rem/a, while the human data suggest the risk may be less. Since the histological type of plutonium-induced lung cancer that occurs in experimental animals is rare in man, the use of animal data to estimate risks may be conservative. Risk estimates calculated directly from the results of experiments in which animals actually inhaled transuranic particles circumvent such controversial issues as 'hot particles'. (author)

  3. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The Effect Different Irrigation Regimes and Animal Manure on Nutrient, Essential Oil and Chemical Composition on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of water stress and animal manure on nutrients concentration, essential oil percentage and its chemical components in Cuminum cyminum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during 2003–2004 in a randomized complete block design arranged in factorial with four replicates. Treatments were there irrigation (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and two animal manure levels (F1: no manure and F2: 20 ton/ha manure. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by gas- chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The effect of water stress on Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and K percentages was significant but its effect on Mn, Zn and Cu was not significant. I1F1 had maximum of Na, Ca, Mg and minimum of micro nutrients. Using of animal manure was not effected on nutrients. The effect of water stress and animal manure were significant on essential oil and its chemical compositions. I2F2 had the highest of cuminaldehyde and ρ-cymene and the lowest of β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene. Result showed that there is a correlation among the main components of cumin essential oil under water and mineral stress.

  5. The effect of body size evolution and ecology on encephalization in cave bears and extant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitschegger, Kristof

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of larger brain volumes relative to body size in Mammalia is the subject of an extensive amount of research. Early on palaeontologists were interested in the brain of cave bears, Ursus spelaeus, and described its morphology and size. However, until now, it was not possible to compare the absolute or relative brain size in a phylogenetic context due to the lack of an established phylogeny, comparative material, and phylogenetic comparative methods. In recent years, many tools for comparing traits within phylogenies were developed and the phylogenetic position of cave bears was resolved based on nuclear as well as mtDNA. Cave bears exhibit significantly lower encephalization compared to their contemporary relatives and intraspecific brain mass variation remained rather small. Encephalization was correlated with the combined dormancy-diet score. Body size evolution was a main driver in the degree of encephalization in cave bears as it increased in a much higher pace than brain size. In Ursus spelaeus, brain and body size increase over time albeit differently paced. This rate pattern is different in the highest encephalized bear species within the dataset, Ursus malayanus. The brain size in this species increased while body size heavily decreased compared to its ancestral stage. Early on in the evolution of cave bears encephalization decreased making it one of the least encephalized bear species compared to extant and extinct members of Ursidae. The results give reason to suspect that as herbivorous animals, cave bears might have exhibited a physiological buffer strategy to survive the strong seasonality of their environment. Thus, brain size was probably affected by the negative trade-off with adipose tissue as well as diet. The decrease of relative brain size in the herbivorous Ursus spelaeus is the result of a considerable increase in body size possibly in combination with environmental conditions forcing them to rest during winters.

  6. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict to evaluate such dependence. In the absence of evolutionary constraints and costs, offspring evolve dispersal rates from different patch types that reflect their own, rather than the maternal, optima. This result also holds true when offspring are unable to assess their own environment because the maternal phenotype provides an additional source of information. Consequently, maternal effects on offspring diapause, dispersal, and other traits that do not necessarily represent costly resource investment are more likely to maximize offspring than maternal fitness. However, when trait expression was costly, the evolutionarily stable dispersal rates tended to deviate from those under both maternal and offspring control. We use our results to (re)interpret some recent work on maternal effects and their adaptive value and provide suggestions for future work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. The Effects of Predator Evolution and Genetic Variation on Predator-Prey Population-Level Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Michael H; Patel, Swati

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores how predator evolution and the magnitude of predator genetic variation alter the population-level dynamics of predator-prey systems. We do this by analyzing a general eco-evolutionary predator-prey model using four methods: Method 1 identifies how eco-evolutionary feedbacks alter system stability in the fast and slow evolution limits; Method 2 identifies how the amount of standing predator genetic variation alters system stability; Method 3 identifies how the phase lags in predator-prey cycles depend on the amount of genetic variation; and Method 4 determines conditions for different cycle shapes in the fast and slow evolution limits using geometric singular perturbation theory. With these four methods, we identify the conditions under which predator evolution alters system stability and shapes of predator-prey cycles, and how those effect depend on the amount of genetic variation in the predator population. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the relations between the four methods. This work shows how the four methods can be used in tandem to make general predictions about eco-evolutionary dynamics and feedbacks.

