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Sample records for animals ethnoveterinary practices

  1. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, Northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo RN; Mourão José S; Mendonça Lívia ET; Confessor Maine VA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves...

  2. Medicinal animals used in ethnoveterinary practices of the 'Cariri Paraibano', NE Brazil

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    Lopez Luiz CS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy is important in various socio-cultural environments, and innumerous examples of the use of animal derived remedies can currently be found in many urban, semi-urban and more remote localities in all parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. However, although a number of ethnobiological inventories concerning the use of medicinal animals in human health care have been compiled in Brazil in recent years, zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM are poorly described and neglected in favor of human ethnomedicine. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to describe the local zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine of semi-arid of NE Brazil (Caatinga biome and to contribute to future research about the validation of the effects and side effects of these animal products Methods The information obtained through semi-structured interviews was complemented by free interviews and informal conversations. A total of 67 people were interviewed (53 men and 14 women about the use and commercialization of medicinal animals. To determine the relative importance of each local known species, their use-values (UV were calculated. Diversity of species utilized was compared, between localities, using rarefaction curves and diversity estimate (Chao2 Results and Conclusions A total of 44 animal species (37 vertebrates and 7 invertebrates, distributed among 6 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 30 different ailments in livestock and pets. The results of our surveys revealed a rich traditional knowledge of local residents about the use of animals in traditional veterinary medicine. Although it is gradually being discontinued, the perceived efficacy, economic and geographic accessibility were main reasons for popularity of zootherapy in studied areas.

  3. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use. PMID:22751649

  4. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Practices for Mastitis in Dairy Animals in Pakistan

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    S. M. Raihan Dilshad, N. U. Rehman*, Nazir Ahmad and A. Iqbal1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs used for the control and treatment of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in the Sargodha district, Pakistan. The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs over a period of 16 months from September 2005 to December 2006. Thus, 25 different plant species belonging to 20 different families were documented from the study area for the treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis in bovines (cattle and bubalines (dairy buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The most frequently reported (≥10 times plant species were Capsicum annuum L. (n = 32, Lepidium sativum L. (n =31, Allium sativum L. (n = 28, Sesamum indicum L. (n = 24, Citrus limon (L. Burm. f (n = 22, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (n = 18, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (n = 18, Curcuma longa L. (n = 16, Cuminum cyminum L. (n = 14, Rosa indica L. (n = 13, Centratherum anthelmisticum L. (n = 12, Triticum aestivum L (n = 11, Nigella sativa L. (n = 11 and Peganum harmala L. (n = 11. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of this problem included ammonium chloride. The richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for mastitis merit controlled studies for their validation.

  5. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  6. Ethno-Veterinary Practices Amongst Small-Holder Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kolawole, O D; Okorie, V. O.; Ogidiowa, M T; Adeogun, M O

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying factors influencing the use of ethno-veterinary practices amongst goat and poultry farmers in Ekiti state, Nigeria. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers; identified some diseases of goats and poultry with their corresponding indigenous cures; presented the procedures used in developing some of the ethno-veterinary medicine amongst farmers; identified the reasons for using ethnoveterinary practices; analysed the ecological ...

  7. ETHNOVETERINARY PRACTICES FOR MEDICINAL PROBLEMS FOLLOWED BY TRIBALS OF SABARKANTHA DISTRICT OF GUJARAT

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    A. S. SHEIKH AND D. V. PARMAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. The folk knowledge of ethno-veterinary medicine and its significance has been identified by the traditional communities through a process of experience over hundreds of years. The present paper documented ethno-veterinary practices of tribals related to different medicinal problems in their livestock. The study was conducted in purposively selected Sabarkantha district of Gujarat. A total of 120 tribal families were selected from 8 selected villages of 2 talukas namely Khedbhramha and Vijaynagar. Data were collected through interview and detailed discussion with traditional healers and family members those known about indigenous traditional knowledge. An inventory of 36 practices was prepared in 14 different ailments. Tribals prepared fermented product (alcohol of Mahua (Madhuca indica seed and drench to affected animals for removal of endo-parasites. Traditional healers prepared a paste of haldi (Curcuma longa mixed with linseed (Linum usitatissium oil and apply on ulcers of FMD. A mixture of crushed fruits of Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis along with 2-3 litres chaach (Butter milk drench to the animal at 6 hour interval in 2 doses, tribals reported that  this is very effective for quick eruption of gases of animals suffering from tympany. KEY WORDS: Tribals, Ethno-veterinary practices, Medicinal problems.

  8. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

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    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  9. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  10. Ethnoveterinary practices and Potential Herbal Materials for the Treatment of Ticks in North Gondar

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    Achenef Melaku

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90

  11. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  12. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  13. Ethnoveterinary Knowledge of Azarbaijanian People about the Terminology and Pathogenesis of the Animal Infectious Diseases: A Historical and Modern Review of Iranian Native Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Shayegh; Peyman Mikaili

    2011-01-01

    This a unique report about the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Azarbaijanian people about the terminology and pathogenesis of the animal infectious diseases in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. Collecting and reviewing these terms about the animal diseases put an apparent persistence on the long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran) in its ve...

  14. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

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    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control. PMID:23054800

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicine in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain.

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    González, José A; García-Barriuso, Mónica; Amich, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Currently, traditional ethnoveterinary practices are rare in Europe and the plants used previously have been replaced by the modern drugs used by national veterinary services. However, in some rural areas of the Mediterranean basin these traditional practices persist. Here we analyze the plant resources still used, or that have been used up until recently, for the treatment of the health and comfort of animals in a region in the central-western part of the Iberian Peninsula, the Arribes del Duero. We document the use of 84 species, belonging to 39 families (with a total of 2243 use-reports), and 62 herbal remedies based on the use of a single plant species (43) and cited by at least three independent informants. The veterinary use of the Ranunculaceae Clematis campaniflora is reported for the first time. We also identify several plants used as bedding or fodder for livestock and discuss the relevance of some toxic plants and some "magical-curative" aspects reported in the territory. PMID:21461643

  16. Creole Remedies - Case studies of ethnoveterinary medicine in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, C.

    2001-01-01

    ContextThe popular pharmacopoeia of Trinidad and Tobago is the result of a Creole pan-Caribbean culture, closely linked to history, and the result of a South American Indian, African, European and Asian heritage (Lans, 1996; Moodie-Kublalsingh, 1994; Littlewood, 1988; Simpson, 1962; Niehoff, 1959). Ethnoveterinary medicine in this thesis is the local, mainly plant-based medicines used for animals. Low cost inputs are necessary and important to the future of livestock production in Trinidad an...

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  18. Knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine in the Province of Granada, Andalusia, Spain

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    G. Benítez; González-Tejero, M. R.; Molero-Mesa, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of biological resources used in ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs) in southern Europe, a territory with a clear lack of information on the subject. Our purpose was to catalogue, analyze, and 2.755 JCR (2012) Q1, 3/22 Integrative & complementary medicine, 41/197 Plant sciences; Q2, 24/59 Chemistry, medicinal, 92/261 Pharmacology & pharmacy

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

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    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements for...

  1. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  2. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  3. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in a tribal society of Sulaiman range.

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    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Khan, Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to document ethnoveterinary plants and their formulation techniques in an unexplored region of Pakistan and (ii) to select candidate medicinal plants with high consensus factor and fidelity value for further in vitro investigation. A total of 60 informants were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire. A total of 41 plants belonging to 30 families were used to treat livestock ailments in study area. Mostly leaves (47%) were used in recipes formulation mostly in the form of decoction. Gastrointestinal infections were found more common and majority of the plants were used against cow (31) and buffaloes (24) ailments. Recovery time of majority of the recipes was three to four days. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results have shown a high degree of consensus for gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive (0.95 each) ailments. Fidelity level (FL) results showed that Asparagus gracilis ranked first with FL value 93% followed by Rumex hastatus ranked second (91%) and Tinospora cordifolia ranked third (90%). Aged farmers and nomads had more traditional knowledge as compared to younger ones. Plants with high Fic and FL values could be further investigated in vitro for the search of some novel bioactive compounds and young generation should be educated regarding ethnoveterinary practices. PMID:25405212

  4. Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice

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    Vaca Uribe, Dr. Jorge; Universidad Veracruzana

    2013-01-01

    Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice de Mark Rowlands es un libro actual que nos presenta un balance del tema de los derechos de los animales, al tiempo que desarrolla una postura original, fundamental para quienes luchan por establecer y defender los derechos de los animales así como para quienes, en el ámbito académico, trabajan en los campos de la educación ambiental y del desarrollo sustentable. Invitamos a su lectura a través de una breve reseña y de la traducción de su primer capítu...

