Sample records for animals ethnoveterinary practices

  1. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Practices for Mastitis in Dairy Animals in Pakistan

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    S. M. Raihan Dilshad, N. U. Rehman*, Nazir Ahmad and A. Iqbal1


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs used for the control and treatment of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in the Sargodha district, Pakistan. The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs over a period of 16 months from September 2005 to December 2006. Thus, 25 different plant species belonging to 20 different families were documented from the study area for the treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis in bovines (cattle and bubalines (dairy buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The most frequently reported (≥10 times plant species were Capsicum annuum L. (n = 32, Lepidium sativum L. (n =31, Allium sativum L. (n = 28, Sesamum indicum L. (n = 24, Citrus limon (L. Burm. f (n = 22, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (n = 18, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (n = 18, Curcuma longa L. (n = 16, Cuminum cyminum L. (n = 14, Rosa indica L. (n = 13, Centratherum anthelmisticum L. (n = 12, Triticum aestivum L (n = 11, Nigella sativa L. (n = 11 and Peganum harmala L. (n = 11. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of this problem included ammonium chloride. The richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for mastitis merit controlled studies for their validation.

  2. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto


    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As


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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. The folk knowledge of ethno-veterinary medicine and its significance has been identified by the traditional communities through a process of experience over hundreds of years. The present paper documented ethno-veterinary practices of tribals related to different medicinal problems in their livestock. The study was conducted in purposively selected Sabarkantha district of Gujarat. A total of 120 tribal families were selected from 8 selected villages of 2 talukas namely Khedbhramha and Vijaynagar. Data were collected through interview and detailed discussion with traditional healers and family members those known about indigenous traditional knowledge. An inventory of 36 practices was prepared in 14 different ailments. Tribals prepared fermented product (alcohol of Mahua (Madhuca indica seed and drench to affected animals for removal of endo-parasites. Traditional healers prepared a paste of haldi (Curcuma longa mixed with linseed (Linum usitatissium oil and apply on ulcers of FMD. A mixture of crushed fruits of Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis along with 2-3 litres chaach (Butter milk drench to the animal at 6 hour interval in 2 doses, tribals reported that  this is very effective for quick eruption of gases of animals suffering from tympany. KEY WORDS: Tribals, Ethno-veterinary practices, Medicinal problems.

  4. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

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    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy


    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  5. Ethnoveterinary practices and Potential Herbal Materials for the Treatment of Ticks in North Gondar

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    Achenef Melaku


    Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90

  6. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals. (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy


    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  7. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  8. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

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    Shen Shicai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  9. Natural Remedies and Nutraceuticals Used in Ethnoveterinary Practices in Inland Southern Italy

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    Pieroni, A.; Howard, P.; Volpato, G.; Santoro, R.F.


    Traditional animal health practices are today only rarely used in Europe, as many natural remedies applied for the treatment of animals have been replaced by modern pharmaceuticals. Modern institutionalized veterinary services tend to cover every aspect of animal health care, and influence most of t

  10. Compilation and adoption of ethno-veterinary medicine, traditional and other management practices by small ruminant farmers in Edo State Nigeria. (United States)

    Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J


    An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged.

  11. Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. (United States)

    González, José Antonio; Amich, Francisco; Postigo-Mota, Salvador; Vallejo, José Ramón


    Zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine are important in many socio-cultural environments around the world, particularly in developing countries, and they have recently started to be inventoried and studied in Europe. In light of this, the purpose of this review is to describe the local knowledge and folk remedies based on the use of invertebrates and their derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. An overview in the fields of ethnozoology, ethnoveterinary medicine and folklore was made. Automated searches in the most important databases were performed. All related works were examined thoroughly and use-reports were obtained from 53 documentary sources. The traditional use of 18 invertebrate species and five ethnotaxa and a total of 86 empirical remedies based on the use of a single species was recorded. The two most relevant zoological groups were found to be insects and molluscs. A broad diversity of body parts or derivative products have been and are used to treat or prevent ca. 50 animal diseases or conditions, in particular diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, different infectious livestock diseases, and disorders of the eye and adnexa. Cattle, sheep and equines form the group of domestic animals in which the greatest number of remedies are mentioned. In addition, seven magical remedies and practices are documented. In comparison with other culturally related areas, this is a rich heritage. The use-reports included here will help in the search for new and low-cost drugs for treating livestock and alternative materials for pharmaceutical purposes, future research addressing the validation of the effects and the development of organic farming.

  12. Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine


    González, José Antonio; Amich, Francisco; Postigo-Mota, Salvador; Vallejo, José Ramón


    Zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine are important in many socio-cultural environments around the world, particularly in developing countries, and they have recently started to be inventoried and studied in Europe. In light of this, the purpose of this review is to describe the local knowledge and folk remedies based on the use of invertebrates and their derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. An overview in the fields of ethnozoology, ethnoveteri...

  13. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

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    Younas Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Methods Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. Results The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink. Conclusions There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.


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    Full Text Available A survey of medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine was carried out in Tendukheda, district Narsinghpur, Madhya Pradesh with the cooperation of Vaidyas and elderly farmers. Being a remote area, any type of modern healthcare facility is not present here and the poverty of indigenous people makes them completely dependent on the local ethnic medicinal plants for the health of their domestic animals. The study focuses on local medical plants with ethno-veterinary uses. In this paper, 17 plants with ethno-veterinary importance have been reported. The paper contains their botanical names, local names, families, plant parts used, methods of drug preparation and animal disease curing properties.

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  16. Creole Remedies - Case studies of ethnoveterinary medicine in Trinidad and Tobago


    Lans, C.


    ContextThe popular pharmacopoeia of Trinidad and Tobago is the result of a Creole pan-Caribbean culture, closely linked to history, and the result of a South American Indian, African, European and Asian heritage (Lans, 1996; Moodie-Kublalsingh, 1994; Littlewood, 1988; Simpson, 1962; Niehoff, 1959). Ethnoveterinary medicine in this thesis is the local, mainly plant-based medicines used for animals. Low cost inputs are necessary and important to the future of livestock production in Trinidad an...

  17. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice. (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M


    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  18. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

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    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F


    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  19. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

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    Kiessling, Fabian [Aachen Univ. (RWTH) (Germany). Chair of Experimental Molecular Imaging; Pichler, Bernd J. (eds.) [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation


    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  20. Barking up the same tree: a comparison of ethnomedicine and canine ethnoveterinary medicine among the Aguaruna

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    Jernigan Kevin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work focuses on plant-based preparations that the Aguaruna Jivaro of Peru give to hunting dogs. Many plants are considered to improve dogs' sense of smell or stimulate them to hunt better, while others treat common illnesses that prevent dogs from hunting. This work places canine ethnoveterinary medicine within the larger context of Aguaruna ethnomedicine, by testing the following hypotheses: H1 -- Plants that the Aguaruna use to treat dogs will be the same plants that they use to treat people and H2 -- Plants that are used to treat both people and dogs will be used for the same illnesses in both cases. Methods Structured interviews with nine key informants were carried out in 2007, in Aguaruna communities in the Peruvian department of Amazonas. Informants provided freelists of plants given to dogs and explained the purpose, preparation and route of administration used. For each plant, informants also described any uses for treating people. Botanical voucher specimens were collected and additional informal observations were made, accompanying people on hunting trips. Results Out of 35 plant species given to dogs, 29 (83% are also given to humans for some medicinal purpose, while five are used only for dogs. However, the same plant is used to treat the same illness in both humans and dogs in only 53% of the cases. Forty-three percent of plants used to treat a particular illness for both dogs and people are administered in the same manner for both. Conclusion Results suggest that Aguaruna canine ethnoveterinary medicine is, at least partly, an independent cognitive domain. Some of the difference in plant use between dogs and people can be explained by the fact that certain diseases mentioned only apply to dogs. Although reports of canine ethnoveterinary medicine are very sparse in the literature, Aguaruna practices show some similarities with a few trends reported for other Amazonian societies, particularly, in the

  1. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice. (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa


    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  2. Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues - a review

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    I. Mohanty


    Full Text Available Galactogogues elicit pharmacological effects, resulting in increased prolactin concentration through interactions with dopamine receptors and thereby augmenting milk supply. Commercially available synthetic drugs induce adverse effect on the neuro-endocrine axis of lactation physiology. Their prolonged uses have caused toxicity which opens a detrimental platform to normal health status of both human and animals. So the researchers have developed a keen interest in traditional herbs, because these are easily available, cheap and with a hope that they may not leave any toxic residues in milk. Phyto-pharmacological research on natural products can contribute for the discovery of new active compounds with novel structures which may serve as a lead for the development of new galactogogues. Although majority of these herbal preparations have not been evaluated their traditional use suggests that they are safe and effective. The purpose of this review paper was to succinctly review recent progress made in the field of commercially available and tranditional galactogogues.

  3. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment. (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry


    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  4. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa


    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  5. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

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    Georges Karla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  6. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment. (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S


    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  7. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice. (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J


    Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.

  8. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice: from theory to practice. (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F


    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements for establishing stewardship programs at the clinic level. The authors provide suggestions and approaches to overcome constraints and to move from theoretic concepts toward implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in small animal clinics.

  9. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

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    D. Van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  10. A survey of surgical draping practices in small-animal practice in the UK. (United States)

    Delisser, P J; Sinnett, D E; Parsons, K J; Friend, E J


    Veterinary practices in the United Kingdom were surveyed to compare their surgical draping practices with Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors. Using descriptive statistics and logistic or ordinal regression analysis (where appropriate), the relationships between draping material and accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors were assessed. Procedures were categorised as short or long. Two hundred and sixty-nine surveys were completed. Reusable drapes were used in 66 per cent of practices. Antibiotics were administered routinely in 38 per cent of short and 93 per cent of long procedures. Practices accredited as a Veterinary Hospital (VH) were 6.3-7.2 (short and long surgeries, respectively) times more likely to use disposable drapes, when compared with non-accredited practices. Use of dedicated surgical attire, draping the whole animal/table, and routine antibiotic usage were also positively correlated with disposable drape usage. Fifty-one per cent of practices rated infection rate as most important when choosing drape material. 'Best practice' techniques are associated with lower importance given to infection rate, and higher importance given to financial cost, when choosing drape material. Disposable drape use correlates with RCVS accreditation and with other aspects of surgical technique. Importance ratings awarded correlate with best practice procedures. Clinical relevance 'Best practice' draping procedures, that are not governed by RCVS accreditation scheme, are also more frequently performed in accredited VHs.

  11. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice. (United States)

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A


    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.

  12. Practical Implementation of Animation for Students of Pedagogical Studies at MIAS CTU in Prague

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    D. Vaněček


    Full Text Available This paper shows computer animation as a teaching and learning instrument in technical education. Our aim is to show good practice in creating computer animations. The paper includes an example, which can serve as a practical guide for teachers of technical subjects.

  13. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--“who sent lfowers to animation, for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industries in the animation industry began to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of animation who sent flowers as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  14. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge


    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  15. Ethno-Veterinary Drug Therapy for Ear Mange in Sheep

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    Full Text Available Sheep from two flocks showed scab lesions around nostrils, eyes and on the face with facial alopecia and thickening of the skin. The case was confirmed as ear mite (Psorcopt ovis by microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Percent incidence in flock I and Flock II recorded was 12.5, 11.4 respectively. Affected sheep were divided into two groups each containing nine animals. Group I was treated with preparation containing 50ml Azadirachta indica oil, 50ml Pogamia pinnata oil, 25gm Camphor, 50gm Sulphur powder and 500ml coconut oil applied on an affected skin twice a day for 15 days and Group II treated with preparation having 50gm of Curcuma longa rhizome and 25gm of Azadirachta indica oil applied once a day for 15 days. The first preparation was found highly effective against ear mange in sheep. It was found to be very convenient for use in field conditions, did not cause any adverse reaction locally as well as systemically. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 295-296

  16. Out of the dissection room. An experience of outdoor practical sessions for animal anatomy education


    ParésCasanova, M.


    Practical exercises are an essential component of anatomy education, so anatomy sessions including dissection are essentialfor animal anatomy courses. In Spain there are not difficulties in obtaining farm animal corpses for educational purposes(although some sanitary laws restrict it in certain cases) neither in general ethical constraints. From 2009 we have been doingoutdoor animal dissection for 1st level students of the “Animal Health and Science” degree course of the University of Lleidai...

  17. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

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    Larry Carbone

    Full Text Available Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC, which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia. 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE

  18. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare. (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M


    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  19. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice]. (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K


    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Despite their wide and variable use, only a very small number of placebo-controlled studies has been published. Positive effects in preventing kitten mortality and in treating feline stomatitis have been reported, however, no statistically significant effect of their therapeutic use in canine parvovirus infection, feline leukemia infection virus infection or canine papillomavirus infection could be demonstrated. For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective.

  20. Animal Husbandry Practices of Organic Farmers: An Appraisal

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    Full Text Available In Uttarakhand organic farming is being promoted through a special institution i.e. Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB through registering the farmers and orienting them towards organic farming. Organic farmers currently practicing and marketing only organic crop products. However, their livestock production practices are also similar to recommended organic standards. Hence, to document their livestock production practices, a total of 180 registered organic farmers selected through multistage sampling technique studied during 2006-07. Cent percent of registered organic farmers were involved in mixed farming enterprises and most of them were with more than one livestock species (farm diversity. The breeds maintained by these farmers were of indigenous and they were raising livestock on the inputs met on farm and from the farms of similar agro-ecological regions. In view of the raising demand for organic livestock products locally as well as internationally, the organic promoting agencies have to focus on orienting these farmers towards stringent organic livestock standards so as to enable them to meet the organic livestock products demand locally as well as internationally. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 303-305


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    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  2. Animations as a Transformational Approximation of Practice for Preservice Teachers to Communicate Professional Noticing (United States)

    Amador, Julie; Weston, Tracy; Estapa, Anne; Kosko, Karl; De Araujo, Zandra


    This paper explores the use of animations as an approximation of practice to provide a transformational technology experience for elementary mathematics preservice teachers. Preservice teachers in mathematics methods courses at six universities (n = 126) engaged in a practice of decomposing and approximating components of a fraction lesson. Data…

  3. Constraints in adapting animal husbandry practices by the dairy farmers in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra

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    P. T. Gangasagare

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to review the situation of dairying in Marathwada with the objectives to identify major constraints of the dairy farmers in adapting the recommended animal husbandry practices. The survey work was carried out for the milk pocket areas in eight districts of the Marathwada region. Out of 144 dairy farmers, 109 farmers cared crossbred animals; 65 out of 85 dairy farmers adapted cooling arrangement to cross-bred cows during summer; 35 of 45 adapted washing their animals during summer; 98 of 230 dairy farmers followed vaccination to their animals; 45 of 230 dairy farmers followed de-worming their animals; 37 of 230 adapted to control the ecto-parasite; 65 of 230 reacted for removal old debris; 105 of 230 dairy farmers adapted A.I. policy and only 88 of 230 dairy farmers were positive for the animals insurance. Higher proportion of the farmers has accepted the importance of crossbred cows. Higher numbers of farmers have positive response to cool their animals. Significantly more numbers of farmers did not care to vaccinate and accept other health measures for their animals. Non-significant differences between dairy farmers adapting and non-adapting A.I. practices were recorded while significant (P>0.01 difference was observed between the farmers adapting and not adapting the insurance policy. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 347-349

  4. Effects of Pronunciation Practice System Based on Personalized CG Animations of Mouth Movement Model

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    Kohei Arai


    Full Text Available Pronunciation practice system based on personalized Computer Graphics: CG animation of mouth movement model is proposed. The system enables a learner to practice pronunciation by looking at personalized CG animations of mouth movement model , and allows him/her to compare them with his/her own mouth movements. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the system by using personalized CG animation of mouth movement model, Japanese vowel and consonant sounds were read by 8 infants before and after practicing with the proposed system, and their pronunciations were examined. Remarkable improvement on their pronunciations is confirmed through a comparison to their pronunciation without the proposed system based on identification test by subjective basis.

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard


    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  6. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance. (United States)

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H


    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens.

  7. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)


    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  8. Use of a non-traditional university ambulatory practice to teach large animal medicine. (United States)

    Masterson, Margaret A; Welker, Bimbo; Midla, Lowell T; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H


    While many other veterinary schools have moved away from a traditional university-based ambulatory practice, the Ohio State University's Large Animal Practice has continued to provide a cost-effective and valuable method of preparing students for today's careers in veterinary medicine. The practice provides a full array of services to production, equine, and camelid clients, including herd health, individual animal medicine and surgery, and emergency services. Acquiring established practices from alumni has formed the client base. Four full-time veterinarians operate the clinic. While these same clinicians do some classroom teaching, their primary responsibility is devoted to the five to six fourth-year veterinary students who rotate through the clinic every two weeks. Teaching methods and objectives for these students include case discussions, homework, truck quiz books, and practice management issues. Financially, the clinic runs as a private practice, with minimal support from the college (201,000 US dollars per fiscal year) and a gross income of 676,000 US dollars per year. Thus, in a cost-effective manner, this required core ambulatory rotation provides students with a scientific learning experience that exposes them to all aspects of large animal production medicine in a real-world setting.

  9. Animal Research Practices and Doctoral Student Identity Development in a Scientific Community (United States)

    Holley, Karri


    This article examines doctoral student identity development in regard to engagement with research practices. Using animal research as a contextual lens, it considers how students develop an identity congruent to their perception of the community which facilitates their social and cognitive activities. The shared, interpretive understanding among…

  10. Local knowledge held by farmers in Eastern Tyrol (Austria) about the use of plants to maintain and improve animal health and welfare


    Vogl, Christian R; Vogl-Lukasser, Brigitte; Walkenhorst, Michael


    Background The sustainable management of animal health and welfare is of increasing importance to consumers and a key topic in the organic farming movement. Few systematic studies have been undertaken investigating farmers’ local knowledge related to this issue. Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) is a discipline focusing on local knowledge and folk methods in veterinary medicine, however most ethnoveterinarian studies primarily address the treatment of animal diseases. Very few studies have explo...