  8. Effect of Growing Size of Interaction Neighbors on the Evolution of Cooperation in Spatial Snowdrift Game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanjuan; Sun Shiwen; Wang Li; Xia Chengyi; Wang Juan; Wang Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the size of interaction neighbors (k) on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial snowdrift game. At first, we consider the effects of noise K and cost-to-benefit ratio r, the simulation results indicate that the evolution of cooperation depends on the combined action of noise and cost-to-benefit ratio. For a lower r, the cooperators are multitudinous and the cooperation frequency ultimately increases to 1 as the increase of noise. However, for a higher r, the defectors account for the majority of the game and dominate the game if the noise is large enough. Then we mainly investigate how k influences the evolution of cooperation by varying the noise in detail. We find that the frequency of cooperators is closely related to the size of neighborhood and cost-to-benefit ratio r. In the case of lower r, the augmentation of k plays no positive role in promoting the cooperation as compared with that of k = 4, while for higher r the cooperation is improved for a growing size of neighborhood. At last, based on the above discussions, we explore the cluster-forming mechanism among the cooperators. The current results are beneficial to further understand the evolution of cooperation in many natural, social and biological systems. (general)

  9. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Corine S; van Weert, Julia C M; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-13

    Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that

  10. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  11. The effectiveness of computer-generated 3D animations in inquiry chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Rachel Morgan

    It has been shown that students need a molecular-level understanding of substances in order to comprehend chemistry. For solid structures, atomic-level understanding requires students to learn additional and different concepts than for other states of matter. To aid understanding, animations were created to model unit cell structures and depict the properties of unit cells. In order to determine if these animations are helpful to students, they were tested during a laboratory exercise in which students had previously been using model kits and images from textbooks to learn about solid structures. Students evaluated in this study were from two lecture sections of general chemistry, one that routinely used animations during lecture and one that used a more traditional lecture format that did not include animations or models. Twelve laboratory sections of these lectures, taught by six different instructors each teaching two sections, were chosen for participation. One section for each instructor was given the animations as an optional tool for completing the laboratory assignment, which consisted of questions about unit cells and crystal structures. The results of the study indicate that students who looked at the animations performed significantly better on the assignment. For the control group, students who routinely viewed multiple representations of chemistry in lecture performed significantly better on the lab assignment than students in the lecture section where chemistry concepts were only presented on the chalkboard and overhead projector. Students in the traditional lecture section also had significantly less appreciation for the model kits used in the laboratory than students in the other lecture section. Observations of students in the lab combined with statistical results led to the revision of the solid structures investigation. Additional animations were created and inserted into the module that covered areas where students indicated more help was needed

  12. Resveratrol provoca efeitos antiaterogênicos em um modelo animal de aterosclerose Resveratrol causes antiatherogenic effects in an animal model of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossane Serafim Matos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O resveratrol protege o sistema cardiovascular por meio de uma série de mecanismos, incluindo atividades antioxidantes e antiplaquetárias. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os possíveis efeitos anti-inflamatórios e antiaterogênicos do resveratrol, utilizando coelhos alimentados com uma dieta hipercolesterolêmica (1% de colesterol. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos brancos adultos do sexo masculino foram selecionados e divididos em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC, 10 coelhos; e grupo resveratrol (GR, 10 coelhos. Os animais foram alimentados com uma dieta hipercolesterolêmica por 56 dias. Para a dieta do GR, o resveratrol (2mg/kg peso/dia foi adicionado do 33º ao 56º dia. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no colesterol sérico total, no colesterol HDL, no colesterol LDL e nos triglicerídeos. No GC, 70% apresentaram lesões ateroscleróticas avançadas da aorta (tipos III, IV, V ou VI. Todos os animais do GR apresentaram lesões ateroscleróticas leves da aorta (tipos I ou II ou não apresentaram lesões. A razão entre a área intimal e a área da camada intimal/medial mostrou-se significativamente menor no GR quando comparada ao GC (p BACKGROUND: Resveratrol protects the cardiovascular system by a number of mechanisms, including antioxidant and anti-platelet activities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects of resveratrol using rabbits fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol. METHODS: Twenty white male rabbits were selected and divided into two groups: control group (CG, 10 rabbits; and resveratrol group (RG, 10 rabbits. The animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 56 days. For the RG diet, resveratrol (2mg/kg weight/day was added from days 33 - 56. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the total serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides between the groups. Of the CG, 70% had advanced aortic atherosclerotic lesions (types