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenco Grant; Brauer Gerhard; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Georges Karla

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant intervi...

  6. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

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    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  7. An application of sinography in small animal practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinography is a well recognised aid to clinical diagnosis in human medicine; it is used in equine practice but is less commonly used in small animal practice. The technique was used to investigate four dogs with sinuses associated with radiolucent foreign bodies secondary to penetration wounds

  8. Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues - a review

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    I. Mohanty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Galactogogues elicit pharmacological effects, resulting in increased prolactin concentration through interactions with dopamine receptors and thereby augmenting milk supply. Commercially available synthetic drugs induce adverse effect on the neuro-endocrine axis of lactation physiology. Their prolonged uses have caused toxicity which opens a detrimental platform to normal health status of both human and animals. So the researchers have developed a keen interest in traditional herbs, because these are easily available, cheap and with a hope that they may not leave any toxic residues in milk. Phyto-pharmacological research on natural products can contribute for the discovery of new active compounds with novel structures which may serve as a lead for the development of new galactogogues. Although majority of these herbal preparations have not been evaluated their traditional use suggests that they are safe and effective. The purpose of this review paper was to succinctly review recent progress made in the field of commercially available and tranditional galactogogues.

  9. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  11. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    D. van der Merwe; G.E. Swan; C. J. Botha

    2001-01-01

    Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guid...

  12. Spatial turn and animation practices inspired by cultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wieszaczewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial turn is one of the cultural turns, which have recently occurred in the humanities. It stresses the importance of issues such as space and place and can be successfully used as a theoretical perspective gaining use in thought over issues such as globalisation, transnationality, mapping but also education. In the discourses of pedagogical science space and place are considered through their multidimensional impact on education and learning. As significant concepts rooting pedagogy or pedagogy of borderland. The pedagogical reflection on space could be also used in the field of animation practices, especially in activities, which are related to place somehow colonised.

  13. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN)

    OpenAIRE

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-01-01

    A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus commu...

  14. Animated Ranking Tasks: Student Attitudes, Practices, & Learning Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    A ranking task typically provides the learner with a series of pictures or diagrams that describe several slightly different variations of a basic physical situation. The student is then asked to make a comparative judgment and order or rank the various situations based on some physical outcome or result. These novel and intellectually challenging tasks effectively probe student understanding at a deep conceptual level. For several years we have been developing a library of computer-based ranking and sorting tasks for introductory astronomy. The students in this study completed a series of animated ranking tasks on lunar phases, were surveyed regarding their experiences, and completed a pre/post assessment based on Lunar Phase Concept Inventory questions. The tasks communicated with a database and all student interactions were recorded. This poster will detail student learning gains, practices, and attitudes from the study. Interesting correlations between variables will be identified. All eduational tools described in this poster are publicly available at http://astro.unl.edu. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. 0737376 and 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  15. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  16. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Carbone; Jamie Austin

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scienti...

  17. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  18. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--“who sent lfowers to animation, for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industries in the animation industry began to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of animation who sent flowers as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  19. Animal Husbandry Practices of Organic Farmers: An Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyeswari; B and Mahesh Chander

    2008-01-01

    In Uttarakhand organic farming is being promoted through a special institution i.e. Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB) through registering the farmers and orienting them towards organic farming. Organic farmers currently practicing and marketing only organic crop products. However, their livestock production practices are also similar to recommended organic standards. Hence, to document their livestock production practices, a total of 180 registered organic farmers selected through mu...

  20. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  1. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Larry; Austin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference) included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC), which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU) which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia). 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE publishing guidelines

  2. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market. PMID:24235215

  3. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice

    OpenAIRE

    Roshier, A. L.; McBride, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23–55 years) in two UK smal...

  4. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention. PMID:26002092

  5. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2016-01-01

    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Despite their wide and variable use, only a very small number of placebo-controlled studies has been published. Positive effects in preventing kitten mortality and in treating feline stomatitis have been reported, however, no statistically significant effect of their therapeutic use in canine parvovirus infection, feline leukemia infection virus infection or canine papillomavirus infection could be demonstrated. For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective. PMID:26998822

  6. Cystotomy practices and complications among general small animal practitioners in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Sherry; Otto, Simon J.; Weese, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Cystotomy is a common surgical procedure in small animal veterinary medicine, yet common pre-, intra-, and post-operative practices have not been described. This survey evaluated cystotomy practices of 106 veterinarians in Ontario. The majority of respondents reported practices consistent with standard recommendations, but some deficiencies in antimicrobial and analgesic use, as well as intra- and post-operative practices, were identified. Some factors associated with the likelihood that prac...

  7. Animal Husbandry Practices of Organic Farmers: An Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyeswari

    Full Text Available In Uttarakhand organic farming is being promoted through a special institution i.e. Uttarakhand Organic Commodity Board (UOCB through registering the farmers and orienting them towards organic farming. Organic farmers currently practicing and marketing only organic crop products. However, their livestock production practices are also similar to recommended organic standards. Hence, to document their livestock production practices, a total of 180 registered organic farmers selected through multistage sampling technique studied during 2006-07. Cent percent of registered organic farmers were involved in mixed farming enterprises and most of them were with more than one livestock species (farm diversity. The breeds maintained by these farmers were of indigenous and they were raising livestock on the inputs met on farm and from the farms of similar agro-ecological regions. In view of the raising demand for organic livestock products locally as well as internationally, the organic promoting agencies have to focus on orienting these farmers towards stringent organic livestock standards so as to enable them to meet the organic livestock products demand locally as well as internationally. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 303-305

  8. Video observation of sharps handling and infection control practices during routine companion animal appointments

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection control in veterinary clinics is important for preventing pathogen spread between patients, staff and the public. There has been no direct evaluation of the use of many basic infection control practices, including sharps handling, environmental cleaning, and personal protective clothing (PPC), in companion animal clinics. The objective of this study was to describe these and other infection control practices associated with routine companion animal appointments in veterin...

  9. Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Potential Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Emerging Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Roess, Amira A.; Winch, Peter J.; Ali, Nabeel A.; Akhter, Afsana; Afroz, Dilara; El Arifeen, Shams; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug–resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = ...

  10. Use of Animals in Education: Policy and Practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F. Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Attitudes and policy developments in the United States on use of animals in education are reviewed, and the legislative position outlined. The influence of science competitions and national teacher associations on practice is discussed. The common invasive experimentation on sentient animals by young and inexperienced students is provoking…

  11. Constraints in adapting animal husbandry practices by the dairy farmers in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gangasagare

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to review the situation of dairying in Marathwada with the objectives to identify major constraints of the dairy farmers in adapting the recommended animal husbandry practices. The survey work was carried out for the milk pocket areas in eight districts of the Marathwada region. Out of 144 dairy farmers, 109 farmers cared crossbred animals; 65 out of 85 dairy farmers adapted cooling arrangement to cross-bred cows during summer; 35 of 45 adapted washing their animals during summer; 98 of 230 dairy farmers followed vaccination to their animals; 45 of 230 dairy farmers followed de-worming their animals; 37 of 230 adapted to control the ecto-parasite; 65 of 230 reacted for removal old debris; 105 of 230 dairy farmers adapted A.I. policy and only 88 of 230 dairy farmers were positive for the animals insurance. Higher proportion of the farmers has accepted the importance of crossbred cows. Higher numbers of farmers have positive response to cool their animals. Significantly more numbers of farmers did not care to vaccinate and accept other health measures for their animals. Non-significant differences between dairy farmers adapting and non-adapting A.I. practices were recorded while significant (P>0.01 difference was observed between the farmers adapting and not adapting the insurance policy. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 347-349

  12. Effects of Pronunciation Practice System Based on Personalized CG Animations of Mouth Movement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation practice system based on personalized Computer Graphics: CG animation of mouth movement model is proposed. The system enables a learner to practice pronunciation by looking at personalized CG animations of mouth movement model , and allows him/her to compare them with his/her own mouth movements. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the system by using personalized CG animation of mouth movement model, Japanese vowel and consonant sounds were read by 8 infants before and after practicing with the proposed system, and their pronunciations were examined. Remarkable improvement on their pronunciations is confirmed through a comparison to their pronunciation without the proposed system based on identification test by subjective basis.