  11. Review of Participatory Epidemiology Practices in Animal Health (1980-2015) and Future Practice Directions (United States)

    Allepuz, Alberto; de Balogh, Katinka; Aguanno, Ryan; Heilmann, Martin; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel


    In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE) activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects. The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012). Most of the identified activities were implemented in Africa and Asia, and focused on surveillance, disease survey and prioritization, and disease control. Seventy-nine PE practitioners working predominantly in Africa, Asia and Europe (29, 22 and 18 respectively) contributed to the email discussion forum. They proposed various modifications to the existing PE definition and discussed different issues related to the applicatoin of PE, its institutionalization for use in policy development, as well as the priorities for future development. The need to increase the number of PE trained people together with some methodological developments and the application of this methodology in developed countries, were some of the points highlighted during the forum. These factors stress the importance of further developing PE as a useful approach for engaging communities in addressing animal and related public health risks. PMID:28095472

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  14. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

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    Hsin-Yi eWeng


    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  15. Meta-analysis of data from animal studies: a practical guide. (United States)

    Vesterinen, H M; Sena, E S; Egan, K J; Hirst, T C; Churolov, L; Currie, G L; Antonic, A; Howells, D W; Macleod, M R


    Meta-analyses of data from human studies are invaluable resources in the life sciences and the methods to conduct these are well documented. Similarly there are a number of benefits in conducting meta-analyses on data from animal studies; they can be used to inform clinical trial design, or to try and explain discrepancies between preclinical and clinical trial results. However there are inherit differences between animal and human studies and so applying the same techniques for the meta-analysis of preclinical data is not straightforward. For example preclinical studies are frequently small and there is often substantial heterogeneity between studies. This may have an impact on both the method of calculating an effect size and the method of pooling data. Here we describe a practical guide for the meta-analysis of data from animal studies including methods used to explore sources of heterogeneity.

  16. Health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria

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    Oguntunji Abel O.


    Full Text Available At present, duck production is in its infancy stage in Nigeria. Ducks are mostly reared extensively and concentrated in the hands of small-holder farmers. A survey on health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks was conducted in three south-west (Oyo, Osun and Lagos and one north central (Niger states in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 400(100 per state duck farmers and were analysed with descriptive statistics (percentage. Results on management of health-related challenges showed that 51.5% of respondents were practicing self-medication and majority in this category used ethno-veterinary medicines. Other measures adopted were neglect (12.25%, consumption of sick animals (10.50%, veterinary service (10.25%, among others. Reproductive performance estimates showed that about half (52.50% of the respondents indicated 5‒6 (24.75% and 7−8 (27.50% months as sexual maturity age of female ducks while the highest proportion (41.25% indicated 16−20 eggs as clutch size. Hatchability rate was very high; 52% of duck farmers indicated that hatching rate was above 80%. Adoption of improved management systems by duck farmers will be of immense contribution to the health management and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria.

  17. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist


    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  18. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.


    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives

  19. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

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    Md. Saiful Islam


    Full Text Available Introduction: From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods: Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results: Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion: Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong

  20. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

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    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant


    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.


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    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  2. A theory-to-practice approach for teaching science with animations

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    George Hatsidimitris


    Full Text Available Educational psychologists have for decades conducted research into the most efficient manner by which information can be assimilated through dynamic visualizations such as animations and video. As a result, a number of research-based guidelines have been formulated to guide the designer, teacher and learner regarding the layout, presentation and self-regulation of transient information. How to apply multimedia learning principles in a considered and creative manner when teaching or learning with dynamic information in a regular classroom situation? This article presents a practical and visual guide for dealing with some of the key issues, such as split attention, signaling, segmentation and strategic learner-control. Some classroom orientated suggestions are offered for the incorporation of these principles when using animations for teaching complex information. The overall objective is to organize the pacing and sequencing of the dynamic information in a manner that is optimally aligned with the students’ prior knowledge and cognitive processing ability.

  3. Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

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    Chhorvoin Om


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Results Widespread antibiotic use occurred on all farms and was driven by four facilitators: belief that antibiotics were necessary for animal raising, limited knowledge, unrestricted antibiotic access, and weak monitoring and control systems. “If we treat ducks for two days and they aren’t cured we change to human drugs. We cocktail 10 tablets of this, 10 tablets of that and 20 tablets of this one. Altogether 200 tablets are mixed in 100 or 200 L of water for the ducks to drink. No one taught me, just my experiences.” Antibiotics were believed to be necessary for disease prevention. “On the first day when we bring in the chicks, we let them drink Enro [enrofloxacin] and vitamins to make them resist to the weather. We place them in the house and there are some bacteria in the environment. When they are newly arrived, we have to give them feed. So we’re afraid they get diarrhea when they eat feed, we have to use Enro.” All farmers used pre-mixed feed that veterinarians and feed retailers acknowledged contained antibiotics but not all listed the antibiotics. Farmers viewed pre-mixed feed as a necessary ‘feed supplement’ for growth promotion. “….The fatten supplement is mixed in feed. Pigs aren’t growing well unless I use the supplement.” Farmers and veterinarians were concerned that ‘antibiotic residuals’ in animal meat could harm human health. But they did not link this with antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Antibiotic use in

  4. Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment



    163 p. Work described in the doctoral thesis entitled ¿Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment¿ was conducted within the frame of Work Package 1 of the AWIN project by Joanna Marchewka. The research project aimed to optimize strategies for welfare assessment including pain in turkeys and sheep. Due to scarce knowledge on turkeys¿ welfare and lack of methodology for its evaluation, the first part of work concentrated on the development of a ...

  5. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.


    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventions and management practices is poor. We advocate that all stakeholders, in particular animal scientists and veterinarians, take the lead in evaluating common, putative mutilating and welfare reducing procedures and management practices to develop better, scientifically supported alternatives, focused on adaptation of the environment to the animals, to ensure uncompromised animal welfare. Abstract A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific

  6. Animal Husbandry Practices and Perceptions of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Risks Among Livestock Keepers in a Rural Parish of Quito, Ecuador. (United States)

    Lowenstein, Christopher; Waters, William F; Roess, Amira; Leibler, Jessica H; Graham, Jay P


    Small-scale livestock production plays an essential role as a source of income and nutrition for households in low- and middle-income countries, yet these practices can also increase risk of zoonotic infectious diseases, especially among young children. To mitigate this risk, there is a need to better understand how livestock producers perceive and manage risks of disease transmission. Twenty semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with small-scale livestock producers in a semirural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Interviews explored livestock-raising practices, including animal health-care practices and use of antimicrobials, family members' interactions with livestock and other animals, and perceptions of health risk associated with these practices and activities. Interviews were analyzed for common themes. Awareness of zoonotic disease transmission was widespread, yet few study participants considered raising livestock a significant health risk for themselves or their families. Several study households reported handling and consuming meat or poultry from sick or dead animals and using animal waste as a fertilizer on their crops. Households typically diagnosed and treated their sick animals, occasionally seeking treatment advice from employees of local animal feed stores where medications, including antimicrobials, are available over the counter. Despite a basic understanding of zoonotic disease risk, this study identified several factors, such as the handling and consumption of sick and dead animals and purchasing medications for sick animals over the counter, that potentially increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission as well as the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  7. A survey of dairy calf management practices in Canada that affect animal welfare. (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Borderas, F; Cue, R I; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; Wade, K M; de Passillé, A M


    There is growing interest among the public in farm animal welfare and a need for methods to assess animal welfare on farm. A survey on calf rearing practices that might affect dairy calf welfare was performed via a 1-h interview on 115 dairy farms (mean +/- SD: herd size=52.5+/-20.9 cows; milk production=8,697+/-1,153L) distributed throughout the province of Quebec. Despite frequent recommendations, many dairy producers continue to use management practices that increase the health risks of milk-fed calves. Major risk factors for poor calf welfare identified were 1) no use of calving pen in 51.3% of herds and low level of surveillance of calvings, especially at nighttime (once every 12h), 2) no disinfection of newborn's navel in 36.8% of herds, and delayed identification and, hence, calf monitoring (3 d), 3) 15.6% of farms relied on the dam to provide colostrum and none checked colostrum quality or passive transfer of immunity, 4) dehorning and removal of extra teats proceeded at late ages (6.4 wk and 6.7 mo, respectively) and without adequate pain control, 5) use of traditional restrictive milk feeding and waste milk distributed to unweaned calves without precaution in 48.2% of herds, 6) abrupt weaning performed in 16.5% of herds, and 7) calves housed individually in 87.9% of herds, and most inappropriate housing systems (crate=27.0%, tie-stall=13.9%, attached against a wall=5.7%) remained. This risk factor assessment was the first step in an intervention strategy to improve calf welfare on dairy farms.

  8. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry. (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; McKinnon, Jessica; Wyrsch, Ethan; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P


    The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a "Golden Age" in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. Now, however, we face the worldwide threat of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all existing major classes of antibiotic, reflecting the possibility of an end to the antibiotic era. The seriousness of the threat is underscored by the severely limited production of new classes of antibiotics. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of multiple drug resistant genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health, aquaculture and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how lateral gene transfer (LGT), driven by the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry, has likely played a significant role in the evolution of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria and has complicated molecular surveillance strategies adopted for predicting imminent resistance threats.

  9. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piklu eRoy Chowdhury


    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a ‘Golden Age’ in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. While the ‘Golden Age’ featured the rapid discovery of a series of new classes of antibiotics, the current discovery/development pipeline has been less productive. We are now faced with the threat of diseases mediated by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all major classes of antibiotic. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Multiple drug resistant (MDR bacteria are found worldwide and are possibly signalling the end of the antibiotic era. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of MDR genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how surveillance strategies are important for our understanding of the possible relationship between the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry and evolution of MDR in Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions]. (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana


    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pereira


    Full Text Available The term animal welfare, although is frequently used, does not have a precise definition. The scientific community is increasingly accepting that vertebrate animals indeed have consciousness and feelings, with emphasis on the genetic similarities between animal species, including humans. In order to facilitate the identification of the factors that affect and assist, respectively, the animal well being and defense, the Five Freedoms that outline animal welfare was created. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and practice about the welfare factors of dogs in different strata of Sinop city of Mato Grosso State population. Thus, a descriptive qualitative and quantitative study was performed in which 130 dog owners, older than 18 years of age, answered a semi-structured survey with 20 objective and multiple-choice questions. The people that answer the study tried to meet the needs of their animals, even those people who have never heard of animal welfare. Therefore, information related to animal rights and animal welfare need to be provided to the population of Sinop-MT.

  12. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre


    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  13. Laser-assisted drug delivery in dermatology: from animal models to clinical practice. (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Al-Niaimi, Firas


    Topical medicaments are the mainstay of the dermatologists' therapeutic arsenal. Laser-assisted drug delivery enhances the ability of topically applied medicaments to penetrate the skin. We discuss the mechanisms of laser-assisted drug delivery and animal models that have informed clinical practice. We review clinical studies that have employed laser-assisted drug delivery for a range of indications to date including non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, scarring, vaccination, local anaesthesia, analgesia, viral warts, infantile haemangiomas and cosmetic uses. Studies thus far suggest that laser pre-treatment improves transepidermal absorption of topical agents and allows for a much deeper penetration of drugs than is possible with topical medicaments alone. This may allow more efficacious action of current treatments, such that conventional duration of treatment can be shortened or lower concentrations of active agents be used, potentially obviating side effects of treatment. The prospect of using laser technologies to facilitate transdermal vaccination and as an adjunct for inflammatory dermatoses and cosmetic indications remains in its infancy. As larger trials are published, involving greater numbers of patients and utilising various laser and topical medicament parameters, we will enhance our understanding of this nascent modality of treatment delivery.

  14. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  15. Mobilising for the animal cause as consumers: an analysis of strategies and practices in Netherlands and Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terragni, L.; Schipper, L.; Torjusen, H.; Beekman, V.


    In the last years, there has been an increasing focus on consumption as a means for expressing ethical concerns and for influencing questionable market practices. The issue of the treatment of farm animals has been openly discussed for a long time. The focus of this paper is to analyse varying patte

  16. Commentary on key aspects of fecal microbiota transplantation in small animal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitman J


    Full Text Available Jennifer Chaitman,1 Albert E Jergens,2 Frederic Gaschen,3 Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro,4 Stanley L Marks,5 Alicia G Marroquin-Cardona,4 Keith Richter,6 Giacomo Rossi,7 Jan S Suchodolski,8 J Scott Weese9 1Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists, New York, NY, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 3School of Veterinary Medicine, Lousiana State University, LA, USA; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico; 5Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, 6Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 8Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 9Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of dogs, cats, and other mammals including humans harbors millions of beneficial microorganisms that regulate and maintain health. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a procedure involving the administration of a fecal infusion from a healthy individual (donor to a patient with disease to help improve health. Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. Here, we outline key aspects of FMT in small animal practice. Keywords: microbiota, health, fecal microbiota transplantation, dysbiosis, enteropathogens, immune system

  17. Management of animal botulism outbreaks: from clinical suspicion to practical countermeasures to prevent or minimize outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anniballi, F.; Fiore, A.; Löfström, Ch.; Skarin, H.; Auricchio, B.; Woudstra, C.; Bano, L.; Segerman, B.; Koene, M.G.J.


    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes. The disease is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other botulinum toxin–producing clostridia. Botulism in animals represents a severe environmental and economic

  18. Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta


    and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent or minimize...

  19. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park


    Wang, HuaiDong; Li, Ming; Hao, Lazhu; Ge, Maoyue


    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating...

  20. [DNA-diagnosis of congenital diseases in companion animals and the role of the practicing veterinarian]. (United States)

    Ubbink, G J; Stades, F C; Rothuizen, J


    The knowledge on the impact of gene defects on the development of disease in companion animals is increasing rapidly. The gene defects may be differentiated in an initiating defect, which is the cause of illness, and a promoting defect, which enhances the chance on illness. Up till now only initiating defects are known in dogs and cats. All this is of great importance for breeding purposes, because within a breed there is narrow relationship which means the genetic diversity is small, and with all the disadvantages thereof. The identification in good time of gene defects in breeding animals, so that these animals being excluded from breeding, is of utmost importance in preventing congenital diseases. For that reason more and more the owners will appeal to veterinary surgeons to cooperate in procedures to screen potential breeding animals, or to declare the animals free from gene defects. The problems with regard to the diagnostic tests, including the DNA-tests, and their predictive values are discussed.

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold? (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S


    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  2. The application of medical informatics to the veterinary management programs at companion animal practices in Alberta, Canada: a case study. (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Maclean, K; Russell, M L; Jamal, I; Stephen, C


    Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research.

  3. Best practices for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in common large animal research models. (United States)

    Taylor, Joni; Hampshire, Victoria


    Magnetic resonance imaging has proven to be useful for the study of cardiovascular physiology in health and disease; it provides important data and information about healthy and diseased states in humans and animals, and it facilitates the safe characterization and positioning of medical devices during cardiovascular applications. Looking to the future, magnetic resonance imaging will continue to play a formative role in biomedical research and applications. Here, we discuss how to avoid common pitfalls and provide safe transport, anesthetic support and physiologic support for animals that are used in dedicated or shared cardiovascular imaging facilities.

  4. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy


    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  5. Reassessment of dispensing pharmacy and animal experiments in undergraduate practical pharmacology curriculum: feedback from students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish GR


    Conclusions: Computer assisted learning seems to be a better alternative to animal experiments. In the changing scenario, teaching clinical pharmacology should be focused rather than teaching dispensing pharmacy, which is obsolete. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 285-292

  6. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.


    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with t

  7. Puppy Love. Animal Care Helps Los Angeles Middle Schoolers Practice Patience and Cooperation. (United States)

    Pollyea, Alexandra


    Describes Teaching Love and Compassion (TLC), a program designed to teach patience, respect, and cooperation to middle school students as they learn to care for and train dogs. TLC graduates can continue in a Peer Leadership program to train other dogs or teach elementary school students about animal care. (SLD)

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Kabeta

    Full Text Available Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years. Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99% were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified "germs" as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6% and confining dogs (53.9%; fewer (41.7% recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1% agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0% also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015 and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041 were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8% had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7% reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident.Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare

  9. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin


    Canine epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions in dogs but the actual incidence of the disease remains unknown. A Swedish animal insurance database has previously been shown useful for the study of disease occurrence in companion animals. The dogs insured by this company...... represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40......% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence calculations...

  10. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda. (United States)

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo


    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems.

  11. Electrophysiology for biomedical engineering students: a practical and theoretical course in animal electrocorticography. (United States)

    Albarracín, Ana L; Farfán, Fernando D; Coletti, Marcos A; Teruya, Pablo Y; Felice, Carmelo J


    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Biomedical Engineering career, we offer short and optional courses to complement studies for students as they initiate their Graduation Project. The objective of these theoretical and practical courses is to introduce students to the topics of their projects. The present work describes an experience in electrophysiology to teach undergraduate students how to extract cortical information using electrocorticographic techniques. Students actively participate in some parts of the experience and then process and analyze the data obtained with different signal processing tools. In postlaboratory evaluations, students described the course as an exceptional opportunity for students interested in following a postgraduate science program and fully appreciated their contents.