  13. Effect of insertion torque on titanium implant osseointegration: an animal experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Joke; Roesems, Rutger; Cardoso, Marcio V; Ogawa, Toru; De Villa Camargos, Germana; Vandamme, Katleen

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of implant insertion torque on the peri-implant bone healing and implant osseointegration. Bilaterally in the tibia of five adult New Zealand white rabbits, 20 implants were installed, subdivided into four groups, corresponding to two insertion torque conditions (low, 50 Ncm) and 2 experimental periods (2 weeks vs. 4 weeks of healing). The implant insertion torque was determined by the surgical drill diameter relative to the implant diameter. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by quantitative histology (bone-to-implant contact with host bone [BIC-host], with neoformed bone [BIC-de novo], with both bone types [BIC-total], and peri-implant bone [BA/TA]). Every response was modelled over time using GEE (general estimation equation) with an unstructured variance-covariance matrix to correct for dependency between the measurements from one animal. The statistical significance level of α = 0.05 was applied. Significantly, more BIC-host and BIC-total were recorded for H implants compared with L implants after 2 week of healing (P = 0.010 and P = 0.0001, respectively). However, this result was no longer found for the extended healing period. Furthermore, BIC-total significantly increased over time for L implants (P torque led to an increased BA/TA after 4 week of healing (P torque implants installed in the rabbit tibial bone osseointegrate with considerable de novo bone formation. This bone neoformation enables L implants to catch up, already during the early osseointegration stage, the initial inferior amount BIC contact compared with that of H implants. A negative impact of the created strain environment accompanying H insertion torque implant installation on the biological process of osseointegration could not be observed, at least not at tissue level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  15. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  16. Assessment of the relative biological effectiveness of LVR-15 nuclear reactor neutron beam by a simple animal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Burian, J.; Prokeš, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2002), s. 5-19 ISSN 1212-3137 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC6473; GA MPO FD-K/048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : effectiveness of LVR-15 nuclear reactor * body irradiation * animal model Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  17. Effects of Static Visuals and Computer-Generated Animations in Facilitating Immediate and Delayed Achievement in the EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen; Chen, Tsuiping; Dwyer, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the effects of using static visuals versus computer-generated animation to enhance learners' comprehension and retention of a content-based lesson in a computer-based learning environment for learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Fifty-eight students from two EFL reading sections were…

  18. Effect of Jigsaw II, Reading-Writing-Presentation, and Computer Animations on the Teaching of "Light" Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Yasemin; Yildiz, Emre; Çaliklar, Seyma; Simsek, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw II technique, reading-writing-presentation method, and computer animation on students' academic achievements, epistemological beliefs, attitudes towards science lesson, and the retention of knowledge in the "Light" unit covered in the 7th grade. The sample of the study consists…

  19. Effect of Roughage Source and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Animal Performance and Rumen Development in Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four male Holstein-Friesian x Dutch Friesian veal calves (46 ± 3.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels and sources of dietary roughage on animal performance and rumen development. Treatments consisted of 1) C100 = concentrate only; 2) C70-S30 = concentrate