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. An inquiry into animal rights vegan activists' perception and practice of persuasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Angela Melody

    2012-01-01

    This thesis interrogates the persuasive practices of Animal Rights Vegan Activists (ARVAs) in order to determine why and how ARVAs fail to convince people to become and stay veg*n, and what they might do to succeed. While ARVAs and ARVAism are the focus of this inquiry, the approaches, concepts and theories used are broadly applicable and therefore this investigation is potentially useful for any activist or group of activists wishing to interrogate and improve their persuasive practices.

  15. Animal Research Practices and Doctoral Student Identity Development in a Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Karri

    2009-01-01

    This article examines doctoral student identity development in regard to engagement with research practices. Using animal research as a contextual lens, it considers how students develop an identity congruent to their perception of the community which facilitates their social and cognitive activities. The shared, interpretive understanding among…

  16. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  17. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  18. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  19. Unique educational methods to improve the veterinary employment selection process for rural mixed-animal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Gwinner, Kevin P; Andrus, David M; Prince, J Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The rural mixed-animal veterinarian is a critical control point for safe, wholesome, affordable food production and security. The population of students entering food-animal practice is decreasing, and future shortages are likely. Veterinary practice owners will continue to struggle to find associates to fill open positions. Identifying and hiring the correct veterinarian for an open position is a challenging proposition for the rural practitioner. Kansas State University hosted a forum to facilitate the hiring process and provide education regarding the mechanism of an effective selection interview. A unique experiential technique known as "speed interviews" was used to facilitate communication between conference participants and to practice newly acquired skills. A survey of participants revealed similar viewpoints toward most job attributes. Veterinary students and prospective employers expressed realistic expectations of job requirements, salaries, and debt load. Students expressed willingness to work and desire to practice in the types of practices defined by the veterinarians. The symposium provided valuable insight for practitioners and students regarding the recruitment process. Appropriate and accurate representation at the time of job/associate selection is critical for long-term success and employee retention. The goal of the event was to provide a service to both prospective employers and students by offering education regarding the employment selection interview process and placing attendees in an environment rich with people who have complimentary goals. PMID:18287482

  20. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  1. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  2. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods: Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results: Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion: Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong

  3. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

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    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  5. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  6. Health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntunji Abel O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, duck production is in its infancy stage in Nigeria. Ducks are mostly reared extensively and concentrated in the hands of small-holder farmers. A survey on health management practices and reproductive performance of ducks was conducted in three south-west (Oyo, Osun and Lagos and one north central (Niger states in Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 400(100 per state duck farmers and were analysed with descriptive statistics (percentage. Results on management of health-related challenges showed that 51.5% of respondents were practicing self-medication and majority in this category used ethno-veterinary medicines. Other measures adopted were neglect (12.25%, consumption of sick animals (10.50%, veterinary service (10.25%, among others. Reproductive performance estimates showed that about half (52.50% of the respondents indicated 5‒6 (24.75% and 7−8 (27.50% months as sexual maturity age of female ducks while the highest proportion (41.25% indicated 16−20 eggs as clutch size. Hatchability rate was very high; 52% of duck farmers indicated that hatching rate was above 80%. Adoption of improved management systems by duck farmers will be of immense contribution to the health management and reproductive performance of ducks in Nigeria.

  7. Genomic interplay in bacterial communities: implications for growth promoting practices in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PikluRoy Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of antibiotics heralded the start of a ‘Golden Age’ in the history of medicine. Over the years, the use of antibiotics extended beyond medical practice into animal husbandry, aquaculture and agriculture. While the ‘Golden Age’ featured the rapid discovery of a series of new classes of antibiotics, the current discovery/development pipeline has been less productive. We are now faced with the threat of diseases mediated by pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to all major classes of antibiotic. Evolution of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics results from the inherent genetic capability that bacteria have to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, under antibiotic selection pressures, bacteria have acquired resistance to all classes of antibiotics, sometimes very shortly after their introduction. Multiple drug resistant (MDR bacteria are found worldwide and are possibly signalling the end of the antibiotic era. Arguably, the evolution and rapid dissemination of MDR genes en-masse across microbial pathogens is one of the most serious threats to human health. In this context, effective surveillance strategies to track the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics are vital to managing global infection control. These surveillance strategies are necessary for not only human health but also for animal health and plant production. Shortfalls in the present surveillance strategies need to be identified. Raising awareness of the genetic events that promote co-selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobials is an important prerequisite to the design and implementation of molecular surveillance strategies. In this review we will discuss how surveillance strategies are important for our understanding of the possible relationship between the use of low-dose antibiotics in animal husbandry and evolution of MDR in Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Outcomes assessment of on-site communication skills education in a companion animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane R; Barley, Gwyn E; Broadfoot, Kirsti; Hill, Ashley E; Roter, Debra L

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate veterinarian-client communication and veterinarian and client satisfaction with veterinary visits before and after veterinarians underwent a 6-month communication skills training program in a practice setting. DESIGN Case-based pretest-posttest intervention study. SAMPLE 1 purposely selected companion-animal practice. PROCEDURES The practice team (3 veterinarians, 5 veterinary technicians, 1 receptionist, and 1 office manager) participated in a 6-month educational program (intervention) that included interactive communication modules, individual coaching, and a communication laboratory. For each of the veterinarians, 6 appointments were video recorded and 30 additional clients completed a visit satisfaction survey both before and after the intervention. The Roter interaction analysis system was used to analyze the video-recorded appointments. RESULTS After the intervention, appointments were 5.4 minutes longer and veterinarians asked 60% fewer closed-ended lifestyle-social questions, provided 1.4 times as much biomedically related client education, and used 1.5 and 1.25 times as much facilitative and emotional rapport communication, respectively, compared with before the intervention. Clients provided veterinarians with 1.3 times as much biomedically related information and engaged in twice as much social conversation. After the intervention, veterinarians perceived their clients as complaining less and being more personable and trusting, and clients felt more involved in the appointment and reported that the veterinarian expressed greater interest in their opinion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the intervention resulted in veterinarians who spent more time educating and building rapport with their clients and facilitating client input in an unhurried environment, which enhanced overall veterinarian visit satisfaction and various aspects of client visit satisfaction. PMID:27479287

  9. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg

  10. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks. PMID:26904893

  11. Exploring best practices in animal-assisted therapy with children in the Western Cape / J.A. Thompson.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jennifer Anne

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation serves as a report on the qualitative exploration of best practices in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with children. The aim of the study was to explore and describe best practices in the field of AAT with children in the Western Cape. The research made use of the case study design, which offered the researcher the opportunity to interact with a small number of individuals and look for patterns in the research participants’ words and experiences. Four participants, who were t...

  12. Impact of Environmental Policies on the Adoption of Animal Waste Management Practices in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...