  12. Animals and medicine in 18th century Catalonia: a plural medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarzoso, Alfons


    Full Text Available This article proposes a framework in order to understand the animal medical world in 18th century Catalonia. By focusing in that historical context, we try to reveal the Bourbon policy on the matter of animal health. Through an anthropological lens we can observe a real complex and plural world of medical resources available to those individual interested in the health of animals.

    El artículo desarrolla un marco de trabajo para comprender el mundo de la medicina de los animales en la Cataluña del siglo XVIII. El análisis del contexto histórico permite conocer las actuaciones de las autoridades borbónicas en materia de fomento y control del ejercicio de aquella medicina. Una aproximación antropológica ofrece la posibilidad de acceder a un complejo entramado plural de recursos médicos disponibles, al alcance de aquellos individuos interesados en la salud de los animales.

  13. Progress of clinical practice on the management of burn-associated pain: Lessons from animal models. (United States)

    McIntyre, Matthew K; Clifford, John L; Maani, Christopher V; Burmeister, David M


    Opioid-based analgesics provide the mainstay for attenuating burn pain, but they have a myriad of side effects including respiratory depression, nausea, impaired gastrointestinal motility, sedation, dependence, physiologic tolerance, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. To test and develop novel analgesics, validated burn-relevant animal models of pain are indispensable. Herein we review such animal models, which are mostly limited to rodent models of burn-induced, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. The latter two are pain syndromes that provide insight into the pain caused by systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and direct injury to nerves (e.g., after severe burn), respectively. To date, no single animal model optimally mimics the complex pathophysiology and pain that a human burn patient experiences. No currently available burn-pain model examines effects of pharmacological intervention on wound healing. As cornerstones of pain and wound healing, pro-inflammatory mediators may be utilized for insight into both processes. Moreover, common clinical concerns such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction remain unaddressed. For development of analgesics, these aberrations can significantly alter the potential efficacy and/or adverse effects of a prescribed analgesic following burn trauma. We therefore suggest that a multi-model strategy would be the most clinically relevant when evaluating novel analgesics for use in burn patients.

  14. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE


    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  15. Writing across the curriculum: putting theory into practice in animal science courses. (United States)

    Aaron, D K


    Founded on the premise that "learning to write" and "writing to learn" are parallel processes, Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) programs advocate the use of writing activities to enhance learning in subject matter courses across the university curriculum. Application of WAC theory to creating assignments and evaluating writing in undergraduate animal science courses is the primary focus of this paper. Although a variety of writing-to-learn activities are promoted by WAC programs, this discussion is confined to reader-based, applied or real-world assignments completed by students outside the classroom. Writing assignments of this type are effective learning tools because they guide students toward appropriate information, language, and organization, present writing as communication, not artifact, and allow students to see how classroom study of concepts can be applied to the real world. Additionally, they provide opportunity for feedback during the writing process. Although considerable effort is required to create such writing assignments and to design evaluation and grading strategies that will provide constructive feedback, animal science teachers have a responsibility to provide students with expanded opportunities for improving critical thinking and communication skills. Sharing writing assignments, like the ones included in this paper, is one way to accomplish these objectives while minimizing aggregate faculty effort.

  16. Isolation and propagation of the animal rotaviruses in MA-104 cells--30 years of practical experience. (United States)

    Otto, Peter H; Reetz, Jochen; Eichhorn, Werner; Herbst, Werner; Elschner, Mandy C


    A total of 136 rotavirus positive samples from diarrhoeic animals of different species were submitted for isolation and cultural propagation of rotavirus on MA-104 cells. The samples were collected from animals with diarrhoea, between 1980 and 2010, originating from herds or farms located in several parts of Germany. Rotaviruses of species A were isolated from 102 faecal samples in cultures of MA-104 cells under the following conditions: pre-treatment of virus with trypsin, incorporation of trypsin into culture medium, use of roller cultures, and centrifugation of the samples on the cells. The cell culture adapted viruses produced a cytopathic effect, accompanied by the release of cells from the glass surface of the cultivation vessels. After 10 passages the virus isolates yielded titres between 10(5.5) and 10(7.5)ml(-1) TCID50. Isolation and serial propagation of the virus in MA-104 cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of viral dsRNA. Eight (5.9%) of the electrophoretic profiles were characteristic of species B or D rotaviruses, which were not replicated in MA-104 cells.

  17. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems. (United States)

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P


    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors.

  18. Factors influencing the choice of a career in food-animal practice among recent graduates and current students of Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Lenarduzzi, Roland; Sheppard, Guy A; Slater, Margaret R


    Concerns about a shortage of large and mixed-animal veterinarians have been discussed in the profession. To better understand veterinary career choices among currently enrolled veterinary students (classes of 2007-2010) and recent graduate veterinarians in Texas (classes of 2002-2006), an online survey was developed. The objectives were to examine: (1) the respondents' backgrounds, demographic data, and experiences; (2) the respondents' working conditions and rural lifestyle considerations; (3) the respondents' perceptions of large/mixed-animal practice; and (4) the factors that have influenced respondents' career choices. The response rate was 37% (390/1,042). Overall, 72% of students and 55% of recent graduates were interested in large/mixed-animal practice. More than 70% of respondents indicated that veterinary practitioners had the strongest personal influence on career choices. Respondents who were no longer interested in large/mixed-animal practice, or who had never been interested, reported no experience with large animals (42% and 64%, respectively) as the most common reason for their lack of interest. Previous and current interest in large/mixed-animal practice were associated with working in a large/mixed-animal practice, any agricultural experience, and working for at least 6 months on a farm or ranch. Any 4-H experience increased the likelihood of previous interest, while being married decreased the likelihood of current interest. Student contact with practitioners (82%) and financial considerations (77%) were most commonly cited as factors that would make a career in large/mixed-animal practice more attractive. Rural lifestyle drawbacks influenced respondents' career choices. Many forms of agricultural experience may expose and encourage students to consider large/mixed-animal practice.

  19. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Souza


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná, analyzing them in relation to the promotion of animal welfare. Twenty exporting companies were contacted, 15 answered the questionnaire. The participating companies were responsible for 76.3% of the State broiler production. Indicators related to the availability and the quality of food and water are being adapted by the companies, but still need to be improved. Regarding environmental indicators, companies had concerns about air and litter quality and about the implementation of emergency systems on totally enclosed broiler houses. Natural light has been replaced by low intensity artificial lighting. Footpad dermatitis was the most cited disease used as a sanitary indicator (93.3%, but little information was given about the maximum percentages allowed. Environmental enrichment is not used in poultry houses. This study identified agricultural programs with positive and negative impacts on animal welfare. Investments on research seem to be the only way to conduct changes on broiler chicken chain without reducing the quality of animals' life.

  20. Identifying Neolithic animal management practices in the Adriatic using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Zavodny


    Full Text Available We synthesise reported stable isotope values for domesticates and wild herbivores from sites spanning the Neolithic in coastal Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy (6000–3500 calBC. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values are analyzed as proxies of diet and environment, with differences between species possibly indicating anthropogenic influence. Results are used to characterise diets and address questions of the origin and development of husbandry strategies, especially transhumance, in early farming communities. Changes in pig carbon and nitrogen isotope values through time suggest alterations in practices, whereas values remain relatively constant for cattle and ovicaprids during most of the Neolithic, despite assumptions of seasonal mobility.

  1. Modern Spirometry Supports Anesthetic Management in Small Animal Clinical Practice: A Case Series. (United States)

    Calice, Ivana; Moens, Yves


    Modern spirometry, like no other monitoring technique, allows insight into breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Spirometers continuously measure volume, airway pressure, and flow while calculating and continuously displaying respiratory system compliance and resistance in the form of loops. The aim of this case series is to show how observation of spirometric loops, similar to electrocardiogram or CO2 curve monitoring, can improve safety of anesthetic management in small animals. Spirometric monitoring cases described in this case series are based on use of the anaesthesia monitor Capnomac Ultima with a side stream spirometry sensor. The cases illustrate how recognition and understanding of spirometric loops allows for easy diagnosis of iatrogenic pneumothorax, incorrect ventilator settings, leaks in the system, kinked or partially obstructed endotracheal tube, and spontaneous breathing interfering with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The case series demonstrates the potential of spirometry to improve the quality and safety of anesthetic management, and, hence, its use can be recommended during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation and procedures in which interference with ventilation can be expected.

  2. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, J [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Malyarenko, E [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); Chen, D [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wydra, A [True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada); Maev, R [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada)


    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  3. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shewit Kalayou; Mekonnen Haileselassie; Gebremedhin Gebre-egziabher; Tsegay Tikue; Samson Sahle; Habtamu Taddele; Mussie Ghezu


    Objective:To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods:Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70%methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results:With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions:It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  4. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--Taking animation“the white tiger legend”as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industry in the animation industries, it begins to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of the animation white tiger legend as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture influences in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  5. Toxicity of herbal extracts used in ethno-veterinary medicine and green-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti and microbial pathogens. (United States)

    Banumathi, Balan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni


    Dengue and chikungunya are arboviral diseases mainly vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Presently, there is no treatment for these viral diseases and their prevention is still based on vector control measures. Nanopesticides fabricated using herbal extracts as reducing and capping agents currently represent an excellent platform for pest control. In this scenario, the present study assessed the acute toxicity of seven plants employed in ethno-veterinary medicine of southern India, as well as the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. Larvae were exposed to extracts of the seven plants obtained with solvents of different polarity (acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether, and water) for 24 h. Maximum efficacy was observed for Lobelia leschenaultiana leaf extracts prepared using all the four solvent extracts (LC50 = 22.83, 28.12, 32.61, and 36.85 mg/L, respectively). Therefore, this plant species was used for the synthesis and stabilization of ZnO nanoparticles based on its maximum efficacy against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. L. leschenaultiana-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles showed 100% mortality when tested at 10 mg/L, the LC50 was extremely low,  1.57 mg/L. Zinc acetate achieved only 65.33% when tested at 60 mg/L, with a LC50 of 51.62 mg/L. Additionally, ZnO nanoparticles inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and also inhibited biofilm formation on selected microbila pathogens, showing impact on EPS production and hydrophobicity. Overall, our results suggest that L. leschenaultiana-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles have a significant potential to control A. aegypti mosquitoes and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  6. Conduct, Oversight, and Ethical Considerations of Clinical Trials in Companion Animals with Cancer: Report of a Workshop on Best Practice Recommendations. (United States)

    Page, R; Baneux, P; Vail, D; Duda, L; Olson, P; Anestidou, L; Dybdal, N; Golab, G; Shelton, W; Salgaller, M; Hardy, C


    Development of effective and safe treatments for companion animals with cancer requires the collaboration of numerous animal health professionals and the full engagement of animal owners. Establishing 'Best Practice Recommendations' for clinical trials in veterinary oncology represents an important step toward meeting the goal of rigorous clinical trial design and conduct that is required to establish valid evidence. Likewise, optimizing patient welfare and owner education and advocacy is crucial to meet the unique ethical obligations to both owners and animals enrolled in these clinical trials and to ensure trust in the team conducting the research. To date, 'Best Practice Recommendations' for clinical trial conduct have not been reported for veterinary oncology. This document summarizes the consensus of a workshop held in November, 2014 to identify relevant ethical principles and to ensure responsible conduct of clinical research in companion animals with cancer. It is intended as a working document that will be updated as advances in science and ethical considerations require. To the extent possible, existing guidelines for the conduct and oversight of clinical trials in humans have been adapted for veterinary trials to avoid duplicative effort and to facilitate integration of clinical trials such that translational research with benefits for both companion animals and humans are encouraged.

  7. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad


    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  8. The experience of biology, agriculture and health students at the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco regarding the use of animals in class practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Odalia Rímoli


    Full Text Available The controversy arising in connection with the use of animals in practical classes has led to serious ethical discussions at universities in Brazil and around the world. In most cases, the students themselves who feel obliged to perform acts that are against their principles initiate these discussions. The above context motivated this research, which was carried out by means of a questionnaire distributed to one hundred students enrolled in biological, health and agricultural sciences at UCDB in Campo Grande, MS. The main objective was to analyze the students' opinions regarding this problem. It was noted that in general students did not know of any teaching materials that could be used as an alternative to the use of animals. Most of them (X = 85.8 ± 9.7 would prefer not to use animals in practical classes, mainly that are phylogenetically close to humans (mammals, if alternative methods were effective or available. Moreover, it was noted that most students (X = 65.7 ± 24.7 are worried about the controversy provoked by this matter, considering that many believe that this practice is fundamental for their profession and that the university should offer alternatives to those who are against the use of animals.

  9. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice. (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O


    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible.

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach. (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T


    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  11. Antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming: a quantitative and qualitative study on knowledge and practices among farmers in Khartoum, Sudan. (United States)

    Eltayb, A; Barakat, S; Marrone, G; Shaddad, S; Stålsby Lundborg, C


    Antibiotic resistance is a major emerging global public health threat. Farmers in the Khartoum state are believed to misuse antibiotics in animal farming leading to daily exposure to resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues. Hence, farmers are at potential risk exposure to bacteria, zoonotic infection and toxicity. We hypothesized that farmers' misuse of antibiotics could be due to their ignorance of the importance of optimal use of antibiotics, the potential health hazards and the economical waste associated with antibiotic misuse practices. In the present study, we investigated knowledge and practices among farmers regarding antibiotic use and resistance. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Khartoum state where data were collected from 81 farmers using structured interviews. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Fifty-two per cent of farmers were uneducated or had studied for antibiotic use for treatment and prevention while only 5% stated use for growth promotion. Antibiotic group treatment for both sick and healthy animals was commonly practiced among most farmers. The most commonly used group of antibiotics was the quinolones, which was reported by one-third. Only 30% of the farmers had heard of antibiotic resistance and provided their definition. Almost half were not aware of the commonly transferred zoonotic infections between humans and animals. The farmers consume 1-2 meals/day from their own farm products. A significant association between low education, poor knowledge of farmers on antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance and zoonotic infections was found. This association may play a vital role in the present practiced misuse of antibiotics. Our findings on farmers' practices could be used as baseline information in defining the gaps related to antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming in Sudan. It can thus serve as a foundation for future interventions.

  12. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations. (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire


    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  13. Characterising and comparing drug-dispensing practices at animal health outlets in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part II). (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V


    A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets, pharmacies and dukas. A greater proportion of Sidai outlet staff selected drugs based on principles of responsible drug use than staff at other types of outlet, and technical qualifications and training were associated with responsible drug use. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps were identified, including in the correct administration of medicines. The majority of drug sales are accompanied by verbal advice to farmers. Members of the Maasai pastoralist group were concerned about accidental self-medication, withdrawal periods, drug residues and the misuse of drugs due to a lack of quality information and advice. The dairy farmer group raised similar concerns, reporting under-dosing as a common mistake amongst farmers. This study concludes that current knowledge, attitudes and practices of many service providers and livestock owners in the sale, purchase and use of veterinary medicines present risks of drug misuse and therefore the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal health services and products in Kenya, and animal health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods and act as stewards of our existing portfolio of animal and human medicines.

  14. On the Theory and Practice of Animal Protection in Qing Dynasty%论清代动物保护思想与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The scholars of Qing Dynasty not only inherited the theory and useful ways about ani-mal protection from the dynasties before,but also added new contents to animal protection both in theory and practice.They recognized that animal protection was very necessary because of the intem-perate desires of human beings for animals.The governments and the scholars did a lot to protect ani-mals in their cooperation.On the one hand,they affirmed the j ustness of necessary domination and e-ven suitable killing of the animals including wild animals;on the other hand,they expressly obj ected unnecessary domination,unsuitable killing and intemperate consumption of animals.In farm cattle protection and water security protection,they were very active and did well.Some scholars advocated"quitting killing and releasing captive animals"to reduce the consumption of animals or the products of animals;some scholars publicized that"animals produce poison in their bodies before they are killed because they want revenge to human beings"to persuade people to quit eating animal meat;some scholars expressly obj ected seeking pleasure from reclamation animals,and there was the theory about"animal right","animal welfare"in this view.Because some of their views such as to persuade people to quit killing and eating animals were short of enough scientific supports,these views had not yielded an ideal effectiveness.%除了继承历史上有关理论和实践外,清人的动物保护理论和实践有其新的内容。他们认识到,人类嗜欲无穷,故动物保护甚为必要。政府和舆论相互配合,在动物保护方面,多所作为。他们既肯定支配乃至杀戮包括野生动物在内的动物的正当性,又明确地反对不必要的、不适当的杀戮和消费,在保护耕牛、禁止用毒药捕鱼等方面,力度尤大。许多知识分子,或倡导“戒杀放生”,以此作为抑制对动物及其制品过度消费的一种方式;或以“动物临

  15. Animals and Medicine


    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.


    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  16. Animal experimentation. (United States)

    Kolar, Roman


    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  17. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer (United States)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.


    Animated models explicating how a problem is solved and why a particular method is chosen are expected to be effective learning tools for novices, especially when abstract cognitive processes or concepts are involved. Cognitive load theory was used to investigate how learners could be stimulated to engage in genuine learning activities. It was…

  18. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak


    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  19. In vivo models for cancer stem cell research: a practical guide for frequently used animal models and available biomarkers. (United States)

    Skidan, I; Steiniger, S C J


    The identification of a rare population of cancer stem cells whose presence in tumors is believed to determine their growth and metastatic activity, has provided a novel approach for targeted anti-cancer therapy. At the in vivo stage of the development of new therapeutic approaches for killing cancer stem cells, the most significant issues are the appropriate choice of rational animal models that offer the option to select animal species, strains and substrains, essential techniques for the inoculation of tumors, and methods of tumor detection in animals. The identification and validation of various types of cancer stem cell markers, which could serve as potential marker(s) of therapeutic efficacy of applied drugs, is a considerable challenge. The aim of this review is to provide a guide for the in vivo study of novel therapeutics that target cancer stem cells. This review describes frequently used mouse solid tumor models and evaluates their usefulness for cancer stem cell research. The classification of existing compounds that are used in today's experimental anti-cancer stem cell therapy and examples of exploratory first-in-human studies using these compounds for selective elimination of cancer stem cells will also be discussed. Finally, this review will examine the current status of available cancer stem cell markers, and highlight several important cancer stem cell properties that are still not well understood, but could influence the anti-cancer drug development process.