  20. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The

  1. The Effects of Animation Supported 5E Model on Teaching "Indicative and Subjunctive Moods" in 7th Grade Turkish Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Fatih; Kiliç, Latife Kirbasoglu

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of animated 5E method on the success, attitude and opinions towards the course in teaching of "subjunctive and indicative moods" subject of 7th grade Turkish course. The study was conducted with 60 seventh grade students of a state-run secondary school in Palandöken district of Erzurum during the…

  2. Effects of using visualization and animation in presentations to communities about forest succession and fire behavior potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Garrett O' Keefe

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource managers use a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to the public. We explored the effects of using the Stand Visualization System to visualize and animate predictions from the Forest Vegetation Simulator-Fire and Fuels Extension in presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change...

  3. Effect of 3D animation videos over 2D video projections in periodontal health education among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhulipalla, Ravindranath; Marella, Yamuna; Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Nagamani, Penupothu; Talada, Kishore; Kakarlapudi, Anusha

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence about the distinguished effect of 3D oral health education videos over conventional 2 dimensional projections in improving oral health knowledge. This randomized controlled trial was done to test the effect of 3 dimensional oral health educational videos among first year dental students. 80 first year dental students were enrolled and divided into two groups (test and control). In the test group, 3D animation and in the control group, regular 2D video projections pertaining to periodontal anatomy, etiology, presenting conditions, preventive measures and treatment of periodontal problems were shown. Effect of 3D animation was evaluated by using a questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple choice questions given to all participants at baseline, immediately after and 1month after the intervention. Clinical parameters like Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) were measured at baseline and 1 month follow up. A significant difference in the post intervention knowledge scores was found between the groups as assessed by unpaired t-test (p3D animation videos are more effective over 2D videos in periodontal disease education and knowledge recall. The application of 3D animation results also demonstrate a better visual comprehension for students and greater health care outcomes.

  4. Effects of in-feed Chlortetracycline Prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a one-time, five-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health (morbidity and body weight gain), occurrence of TETr E. coli, and occurrence of 3GCr E. coli over a four-month follow-up period. Experimental Design & Analysis: We eval...

  5. Effects of Childhood Adversity on Bullying and Cruelty to Animals in the United States: Findings from a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were…

  6. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic ascarid nematodes can survive and remain infective in the environment for years. The present study evaluated a simple in vitro method and evaluation scheme to assess the relative effect of two species of soil microfungi, Pochonia chlamydosporia Biotype 10...

  7. Effect of administration method, animal weight and age on the intranasal delivery of drugs to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Arun, Peethambaran; Chembukave, Bhadra; Appu, Abhilash P; Vijayakumar, Nivetha; Moffett, John R; Puthillathu, Narayanan; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2017-07-15

    The intranasal route of administration has proven to be an effective method for bypassing the blood brain barrier and avoiding first pass hepatic metabolism when targeting drugs to the brain. Most small molecules gain rapid access to CNS parenchyma when administered intranasally. However, bioavailability is affected by various factors ranging from the molecular weight of the drug to the mode of intranasal delivery. We examined the effects of animal posture, intranasal application method and animal weight and age on the delivery of radiolabeled pralidoxime ( 3 H-2-PAM) to the brain of rats. We found that using upright vs. supine posture did not significantly affect 3 H-2-PAM concentrations in different brain regions. Older animals with higher weights required increased doses to achieve the same drug concentration throughout the brain when compared to young animals with lower body weights. The use of an intranasal aerosol propelled delivery device mainly increased bioavailability in the olfactory bulbs, but did not reliably increase delivery of the drug to various other brain regions, and in some regions of the brain delivered less of the drug than simple pipette administration. In view of the emerging interest in the use of intranasal delivery of drugs to combat cognitive decline in old age, we tested effectiveness in very old rats and found the method to be as effective in the older rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Life-span radiation effects studies in animals: What can they tell us: DOE symposium series 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. Authors describe research programs at several major research laboratories. Various aspects of numerous experiments are described. Data from the effects of low-dose irradiation experiments involving animals are extrapolated to man