  13. Preparedness of small animal veterinary practices to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited proficiency in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2016-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP). DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. SAMPLE Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices. PROCEDURES Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients. RESULTS Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance. PMID:26953924

  14. Laser-assisted drug delivery in dermatology: from animal models to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2016-02-01

    Topical medicaments are the mainstay of the dermatologists' therapeutic arsenal. Laser-assisted drug delivery enhances the ability of topically applied medicaments to penetrate the skin. We discuss the mechanisms of laser-assisted drug delivery and animal models that have informed clinical practice. We review clinical studies that have employed laser-assisted drug delivery for a range of indications to date including non-melanoma skin cancer, vitiligo, scarring, vaccination, local anaesthesia, analgesia, viral warts, infantile haemangiomas and cosmetic uses. Studies thus far suggest that laser pre-treatment improves transepidermal absorption of topical agents and allows for a much deeper penetration of drugs than is possible with topical medicaments alone. This may allow more efficacious action of current treatments, such that conventional duration of treatment can be shortened or lower concentrations of active agents be used, potentially obviating side effects of treatment. The prospect of using laser technologies to facilitate transdermal vaccination and as an adjunct for inflammatory dermatoses and cosmetic indications remains in its infancy. As larger trials are published, involving greater numbers of patients and utilising various laser and topical medicament parameters, we will enhance our understanding of this nascent modality of treatment delivery. PMID:26694489

  15. Invitro acaricidal activity of ethnoveterinary plants and green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banumathi, Balan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the invitro acaricidal effects of seven ethnoveterinary plants, zinc acetate and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against the Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The selected ethnoveterinary plants were extracted using ethanol and aqueous (water) solvents at 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml concentrations. Of these seven plants, Lobelia leschenaultiana showed the highest percentage of tick mortality. The ethanol extracts of L. leschenaultiana showed 93.33% mortality at 0.04mg/ml and its LC50 was 0.05mg/ml. However, zinc acetate exhibited 70% mortality at 0.04mg/ml (LC50: 0.0192mg/ml). Further, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticle using the leaf extracts of L. leschenaultiana and zinc acetate as the precursor material to control R. (B.) microplus. The structural characterization of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Ll-ZnO NPs) was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microsopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra showed the absorption band at 383nm. XRD analysis clearly showed the crystalline nature of Ll-ZnO NPs with various Bragg's reflection peaks at 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 200, 201 and 202 planes. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups of Ll-ZnO NPs with strong band at 3420.63 and 2922.48cm(-1). SEM and TEM analysis revealed that the Ll-ZnO NPs were spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging between 20 and 65nm. The mortality of R. (B.) microplus after treatment with Ll-ZnO NPs was 35, 57.5 and 82.5% at 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004mg/ml. On the otherhand, 100% mortality of R. (B.) microplus was observed at 0.008mg/ml (LC50: 0.0017mg/ml). The results indicated that the Ll-ZnO NPs have good acaricidal properties compared to L. leschenaultiana leaf extract and zinc acetate. PMID:26801601

  16. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  17. Mobilising for the animal cause as consumers: an analysis of strategies and practices in Netherlands and Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terragni, L.; Schipper, L.; Torjusen, H.; Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the last years, there has been an increasing focus on consumption as a means for expressing ethical concerns and for influencing questionable market practices. The issue of the treatment of farm animals has been openly discussed for a long time. The focus of this paper is to analyse varying patte

  18. Commentary on key aspects of fecal microbiota transplantation in small animal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitman J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Chaitman,1 Albert E Jergens,2 Frederic Gaschen,3 Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro,4 Stanley L Marks,5 Alicia G Marroquin-Cardona,4 Keith Richter,6 Giacomo Rossi,7 Jan S Suchodolski,8 J Scott Weese9 1Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists, New York, NY, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 3School of Veterinary Medicine, Lousiana State University, LA, USA; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico; 5Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, 6Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 8Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 9Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of dogs, cats, and other mammals including humans harbors millions of beneficial microorganisms that regulate and maintain health. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a procedure involving the administration of a fecal infusion from a healthy individual (donor to a patient with disease to help improve health. Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. Here, we outline key aspects of FMT in small animal practice. Keywords: microbiota, health, fecal microbiota transplantation, dysbiosis, enteropathogens, immune system

  19. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

  20. 高职动漫专业实践教学研究%Practice Education of Higher Vocational Animation Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰玮; 鲁璐

    2013-01-01

    在工学结合背景下,加强校企合作,改革实践教学,创新实践教学方式方法,正成为当前动漫专业教育教学改革的核心问题。本文结合当地动漫产业对人才的需求,构建基于工学结合背景下校企合作的工作室制教学,探索高职动漫专业实践教学的方式方法。%The reform and creativity on practice education of higher vocational animation teaching is the key issue of animation teaching under the environment of industry-university cooperation practice. Based on the local talent requirement and the industry-college joint animation studio teaching, this essay fully studied the method of practice education in animation major.

  1. Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2013-01-01

    administration and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent...

  2. Assessment of quality of life in veterinary practice: developing tools for companion animal carers and veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Mullan S

    2015-01-01

    Siobhan Mullan Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol Veterinary School, Bristol, UK Abstract: Quality-of-life assessments aim to provide an all-encompassing evaluation of animal welfare. In comparison to more limited, disease-focused welfare assessments, they have the potential to better identify welfare deficiencies, allowing veterinarians to target improvement strategies for greater benefit. Individuals or populations of companion animals may be assessed and care...

  3. Meta-analysis of data from animal studies:A practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, H. M.; Sena, E S; Egan, K J; Hirst, T.; Churolov, L; Currie, G; Antonic, A; Howells, D. W.; Macleod, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses of data from human studies are invaluable resources in the life sciences and the methods to conduct these are well documented. Similarly there are a number of benefits in conducting meta-analyses on data from animal studies; they can be used to inform clinical trial design, or to try and explain discrepancies between preclinical and clinical trial results. However there are inherit differences between animal and human studies and so applying the same techniques for the meta-anal...

  4. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shineman, Diana W; Basi, Guriqbal S.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Colton, Carol A.; Greenberg, Barry D.; Hollister, Beth A; Lincecum, John; Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Lee, Linda H; Luo, Feng; Morgan, Dave; Morse, Iva; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Riddell, David R; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical...

  5. Reducing/adjusting painful management practices in piglets: an attempt to improve animal welfare and zootechnical results

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beirendonck, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    In the pig industry, farmers always strive for optimal productions results. In order to obtain these results, they carry out several management practices on piglets like tail docking (to avoid tail biting; routinely prohibited), teeth shortening (to avoid wounding to the udder of the sow or to litter mates; routinely prohibited), castration of male piglets (to avoid boar taint),… All these procedures are however considered to be painful and therefore can also influence animal welfare and zoot...

  6. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  7. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  8. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with t

  9. Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Osbjer, Kristina; Boqvist, Sofia; Sokerya, Seng; Kannarath, Chheng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region,...

  10. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane

    Canine epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions in dogs but the actual incidence of the disease remains unknown. A Swedish animal insurance database has previously been shown useful for the study of disease occurrence in companion animals. The dogs insured by this company...... represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40......% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence...

  11. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  12. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  13. [Which animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) have more practical value in experimental investigations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, N N; Wu, J

    2016-03-20

    In the past, we used to think that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) only occurred when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progressed to liver cirrhosis. However, recent clinical studies have shown that HCC may occur during the stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The prevalence of NAFLD and the increasing incidence of NASH-associated HCC require the elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH-HCC and the assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies as early as possible, while these evaluations need reliable animal models. This article reviews the characteristics of NASH-HCC models with a practical value to uncover the mysteries of NASH-HCC. PMID:27095770

  14. Design and implementation of a calibrated hyperspectral small-animal imager: Practical and theoretical aspects of system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas Josiah

    Pre-clinical imaging has been an important development within the bioscience and pharmacology fields. A rapidly growing area within these fields is small animal fluorescence imaging, in which molecularly targeted fluorescent probes are used to non-invasively image internal events on a gross anatomical scale. Small-animal fluorescence imaging has transitioned from a research technique to pre-clinical technology very quickly, due to its molecular specificity, low cost, and relative ease of use. In addition, its potential uses in gene therapy and as a translational technology are becoming evident. This thesis outlines the development of an alternative modality for small animal/tissue imaging, using hyperspectral techniques to enable the collection of fluorescence images at different excitation and emission wavelengths. In specific, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTFs) were used to construct emission-wavelength-scanning and excitation-wavelength-scanning small animal fluorescence imagers. Statistical, classification, and unmixing algorithms have been employed to extract specific fluorescent-dye information from hyperspectral image sets. In this work, we have designed and implemented hyperspectral imaging and analysis techniques to remove background autofluorescence from the desired fluorescence signal, resulting in highly specific and localized fluorescence. Therefore, in practice, it is possible to more accurately pin-point the location and size of diagnostic anatomical markers (e.g. tumors) labeled with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, multiple probes can be individually distinguished. In addition to imaging hardware and acquisition and analysis software, we have designed an optical tissue phantom for quality control and inter-system comparison. The phantom has been modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The culmination of this work results in an understanding of the advantages and complexities in applying hyperspectral techniques to small animal fluorescence