  20. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations (United States)

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  1. 浅谈动物检疫电子出证%A Brief Discussion on Electronic-based Certiifcate Issuing Practice in Animal Quarantine System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏绍兰; 叶浩宇; 杨立刚


    本文阐述了动物检疫电子出证的优点,强调了开展该项工作对规范动物检疫出证,提高检疫效率以及提升动物产品安全监管水平的重要意义,认真分析了电子出证在系统设计、便携使用出证不规范及设备不足等方面存在问题,建议通过完善电子出证系统和出证设备,加大投入,加强培训,以期进一步推进动物检疫电子出证工作深入开展。%In this article,the advantages of electronic-based certificate issuing practice in animal quarantine system were introduced and the significance of carrying out this project was emphasized,which included standardizing certificates issuing practice,increasing work efficiency of animal quarantine and enhancing the supervision of animal product safety. Meanwhile,the problems encountered in implementing the project were carefully analyzed,such as the system design,substandard certificates issuing practice under the situation of portable use,as well as the lack of equipment. Based on the analysis,corresponding recommendations were put forward to further promote the launching of the project,including improving the system and equipment for issuing certificates,increasing inputs and intensifying training.

  2. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Zhang


    Full Text Available Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses.We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97% had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42% leptospirosis, and 20 (32% Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4, rabies (4, and anthrax (3 in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%, rabies (9, 18% and anthrax (6, 12%. None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis.This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare

  3. Research on application of animal specimens to practical teaching in colleges and universities%动物标本在高校动物学实践教学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The methods and types of animal specimens are introduced.This paper briefly introduces the history of animal exhibition hall of animal and plant in our university,and discusses the importance of animal specimens in animal experiments and practical teaching from three aspects.%介绍了动物标本制作方法和种类及福建师范大学动植物标本馆动物展厅的历史概况,从3个方面论述了动物标本在动物学实验与实践教学中的重要性.

  4. Sexo com animais como prática extrema no pornô bizarro* Sex with animals as an extreme practice in bizarre porn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elvira Díaz-Benítez


    Full Text Available Dentro do segmento do mercado pornô conhecido como bizarro, a prática considerada extrema por excelência é alocada ao sexo com animais. O Brasil possui uma indústria de produção desses filmes reconhecida mundialmente. Este artigo discute o estigma dessas produções no interior da indústria pornô, traz dados etnográficos sobre a produção desse mercado, introduz uma discussão sobre legalidade, consentimento e direitos, e finalmente, trata essa temática do ponto de vista do erotismo e dos prazeres pensando o lugar do gênero e da sexualidade nessas práticas. Acredita-se que a temática é um campo vasto para pensarmos as relações humano/animal, normal/anormal, prazer/perigo, natureza/cultura.Within the bizarre porn market, the extreme practice is that of sex with animals. Brazil has a worldwide known industry producing this kind of porn. This paper discusses the stigma associated to this kind of production within the porn industry, adds ethnographic data on this market's production, introduces a discussion on the legality, consent and rights and treats the theme from the point of view of eroticism and pleasure, thinking about gender and sexuality in these practices. The question is seen as a vast field to think about dyadic relations like human/animal, normal/abnormal, pleasure/danger, nature/culture.

  5. Using informatics and the electronic medical record to describe antimicrobial use in the clinical management of diarrhea cases at 12 companion animal practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Michele Anholt

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 participating companion animal practices and warehoused at the University of Calgary. We used the pre-diagnostic, clinical features of diarrhea as the case definition in this study. Using text-mining technologies, cases of diarrhea were described by each of the following variables: diagnostic laboratory tests performed, the etiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies. The ability of the text miner to accurately describe the cases for each of the variables was evaluated. It could not reliably classify cases in terms of diagnostic tests or etiological diagnosis; a manual review of a random sample of 500 diarrhea cases determined that 88/500 (17.6% of the target cases underwent diagnostic testing of which 36/88 (40.9% had an etiological diagnosis. Text mining, compared to a human reviewer, could accurately identify cases that had been treated with antimicrobials with high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval, 88.1%-95.4% and specificity (85%, 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-89.1%. Overall, 7400/15,928 (46.5% of pets presenting with diarrhea were treated with antimicrobials. Some temporal trends and patterns of the antimicrobial use are described. The results from this study suggest that informatics and the electronic medical records could be useful for monitoring trends in antimicrobial use.

  6. 动画概论课程教学改革探索与实践%Animated Introduction to the Teaching Reform and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丽芳; 王启宾


    动画概论课程是动漫设计专业的基础课程,是专业课程的先遣,为后续专业课程打下基础。结合动画概论课程教学的现状,对存在问题进行剖析,结合高职学生的特点,着重从教学内容、教学方法以及教学评价等方面进行探讨与实践,提出了目标导向教学法;采用分组教学方,注重培养学生的创造力;运用动画技术软件讲解抽象理论知识;设计竞赛游戏环节,活跃课堂气氛,增加学生的学习兴趣,开拓了学生的视“,激发了学生的学习热情,坚定了学生的学业目标和职业目标。%Animated Introduction to Design course is a basic course of animation, is the advance courses lay the foundation for subsequent courses. In this paper, the status quo of teaching Introduction to animation, to analyze problems, combined with the characteristics of vocational students, discuss and practice focuses on teaching content, teaching methods and teaching evaluation. Proposed goal-oriented pedagogy; grouping teaching side, students focus on creativity; using animation techniques to explain abstract theoretical knowledge of software; part of the game design competition, active classroom atmosphere, increase students'interest in learning, to develop the students' horizons, stimulate the students 'enthusiasm, strengthened students'academic goals and career objectives.

  7. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem


    B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results......BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...

  8. Medicinal Plants used for Dogs in Trinidad and Tobago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, C.; Harper, T.; Georges, K.; Bridgewater, K.


    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modifie

  9. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research]. (United States)

    Tal, H


    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  10. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading. (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L


    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  11. Good manufacturing practice-compliant animal-free expansion of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stroma cells in a closed hollow-fiber-based bioreactor. (United States)

    Nold, Philipp; Brendel, Cornelia; Neubauer, Andreas; Bein, Gregor; Hackstein, Holger


    Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSC) are increasingly recognized for various applications of cell-based therapies such as regenerative medicine or immunomodulatory treatment strategies. Standardized large-scale expansions of MSC under good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant conditions avoiding animal derived components are mandatory for further evaluation of these novel therapeutic approaches in clinical trials. We applied a novel automated hollow fiber cell expansion system (CES) for in vitro expansion of human bone marrow derived MSC employing a GMP-compliant culture medium with human platelet lysate (HPL). Between 8 and 32 ml primary bone marrow aspirate were loaded into the hollow fiber CES and cultured for 15-27 days. 2-58 million MSC were harvested after primary culture. Further GMP-compliant cultivation of second passage MSC for 13 days led to further 10-20-fold enrichment. Viability, surface antigen expression, differentiation capacity and immunosuppressive function of MSC cultured in the hollow fiber CES were in line with standard criteria for MSC definition. We conclude that MSC can be enriched from primary bone marrow aspirate in a GMP-conform manner within a closed hollow fiber bioreactor and maintain their T lymphocyte inhibitory capacity. Standardized and reliable conditions for large scale MSC expansion pave the way for safe applications in humans in different therapeutic approaches.

  12. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  13. Animal Care Use Committees. (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others


    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  14. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter


    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  15. Innovative new method to test skill of bioassay in postgraduate students during doctor of medicine pharmacology examination using objective structured practical examination and animal experiment software


    Naresh D. Balani; Prabodh Anant Wankhade


    Background: Despite the guidelines for discontinuation of dissection and animal experimentation and introduction of use of alternatives to animal experimentation, Maharashtra University of Health Science, Nashik has not modified the exam pattern by shifting the emphasis on to use of animal experiment software. In one study on importance of bioassay in career, it has been reported that 96.6% did not use their knowledge of Bioassay during their 10 years of post MD career, whether in pharmaceuti...

  16. 动漫专业素描及其教学实践%The animation specialty sketch and teaching practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    practice of specialized core course of comics, we can try to complement the advantages of sketches to improve students instant perception. Then, we can shift to the creation of comics gradually. To combine grounding training with specialized training can help students form a reasonable cohesion among different courses. This kind of teaching method has been crowned with success in the curriculum practice to students majoring in animation.

  17. Practical experiences with animal fat as added fuel in the Ingolstadt power station; Praktische Erfahrungen bei der versuchsweisen Mitverbrennung von Tierfett im Kraftwerk Ingolstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerischer, C.N. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Kraftwerksgruppe Ingolstadt/Irsching, Grossmehring (Germany)


    In 2001 the market was overflowing with animal fat due to the discussion about the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease. One solution was the use as additional fuel in power plants. The fundamental technical requirements existed in Ingolstadt power station. Economical considerations led to the decision to test animal fat as added fuel. The main experiences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  18. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette


    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  19. Animating Brains (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius


    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  20. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  1. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  2. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew


    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  3. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.


    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  4. 动画专业实践教学体系的建立与实施%Discusses the Animation Specialized Practice Teaching System's Establishment and the Implementation Shallowly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The main body of a book is listed in right away in the basis analyzing the animated cartoon special field characteristic,is carrying out the achievement experiencing and getting combining with the medium institute of Harbin Normal University,brings forward the tactics structuring the system teaching with putting animated cartoon special field practice into practice.%在分析动画专业特点的基础上,指出现阶段我国动画专业实践教学体系中存在的不足,结合哈尔滨师范大学传媒学院动画系实践经验和取得的成果,提出构建和实施动画专业实践教学体系的策略。

  5. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  6. "To Be a Scientist Sometimes You Have to Break Down Stuff about Animals": Examining the Normative Scientific Practices of a Summer Herpetological Program for Children (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie


    When studying informal science programs, researchers often overlook the opportunities enabled and constrained in each program and the practices reinforced for participants. In this case study, I examined the normative scientific practices reinforced in one-week-long "Herpetology" (the study of reptiles and amphibians) program for…

  7. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953). (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert


    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work.

  8. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  9. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  10. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg


    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  11. Innovative new method to test skill of bioassay in postgraduate students during doctor of medicine pharmacology examination using objective structured practical examination and animal experiment software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh D. Balani


    Conclusions: This method is good alternative to the traditional method of bioassay, as there is no need of sacrificing and dissecting the animal for the sake of this less important experiment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1622-1628

  12. Teaching experimental animal biosafety management practice and exploration%教学实验用动物生物安全管理的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠参军; 查光明; 吴文峰; 焦显芹; 杨国宇


    In college teaching animal experiments there is the danger of biosafety, which must be prevented from the following three aspects of the teaching experiment: in accordance with the animal management procedures of"looking, touching, examining,isolating, protecting raising and using" to provide safe learning experiments with animals; focus on laboratory disinfection and sterilization; to strengthen the security of the laboratory. The implementation of the protection measures can ensure the safety of the university teaching animal studies lesson.%高校教学用动物实验存在着生物安全的危险,必须从3个教学实验环节加以防范.一是按照“一看、二摸、三查、四隔、五防、六养、七用”的动物管理程序提供安全的教学实验用动物;二是注重实验室消毒与灭菌;三是加强实验室的安全防护.推行“三防四制”防护措施,以确保高校教学用动物实验课的安全.

  13. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation; Transit metabolique du radiocesium chez les animaux domestiques - application a une situation accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Vincent-Naulleau, S


    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  14. Kindergarten Animation (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig


    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  15. Animal Detectives (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly


    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  17. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence. (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D


    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (pSalmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain.

  18. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  19. Animal Bites (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  20. “水产动物疾病学”实践教学的安全隐患与防范%Hidden Danger and Precaution Measures in Practice Teaching of"Diseases of Aquatic Animals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Much hidden danger in practice teaching of"Diseases of Aquatic Animals" in the university was elaborated and many precaution measures were brought out in this article. These could provide security guarantee for the practice teaching of this course and avoid some dispensable harm and losses.%本文对高等院校“水产动物疾病学”实践教学中存在的诸多安全隐患进行了阐述,并提出了相应的防范措施,旨在为今后该课程的实践教学提供安全保障,力求避免一些不必要的伤害和损失。

  1. “中国动漫梦”理论研究与实践探索%Theoretical Research of“Chinese Comic and Animation Dream”and Its Practical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “中国动漫梦”作为一种新口号、新提法,它是以“中国梦”理论为指导,是动漫产业的“中国梦”,是中国为了实现从世界动漫大国向世界动漫强国跨越的“中国梦”。通过对“中国动漫梦”的内涵和特征、分类和嬗变等理论进行梳理和归纳,推动动漫学界深化对“中国动漫梦”内涵和实质的认识。为了让梦想照进现实,将“中国动漫梦”理论与实践相结合,在行动第一、实干第一的基础之上,提出“中国动漫梦”的实现路径:坚持国产动漫精品的发展之路,坚持“走出去、引进来”的发展之路,坚持中国动漫教育的发展之路,建立适应时代的品牌战略理念,建立创新型动漫企业商业模式。%“Chinese comic and animation dream”as a new slogan, a new formulation, it is based on“Chinese dream”theory, it is the“Chinese dream”of China’s animation industry, it is China in order to achieve the“Chinese dream” from the world’s superpower anime to anime world powers. Based on the connotation and characteristics, classification and evolvement of“Chinese comic and animation dream”theory are summarized and comb, to promote the animation community deepen the connotation and essence of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”.In order to let the dream into reality, this article will combine theory and practice of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”, on the basis of action first and doing first, put forward the realization path of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”: adhere to the road of development of domestic animation boutique, adhere to the road of development of“going out and bringing in”, adhere to the road of development of Chinese animation education, to establish a timely brand strategy idea, to establish innovative animation enterprise business model.

  2. The hygiene practices of three systems of game meat production in South Africa in terms of animal class and health compliance. (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Maretha; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J; Calitz, Frikkie Johannes


    Three game meat production systems used on game ranches in South Africa are reported on. System one is applied in the game export market and conforms to the hygiene requirements of the European Union (EU). System two and three entail game meat available on the local market not subjected to any regulation. System 2 however, implemented basic meat hygiene values. Measurements of pH, temperature, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), E. coli, Salmonella and S. aureus were subjected to a 3×2 factorial analysis of variance with factors that involve 3 system compliances in 2 classes of game animals in a completely randomised design. The measured bacteriological and quality differences between the three systems do not justify EU standards application on the local market but results indicated a significant compliance×class interaction.

  3. Teaching Reform Practice and Exploration on Aquatic Special Animals Culture%《特种水产动物养殖学》课程教学探索与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 姜宏波; 于业辉; 白文林; 何剑斌


    Aquatic Special Animals Culture is an important professional course in aquaculture major. Due to the special geographical regions and practical characters, it is difficult to teach special skill for students in classroom teaching. In order to strengthen the teaching reform of the course of Aquatic Special Animals Culture and cultivate high-quality talents in aquaculture major, the teaching content, teaching method, practical teaching and evaluation mode were explored and reformed. By taking the above measures, the high-quality teaching effect were obtained.%特种水产动物养殖学是水产养殖学专业的重要课程之一,但是,受地理区域性和较强的实践性限制,其课堂教学难度较大。为深化特种水产动物养殖学教学的改革,课程组教师从教学内容、教学方式、实践环节及考核方式等方面进行了大量的探索和改革,并取得了较好的教学效果。

  4. Practice and Experience of Circuit Examination of Animal Health Administrative Law Enforcement Files in Jilin Province%吉林省巡回评查动物卫生行政执法案卷的做法与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文军; 常鹏; 刘新宇; 冯海峰; 臧杰姝; 任守爱


    Jilin Animal Health Supervision Institute innovated the model of circuit examination of animal health ad-ministrative law enforcement files based on the real cases and actual practices in combination with special training,to make the work plan,procedures and scoring rules,organize expert team of file examination,make adequate prepara-tion and summary before and after appraisal. The ability of animal health administrative law enforcement and level of case handling were promoted in Jilin province,references were provided for the administrative law enforcement depart-ments to carry out file examination.%吉林省动物卫生监督所创新动物卫生行政执法案卷评查模式,针对实案、实事、实际,采取巡回评查与专题培训相结合的方式,制定工作方案、程序和评分细则,组建案卷评查专家库,做好评审会前准备和会后总结,提升了全省动物卫生行政执法能力和办案水平,为行政执法部门开展案卷评查活动提供了借鉴和参考。

  5. The Designs and Practices on Ecological Environmental Enrichment of Animal Cages in Chongqing Zoo%重庆动物园笼舍生态丰容设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勋; 王俊; 向力; 戴岗; 王佳; 廖琦


    通过对重庆动物园涉禽馆、两爬馆、熊猫馆、金鱼馆等动物笼舍的生态化丰容改造,改善了动物圈养生存的环境质量,提高了其生殖率和适应性等生物学功能,增强了福利水平。是动物笼舍自然化、生态化发展做有益的探索。有助于动物的健康和繁殖,也为游客提供良好的视觉享受,提高展出与观赏效果。具有重要的推广应用价值。%the animal cages of wader pavilion, two climbed pavilion, panda enclosure and the goldfish pavilion in Chongqing zoo, has been designed and reformed for several years. The practice shows that, it is enhanced greatly for animal's living environment of captive, reproductive rate as well as welfare level. On the other hand, it is still good exploration for improving the ornamental effect and good visual enjoyment to visitors. In brief, it has very important popularization and application value for optimizing present animal cages in zoos.