  9. Effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music and Computer Animation on Senior Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' academic achievement in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…

  10. Relative Effect of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music and Computer Animation on Senior Secondary School Students' Retention in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpoghol, T. V.; Ezeudu, F. O.; Adzape, J. N.; Otor, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Lecture Method Supplemented with Music (LMM) and Computer Animation (LMC) on senior secondary school students' retention in electrochemistry in Makurdi metropolis. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi experimental, specifically the pre-test,…

  11. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  12. Fluorine emissions of industrial origin. Effect of fluorine on plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1927-05-01

    Shrinkage and drooping of cress plants and grass, and lesions in dandelion leaves, caused by a 1-hr exposure to fluorine vapors in a test chamber are described. In the vicinity of an aluminum plant, where the electrolyte bath is composed of cryolite, a sodium aluminum fluoride, vegetables and the leaves of fruit trees show signs of burning and great damage can be observed on forest trees. Animals are affected by fluoride through their fodder. Guinea pigs fed plant food exposed to hydrofluoric acid gases develop fluorosis, but with very small concentrations, death may occur only after a year or more. Cows afflicted with this disease due to fodder harvested in fluorine-infested areas show initial symptoms of lameness of one or more legs, stamping by the animal, resting on one leg and then the other, inability to rise, and spontaneous sprains and bone fractures occurring in the stable. After several months, the animal gradually grows thin with a dry, hard hide and eventually dies. Experiments with corpses of animals who died of fluorosis have shown that their bones are more brittle than those of normal healthy animals.

  13. Animal Detection in Natural Images: Effects of Color and Image Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID) that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagued the widely used COREL images. Color and grayscale images picked from the ANID and COREL databases were used. In all experiments, color images induced a greater N1 EEG component at earlier time points than grayscale images. We suggest that this influence of color in animal detection may be masked by later processes when measuring reation times. The ERP results of go/nogo and forced choice tasks were similar to those reported earlier. The non-animal stimuli induced bigger N1 than animal stimuli both in the COREL and ANID databases. This result indicates ultra-fast processing of animal images is possible irrespective of the particular database. With the ANID images, the difference between color and grayscale images is more pronounced than with the COREL images. The earlier use of the COREL images might have led to an underestimation of the contribution of color. Therefore, we conclude that the ANID image database is better suited for the investigation of the processing of natural scenes than other databases commonly used. PMID:24130744

  14. Technological Evolution and its Effects on Graphic Design and Textbook Design

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Danielle Renae

    2012-01-01

    Technological Evolution and its Effects on Graphic Design and Textbook Design Although fundamental principles of art and design have been around for thousands of years, the development of new technology has greatly altered how designers must use these foundations. This paper investigates how this complex history has changed graphic design practices and specifically the design of textbooks. It also discusses technology’s huge role in changing the way design fundamentals are taught and practice...

  15. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  16. Action of some herbicides in photosynthesis of Scenedesmus as studied by their effects on oxygen evolution and cyclic photophosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.

    1971-01-01

    The mode of action of some herbicides, viz., DCMU, simetone, and diquat, was investigated by studying their effects upon oxygen evolution and cyclic photophosphorylation in the unicellular green alga, Scenedesmus spec.

    Oxygen evolution was measured with the aid of the WARBURG

  17. Final Report - Epigenetics of low dose radiation effects in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-10-22