  15. Animal Disease Import Risk Analysis--a Review of Current Methods and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Reese, R A; Thrush, M A

    2015-10-01

    The application of risk analysis to the spread of disease with international trade in animals and their products, that is, import risk analysis (IRA), has been largely driven by the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The degree to which the IRA standard established by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and associated guidance, meets the needs of the SPS agreement is discussed. The use of scenario trees is the core modelling approach used to represent the steps necessary for the hazard to occur. There is scope to elaborate scenario trees for commodity IRA so that the quantity of hazard at each step is assessed, which is crucial to the likelihood of establishment. The dependence between exposure and establishment suggests that they should fall within the same subcomponent. IRA undertaken for trade reasons must include an assessment of consequences to meet SPS criteria, but guidance is sparse. The integration of epidemiological and economic modelling may open a path for better methods. Matrices have been used in qualitative IRA to combine estimates of entry and exposure, and consequences with likelihood, but this approach has flaws and better methods are needed. OIE IRA standards and guidance indicate that the volume of trade should be taken into account, but offer no detail. Some published qualitative IRAs have assumed current levels and patterns of trade without specifying the volume of trade, which constrains the use of IRA to determine mitigation measures (to reduce risk to an acceptable level) and whether the principle of equivalence, fundamental to the SPS agreement, has been observed. It is questionable whether qualitative IRA can meet all the criteria set out in the SPS agreement. Nevertheless, scope exists to elaborate the current standards and guidance, so they better serve the principle of science-based decision-making. PMID:24237667

  16. Identifying Neolithic animal management practices in the Adriatic using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Zavodny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We synthesise reported stable isotope values for domesticates and wild herbivores from sites spanning the Neolithic in coastal Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy (6000–3500 calBC. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values are analyzed as proxies of diet and environment, with differences between species possibly indicating anthropogenic influence. Results are used to characterise diets and address questions of the origin and development of husbandry strategies, especially transhumance, in early farming communities. Changes in pig carbon and nitrogen isotope values through time suggest alterations in practices, whereas values remain relatively constant for cattle and ovicaprids during most of the Neolithic, despite assumptions of seasonal mobility.

  17. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption. PMID:23667351

  18. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, J [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Malyarenko, E [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); Chen, D [Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wydra, A [True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada); Maev, R [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI (United Kingdom); True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada); University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  19. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge

  20. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  1. Introduction to ba-yu culture in the animation creation practice--Taking animation“the white tiger legend”as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Cultural Creative Industries Cultural and Creative Industries, is a kind of economic globalization under the background of the creativity as the core of the emerging Industries, emphasis on a subject or Cultural factors depend on personal (team) through the industrialization of technology, Creative, and ways of industry development, marketing, intellectual property rights. With the high-speed development of creative cultural industry. As a cultural creative industry in the animation industries, it begins to rise rapidly across the country. Based on the creation of the animation white tiger legend as an example, analyzes how the ba-yu culture influences in the animation creation practice. Hope to be able to achieve this effect.

  2. [Evaluation of a modified exogenous creatinine clearance as a suitable renal function test for the small animal practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchel, Joachim; Finnah, Anke; Velde, Karsten; Hartmann, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    A suitable method in the routine veterinary practice for the quantitative determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs and cats has not been available until to date. Therefore, we modified the known plasma clearance model (=P-CL). The resulting P-CLterminal was assessed concerning its diagnostic value. P-CL of exogenous creatinine (P-CLcrea) and of inulin were determined in dogs (n=12, Beagle, 6 months of age) and cats (n=11, Domestic Short Hair, 14 months of age). The marker substances were administered as a bolus injection. In fasted dogs, P-CLcrea was 84.3 +/- 14.85 ml/min/m2 after a creatinine dose of 2.4 g/m2. An electrolyte infusion during the clearance determination did not alter the resulting values (p>0.05). In fasted cats, P-CLcrea was 54.7 +/- 5.8 ml/min/m2 (creatinine dose 2.0 g/m2). The inulin clearance, determined at the same time, was 104.5 +/- 19.81 ml/min/m2. Feeding the cats just before and during the test increased P-CL of both markers significantly (pcats. An electrolyte infusion (dogs) and feeding (cats) had the same effect on P-CLterminal values as described above for P-CL. In conclusion,the modified exogenous creatinine clearance is a suitable renal function test for the early diagnosis of renal disease in dogs and cats presented in small animal practices. PMID:15495934

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practices about animal bites and rabies in general community--a multi-centric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, R L; Chhabra, Mala; Mittal, Veena; Bhattacharya, D; Singh, J; Lal, Shiv

    2006-12-01

    Rabies a disease as old as our civilization, continues to be the most feared of all communicable diseases. Despite the availability the state-of-the-art tools which ensure near cent percent protection against rabies, India is the largest contributant to rabies mortality in the world. A multicentric study was carried out from April 2001 to September 2002 with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KAP) about animal bites and rabies in the general community. The proforma for interviewing the general community was developed and used after field testing. The study was carried out at six selected centres across the country viz. Delhi, Hyderabad, Raipur, Jamnagar, Coonoor and Rajahmundry and was co-ordinated by National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), Delhi, after thorough briefing of designated nodal officers. A total of 1129 (male: female :: 48.5: 51.5) persons in the age group of 18 to 80 years were interviewed in this study. Of these about 751% of the individuals had attended school at some level and rest were illiterates. 68.7% people had heard about rabies. In 60.7% of cases the community associates rabies with dog bite only. Knowledge about appropriate wound toilet was found to be inadequate. Only 360 (31.9%0/) people felt that washing the wound with soap and water was the best option. Application of indigenous products like chillies (11.4%), turmeric (5.6%), lime (6.8%), kerosene oil (2.3%), herbal paste (4.2%) etc was suggested along with visit to occult medicine practitioner (1.5%) as part of the bite wound management. People were not aware of number of injections needed for treatment of animal bites. Multiple reasons viz negligence and ignorance 354 (31.4%), fear of multiple painful injections 365 (32.3%), expensive treatment 169 (15%) and long course requiring daily visits to anti-rabies clinics 73 (6.5%) were cited as reasons for non-compliance of treatment. KAP study suggests that there is need to create

  4. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  5. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shewit Kalayou; Mekonnen Haileselassie; Gebremedhin Gebre-egziabher; Tsegay Tikue; Samson Sahle; Habtamu Taddele; Mussie Ghezu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods:Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70%methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results:With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions:It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  6. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. PMID:24217224

  7. Risk-Based Immunization Policies and Tuberculosis Screening Practices for Animal Care and Research Workers in the United States: Survey Results and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health...

  8. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Maureen EC; Sargeant, Jan M.; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygien...