  6. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  7. Animal house


    Turka, Laurence A.


    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  8. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  9. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    Two DIY (do-it-yourself) film projects are examined from perspectives of resemosis (transformations in meaning-making) and the textual production practices of contemporary multimedia authorship. These practices are considered as evolving in a complex media ecology. The two films are currently...... of the two DIY film projects, and discussion of the implications. Issues include IP (intellectual property) and copyrights when re-appropriating digital assets from commercial media platforms....

  10. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;


    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... isolates. RESULTS: Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples...

  11. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.


    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  12. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects. (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F


    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  13. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo


    Full Text Available Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone, Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid, Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin, Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  14. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho


    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  15. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron


    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  16. Animal models for osteoporosis (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.


    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  17. Public moral convictions about animals in the Netherlands: culling healthy animals as a moral problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Stassen, E.N.


    In this chapter the dynamics of public moral convictions about animals in the Netherlands are described in the context of animal disease epidemics. A change has taken place in these convictions, due to a shift in the relational value of animals and the emergence of new animal practices in Dutch rura

  18. Animal Testing (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción


    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  20. Genomic Tools and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella


    Full Text Available Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  1. Construction Modes of the Practice Bases for Professional Degree Graduate Students in Animal Husbandry%专业学位研究生实践基地建设模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂娟; 於朝梅; 王恬


    Practice bases for professional degree graduate students are urgently needed to guarantee the training quality and to achieve the successful transition of graduate education.Since the opening of professional degree graduate program in animal husbandry in 2000,Nanjing Agricultural University has continuously explored the construction modes of the practice bases for professional degree graduate students such as registering the graduate students working station in collaboration with enterprises,funding joint research projects with enterprises,and setting up the professional degree program in collaboration with enterprises or for the enterprises on the customized basis.Effective solutions to the problems in the establishment of bases have been obtained.%为提高专业学位研究生的培养质量,实现硕士研究生教育成功转型,迫切需要建立一批研究生实践基地。南京农业大学在养殖领域专业学位研究生实践基地建设的方面,探索了与企业联合申报研究生工作站、合作开展科技研究,与企业联合办班培养研究生或为企业订单式培养研究生等模式,对实践基地建设中存在的问题进行了破解。

  2. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights. (United States)

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  3. [The ethics of animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves


    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  4. Practice and Understanding of Experimental Teaching of Microbiological Examination on Animal Derived Food%动物性食品微生物检验实验课教学的实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建业; 孟霞; 朱国强


    The experimental course plays a vital role in the curriculum system of microbiological examination on animal de-rived food for students majoring in quarantine and inspection for plants and animals. In this paper, we make a summary and puts forward the viewpoints on the experimental teaching from four aspects, including choice of experimental materials, set-tings of experimental items about biological characterization, rational time plan for implementing comprehensive experiments, and combination of experimental contents with research-oriented teaching. Acquisition of these experiences will lay a solid foundation for improving teaching methods and raising the ability of solving the practical problems for students.%动物性食品微生物检验是动植物检验与检疫专业的一门必修课,实践性很强,而实验课在整个课程体系中占有十分重要的位置.本文结合作者近十年来承担实验课教学的实践体会,从实验材料选择、如何设置致病菌的生化特性鉴别实验项目、合理安排时间保证综合性实验的有效开展以及将实验教学内容与本科生研究性学习相结合等四个方面进行了系统性总结,这些经验的集成为今后进一步改进实验教学方法、提高实验课教学质量、增强本专业学生解决实际问题的能力奠定了坚实基础.

  5. Exploration on the Course Teaching Reform of Comprehensive Practice Training of Animal Microbiology%《动物微生物综合实训》课程教学改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高睿; 薛增迪; 沈文正; 张振仓; 张周


    The course of Comprehensive Practice Training of Animal Microbiology was reformed.Based on the common cases in the clinic production and the scientific research projects with the cooperation between school and enterprise,the reform of teaching content was divided into the basic experiment,comprehensive improving experiment and research innovation experiment.The assessment contents included microscope operation and section techniques,bacteria separation,purification and identification techniques,virus separation and identification techniques,experimental design and innovation abilities.The assessment model was the combination of process assessment and diversified,multi-level and multi-angle assessment,so as to cultivate high-skill of animal husbandry and veterinary specialty in vocational and technical colleges.%结合临床生产常见病例及校企合作科研项目,将《动物微生物综合实训》课程教学内容改革为基础性实验、综合提高性实验和研究创新性实验3个层次。考核内容确定为显微镜操作技术与制片技术、细菌分离纯化及鉴定技术、病毒分离鉴定技术和试验设计与创新能力;考核模式采用多元化、多层次、多角度考核与过程考核相结合的方式,以期培养出高职畜牧兽医专业的高技能应用型人才。

  6. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This thesis is based on the results of a three-year long PhD-study at the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University. The thesis consist of five original papers, a book manuscript, as well as a linking text with the thesis’ research questions, research design, and summary...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...

  7. 动漫情境下的高校美育实践思考%Thoughts on the Practice of Aesthetic Education in Institutions of Higher Learning in the Context of Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    当前,我国高校对大学生的美育培养,主要思路仍然沿用传统的美育体系,并且侧重的是美育基本理论、美学概念等知识性内涵的掌握,对审美体验过程和审美实践方法本身缺乏重视。针对这种现状,尽管很多研究者提出当前高校的美育培养手段和培养思路需要改革,但是仍然缺乏有效的手段。目前,以动漫为代表的新兴的校园文化氛围已经在高校中形成。动漫作为一种具有高度综合性特征的新兴艺术类型,已为当代高校学生所广泛接受。因此,当下的高校美育应该充分利用动漫艺术这一新手段,将动漫情境融入到对学生的审美教育中去。%At present,the aesthetic education received by the students in our universities is conducted mainly in the traditional aesthetic education system,stressing the acquisition of knowledge like basic aesthetic education theories and concepts of aesthetics and neglecting the experiential and practical methods of aesthetics.Faced with such a situation,although many researchers have called for reforms in the training methods and ideas of aesthetic education,not much has been achieved in this regard.Now,a new campus cultural environment characterized by animation has formed in universities.As a new art genre with comprehensive features,animation has been widely accepted by university students,so aesthetic education in institutions of higher learning should capitalize on this new art form and incorporate animation into aesthetic education.

  8. Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland (United States)

    Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf


    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (δ34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report δ34S, δ13C and δ15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in δ34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2σ). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only δ13C and δ15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen δ34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy δ15N values coupled with light δ34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow

  9. 西北地区名特水产动物养殖学实践课程的改革探索%Reform Practice Courses of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in Northwest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊冬梅; 李杨; 凌飞


    名特水产动物养殖学是水产养殖专业教育中一门重要的专业课,而实践课程是对学生专业技能和动手能力培养的关键环节。为了提高教学质量,让学生更好地掌握名特经济鱼类的人工繁育、苗种培育和人工养殖技术,本文结合秦岭地域特色对该课程实践部分的项目设置和教学方式方法进行了一些改革和探索,使地处西北的水产专业本科生学到过硬的名优鱼类的增养殖技术。%The course of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in aquaculture is an important professional course ,and the practice part is the key to train professional skills and manipulative ability for students .In order to improve the quality of teaching effect and make the students better grasp the ar‐tificial breeding ,larval rearing and artificial breeding technology of special economic fishes ,the aim of this paper is to discuss how to reform the teaching methods of practical part of the course ,adapting to geographical features of Qinling area .The undergraduate students located in the northwest will learn excellent aquaculture technology by means of the reform .

  10. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA


    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt


    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  12. Panorama brasileiro do Programa de Boas Práticas de Laboratório. Impacto na redução do uso de animais | Brazilian Good Laboratory Practices Perspective. Impact on reduction in animal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rosa dos Santos


    Full Text Available Boas Práticas de Laboratório, sistema da qualidade que abrange o processo organizacional e as condições nas quais estudos não clínicos são realizados, visa garantir a uniformidade, consistência, confiabilidade, reprodutibilidade, qualidade e integridade dos testes. O Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis introduziu formalmente a Boas Práticas de Laboratório em 1994. Em 1995, o INMETRO iniciou o Programa BPL para reconhecimento e monitoramento baseados em procedimentos, normas, regulamentos administrativos e legais, que estabelecem orientações, políticas e diretrizes para a Coordenação Geral de Acreditação atuar, com total responsabilidade e autoridade, como Autoridade Brasileira de Monitoramento aos princípios das BPL. Estudos BPL são reconhecidos pelos países membros e não membros com adesão plena, aos atos da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico em função do acordo de mútua aceitação de dados e promove redução do número de animais utilizados devido a não repetição dos testes e adoção de métodos alternativos validados. No Brasil, há 31 instalações BPL ativas e cinco realizam testes toxicológicos in vivo. A Resolução Normativa no 17/2014 do Conselho Nacional de Controle da Experimentação Animal estabelece que os testes utilizando animais que tenham métodos alternativos validados reconhecidos pelo Conselho sejam substituídos em até cinco anos, sendo essencial a ampliação da base laboratorial BPL. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Good Laboratory Practice (GLP, a quality system covering the organizational process and the conditions under which non-clinical studies are conducted, aims to ensure uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of the safety tests. The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources formally introduced GLP

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  14. A focus on small animals. (United States)

    Steward, Jeremy


    After qualifying 25 years ago, Jeremy Stewart worked at the RSPCA's Harmsworth Hospital during the years it featured in the BBC television programme Animal Hospital. Having moved to a large group practice, his involvement in the charity sector is now as a trustee of the Blue Cross.

  15. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei


    aggressive animals. The CR was created with the goals of to solve the problems existent in the culling for the better temperament and of to estimate genetic parameters more reliable. The CR is objective, has great phenotypic variability and eliminates the appraiser's subjectivity, besides it doesn't expose him to the danger. The CR doesn't interfere in the handling practices of the ranch because it is quantified in the moment of the animals weighting. The CR is quantified in fast and easy way and for your quantification can use any kind of scale. The direct heritabilities estimates are 0.39 at 12 months of age and 0.23 at 15 months of age. The genetic correlations between CR and daily weight gain (DWG were -0.28 between CR and DWG-birth to weaning and -0.49 between CR and DWG-weaning to 12 months of age. About the genetic correlations between CR and scrotal circumference grown rate was highest, -0.41.

  16. Long distance animal transport: the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Johan Osinga


    Full Text Available Too often, the issue of animal welfare during transport is the subject of emotional debates. For farmers within the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, it is important that the economic, scientific and practical aspects be taken into account when setting international rules for animal welfare. Farmers also stress the need to combine scientific data with their practical experience. Raising awareness, adopting a risk-based approach, education, labelling, slaughterhouse capacity and animal health, as well as standards and rules, are issues of importance for developing a long distance transportation infrastructure respectful of animal welfare around the world.

  17. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia


    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  18. Identifying key odorants from animal feeding operations (United States)

    Odor emissions from animal agriculutre negatively impact air qualitly in surrounding communities. Current analytical practices are biased against agriculutral odorants and thus inadequate for odor quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different techniques ability to identify ...

  19. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  20. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review


    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.


    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cult...

  1. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.


    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to or

  2. Animal Feeding Operations (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  4. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana


    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  6. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy


    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  7. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna


    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  8. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner


    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  9. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  10. Physics for Animation Artists (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.


    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka


    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  13. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun


    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  14. Ethics in Animal Experimentation


    Yusuf Ergun


    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  15. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun


    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  16. Mainstreaming animal-assisted therapy. (United States)

    Palley, Lori S; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Niemi, Steven M


    The term animal-assisted therapy (AAT) commonly refers to the presentation of an animal to one or more persons for the purpose of providing a beneficial impact on human health or well-being. AAT is an ideal example of "One Health" because of numerous studies and widespread testimonials indicating that many humans feel better in the presence of pets and other domesticated animals, and, conversely, that some of those creatures appear to respond positively to human company for their emotional and perhaps physical betterment. Many AAT studies have claimed a wide range of human health benefits, but much of the research is characterized by small-scale interventions among disparate fields, resulting in criticisms about weak study design or inconsistent methodology. Such criticisms contrast with the strongly held belief among many that interaction with friendly animals has a strong and innate value for the persons involved. Consequently the appeal of AAT in human medicine today may be generally characterized as a "push" by enthusiastic advocates rather than a "pull" by prescribing physicians. To fully integrate AAT into conventional medical practice as an accepted therapeutic modality, more convincing intervention studies are necessary to confirm its clinical merits, along with an understanding of the underlying mechanism of the human response to the company of friendly animals.

  17. Market practices in global networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the role market practices (can) play in relation to improving animal welfare. Specifically, we look at market practices in relation to pork. Recent changes in European animal welfare standards for sows have narrowed the differences in animal welfare between...... conventionally produced pork and production forms with a greater emphasis on animal welfare. Using the market practice approach proposed by (Kjellberg and Helgesson, 2007), we explore how the conditions for animal welfare are shaped by the representational, normalizing and exchange practices of various actors...... in the pork industry and how these practices can reshape the market with a view to improving marketing activities and increasing sales of pork produced to better welfare standards than mandated by regulators. We also draw on the literatures on inter-organisational interaction and business networks....

  18. 发展畜牧循环经济加快农业方式转变%To Develop Recycling Economy of Animal Husbandry and Speed up Transformation of Agriculture Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁涛; 于玉芹; 孔祥华


    The basic concept of recycling economy of animal husbandry was defined. The pressure in the crack of urban-rural dual structure was explained. Relation between the recycling economy in animal husbandry and the new countryside construction was analyzed. Suggestions on accelerating recycling economy on animal husbandry were proposed.%本文分析了畜牧业循环经济的基本内涵,诠释了破解城乡二元结构所面临的巨大压力,剖析了畜牧业循环经济与新农村建设的关系,提出了促进农业增长方式转变的思路和建议.

  19. “园中院、院中园”动漫人才培养新模式的探索与实践%"A Garden in a College, a College in a Garden"--A New Mode of Anime Talents Training Exploration and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏三强; 陈秋


    From file point of view of Anhui cartoon enterprise demand and current situation research of higher voca- tional anime education, this article analyzes the reasons of the commdiction between supply and demmld in animation industry and puts forward the countermeasures on how to sureengthen the "A garden in a college, a college in a gar- den" combination of anime talents training mode with anime enterprise needs. How to carry out "a anime interest group for a anime asscciation", "four levels' contests promote four goals", "campus culture,instruction and manage- ment melt into company' s" practice, cultivation innovation of high-end skilled talents training to meet the needs of animation enterprise are discussed.%从动漫企业需求与高职动漫教育现状的调研人手,分析了动漫行业的供需矛盾缘由,提出了解决问题的对策,就如何加强“园中院、院中园”动漫人才培养新模式与动漫企业需求的结合,如何开展“一组一会”、“四赛四促”、“三融三通”实践,创新培养更加适应动漫企业需求的高端技能型人才进行了探讨。

  20. Exploring the Animal Turn: Human-animal relations in Science, Society and Culture



    Animals' omnipresence in human society makes them both close to and ye tremarkably distant from humans. Human and animal lives have always been entangled, but the way we see and practice the relationships between humans and animals - as close, intertwined, or clearly separate - varies from time to time and between cultures, societies, and even situations. By putting these complex relationships in focus, this anthology investigates the ways in which human society deals with its co-existence wi...

  1. Killing animals as a necessary evil? The case of animal research


    Franco, Nuno H.; Olsson, I Anna S


    This chapter addresses the question of killing animals in research, primarily from a moral perspective, but also taking into account some of the practical and scientific considerations with moral consequences in this context. We start by exploring in which situations animals are killed in research and whether these are always inevitable, analysing re-use and re-homing of animals as potential alternatives. We then discuss for whom – and under what circumstances -killing matters, considering si...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold


    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  3. "Name" that Animal (United States)

    Laird, Shirley


    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  6. [Disposal of animal byproducts, dead and slaughtered animals]. (United States)

    Heilemann, M


    The current state of epidemiological knowledge about BSE clearly indicates that certain practices in carcass rendering had a significant impact on maintenance and spreading of BSE in the cattle population. This awareness did not come up spontaneously. As a reflection community legislation continuously developed and still does. The decisive move was done in the year 2000 by eliminating ruminant tissues with a high infectious potential with regard to BSE (specified risk material--SRM) from the human and animal feed chains. This step as well as the subsequent feed ban for all farm animals dramatically changed the logistical as well as the economical preconditions of the rendering industry. In fact the basic treatment (pressure cooking) remained almost unchanged. But instead of physically recycling the products they are nowadays predominantly used as an energy source in industry. In case of products that originate from the treatment of SRM burning is mandatory. These changes require a well adapted and intensified official supervision.

  7. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta


    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  8. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  10. Adolescents'"Anime"-inspired "Fanfictions": An Exploration of Multiliteracies. (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Mahar, Donna


    Explores "fanfiction" (fiction written by fans of mass culture, such as "anime," Japanese animation) as a valid literacy practice in the context of the Multiliteracies framework. Strives to understand youth culture better and to make school literacy instruction more responsive to learners' needs. Discusses "Anime" as a source for fanfictions.…

  11. Advancing animal welfare science: sharing knowledge, debating issues. (United States)

    Orritt, Rachel


    Established animal welfare scientists and others at the beginning of their career gathered in York last month to discuss recent advances in animal welfare science. Organised by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, the meeting aimed to provide a forum for sharing knowledge and practice, discussion and debate. Rachel Orritt, a PhD researcher at the University of Lincoln, reports on proceedings.