    This project sought mechanistic understanding of the epigenetic response of tissues as well as the consequences of those responses, when induced by low dose irradiation in a well-established model system (mouse). Based on solid and extensive preliminary data we investigated the molecular epigenetic mechanisms of in vivo radiation responses, particularly – effects of low, occupationally relevant radiation exposures on the genome stability and adaptive response in mammalian tissues and organisms. We accumulated evidence that low dose irradiation altered epigenetic profiles and impacted radiation target organs of the exposed animals. The main long-term goal was to dissect the epigenetic basis of induction of the low dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response and the specific fundamental roles of epigenetic changes (i.e. DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs) in their generation. We hypothesized that changes in global and regional DNA methylation, global histone modifications and regulatory microRNAs played pivotal roles in the generation and maintenance low-dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response. We predicted that epigenetic changes influenced the levels of genetic rearrangements (transposone reactivation). We hypothesized that epigenetic responses from low dose irradiation were dependent on exposure regimes, and would be greatest when organisms are exposed in a protracted/fractionated manner: fractionated exposures > acute exposures. We anticipated that the epigenetic responses were correlated with the gene expression levels. Our immediate objectives were: • To investigate the exact nature of the global and locus-specific DNA methylation changes in the LDR exposed cells and tissues and dissect their roles in adaptive response • To investigate the roles of histone modifications in the low dose radiation effects and adaptive response • To dissect the roles of regulatory microRNAs and their targets in low

  18. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sjamsul Bahri; T Syafriati

    2011-01-01

    The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on), variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease) or old di...

  19. Effects of Affiliative Human–Animal Interaction on Dog Salivary and Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are neuropeptides with diverse effects on social behavior, cognition and stress responses. Recent studies suggest that OT facilitates and responds to affiliative forms of human–animal interaction (HAI. However, previous studies measuring OT and AVP in dogs have been limited to measures from blood or urine, which present concerns related to the invasiveness of sample collection, the potential for matrix interference in immunoassays, and whether samples can be collected at precise time points to assess event-linked endocrine responses. Previous studies from our laboratory validated salivary measures of OT and AVP in dogs, however, it is currently unknown whether these measures respond dynamically to aspects of HAI. Here, we investigated the effects of affiliative forms of HAI on both plasma and salivary OT and AVP in dogs. We employed a within- and between-subjects design with a group of Labrador retrievers and Labrador retriever × golden retriever crosses (23 females, 15 males. Half of the dogs engaged in 10 min of free-form friendly interaction with a human experimenter (HAI condition, and the other half rested quietly in the same environment, without human interaction (control condition. We collected blood and saliva samples before, and immediately following both experimental conditions, and all samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs following previously validated protocols. Dogs participating in HAI exhibited a significant increase in both salivary OT (+39% and plasma OT (+5.7% whereas dogs in the control group did not. Salivary AVP showed no change in the HAI group but increased significantly (+33% in the control group. Plasma AVP decreased significantly following HAI (-13% but did not change across time in the control condition. Within the dogs exposed to HAI, increases in salivary OT, and decreases in plasma AVP, were predicted by the extent of affiliative behavior between

  20. Priority effects are weakened by a short, but not long, history of sympatric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Peter C; Fukami, Tadashi

    2018-01-31

    Priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on local species abundances, have been documented in a range of taxa. However, factors determining the extent to which priority effects affect community assembly remain unclear. Using laboratory populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens , we examined whether shared evolutionary history affected the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that sympatric evolution of populations belonging to the same guild would lead to niche differentiation, resulting in phenotypic complementarity that weakens priority effects. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that priority effects tended to be weaker in sympatrically evolved pairs of immigrating populations than in allopatrically evolved pairs. Furthermore, priority effects were weaker under higher phenotypic complementarity. However, these patterns were observed only in populations with a relatively short history of sympatric evolution, and disappeared when populations had evolved together for a long time. Together, our results suggest that the evolutionary history of organismal traits may dictate the strength of priority effects and, consequently, the extent of historical contingency in the assembly of ecological communities. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Effect of iron deficiency on the biodistribution and tumor uptake of Ga-67 citrate in animals: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.P.; Alderson, P.O.; Weiss, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the effect of iron deficiency on the biodistribution and tumor uptake of Ga-67 citrate, 20 weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 6 to 8 weeks on a low-iron diet. Eighteen littermates were maintained on a normal iron diet and served as controls. Animals received 10 μCi Ga-67 citrate, and urine and feces were collected for 48 h. The animals were then killed, tissue samples were obtained, and serum iron and unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) were measured. The accumulation of Ga-67 in the liver and spleen (% injected dose) was markedly increased in iron-deficient animals and urinary excretion was reduced. Tumor uptake was not significantly different in iron-deficient and control animals, but tumor-to-blood ratios were elevated (p < 0.001) in the iron-deficient animals because of low blood levels of Ga-67. The liver and spleen accumulation of Ga-67 correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with the UIBC. The results show that iron deficiency alters the distribution of Ga-67 citrate, and suggest that the variable liver-spleen uptake seen in clinical Ga-67 images may be explained, in part, by changes in serum iron and UIBC