  9. On the Theory and Practice of Animal Protection in Qing Dynasty%论清代动物保护思想与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏根

    2014-01-01

    The scholars of Qing Dynasty not only inherited the theory and useful ways about ani-mal protection from the dynasties before,but also added new contents to animal protection both in theory and practice.They recognized that animal protection was very necessary because of the intem-perate desires of human beings for animals.The governments and the scholars did a lot to protect ani-mals in their cooperation.On the one hand,they affirmed the j ustness of necessary domination and e-ven suitable killing of the animals including wild animals;on the other hand,they expressly obj ected unnecessary domination,unsuitable killing and intemperate consumption of animals.In farm cattle protection and water security protection,they were very active and did well.Some scholars advocated"quitting killing and releasing captive animals"to reduce the consumption of animals or the products of animals;some scholars publicized that"animals produce poison in their bodies before they are killed because they want revenge to human beings"to persuade people to quit eating animal meat;some scholars expressly obj ected seeking pleasure from reclamation animals,and there was the theory about"animal right","animal welfare"in this view.Because some of their views such as to persuade people to quit killing and eating animals were short of enough scientific supports,these views had not yielded an ideal effectiveness.%除了继承历史上有关理论和实践外,清人的动物保护理论和实践有其新的内容。他们认识到,人类嗜欲无穷,故动物保护甚为必要。政府和舆论相互配合,在动物保护方面,多所作为。他们既肯定支配乃至杀戮包括野生动物在内的动物的正当性,又明确地反对不必要的、不适当的杀戮和消费,在保护耕牛、禁止用毒药捕鱼等方面,力度尤大。许多知识分子,或倡导“戒杀放生”,以此作为抑制对动物及其制品过度消费的一种方式;或以“动物临

  10. On the Theory and Practice of Animal Protection in Qing Dynasty%论清代动物保护思想与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏根

    2014-01-01

    除了继承历史上有关理论和实践外,清人的动物保护理论和实践有其新的内容。他们认识到,人类嗜欲无穷,故动物保护甚为必要。政府和舆论相互配合,在动物保护方面,多所作为。他们既肯定支配乃至杀戮包括野生动物在内的动物的正当性,又明确地反对不必要的、不适当的杀戮和消费,在保护耕牛、禁止用毒药捕鱼等方面,力度尤大。许多知识分子,或倡导“戒杀放生”,以此作为抑制对动物及其制品过度消费的一种方式;或以“动物临死含嗔”,故肉食品有毒之说,来劝世人戒食肉;或明确反对以动物取乐,寓“动物权利”、“动物福利”思想。由于“戒杀放生”等劝阻人们食肉的言论缺乏足够的科学支持,因此这些言论的效果并不明显。%The scholars of Qing Dynasty not only inherited the theory and useful ways about ani-mal protection from the dynasties before,but also added new contents to animal protection both in theory and practice.They recognized that animal protection was very necessary because of the intem-perate desires of human beings for animals.The governments and the scholars did a lot to protect ani-mals in their cooperation.On the one hand,they affirmed the j ustness of necessary domination and e-ven suitable killing of the animals including wild animals;on the other hand,they expressly obj ected unnecessary domination,unsuitable killing and intemperate consumption of animals.In farm cattle protection and water security protection,they were very active and did well.Some scholars advocated"quitting killing and releasing captive animals"to reduce the consumption of animals or the products of animals;some scholars publicized that"animals produce poison in their bodies before they are killed because they want revenge to human beings"to persuade people to quit eating animal meat;some scholars expressly obj ected seeking pleasure from

  11. Decree 5/2009 Coll. on Protection of Animals During Public Performance and Breeding, in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Machová, Stanislava

    2013-01-01

    To assess the police leads, demonstrations of police dogs for the general public, professional exams, exhibitions of dogs with pedigree, breeding, transport of animals to demonstrations due Decree 5/2009 and point out common mistakes of breeders and organizers of dog breeding association.

  12. The intraportal injection model: A practical animal model for hepatic metastases and tumor cell dissemination in human colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of metastasized colorectal carcinoma requires biologically relevant and adequate animal models that generate both reproducible metastasis and the dissemination of tumor cells in the form of so-called minimal residual disease (MRD), an expression of the systemic character of neoplastic disease. We injected immunoincompetent nude mice intraportally with different numbers (1 × 105, 1 × 106 and 5 × 106 cells) of the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and SW-620 and investigated by histological studies and CK-20 RT-PCR the occurrence of hematogenous metastases and the dissemination of human tumor cells in bone marrow. Only the injection of 1 × 106 cells of each colon carcinoma cell line produced acceptable perioperative mortality with reproducible induction of hepatic metastases in up to 89% of all animals. The injection of 1 × 106 cells also generated tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow in up to 63% of animals with hepatic metastases. The present intraportal injection model in immunoincompetent nude mice represents a biologically relevant and adequate animal model for the induction of both reproducible hepatic metastasis and tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow as a sign of MRD

  13. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  14. A conceptual and practical guide to the behavioural evaluation of animal models of the symptomatology and therapy of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Benjamin K.; Singer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating brain disorder characterized by a complex set of perceptual and behavioural symptoms that severely disrupt and undermine the patient’s psychological well-being and quality of life. Since the exact disease mechanisms remain essentially unknown, holistic animal models are indispensable tools for any serious investigation into the neurobiology of schizophrenia, including the search of remedies, prevention, and possible biological markers. This review provi...

  15. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  16. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  17. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Helen L.; Mnzava, Kunda W.; Mitchell, Sarah T.; Melubo, Matayo L.; Kibona, Tito J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Crump, John A.; Sharp, Joanne P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses. Methodology/Results We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97%) had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42%) leptospirosis, and 20 (32%) Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4), rabies (4), and anthrax (3) in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%), rabies (9, 18%) and anthrax (6, 12%). None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis. Conclusions This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic

  18. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses.We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97% had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42% leptospirosis, and 20 (32% Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4, rabies (4, and anthrax (3 in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%, rabies (9, 18% and anthrax (6, 12%. None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis.This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare

  19. Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Benjamin T; De Cupere, Bea; Marinova, Elena; Van Neer, Wim; Waelkens, Marc; Richards, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    An isotopic reconstruction of human dietary patterns and livestock management practices (herding, grazing, foddering, etc.) is presented here from the sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined from bone collagen extracted from humans (n = 49) and animals (n = 454) from five distinct time periods: Classical-Hellenistic (400-200 BC), Early to Middle Imperial (25 BC-300 AD), Late Imperial (300-450 AD), Early Byzantine (450-600 AD), and Middle Byzantine (800-1200 AD). The humans had protein sources that were based on C(3) plants and terrestrial animals. During the Classical-Hellenistic period, all of the domestic animals had δ(13) C and δ(15) N signatures that clustered together; evidence that the animals were herded in the same area or kept in enclosures and fed on similar foods. The diachronic analysis of the isotopic trends in the dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats highlighted subtle but distinct variations in these animals. The δ(13) C values of the dogs and cattle increased (reflecting C(4) plant consumption) during the Imperial and Byzantine periods, but the pigs and the goats displayed little change and a constant C(3) plant-based diet. The sheep had a variable δ(13) C pattern reflecting periods of greater and lesser consumption of C(4) plants in the diet. In addition, the δ(15) N values of the dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep increase substantially from the Classical-Hellenistic to the Imperial periods reflecting a possible increase in protein consumption, but the goats showed a decrease. Finally, these isotopic results are discussed in the context of zooarcheological, archeobotanical, and trace element evidence. PMID:22729657

  20. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    Practice refers to a characteristic way professionals use common standards to customize solutions to a range of problems. Practice includes (a) standards for outcomes and processes that are shared with one's colleagues, (b) a rich repertoire of skills grounded in diagnostic acumen, (c) an ability to see the actual and the ideal and work back and forth between them, (d) functional artistry, and (e) learning by doing that transcends scientific rationality. Communities of practice, such as dental offices, are small groups that work together in interlocking roles to achieve these ends. PMID:19413050

  1. Sexo com animais como prática extrema no pornô bizarro* Sex with animals as an extreme practice in bizarre porn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elvira Díaz-Benítez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do segmento do mercado pornô conhecido como bizarro, a prática considerada extrema por excelência é alocada ao sexo com animais. O Brasil possui uma indústria de produção desses filmes reconhecida mundialmente. Este artigo discute o estigma dessas produções no interior da indústria pornô, traz dados etnográficos sobre a produção desse mercado, introduz uma discussão sobre legalidade, consentimento e direitos, e finalmente, trata essa temática do ponto de vista do erotismo e dos prazeres pensando o lugar do gênero e da sexualidade nessas práticas. Acredita-se que a temática é um campo vasto para pensarmos as relações humano/animal, normal/anormal, prazer/perigo, natureza/cultura.Within the bizarre porn market, the extreme practice is that of sex with animals. Brazil has a worldwide known industry producing this kind of porn. This paper discusses the stigma associated to this kind of production within the porn industry, adds ethnographic data on this market's production, introduces a discussion on the legality, consent and rights and treats the theme from the point of view of eroticism and pleasure, thinking about gender and sexuality in these practices. The question is seen as a vast field to think about dyadic relations like human/animal, normal/abnormal, pleasure/danger, nature/culture.