  12. The end of animal life: a start for ethical debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.


    Making decisions about the end of animal life is common practice, yet it is not morally neutral. The end of animal life is related to many societal and ethical questions and concerns. Questions such as how long should we continue to treat an animal before killing it? Or whether it could be legitimat

  13. 21 CFR 58.43 - Animal care facilities. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal care facilities. 58.43 Section 58.43 Food... LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Facilities § 58.43 Animal care facilities. (a) A testing facility shall have a sufficient number of animal rooms or areas, as needed, to assure proper:...

  14. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders


    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... makes work intelligible. This provides possibilities for action and change. We claim that the practice-based studies can become an integrated part of doing critical action research, and we investigate and reflect upon our stewardship of the practices we engaged in....... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice...... study about the practices of a study administration unit in a university college in Denmark. The study includes ten weeks of participation observation study and five qualitative interviews, both in the central part and in three local study administrations. Managerial initiated organizational change...

  15. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz


    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  16. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  17. The end of animal life: a start for ethical debate : Ethical and societal considerations on killing animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, E.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.


    Killing animals is common practice, yet it is not normal. The end of animal life is related to many societal and ethical questions and concerns. Questions such as how long should we continue to treat an animal before killing it? But also the question whether it could be legitimate to kill individual

  18. [Animal experimentation in Israel]. (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah


    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  19. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo


    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  20. 中职畜牧兽医专业实践性教学创新分析%Innovative Analysis on Practical Teaching of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Specialty in Secondary Vocational School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目前我国各种类型的农业类院校都设有畜牧业相关专业,畜牧兽医专业也不再是民众心中所想的传统专业,随着科学技术的不断进步,现代农业的不断深化,其领域的专业性早已改变了民众对其陈旧的观念,其行业依然要求高素质、高能力的全面性人才。而今诸多职业院校农业类专业的传统教学模式教学方法严重制约了畜牧业专业人才的培养进度,并且造成恶性循环,使其专业的深入发展停滞不前。本文通过对当今中职校畜牧兽医专业教学模式教学理念的具体分析,综合主观及客观的各方面因素,就中职校畜牧兽医专业教学给予创新型指导性意见。%At present in various types of Colleges of agriculture with animal husbandry industry, animal husbandry and vet-erinary professionals is no longer the traditional professional people think, with the continuous progress of science and tech-nology, the deepening of modern agriculture, the field of professional has changed people to their old ideas, the industry still requires a comprehensive talents with high quality, high capability. Now many professional colleges and universities of tradi-tional teaching mode of agricultural professional teaching methods have seriously restricted the progress of the training of pro-fessional talents of animal husbandry, and caused a vicious circle, so that the depth of its professional development. In this pa-per, through the concrete analysis of the teaching philosophy of Modern Vocational School of animal husbandry and veterinary professional teaching mode, subjective and objective aspects factors Sino Vocational School of animal husbandry and veterin-ary professional teaching given innovative guidance.

  1. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve


    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  2. Laboratory Animal Allergy in the Modern Era. (United States)

    Jones, Meinir


    Laboratory animal workers face a high risk of developing laboratory animal allergy as a consequence of inhaling animal proteins at work; this has serious consequences for their health and future employment. Exposure to animal allergen remains to be the greatest risk factor although the relationship is complex, with attenuation at high allergen exposure. Recent evidence suggests that this may be due to a form of natural immunotolerance. Furthermore, the pattern of exposure to allergen may also be important in determining whether an allergic or a tolerant immune response is initiated. Risk associated with specific tasks in the laboratory need to be determined to provide evidence to devise a code of best practice for working within modern laboratory animal facilities. Recent evidence suggests that members of lipocalin allergens, such as Mus m 1, may act as immunomodulatory proteins, triggering innate immune receptors through toll-like receptors and promoting airway laboratory animal allergy. This highlights the need to understand the relationship between endotoxin, animal allergen and development of laboratory animal allergy to provide a safe working environment for all laboratory animal workers.

  3. Biosecurity of veterinary practices. (United States)

    Morley, Paul S


    Hospitalization of sick animals tremendously increases their risk of acquiring infections as this congregates animals that are most likely to be shedding infectious agents with animals that often have enhanced susceptibility. In order to provide the best veterinary care possible, veterinarians have an underlying responsibility to minimize the risk of additional harm that might unintentionally befall a patient because of their interventions. This includes minimizing the risk of exposing patients to infectious agents. It is therefore incumbent upon veterinarians to actively manage the risk of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections in veterinary hospitals are not solely a patient-care concern; the spread of infectious agents can also significantly impact normal hospital operations, revenue, client confidence, public image, and can even affect the morale of hospital personnel. In some cases nosocomial agents can also be zoonotic. This paper discusses the need for biosecurity programs in veterinary practices, and describes a practical approach for developing biosecurity practices that are tailored to individual facilities.

  4. Assessing attitudes toward farm animal welfare: a national survey of animal science faculty members. (United States)

    Heleski, C R; Mertig, A G; Zanella, A J


    A survey to measure attitudes toward farm animal welfare was developed. We targeted animal science faculty because of their influence on animal production in the United States. We initially interviewed 34 faculty members from a large Midwestern public university to assist with questionnaire development. After our written survey was developed, we pilot-tested our questionnaire at this same university. Thereafter, we sent an e-mail advance notice, first survey, and follow-up survey/thank-you to the national population of animal science faculty members. With an n = 446 (response rate = 45%), we observed the following: 51% (for layer birds), 58% (for meat birds), 66% (for swine), 84% (for dairy), 86% (for sheep), and 87% (for beef) of our respondents agreed that the predominant methods used to produce various types of animal products provided appropriate levels of animal welfare. Our findings showed that greater than 90% of respondents support general principles of animal welfare, such as keeping animals free from unnecessary fear and distress. However, specific practices that have been shown to elicit distress (e.g., castration without anesthetic) were deemed a concern by only 32% of the respondents. Various industry practices/outcomes were assessed for level of concern and varied from a high of 83% of respondents agreeing that flooring effects on lameness in intensively farmed animals are a concern, to a low of 16% agreeing that early weaning in pigs is a concern. Summed attitude scores showed significant relationships with the demographic variables of gender (P farm animal welfare issues. Gaining an awareness of various stakeholders' attitudes (e.g., animal scientists, veterinarians, producers, and consumers) toward farm animal welfare will assist animal welfare scientists in knowing which research topics to emphasize and, perhaps, where critical gaps in accessibility of knowledge exist.

  5. Our love for animals. (United States)

    Scruton, Roger


    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.




    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  7. Algorithm Animation with Galant. (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F


    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  8. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy


    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  9. Animal MRI Core (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  10. Companion Animals. [Information Packet. (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  11. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types of...

  12. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  13. Hazardous marine animals. (United States)

    Auerbach, P S


    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  14. Animals in the Classroom (United States)

    Roy, Ken


    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer


    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. The Classroom Animal: Snails. (United States)

    Kramer, David S.


    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  17. Small Animal Care. (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  18. Animal Autobiography; Or, Narration beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman


    Full Text Available In engaging with acts of self-narration that cross species lines, creators of animal autobiographies also broach questions about genre, truth status, and the structure as well as the politics of narrative representation. To address these questions, the present article draws not just on scholarship on (animal autobiography but also on ideas from the fields of linguistic semantics, politeness theory, and discourse analysis, including the “framing and footing” approach that focuses on talk emerging in contexts of face-to-face interaction and that derives most directly from the work of Erving Goffman. On the basis of this research, and using case studies that range from animal riddles to Ceridwen Dovey’s Only the Animals (2014, a collection of life stories posthumously narrated by a variety of nonhuman tellers, I profile autobiographical acts that reach beyond the human as ways of speaking for or in behalf of animal others. Some animal autobiographies correlate with acts of telling for which humans themselves remain the principals as well as authors; their animal animators remain relegated to the role of commenting on human institutions, values, practices, and artifacts. Other examples, however, can be read as co-authored acts of narrating in behalf of equally hybrid (or “humanimal” principals. These experiments with narration beyond the human afford solidarity-building projections of other creatures’ ways of being-in-the-world—projections that enable a reassessment, in turn, of forms of human being.

  19. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne


    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool ( or which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  20. Workshop on molecular animation. (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E


    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  1. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  2. Is animal experimentation fundamental? (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli


    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  3. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo


    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  4. Towards an animated JPEG (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  5. Animal Diseases and Your Health (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  6. A Study of Teaching Practice and Innovation Based on Interest Groups of Animation Major%基于兴趣小组的动漫专业教改实践与创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏三强; 陈秋


    通过推行与生产劳动和社会实践相结合的“边学边做、边做边学”学习模式,把校企合作、工学结合作为高等职业教育动漫人才培养模式改革的重要切人点,充分发挥动漫兴趣小组在教改实践中的“以点带面”作用,改革教学方法和手段,融“教、学、做”为一体,强化学生动漫设计与制作能力的培养,开展灵活多样的“边学边做”、“边做边学”教改实践活动,推进动漫专业的建设与发展,培养符合社会需求的高端技能型动漫人才。%Through the implementation of the learning mode of "learning through doing and doing while learning", we should start with reform of personnel training which stresses the cooperation between college and enterprises and combination between work and learning, fully develop the interest groups~ role of fanning out from a point to an area in the teaching re- form, innovate our teaching methods and means and combine teaching, learning and doing into one, enhance the training of students' ability of animation design and production, and organize diversified activities around learning through doing and doing while learning in an attempt to drive the construction and development of animation major and train personnel with high tech- niques in accordance with social demand.

  7. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  8. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry


    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  9. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe. (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G


    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  10. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs. (United States)

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha


    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  11. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  12. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal


    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  13. Environmentally friendly animal litter (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica


    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  14. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  15. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I


    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  16. [Thoughts on the concept of animal rights]. (United States)

    Chapouthier, Georges


    The human species, granting rights to abstract entities such as businesses, can easily grant such rights to animals, provided that they are clearly defined in relation to human rights. If it is accepted that laws and regulations already afford protection to animals, it may then be said that we already have "animal rights". Such "rights" are thus seen as the opposite of duties and constraints for animal welfare as imposed on humans by humans through laws. Such rights or restrictions should then be extended. From a philosophical point of view, a subtle definition of these rights will lead to the development of a practical and gradual moral stance, granting human rights their rightful position.

  17. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...

  18. Animal transportation networks. (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya


    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  19. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  20. [Alternatives to animal testing]. (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle


    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  1. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity? (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P


    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  2. Animal models of scoliosis. (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron


    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  3. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats]. (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna


    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  4. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E


    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  5. Introductory animal science-based instruction influences attitudes on animal agriculture issues. (United States)

    Bobeck, E A; Combs, D K; Cook, M E


    The demographics of incoming university animal science majors have shifted from students with a farm background to urban students with no history of direct livestock contact. Research completed before the Internet was a central source of information indicated that incoming urban students tend to express no opinion or a neutral opinion regarding livestock agriculture issues. Due to the changing background of incoming students enrolled in introductory university-level animal science classes, we sought to determine 1) if livestock background (self-identified as raised in a farm or urban setting), sex, or animal science career interest influenced the opinions of incoming students regarding critical issues involving livestock farming practices and 2) if 15 wk of introductory animal science instruction changed student opinions. A total of 224 students were given 2 identical anonymous surveys (start and end of 15 wk) with 5 demographic questions and 9 animal issue statements. For each statement, students marked their opinion by placing a vertical line on a continuous 130 mm horizontal line, where a vertical line placed at 0 mm = strongly agree and 130 mm = strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by ANOVA to determine any significant effects of instruction, background, sex, and future career preference on survey responses. Before instruction, urban students were less agreeable than farm students that animal farming was moral and humane and that farmers are concerned about animal welfare and livestock are of value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Urban students were more likely than farm students to purchase organic foods or food based on environmental/welfare standards (P ≤ 0.05). Introductory animal science instruction resulted in students becoming more agreeable that animal farming was humane, farmers are concerned about animal welfare, and animal agriculture is a value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Postinstruction, students were more likely to buy food products based on price (P

  6. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.


    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  7. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura


    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  8. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  9. Snow White Trench (Animation) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Cytogenetics in animal production



    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  11. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare. (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr


    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  12. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha


    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  13. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina


    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  14. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms



    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  15. 9 CFR 4.1 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT... of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149). In addition, the Supplemental Rules of Practice set forth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and applicability of rules...

  16. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie


    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a we...... support the written account – together with graphic figurations of the many human and non-human actors playing a part of the mattering of “Becoming Sheep”, with an equal intention of performing multiple positions within and through the text......., for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  17. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad


    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo


    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

  19. Animal models in motion sickness research (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.


    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  20. Laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Venugopalan Nair


    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal cancer is rapidly increasing especially in developing countries. The major risk factors include unhealthy lifestyle practices such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and chewing tobacco to name a few. Diagnosis at an advanced stage and poor prognosis make esophageal cancer one of the most lethal diseases. These factors have urged further research in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Animal models not only aid in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal cancer but also help in developing therapeutic interventions for the disease. This review throws light on the various recent laboratory animal models for esophageal cancer.

  1. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E


    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  3. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne


    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  4. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann


    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  5. Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad y de Buenas Prácticas en la Producción de Animales Experimentales Producidos en Condiciones Convencionales (System of Administration of the Quality and of Good Practical in the Production of Produced Experimental Animals under Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Roca, Amarilis


    establishment of production systems, the standardization of parameters of quality genetic and hygienic sanitariums for the animals and the creation of asystem of surveillance that it guarantees that these they fulfill the necessary demands and maintain their status microbiologic to guarantee the investigations This work it picks up the Design, installation and evaluation that of a System of Administration of Quality based on the Norms ISO 9000 and of Good Practical in the Production of Experimental Animals taken place under Conventional conditions. The study understood the period 9 years from the 2000 to the 2008. The interaction between both systems are not antagonistic neither excluding, on the contrary, he/she has an effect synergicanyone it is since their application environment the general requirements of the System of Administration of the Quality they contribute to guarantee that the requirements of the Good ones are completed you Practice specific Production, facilitating their recognition. With the installation of both systems he/she has allowed to work with excellence achieving productive and reproductive indicators of efficiency, superior sales in quantity and quality,decrease of the complaints and reclamations, better relationships with the clients and organs regulators, besides obtaining satisfactory results in inspections of national and international organizations. As well as, to maintain the licenses for the Holding and reproduction of different species and lines of animals.

  6. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan


    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  7. Animation of MARDI Instrument (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Animal Bites of the Hand (United States)

    ... animals include cats, rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys and reptiles. The major concern of all animal ... the tabs at the top (Video, Articles/WEB, Images, JHS, Products/Vendors), or the filters on the ...

  9. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In. (United States)

    McLure, John W.


    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  10. Animal Care in the Classroom. (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.


    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  11. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production. (United States)

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G


    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  12. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš


    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  13. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare]. (United States)

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan


    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article.

  14. Simple Animations with Excels (United States)

    Blickensderfer, Roger


    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  15. Transgenic Farm Animals (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  16. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  17. In and Out (Animation) (United States)


    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  18. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.


    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  19. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.


    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  20. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare. (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E


    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  1. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part


    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  2. Animal brucellosis in Egypt. (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich


    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  3. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi


    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ...

  5. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.


    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  6. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.


    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  7. Can Animals Think?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    For centuries, philosophers argued that thinking and language sepa-rate humans from other species. The lesser creatures, Rene Descartes con-tended in I637, are little more than automatons, sleepwalking through lifewithout a mote of self-awareness. Later, scientists had reason to be skep-tical of claims concerning animal intelligence. At the turn of the century,

  8. Symposium on Housing and Diseases of Rabbits, furbearing animals and pet animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Greef, de K.H.


    Within the Welfare Quality® project protocols have been developed to assess animal welfare on-farm in an objective, science based and practically applicable way. For various species like broilers and laying hens, sows and growing pigs, dairy cattle and veal calves, welfare assessment protocols have




  10. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case (United States)

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey


    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  12. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina


    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  13. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds


    I. Kohler-Rollefson


    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  14. Evidence-based Medicine in Animal Reproduction. (United States)

    Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W


    With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious.

  15. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal. (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H


    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  16. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare. (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A


    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  17. Management of fractures in small animals. (United States)

    Roush, James K


    Fracture repair in small animals has arrived at a crossroads because of advances in fracture repair and client demands. Research into bone healing and repair techniques, collective professional experience,economics, and client demands are obligating veterinarians to greater expertise in the actual act of repairing fractures. The influx of surgery specialists into burgeoning private practices has improved access to specialty service beyond what the limited number of academic practices could previously provide and has raised the local standard of practice for orthopedic surgery at the same time. The necessity to deal with the preoperative and postoperative management of traumatized small animals by the general practitioner has not changed, however. Treatment of the small animal patient with a fractured bone does involve accurate definition of the fracture, selection of an appropriate method of fracture fixation from the variety of devices available, and correct application of the fixation. Far more than these, however, it involves assessment and treatment of the traumatized patient as a whole,including preanesthetic evaluation of critical body systems, preoperative preparation of the patient and client, and postoperative management of the repaired fracture and patient.

  18. Animal bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  19. Professional perspectives on animal hoarding.


    Burniston, Francesca A.


    Objectives Although theoretical conceptualisations of animal hoarding have been published, few empirical studies have been conducted. The current study investigated animal hoarding from the perspectives of professionals who come into contact with people who hoard animals through their employment in various capacities, primarily in animal welfare. Design A qualitative research design was employed using inductive thematic analysis. Methods Twelve professionals who had experienc...