  2. The Effects of Collaborative Care of Living Animals in Biology Lessons on Students' Relatedness Toward Their Teacher Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Alexander; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The transition from elementary school to the upper grades can lead to ambiguous feelings toward the new, male teachers. This study investigated whether collaborative animal care in biology lessons affects students' feelings of relatedness toward their biology teachers positively during the first year after the school transition. Four hundred twenty fifth graders (M age = 10.5 years, SD age = 0.6 years) of higher types of tracking participated. We designed one experimental group that involved caring for the living animals to be used in the upcoming lessons, and two control groups. The first control group included lessons with living animals, but did not include prior care of those animals, and the second incorporated neither living animals nor prior care. All groups received biology lessons with the same content. To examine the effects of caretaking, we used an adapted version of the scale "relatedness" (Ryan 1982). In both control groups, boys showed lower relatedness toward female teachers and girls toward male teachers, respectively. Collaborative mice care promoted equal relatedness across all gender combinations among teachers and students.

  3. The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: playing cat and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-05-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection. Such behavioral alterations appear to be the product of strong selective pressures for the parasite to enhance transmission from its intermediate host reservoir, primarily rodent, to its feline definitive host, wherein sexual reproduction can occur and the life cycle completed. This article reviews evidence of behavioral alterations in animal hosts and considers what these may elucidate about the potential mechanisms involved and what implications such alterations could have on animal and human health.

  4. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, A. W. [Division of Radiological Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1967-07-15

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man.

  5. The role of progestins in the behavioral effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse: human and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from human and animal research investigating the influence of progesterone and its metabolites allopreganolone and pregnanolone (progestins) on the effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. Since a majority of these studies have used cocaine, this will be the primary focus; however, the influence of progestins on other drugs of abuse will also be discussed. Collectively, findings from these studies support a role for progestins in (1) attenuating the subjective and physiological effects of cocaine in humans, (2) blocking the reinforcing and other behavioral effects of cocaine in animal models of drug abuse, and (3) influencing behavioral responses to other drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in animals. Administration of several drugs of abuse in both human and nonhuman animals significantly increased progestin levels, and this is explained in terms of progestins acting as homeostatic regulators that decrease and normalize heightened stress and reward responses which lead to increased drug craving and relapse. The findings discussed here highlight the complexity of progestin-drug interactions, and they suggest a possible use for these agents in understanding the etiology of and developing treatments for drug abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review of the effects of euthanasia and occupational stress in personnel working with animals in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Rebekah L; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Keates, Helen L

    2015-11-15

    The study of occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal-related occupations has gained momentum over the last decade. However, there remains incongruence in understanding what is currently termed compassion fatigue and the associated unique contributory factors. Furthermore, there is minimal established evidence of the likely influence of these conditions on the health and well-being of individuals working in various animal-related occupations. To assess currently available evidence and terminology regarding occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. Studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases with no publication date restrictions: ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Social Science Journals, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PsychINFO databases, and Google Scholar. Search terms included (euthanasia AND animals) OR (compassion fatigue AND animals) OR (occupational stress AND animals). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals that included use of quantitative or qualitative techniques to investigate the incidence of occupational stress or compassion fatigue in the veterinary profession or animal-related occupations were included. On the basis of predefined criteria, 1 author extracted articles, and the data set was then independently reviewed by the other 2 authors. 12 articles met the selection criteria and included a variety of study designs and methods of data analysis. Seven studies evaluated animal shelter personnel, with the remainder evaluating veterinary nurses and technicians (2), biomedical research technicians (1), and personnel in multiple animal-related occupations (2). There was a lack of consistent terminology and agreed definitions for the articles reviewed. Personnel directly engaged in euthanasia reported significantly higher levels of work stress and lower