  2. Using informatics and the electronic medical record to describe antimicrobial use in the clinical management of diarrhea cases at 12 companion animal practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Michele Anholt

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 participating companion animal practices and warehoused at the University of Calgary. We used the pre-diagnostic, clinical features of diarrhea as the case definition in this study. Using text-mining technologies, cases of diarrhea were described by each of the following variables: diagnostic laboratory tests performed, the etiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies. The ability of the text miner to accurately describe the cases for each of the variables was evaluated. It could not reliably classify cases in terms of diagnostic tests or etiological diagnosis; a manual review of a random sample of 500 diarrhea cases determined that 88/500 (17.6% of the target cases underwent diagnostic testing of which 36/88 (40.9% had an etiological diagnosis. Text mining, compared to a human reviewer, could accurately identify cases that had been treated with antimicrobials with high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval, 88.1%-95.4% and specificity (85%, 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-89.1%. Overall, 7400/15,928 (46.5% of pets presenting with diarrhea were treated with antimicrobials. Some temporal trends and patterns of the antimicrobial use are described. The results from this study suggest that informatics and the electronic medical records could be useful for monitoring trends in antimicrobial use.

  3. 动画概论课程教学改革探索与实践%Animated Introduction to the Teaching Reform and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丽芳; 王启宾

    2015-01-01

    动画概论课程是动漫设计专业的基础课程,是专业课程的先遣,为后续专业课程打下基础。结合动画概论课程教学的现状,对存在问题进行剖析,结合高职学生的特点,着重从教学内容、教学方法以及教学评价等方面进行探讨与实践,提出了目标导向教学法;采用分组教学方,注重培养学生的创造力;运用动画技术软件讲解抽象理论知识;设计竞赛游戏环节,活跃课堂气氛,增加学生的学习兴趣,开拓了学生的视“,激发了学生的学习热情,坚定了学生的学业目标和职业目标。%Animated Introduction to Design course is a basic course of animation, is the advance courses lay the foundation for subsequent courses. In this paper, the status quo of teaching Introduction to animation, to analyze problems, combined with the characteristics of vocational students, discuss and practice focuses on teaching content, teaching methods and teaching evaluation. Proposed goal-oriented pedagogy; grouping teaching side, students focus on creativity; using animation techniques to explain abstract theoretical knowledge of software; part of the game design competition, active classroom atmosphere, increase students'interest in learning, to develop the students' horizons, stimulate the students 'enthusiasm, strengthened students'academic goals and career objectives.

  4. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  5. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  6. Animating Community: Reflexivity and Identity in Indian Animation Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Animating Community examines the cultural practices of animators in India, and particularly the role of practitioner testimony in conceiving and negotiating social structures underpinning the nascent Indian animation industry. Recognizing a tendency in practitioner accounts towards theorization of contested industrial discourses, this research takes as its object the reflexive practice of animators in trade texts and interviews. These reveal how local practitioners understand production cultu...

  7. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  8. Medicinal Plants used for Dogs in Trinidad and Tobago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, C.; Harper, T.; Georges, K.; Bridgewater, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modifie

  9. Using Informatics and the Electronic Medical Record to Describe Antimicrobial Use in the Clinical Management of Diarrhea Cases at 12 Companion Animal Practices

    OpenAIRE

    R Michele Anholt; John Berezowski; Ribble, Carl S.; Margaret L Russell; Craig Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 particip...

  10. Cognitive Space Concerning Habitual Thought and Practice Toward Animals Among the Central San (|Gui and ||Gana):Deictic/Indirect Cognition and Prospective/Retrospective Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Kazuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Three fields in which the Central San (|GUI and ||Gana) think and act with regard to animals are investigated; 1)interpretations on peculiar features of game animals, 2) ethno-ornithology, and 3) food taboo and avoidance. The hunters interpret peculiar behavior or appearance of animals in terms of some influential process that acts beyond mechanical causality. They also retrospectively connect a strange phenomenon with a human death. Birdsongs are sometimes believed to imply a prediction conc...

  11. The dying animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  12. Practical experiences with animal fat as added fuel in the Ingolstadt power station; Praktische Erfahrungen bei der versuchsweisen Mitverbrennung von Tierfett im Kraftwerk Ingolstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerischer, C.N. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Kraftwerksgruppe Ingolstadt/Irsching, Grossmehring (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In 2001 the market was overflowing with animal fat due to the discussion about the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease. One solution was the use as additional fuel in power plants. The fundamental technical requirements existed in Ingolstadt power station. Economical considerations led to the decision to test animal fat as added fuel. The main experiences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  13. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  14. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  15. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  16. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  17. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. 动画专业实践教学体系的建立与实施%Discusses the Animation Specialized Practice Teaching System's Establishment and the Implementation Shallowly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉清

    2011-01-01

    The main body of a book is listed in right away in the basis analyzing the animated cartoon special field characteristic,is carrying out the achievement experiencing and getting combining with the medium institute of Harbin Normal University,brings forward the tactics structuring the system teaching with putting animated cartoon special field practice into practice.%在分析动画专业特点的基础上,指出现阶段我国动画专业实践教学体系中存在的不足,结合哈尔滨师范大学传媒学院动画系实践经验和取得的成果,提出构建和实施动画专业实践教学体系的策略。

  20. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  1. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  2. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  3. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  4. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  5. Building and Practice of Outside-school Training Base of Animation Major%动画专业校外实训基地建设与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺宏福

    2011-01-01

    To meet the rapid development of cultural and creative industries, especially the demand of the animation industry for high-quality animation professionals, colleges and universities enhance practical teaching and build outside-school training base for animation major. Colleges and universities should make a plan for outside-school training base according to characteristics of animation major, build and consolidate practice training base by using multichannel and many measures, making it soundly and sustainably develop.%为适应文化创意产业的快速发展,特别是适应动画产业对于动画高素质人才的需求,开办动画专业的高校加强了实践教学环节,纷纷建设校外实训基地.高校应依据专业特点来规划校外实训基地,通过多种渠道、多种措施采建立和巩固动画专业校外实训基地,使基地健康持久发展.

  6. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of commi...

  7. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  9. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. PMID:24747808

  10. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  11. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  12. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  13. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation; Transit metabolique du radiocesium chez les animaux domestiques - application a une situation accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Vincent-Naulleau, S

    2001-07-01

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  14. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  15. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  16. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  17. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can be...

  18. 《家畜生态学》教学改革的实践与思考%Practice and Thinking of Educational Reform in Domestic Animal Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖新亻弟

    2001-01-01

    结合教学和科研体会,阐述了家畜生态学在畜牧学中的地位和作用。阐述《家畜生态学》的教学要点,并对家畜生态学教学方法进行了探索,采用课堂讨论和专题报告等形式和多媒体手段,显著提高了教学效果。%Based on an intimate knowledge in teaching and research, the importance and function of Domestic Animal Ecology in the Animal Science was discussed in this articale. The key contents for teaching the Domestic Animal Ecology included basic concepts and theories. The additional teaching contents should be put forward according to the development of science and the local production. Class discussions, reports on special topics and multimedia equipment could improve the teaching effect.

  19. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  20. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  1. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  2. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  3. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  4. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  5. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice.METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate...

  6. 与创意产业基地相结合的动画专业实践教学探索%Analysis on the Practice Teaching with Animation Major and Creative Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤; 胡巾煌

    2012-01-01

    以移通学院为实例,在分析其动画专业与钓鱼城创意产业基地相结合的实践教学模式的基础上,探索如何利用已有的资源优势,进一步改革和完善实践教学体系,给出一些可行性的实施方案,从而构建出独立学院自身的专业品牌,培养出更多适应当前社会需要的动画专业专业人才。%The paper introduce YiTong College which combines its animation program with Diaoyucheng Creative Industrial Base to facilitate practice teaching. The main goal is to explore ways and plans on how to draw on the practice base to develop a teaching system in private universities, and cultivate professional animation personnel.