  20. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  1. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  2. Animal Gaits and Symmetry (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin


    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  3. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng


    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  4. Advances in Animal Cognition. (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer


    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  5. Phoenix Animation Looking North (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Work Area Animation (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Animal Capture Agents (United States)


    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  8. Pain in aquatic animals. (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U


    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  9. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick


    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  10. Animating the Carbon Cycle



    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  11. Animal Models of Narcolepsy


    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.


    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  12. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;


    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  13. History of animal bioacoustics (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.


    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  14. Animation, A Neuroplasticart* Media of Visual Thinking and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Garcia Rams, Maria Susana; Pedersen, Hanne


    At the Animated Learning Lab, Denmark, we use animation as a social emotional learning media to practice emotional intelligence and the neuroplasticity of our brain. We connect cognitive, affective neuroscience with animation through the creative process of making animated films. We obtain...... a pleasant experience as we learn something, changing our brain by experiencing new worlds, feelings, situations, or by re-creating them from the past. It can cultivate a wise and sensitive mind, helping to develop critical thinking, questioning beliefs, feelings and actions, since we embodied characters...

  15. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998]. (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F


    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  16. Writing clear animal activity proposals. (United States)

    Pinson, David M


    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  17. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India. (United States)

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal


    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys.



    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  19. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.


    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon

  20. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe


    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  1. Large animal models for stem cell therapy. (United States)

    Harding, John; Roberts, R Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg


    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for novel animal models to expand the range of current studies, most of which have been conducted in rodents. Extant models are providing important information but have limitations for a variety of disease categories and can have different size and physiology relative to humans. These differences can preclude the ability to reproduce the results of animal-based preclinical studies in human trials. Larger animal species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, and non-human primates, are better predictors of responses in humans than are rodents, but in each case it will be necessary to choose the best model for a specific application. There is a wide spectrum of potential stem cell-based products that can be used for regenerative medicine, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic stem cells, and differentiated cellular progeny. The state of knowledge and availability of these cells from large animals vary among species. In most cases, significant effort is required for establishing and characterizing cell lines, comparing behavior to human analogs, and testing potential applications. Stem cell-based therapies present significant safety challenges, which cannot be addressed by traditional procedures and require the development of new protocols and test systems, for which the rigorous use of larger animal species more closely resembling human behavior will be required. In this article, we discuss the current status and challenges of and several major directions

  2. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S


    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  3. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  4. Telltale Animation (Sol 8) (United States)


    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Telltale Animation (Sol 9) (United States)


    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom. (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.


    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  7. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals. (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin


    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  8. [Dermatophytes from animals]. (United States)

    Hasegawa, A


    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  9. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney


    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  10. Additional resource for diabetes diagnostics in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vitalyevich Drozdov


    Full Text Available Veterinary doctors often observe cases of unexplained elevated glucose and ketones in urine of domestic animals without any other signs of diabetes. We studies these effects from the standpoint of the phenomenon of interdependent conditions in animals and humans, described by T.V.Novosadyuk in 2000. She was the first to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for clinical cases of simultaneously developing similar diseases in domestic animals and their owners. During the last 5 years we studied health of humans in families where domestic animals are affected by the laboratory abnormalities described above. In vast majority of cases it has been found out that animal owners have diabetes mellitus of variable severity. At the same time there were no disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in animal owners in 11 cases. We recommended members of these families to undergo a specialized examination. In all of these cases latent diabetes mellitus was found in humans who had especially close relationships with animals. These findings led to initiation of treatment in humans. At the same time animals were treated with a collar with a linen sack attached containing Peganum Harmala 30 globules. Repeated laboratory tests were performed after one month of such treatment. Normalization of laboratory variables was observed in all of the cases. Based on the study results we developed an algorhythm of activities that helps to diagnose early and latent forms of diabetes mellitus in domestic animals and their owners. This algorhythm includes: - test for glucose and/or ketones in animal urine after correction of feeding and care defects. - blood and urine glucose tests in family members of animal owners. In cases of deviations from normal values we recommended them to consult appropriate specialists and begin treatment immediately. - animals are given collars with Peganum Harmala 30 globules in a linen sack attached. - granules are removed when

  11. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly


    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  12. Animal Surgery and Resources Core (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  13. Animal Control on Wapanocca NWR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Animal Control Management Plan for Wapanocca NWR and newspaper articles, and other correspondence regarding managing nuisance animals at the Refuge.

  14. Practice wisdom. (United States)

    Litchfield, M


    A participatory process approach in research and scholarship is proposed in the context of the postmodern movement and a disciplinary emphasis on practice. Two sequential studies are presented to illustrate praxis in nursing in which health is expanding consciousness. A framework of personal practice was developed from the first study and reconceptualized in the second as a process of modeling practice involving partnership, dialogue, pattern recognition, and health as dialectic. This praxis illustrates the merging of theory, practice and research as practice wisdom. Health and caring can be seen as the same process.

  15. Animating facial images with drawings


    Tunali, Gamze Dilek


    Ankara : Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-56. The work presented here describes the power of 2D animation with texture mai^ping controlled by line drawings. Animation is specifically intended for facial animation and not restricted by the human face. We initially have a sequence of facial images which are taken from a video sequence of the same face and an image of another face to be animated...

  16. Directed animals in the gas


    Borgne, Yvan Le; Marckert, Jean-François


    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  17. Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization


    Satish Gajawada


    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in making this planet a better place to live. In the past, researchers have explored behavior of several animals separately. But there is scope to explore in the direction where various artificial animals together solve the optimization problem. In this paper, Satish Gajawada proposed The AnimalPlanet Optimization. The concept of this paper is to imitate all the animals on this planet. The idea is to solve the optimization problem where al...

  18. AGATE animation - business theme (United States)


    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  19. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig


    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  20. Animal models of narcolepsy. (United States)

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; McCarley, Robert W


    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in canine narcolepsy. In 1999, two independent studies revealed that orexin neurotransmission deficiency was pivotal to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy. This scientific leap fueled the generation of several genetically engineered mouse and rat models of narcolepsy. To facilitate further research, it is imperative that researchers reach a consensus concerning the evaluation of narcoleptic behavioral and EEG phenomenology in these models.

  1. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China. (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei


    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  2. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad


    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge.

  3. Antimicrobials in animal agriculture: parables and policy. (United States)

    Scott, H M; Midgley, G; Loneragan, G H


    In addition to the scientific, economic, regulatory and other policy factors that impact on antimicrobial decision-making in different jurisdictions around the world, there exist ethical, social and cultural bases for the contemporary use of these products in animal agriculture. Thus, the use of the word 'parable' to describe the contemporary moral stories that help to guide ethical antimicrobial use practices and broader policy decisions in animal agriculture is appropriate. Several of these stories reflect difficult decisions that arise from conflicting moral imperatives (i.e. both towards animal welfare and towards human health). Understanding the factors that combine to define the past and present paradigms of antimicrobial usage is crucial to mapping a path forward. There exist barriers, as well as opportunities, for advancing scenarios for reducing antimicrobial usage under a variety of voluntary, regulatory and legal policy frameworks. Any new approaches will ideally be structured to extend the use of present-day antimicrobials into the future, to provide novel alternatives for regulating any newly introduced antimicrobial products so as to maximize their useful life span and to ensure the optimal use of these products in animal agriculture to protect not only the health of animals and the interests of animal health/agriculture stakeholders, but also the human health and the interests of the public at large. A full range of policy approaches, which span the realm from strictly enforced regulations and laws to voluntary guidelines and compliance, should be explored with respect to their risks and benefits in a variety of worldwide settings and in full consideration of a range of stakeholder values.

  4. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  5. The Tree of Animal Life (United States)

    Braude, Stan


    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  6. Animals in life and works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Many learners have made researches on animal words. Because animals have been keeping a good relationship with human beings since the human were born. So animals are important in daily life, they are also used in many works to express the Author’s thoughts.

  7. Clay Animals and Their Habitats (United States)

    Adamson, Kay


    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  8. Animals in Environmental Education Research (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard


    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  9. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals... (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. (a) Designation. A designated scrapie...

  10. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution (United States)

    Xiao, S.


    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  11. Dr. Fluffy: An In-Depth Look at Animal-Assisted Therapy (United States)

    Grado, Elisabeth M.


    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is a fairly new practice whose underlying principles date back to the beginning of time. Man has always found companionship in animals, but now researchers, educators and therapists are finding that by drawing on that comfort, children and adults can attack physical, mental and emotional issues. The use of animals in…

  12. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care. (United States)


    ... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... care of animals and other test systems. (b) All newly received test systems from outside sources...

  13. A search filter for increasing the retrieval of animal studies in Embase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Hooijmans, C.R.; Tillema, A.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.


    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting a new animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing systematic reviews of animal research. In practice, finding all animal studies relevant to a specific research question turns out to be anything but simple. In

  14. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova


    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  15. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure. (United States)



  16. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  17. Laboratory animal allergy: an occupational hazard. (United States)

    Acton, Debra; McCauley, Linda


    Laboratory animal allergy is a relatively common work-related condition occurring in an estimated one-third of laboratory animal workers. More than 10% of these workers develop occupational asthma. Sensitization often occurs in the first 3 years of employment. Risk factors include a personal or family history of atopy, other preexisting non-work-related allergies, and a significant exposure to laboratory animals. Inhalation is the most common route of exposure, followed by skin and eye exposures. Preplacement testing and regular health surveillance screening may be used by institutions employing laboratory animal workers to identify, monitor, and prevent allergies and disease in these workers. Intervention and prevention techniques (i.e., engineering, administrative, and work practice controls and personal protective equipment) are key to controlling and preventing allergy symptoms and occupational asthma. Occupational health professionals play an important role in the early identification of at-risk and affected employees, and can render the necessary treatment, referrals, education, and recommendations to prevent debilitating illness.

  18. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick


    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  19. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  20. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L


    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  1. Treating animal behaviour problems with sex hormones: an animal welfare issue


    Jones, R.E.; McBride, E.A.


    In England and Germany, the methods used to modify unwanted animal behaviour in veterinary practices were investigated by questionnaire. The samples were created by a systematic section. Of the 216 questionnaires posted in each country, 66 replies from Germany (30.5%) and 76 from the UK (35.2%) were obtained and evaluated. The majority of veterinarians in both countries considered hormones effective in treating behaviour problems, but English veterinarians do so significantly more for cats an...

  2. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals. (United States)

    Tung, Jack K; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E


    The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment.

  3. Hypothesis testing in animal social networks. (United States)

    Croft, Darren P; Madden, Joah R; Franks, Daniel W; James, Richard


    Behavioural ecologists are increasingly using social network analysis to describe the social organisation of animal populations and to test hypotheses. However, the statistical analysis of network data presents a number of challenges. In particular the non-independent nature of the data violates the assumptions of many common statistical approaches. In our opinion there is currently confusion and uncertainty amongst behavioural ecologists concerning the potential pitfalls when hypotheses testing using social network data. Here we review what we consider to be key considerations associated with the analysis of animal social networks and provide a practical guide to the use of null models based on randomisation to control for structure and non-independence in the data.

  4. The ethical challenges of animal research. (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P


    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  5. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović


    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  6. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy


    Conradt, Larissa


    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I...

  7. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods. (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V


    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  8. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research. (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M


    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  9. Animal models of candidiasis. (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, Minh Hong


    Animal models are powerful tools to study the pathogenesis of diverse types of candidiasis. Murine models are particularly attractive because of cost, ease of handling, technical feasibility, and experience with their use. In this chapter, we describe methods for two of the most popular murine models of disease caused by Candida albicans. In an intravenously disseminated candidiasis (DC) model, immunocompetent mice are infected by lateral tail vein injections of a C. albicans suspension. Endpoints include mortality, tissue burdens of infection (most importantly in the kidneys, although spleens and livers are sometimes also assessed), and histopathology of infected organs. In a model of oral/esophageal candidiasis, mice are immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and inoculated in the oral cavities using swabs saturated with a C. albicans suspension. Since mice do not die from oral candidiasis in this model, endpoints are tissue burden of infection and histopathology. The DC and oral/esophageal models are most commonly used for studies of C. albicans virulence, in which the disease-causing ability of a mutant strain is compared with an isogenic parent strain. Nevertheless, the basic techniques we describe are also applicable to models adapted to investigate other aspects of pathogenesis, such as spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, specific aspects of host immune response and assessment of antifungal agents, immunomodulatory strategies, and vaccines.

  10. [Dangerous marine animals]. (United States)

    Antensteiner, G


    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer).

  11. Sedna Orbit Animation (United States)


    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  12. Epileptogenesis and companion animals. (United States)

    Patterson, Edward Ned E


    Epileptogenesis is the process by which a normal brain develops into an epileptic brain. There are 3 distinct phases of epileptogenesis-the latent period before seizures occur, the occurrence of recurrent seizures, and in about 30% of patients, the development of refractory epilepsy. Understanding the basic epileptic circuit abnormalities associated with recurrent seizures via aberrations in glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and ligand- and voltage-gated ion channel activity can help the small-animal practitioner understand the mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drugs currently used for dogs and cats for new-onset and refractory epilepsy. Understanding the latest research results and theories about the pathophysiology of the latent period of epileptogenesis, where recurrent seizures have not yet developed, would help the practitioner understand possible target areas for future treatments to treat epilepsy by preventing it rather than just symptomatically preventing recurrent seizures. The current areas of focus of research on the latent period include neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, axonal sprouting, glial cell activation, invasion of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, and subclinical alteration of ligand- and receptor-gated ion channels.

  13. CERN OVERVIEW animation

    CERN Multimedia

    Arzur Catel Torres


    This animation shows how the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) works. The film begins with an aerial view of CERN near Geneva, with outlines of the accelerator complex, including the underground Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 27-km in circumference. The positions of the four largest LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are revealed before we see protons travelling around the LHC ring. The proton source is a simple bottle of hydrogen gas. An electric field is used to strip hydrogen atoms of their electrons to yield protons. Linac 2, the first accelerator in the chain, accelerates the protons to the energy of 50 MeV. The beam is then injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. Protons are then sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) where they are accelerated to 450 GeV. The protons are finally transferred to the two beam pipes of the LHC. The beam in one pipe circulates clockwise while ...

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey


    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  15. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare. (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E


    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.

  16. Animal welfare: the role of non-governmental organisations. (United States)

    Wilkins, D B; Houseman, C; Allan, R; Appleby, M C; Peeling, D; Stevenson, P


    The welfare of animals is of interest to many people in most parts of the world. Concern about the way that animals are treated will depend on many factors, including socio-economic conditions, culture, religion and tradition. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is committed to ensuring that all animal welfare standards are science-based, but recognises that these other factors must also be taken into account. The International Coalition for Farm Animal Welfare (ICFAW) was formed to represent the interests of non-governmental animal welfare organisations from most corners of the globe and opinions, comment and information from these animal welfare organisations will play a part in the OIE decision-making process. In coming together for this purpose it was recognised that the views of the various member organisations of ICFAW vary depending on which part of the world they come from. The authors provide information about the situation in three continents: Africa, North America and Europe. This information includes details of relevant legislation, farming practices, and educational and campaign programmes developed by both animal welfare non-governmental organisations and governments. The authors also look to the future to see what issues may influence the way that farm animals are reared, transported and slaughtered.

  17. Laboratory Animal Science in China 1988-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In 1988, I had the opportunity to visit China and present a series of lectures on laboratory animal medicine subjects at the Beijing Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine. Students from veterinary schools in different regions of the country attended, and I had the opportunity to meet and talk with them. I visited some laboratory animal research facilities and got an impression of the level of laboratory animal science being practiced. I also visited the cities of Xian and Shanghai as well as Beijing during that visit.

  18. Classroom Animals Provide More Than Just Science Education (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra; Lynch, Julianne


    Keeping classroom animals is a common practice in many classrooms. Their value for learning is often seen narrowly as the potential to involve children in learning biological science. They also provide opportunities for increased empathy, as well as socio-emotional development. Realization of their potential for enhancing primary children's learning can be affected by many factors. This paper focuses on teachers' perceptions of classroom animals, drawing on accounts and reflections provided by 19 participants located in an Australian primary school where each classroom kept an animal. This study aims to progress the conversation about classroom animals, the learning opportunities that they afford, and the issues they present. Phenomenographic analysis of data resulted in five categories of teachers' perceptions of the affordances and constraints of keeping classroom animals.

  19. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science. (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe


    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science.

  20. The concept of rural community practice (RCP). (United States)

    Nielsen, N Ole; Evans, Brian; King, Lonnie J


    The need to devote more human resources to veterinary public practice to cope with escalating threats to biological security, public health, and economic prosperity, while also addressing societal value changes, has been widely recognized and supported. Most envisage increasing the numbers of veterinarians in government employment. Why not at least combine this initiative, wherever possible, with far greater involvement of rural practitioners to deliver contractual public-practice services and provide an enhanced community interface? This could make the difference between having a local practice in a community or none at all, as well as promising to be more cost effective. The concept of rural community practice (RCP) envisages combining traditional services provided in a "mixed-animal" veterinary practice with an expanded portfolio of public-practice and communication services that meet the emerging animal, public, and ecosystem health needs of the collective community, not just those of animal owners. These services could include those involving active sentinel surveillance programs for both domestic animal and wildlife diseases; on-farm food safety; bio-security; traceability and export certification and audit programs; disease investigation, including foreign animal diseases; surge capacity emergency response; managing for ecosystem health; and client and community education. An expanded practice team of animal-health professionals and technologists, led by veterinarians, would deliver these services. This RCP approach should have the potential to make rural practice more attractive from economic, lifestyle, and job-satisfaction perspectives; to enhance the visibility and recognition of the profession; and to respond to changing and new societal needs. It also promises to maintain a stable network of veterinary practices in rural communities. In addition, the recognition of veterinary medicine as a public good should provide for consideration of increased

  1. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn


    evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...