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Maternal effects and the evolution of brain size in birds: overlooked developmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N; Surai, P

    2007-01-01

    A central dogma for the evolution of brain size posits that the maintenance of large brains incurs developmental costs, because they need prolonged periods to grow during the early ontogeny. Such constraints are supported by the interspecific relationship between ontological differences and relative brain size in birds and mammals. Given that mothers can strongly influence the development of the offspring via maternal effects that potentially involve substances essential for growing brains, we argue that such effects may represent an important but overlooked component of developmental constraints on brain size. To demonstrate the importance of maternal effect on the evolution of brains, we investigated the interspecific relationship between relative brain size and maternal effects, as reflected by yolk testosterone, carotenoids, and vitamins A and E in a phylogenetic study of birds. Females of species with relatively large brains invested more in eggs in terms of testosterone and vitamin E than females of species with small brains. The effects of carotenoid and vitamin A levels on the evolution of relative brain size were weaker and non-significant. The association between relative brain size and yolk testosterone was curvilinear, suggesting that very high testosterone levels can be suppressive. However, at least in moderate physiological ranges, the positive relationship between components of maternal effects and relative brain size may imply one aspect of developmental costs of large brains. The relationship between vitamin E and relative brain size was weakened when we controlled for developmental mode, and thus the effect of this antioxidant may be indirect. Testosterone-enhanced neurogenesis and vitamin E-mediated defence against oxidative stress may have key functions when the brain of the embryo develops, with evolutionary consequences for relative brain size.

  9. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  10. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Rytter, Hana Malá; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used...

  11. Life-span radiation effects studies in animals: what can they tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1984-05-01

    Results from life-span studies in a variety of animal species have found relatively little application in the development of radiation risk factors for various organs of man. This paper discusses possible reasons for this situation and presents recommendations to correct it

  12. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  13. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and the effect of interventions in food-producing animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado Garcia, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372621023

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the animal-human interface of the emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR) problem. It focuses on two relevant bacterial species imposing a burden for human health: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing)

  14. Simulated Environments with Animated Agents: Effects on Visual Attention, Emotion, Performance, and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hall, E.; Watson, G. S.; Adcock, A.; Bliss, J.; Adams Tufts, K.

    2016-01-01

    This research assessed how emotive animated agents in a simulation-based training affect the performance outcomes and perceptions of the individuals interacting in real time with the training application. A total of 56 participants consented to complete the study. The material for this investigation included a nursing simulation in which…

  15. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the

  16. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  17. Animated Pedagogical Agents Effects on Enhancing Student Motivation and Learning in a Science Inquiry Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; Harmsen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and testing of a motivational animated pedagogical agent (APA) in an inquiry learning environment on kinematics. The aim of including the APA was to enhance students' perceptions of task relevance and self-efficacy. Given the under-representation of girls in science classrooms, special attention was given to…

  18. Animated pedagogical agents effects on enhancing student motivation and learning in a science inquiry learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; Harmsen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and testing of a motivational animated pedagogical agent (APA) in an inquiry learning environment on kinematics. The aim of including the APA was to enhance students’ perceptions of task relevance and self-efficacy. Given the under-representation of girls in science

  19. Animal Protein intake and the Effect of age on the level of Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the items such as eggs, milk and poultry meat were not consumed in reasonable quantities due to poor economic situation of the family. The results suggested that except for the fathers, other groups such as mothers and children were consuming animal protein below the quantity required by them. JARD Vol.

  20. Animated pedagogical agents effects on enhancing student motivation and learning in a science inquiry learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; Harmsen, Ruth

    This study focuses on the design and testing of a motivational animated pedagogical agent (APA) in an inquiry learning environment on kinematics. The aim of including the APA was to enhance students’ perceptions of task relevance and selfefficacy. Given the under-representation of girls in science