  2. Ophthalmic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Stevens


    Full Text Available Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  3. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  4. Social Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten


    The present understanding of LCM as a product management system supported by a number of tools and methods does not pay attention to the importance of social practices that the employees develop in relation to the systematic approach. A new conceptual model of LCM including the social practices i...

  5. 'Snow Queen' Animation (United States)


    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander. Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol. Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened. The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe. Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals. (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H


    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.

  7. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs. (United States)

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John


    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  8. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  9. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals. (United States)



  10. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... and experiences. Meat producers are interested in the stress animals endure because it affects meat quality. Pigs that arrive at slaughterhouses are more sensitive than usual for several reasons. In some cases, pigs are transported for long distances. Not all animals are used to transportation. Upon their arrival......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...

  11. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism]. (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki


    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  12. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers? (United States)

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina


    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  13. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior


    Vanderschuren, Louk J.M.J.; Ahmed, Serge H.


    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  14. Design and farm animal welfare. (United States)

    Jackson, W T


    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  15. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent


    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  16. Emotional Support Animals, Service Animals, and Pets on Campus (United States)

    Von Bergen, C. W.


    For decades, universities have been accommodating physically disabled students who require guide dogs and other types of service animals. Within the past several years, however, mentally disabled students have increasingly petitioned colleges with no-pet policies to permit them to bring their animals on campus because they need a companion or…

  17. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights. (United States)

    Anderson, David C.


    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  18. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects]. (United States)

    Houvenaghel, A


    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain.

  19. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment. (United States)

    Loizou, George D


    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential "seismic" shift from the current "healthcare" model to a "wellness" paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human "data poor" to a human "data rich" environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  20. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas


    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  1. Postoperative management of the exotic animal patient. (United States)

    Pollock, Christal


    Careful postoperative management is crucial for the success of any orthopedic surgical repair. The special needs of the exotic animal must be met during the immediate postoperative period and during hospitalization. Many exotic animals require a quiet, stress-free environment and careful attention to housing parameters, such as perching, temperature, and visual security. To provide adequate pain relief in these patients, analgesia should be given before, during, and after surgery. The drugs most often used for pain relief are NSAIDs and opioid analgesics. After surgery, monitor the healing process carefully with regular examinations and radiographs while remaining vigilant for potential problems such as osteomyelitis or nonunion. Physical therapy prevents the development of fracture disease, which includes joint or ligament contracture and bone or muscle mass loss. Because physical therapy affords the patient full use of the affected limb, it is considered a helpful practice in all patients. Physical therapy, however, is critical for free-ranging exotic animals that will be released back into the wild, such as birds of prey.

  2. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed. (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H


    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  3. [Animal health and primary health care]. (United States)

    Moro, M


    As part of the primary care strategy, the Governments of the Americas have included the agricultural and animal health sectors among the public health activities of the Plan of Action. This means that both sectors--agricultural and veterinary--must be guided in their work by a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach, with full community participation. Hence, it is certain that both the study of veterinary medicine and the practice of the profession in the Region will have to be reoriented so that they may be more fully integrated with the primary care strategy. The reorientation of animal health activities is the subject of this paper. There can be no doubt that animal health has a vital part to play in improving the quality of human life and that veterinary practice itself offers excellent opportunities for building a sense of personal and community responsibility for the promotion, care, and restoration of health. Through their contact with the rural population while caring for their livestock (an integral part of the rural socioeconomic structures), the veterinarian and animal health assistant establish close bonds of trust not only with farmers, but with their families and the entire community as well; they are thus well placed to enlist community participation in a variety of veterinary public health activities such as zoonoses control, hygiene programs, and so forth. While the goal of the Plan of action is to extend primary care to the entire population, the lack of material and human resources requires that priority attention be given to the needs of the more vulnerable groups, including the extremely poor living in rural and urban areas. These are the groups at greatest risk from the zoonoses still present in the Americas. In the face of these facts, it is clear that primary care in the animal health field should be based on the application in each country of proven, effective, appropriate technology by personnel who, whether new or retrained, are well

  4. My Favorite Animal-Elephant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童佳欣; 姜彩娟


    There are many kinds of animals in the world.and i like the elephants best of all because they are the biggest animals on land they have the biggest ears and the biggest teeth,they also have a longnose,

  5. Picassos of the Animal World (United States)

    Green, Gaye Leigh


    This article presents how many animals, like human beings, are also capable of painting, sketching, and displaying remarkable abilities. An example of these kind of animals are the "artists" Koko and Michael, gorillas who have been taught the Gorilla Sign Language or GSL as part of an ongoing project run by the Gorilla Foundation. This article…

  6. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"? (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.


    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  7. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.


    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  8. Animals in Atomic Research (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuti, Edward R. [Bronx Zoo


    This booklet explains what use animals are to science and why they are important to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It contains examples of the roles animals of many kinds play in the development of nuclear science for the well-being of mankind.

  9. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment. (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  10. Ethical issues in animal cloning. (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn


    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  11. A laboratory animal science pioneer. (United States)

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos


    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece.

  12. The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future. (United States)

    Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K


    Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues.

  13. Pets in the family: practical approaches. (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate; Darling, Marcia


    Adapting family life cycle theory to include pets provides veterinarians with a framework for understanding and reinforcing the human-animal bond. The family genogram with pets is a practice tool that identifies all people and pets in the family, enhancing the practice of One Health at the community level.

  14. Teaching animal welfare in the land grant universities. (United States)

    Friend, T H


    Colleges and universities have an obligation to teach the basis of animal husbandry and welfare and must prepare students so that they can respond effectively to challenges by proponents of the animal welfare and animal rights movements. Veterinary curricula must now contain formal instruction in professional ethics and humane stewardship of animals for accreditation by the American Veterinary Medical Association. It is helpful if students have an understanding of farm animal behavior, stress physiology and methods of assessing welfare prior to learning about the animal welfare/rights movement's philosophies and issues. A review of early judicial practices, "classical" Judeo-Christian philosophy, the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Jeremy Bentham, Albert Schweitzer, and current philosophers and the entertainment media places the movements in perspective. Students should be familiar with such concepts as the mind-body controversy, equality of suffering, self-awareness or intelligence, and speciesism. After acquiring an appreciation of the basics, a knowledge of the issues facing animal agriculture and the arguments for and against each issue are necessary. Graduates of colleges of agriculture need to realize the potential effects the movements can have and take the initiative to improve the image of animal agriculture.

  15. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology. (United States)

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre


    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  16. Companion animals symposium: humanized animal models of the microbiome. (United States)

    Gootenberg, D B; Turnbaugh, P J


    Humans and other mammals are colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which reside in the gastrointestinal tract, that provide key metabolic capabilities, such as the biosynthesis of vitamins and AA, the degradation of dietary plant polysaccharides, and the metabolism of orally administered therapeutics. Although much progress has been made by studying the human microbiome directly, comparing the human microbiome with that of other animals, and constructing in vitro models of the human gut, there remains a need to develop in vivo models where host, microbial, and environmental parameters can be manipulated. Here, we discuss some of the initial results from a promising method that enables the direct manipulation of microbial community structure, environmental exposures, host genotype, and other factors: the colonization of germ-free animals with complex microbial communities, including those from humans or other animal donors. Analyses of these resulting "humanized" gut microbiomes have begun to reveal 1) that key microbial activities can be transferred from the donor to the recipient animal (e.g., microbial reduction of cholesterol and production of equol), 2) that dietary shifts can affect the composition, gene abundance, and gene expression of the gut microbiome, 3) the succession of the microbial community in infants and ex-germ-free adult animals, and 4) the biogeography of these microbes across the length of gastrointestinal tract. Continued studies of humanized and other intentionally colonized animal models stand to provide new insight into not only the human microbiome, but also the microbiomes of our animal companions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui


    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  18. Animals in biomedical space research (United States)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  19. Selection signature in domesticated animals. (United States)

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu


    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  20. Conservation physiology of animal migration. (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  1. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie


    The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical approache...

  2. "Shrek 2:" An Appraisal of Mainstream Animation's Influence on Identity (United States)

    Pimentel, Octavio; Velazquez, Paul


    This article examines the discursive practices presented in "Shrek 2." We apply a critical discourse analysis lens while focusing on the way animated versions of Latinos and African Americans are portrayed. In particular, the essay focuses on Shrek, Donkey, and Puss-in-Boots and the various stereotypical language discourses they reproduce. The…

  3. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff


    Full Text Available The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato, wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  4. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino


    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  5. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... and Budget under control number 0579-0013)...

  6. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  7. Refining animal experiments: the first Brazilian regulation on animal experimentation. (United States)

    de A e Tréz, Thales


    The very first law on animal experimentation has been approved recently in Brazil, and now is part of a set of the legal instruments that profile the Brazilian government's attitude toward the use of animals in experiments. Law 11794/08 establishes a new legal instrument that will guide new methods of conduct for ethics committees, researchers and representatives of animal protection societies. This comment aims to analyse critically the implications that this law brings to Brazilian reality. The link between it and the Russell and Burch's Three Rs concept is defined, and certain problems are identified. The conclusion is that the body of the law emphasises the refinement of animal experiments, but gives little importance to the principles of reduction and replacement.

  8. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging (United States)

    Goddard, Jr., James S


    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  9. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.


    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  10. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica


    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  11. The question of animal culture. (United States)

    Galef, B G


    In this paper I consider whether traditional behaviors of animals, like traditions of humans, are transmitted by imitation learning. Review of the literature on problem solving by captive primates, and detailed consideration of two widely cited instances of purported learning by imitation and of culture in free-living primates (sweet-potato washing by Japanese macaques and termite fishing by chimpanzees), suggests that nonhuman primates do not learn to solve problems by imitation. It may, therefore, be misleading to treat animal traditions and human culture as homologous (rather than analogous) and to refer to animal traditions as cultural.

  12. Sanidad animal, 2010-11


    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo


    I. Materiales de clase: 1. Conceptos generales; 2. Epidemiología; 3. Diagnóstico tratamiento y control; 4. Rumiantes; 5. Cerdo; 6. Artrópodos; 7. Practicas de Sanidad Animal. II. Evaluación de la signatura. III. Bibliografía El objetivo general de esta asignatura es adquirir conocimientos generales sobre sanidad animal, principalmente relacionados con el ámbito de la parasitología animal como aspectos relacionados con la morfología de los parásitos, epidemiologí a, diagnóstico, tratamiento...

  13. Environmentally-friendly animal litter (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica


    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  14. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony


    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  15. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals]. (United States)

    Song, M


    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  16. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick


    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  17. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models. (United States)

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang


    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  18. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin


    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...... or demonstrator, has become a shared research tool. This paper asks how this practice has formed by tracing the different roles of the prototype from ideation and design, to analysis and evaluation. Taking point of departure in CITA’s own prototyping practice, we explore the relationships between physical...... and digital prototyping as a particular means of validation and verification. Here, a breadth of physical prototypes take on varying roles, in turn informing, testing and proving the research enquiry. The paper addresses how we can differentiate between these modes of prototyping and how....

  19. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research. (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas


    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  20. Practical leadership (United States)

    Sato, Mistilina Dawn

    This study examines conceptions of leadership and leadership enactment by teachers to develop a conceptual foundation for teacher leadership. The research question driving this study was: How do elementary school teacher leaders within a curricular and instructional reform effort describe their conceptions and enactment of leadership within their school and district contexts? Two program sites for elementary school science reform were selected, and six teachers from each program were invited to participate in the study. First-hand reports of conceptions of leadership and stories of enactment, collected through individual and focus group interviews with the teachers, served as the primary data for the study. A case for each of the twelve teachers is presented and analyzed. The outcome of the study is a theory of practical leadership. This conception draws upon the intellectual tradition of practical reasoning, which emphasizes deliberation and action of the individual when faced with a decision or a problematic situation. Practical leadership draws primarily from three dimensions: the self of the leader; the contexts in which the leader is acting; and the purposes that drive the leader's actions. Examples of leadership enactment from the cases are presented with attention to how these enactment stories demonstrate the teachers' use of practical reasoning in the situations described. The final analysis looks more specifically at the idea of practical leadership using a dynamic model called "leadership space" to demonstrate interactions among self, contexts, and purposes over time. The dissertation highlights three conclusions: (1) practical reasoning as the theoretical foundation for analyzing leadership provides a useful and valid analytical framework since it locates the leadership enactment in the deliberation and actions of the leader rather than understanding leadership as the application of a generalized set of principles about how to lead; (2) conceptions of

  1. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  2. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation. (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A


    respect their integrity. By weighing these prima facie duties, the moral problem of animal experimentation exists in finding which duty actually has to be considered as the decisive duty. It will be argued that these three views, even though they will all justify animal experimentation to some extent, will do so in practice under different conditions. Many current conflicts regarding the use of animals for research may be better understood in light of the conflict between the three bioethical perspectives provided by these views.

  3. Using Animation to Convey Natural Hazards and Anthropogenic Change (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac


    Moving images are a powerful medium for analyzing, exploring and visually communicating complex concepts, and they are also the premiere medium for contemporary storytelling. Animation is particularly adept for explaining complex concepts and also for creating emotional messages. On a practical level animation can be free from the production constraints and the expense of live action filming. This presentation shows and explains a variety of Earth-inspired animated sequences produced by the Art+Media Research Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore. These animations have been used in a variety of interdisciplinary projects with multiple roles: sometimes to clearly explain a concept, others to elicit a feeling, or to present an emotion that facilitates learning. The projects reviewed range from scientific documentaries, to narrative shorts and interactive games.

  4. Dual Quaternion Blending Algorithm and Its Application in Character Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Feng


    Full Text Available In this paper we generalize established techniques and blending algorithm for quaternions to dual quaternions to include all rigid transformations, and implement real-time character animation with dual quaternions under the platform of OpenGL. Classical quaternions are restricted to the representation of rotations although combination of matrix calculation and quaternions operator has been a popular tool in character animation since 1990s. In character animation and some other applications of 3D computer graphics, we are actually faced with rigid transformation which just includes translation and rotation. Similar to the way quaternions represent rotations, dual quaternions represent rigid transformations. Algorithms based on dual quaternions own better properties than those based on quaternions in practical applications, which include reduced overhead, increased computational efficiency and coordinate invariance.. Finally we demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of dual quaternions blending algorithm by cartoon male and female mesh models with the animation of walking and waving.  

  5. Simulation of physiology experiments--an alternative to animal use. (United States)

    Nageswari, K Sri; Devi, M Syamala; Sharma, Rajeev


    Amphibian experiments on nerve-muscle preparation and heart are essential as per first year MBBS practical syllabus, for learning basic concepts in Physiology. Need was felt to design and develop computer based simulation software as an alternative to animal use, due to growing concern and stringent laws imposed by animal ethical bodies. Computer algorithms were developed for 13 amphibian experiments, by manually tracing the graphs obtained through mechanical experimentation and storing the X, Y coordinates for the end points of each line segment as data base tables. By retrieving the data base tables, one for each experiment, the computer simulated graphs were drawn using Visual Basic 6 with timer control and Macromedia Flash for animation effects. A CD-ROM consisting of the software for computer simulation of all the amphibian experiments, as an alternative to the conventional animal experiments, has been developed for the benefit of medical students across the country, as a useful active learning tool.

  6. Nearshoring Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Brazinskas, Sigitas; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum


    Purpose: The principal objective of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices and their outlook in the Baltic region. Design/methodology/approach: We draw on the offshoring and outsourcing literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case studies, survey techniques...... affected them. The survey results reveal the perspective of Lithuanian vendors regarding their relationships with Scandinavian partners. These findings are used in assessing the future prospects of nearshoring in the Baltic region. Practical implications: The study relates the key attributes...

  7. [Poultry husbandry and animal health]. (United States)

    Neumann, U


    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  8. Animal studies of addictive behavior. (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H


    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  9. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  10. Animal pharming, two decades on. (United States)

    Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika


    Since its inception 20 years ago, the animal pharming industry has promoted transgenic animals as a cost-effective method of biopharmaceutical production. However, it took until 2006 for the first therapeutic product to gain regulatory approval. This was an important milestone, but scepticism still abounds. Can pharming regain investor confidence, and will society accept transgenic livestock as a production method? There is some cause for optimism, biopharmaceuticals are a large, expanding market and animal pharming has already made considerable strides. A novel production platform has been established, groundbreaking technologies developed, a necessary regulatory framework put in place. Nevertheless, despite cost advantages, pharming has become a niche production method and its long term success may depend on products unique to transgenic animals.

  11. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals. (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping


    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  12. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny


    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  13. Animal Experimentation in High Schools (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.


    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  14. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin


    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  15. Animal Cloning and Food Safety (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM scientists studied ...

  16. Animal models of cerebral ischemia (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.


    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  17. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas. (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F


    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  18. Animation Showing Backshell and Parachute (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation zooms in on the backshell and parachute, about 300 meters to the south of the Phoenix lander. In the distance, about 9 miles or 15 kilometers away, is a range of hills. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (United States)


    country of Central and South America, as well as to the Caribbean, and Mexico and published notices in newsletters. Young scientists from Mexico , Peru, and...Transgenic Animals. J. Gordon. 30 4 F 88 The Spontaneously Hypercholesterolemic Pig as an Animal Model for Human Atherosclerosis . A. Attie & M...and Potential Approaches. An NIH Conference. The Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Understanding Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Humans. T

  20. Collective behaviour across animal species. (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio


    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.