  7. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giubert, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2015-01-01

    several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A.......g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin...... occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed....

  8. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;

    2015-01-01

    testing of E. coli, Flexicult Vet B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to......BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro...... and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of...

  9. The Designs and Practices on Ecological Environmental Enrichment of Animal Cages in Chongqing Zoo%重庆动物园笼舍生态丰容设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勋; 王俊; 向力; 戴岗; 王佳; 廖琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对重庆动物园涉禽馆、两爬馆、熊猫馆、金鱼馆等动物笼舍的生态化丰容改造,改善了动物圈养生存的环境质量,提高了其生殖率和适应性等生物学功能,增强了福利水平。是动物笼舍自然化、生态化发展做有益的探索。有助于动物的健康和繁殖,也为游客提供良好的视觉享受,提高展出与观赏效果。具有重要的推广应用价值。%the animal cages of wader pavilion, two climbed pavilion, panda enclosure and the goldfish pavilion in Chongqing zoo, has been designed and reformed for several years. The practice shows that, it is enhanced greatly for animal's living environment of captive, reproductive rate as well as welfare level. On the other hand, it is still good exploration for improving the ornamental effect and good visual enjoyment to visitors. In brief, it has very important popularization and application value for optimizing present animal cages in zoos.

  10. Practice and Experience of Circuit Examination of Animal Health Administrative Law Enforcement Files in Jilin Province%吉林省巡回评查动物卫生行政执法案卷的做法与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文军; 常鹏; 刘新宇; 冯海峰; 臧杰姝; 任守爱

    2015-01-01

    Jilin Animal Health Supervision Institute innovated the model of circuit examination of animal health ad-ministrative law enforcement files based on the real cases and actual practices in combination with special training,to make the work plan,procedures and scoring rules,organize expert team of file examination,make adequate prepara-tion and summary before and after appraisal. The ability of animal health administrative law enforcement and level of case handling were promoted in Jilin province,references were provided for the administrative law enforcement depart-ments to carry out file examination.%吉林省动物卫生监督所创新动物卫生行政执法案卷评查模式,针对实案、实事、实际,采取巡回评查与专题培训相结合的方式,制定工作方案、程序和评分细则,组建案卷评查专家库,做好评审会前准备和会后总结,提升了全省动物卫生行政执法能力和办案水平,为行政执法部门开展案卷评查活动提供了借鉴和参考。

  11. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  12. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  13. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  14. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  15. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  16. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone, Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid, Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin, Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  17. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  18. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  19. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  20. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  1. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  2. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  3. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  4. 综合设计性实验在《动物传染病学》实验课教学中的实践%Practice of Comprehensive and Creative Experiment Teaching in Infectious Diseases in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周作勇; 胡世君

    2011-01-01

    为提高实验课教学水平,我们开展了综合设计性实验的教学实践.从实验项目的确定、实施、实验成绩的评定方式及开展效果4个方面阐述了综合设计性实验课教学开展的过程,结果表明综合设计性实验能提高学生学习的积极性和创新意识,使学生掌握文献查阅方法,培养他们分析问题和解决问题的能力.%The practice of comprehensive and creative experiment teaching in infectious diseases in animals was carried out to promote the effect of experiments.The paper discribed the process of experiments from item determination, teaching practice, assessment of students' performance record and teaching effect.The result indicated that the comprehensive and creative experiment teaching was beneficial for promoting the students' interest in learning and mastering skills in literature retrieval, and cultivating abilities of students in problem solving.

  5. Animal rights v animal research: a modest proposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J

    1996-01-01

    The practical problem of assuaging the opponents of animal research may be solved without formally addressing (or resolving) the underlying ethical questions of the debate. Specifically, a peaceful boycott of the "fruits" of animal research may lead to a wider cessation of such research, than, say, vocal or even violent protest. To assist those who might wish to participate in such a boycott- and, moreover, to critically inform them of the implications of their actions-1 offer a modest propos...

  6. Ethnomédecine vétérinaire et pharmacopée traditionnelle dans le plateau central du Burkina Faso : cas de la province du Passoré

    OpenAIRE

    Yaméogo SM.; Kaboré H.; Tamboura H.

    1998-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary medicine and indigenous pharmacopeia in central region of Burkina Faso: case of Passoré province.In Passoré province of Burkina Faso, a study on traditional animal health care practices has been carried out with 62traditional practitioners. 114 questionnaires were completed and the results analysed and synthesized. Analysis of collecteddata led to the characterization of 24 diseases, together with their local names, causes of their appearance, and theepizootiological evolution...

  7. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  8. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  9. Analysis and comparation of animation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Joštová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the analysis and comparison of animation techniques. In the theoretical part of the thesis I define key terms, the historical development and the basic principles of animation techniques. In the practical part I describe the comparison between classic and digital types of animation. Based on this research I chose the most suitable animations that are further used to verify my hypothesis. The provided hypothesis is the order of based on how demanding it is in terms of...

  10. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  11. Application of 34S analysis for elucidating terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems: Evidence of animal movement/husbandry practices in an early Viking community around Lake Mývatn, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayle, Kerry L.; Cook, Gordon T.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Hastie, Helen R.; Einarsson, Árni; McGovern, Thomas H.; Hicks, Megan T.; Edwald, Ágústa; Friðriksson, Adolf

    2013-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) have been used widely in archaeology to investigate palaeodiet. Sulphur stable isotope ratios (δ34S) have shown great promise in this regard but the potential of this technique within archaeological science has yet to be fully explored. Here we report δ34S, δ13C and δ15N values for 129 samples of animal bone collagen from Skútustaðir, an early Viking age (landnám) settlement in north-east Iceland. This dataset represents the most comprehensive study to date of its kind on archaeological material and the results show a clear offset in δ34S values between animals deriving their dietary resources from terrestrial (mean = +5.6 ± 2.8‰), freshwater (mean = -2.7 ± 1.4‰) or marine (mean = +15.9 ± 1.5‰) reservoirs (with the three food groups being significantly different at 2σ). This offset allows reconstruction of the dietary history of domesticated herbivores and demonstrates differences in husbandry practices and animal movement/trade, which would be otherwise impossible using only δ13C and δ15N values. For example, several terrestrial herbivores displayed enriched bone collagen δ34S values compared to the geology of the Lake Mývatn region, indicating they may have been affected by sea-spray whilst being pastured closer to the coast, before being traded inland. Additionally, the combination of heavy δ15N values coupled with light δ34S values within pig bone collagen suggests that these omnivores were consuming freshwater fish as a significant portion of their diet. Arctic foxes were also found to be consuming large quantities of freshwater resources and radiocarbon dating of both the pigs and foxes confirmed previous studies showing that a large freshwater radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect exists within the lake. Overall, these stable isotope and 14C data have important implications for obtaining a fuller reconstruction of the diets of the early Viking settlers in Iceland, and may allow

  12. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra...... performative practice. Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at...... Roskilde University, to participate in a performative conversation. Svabo’s interest in environmental aesthetics and in new modes of disseminating artistic knowledge (Schwab & Borgdorf, 2013) will intra-act with visual and textual notes from “Becoming Sheep” in a live exploration of the methodological...

  13. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  14. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  15. Panorama brasileiro do Programa de Boas Práticas de Laboratório. Impacto na redução do uso de animais | Brazilian Good Laboratory Practices Perspective. Impact on reduction in animal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rosa dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Boas Práticas de Laboratório, sistema da qualidade que abrange o processo organizacional e as condições nas quais estudos não clínicos são realizados, visa garantir a uniformidade, consistência, confiabilidade, reprodutibilidade, qualidade e integridade dos testes. O Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis introduziu formalmente a Boas Práticas de Laboratório em 1994. Em 1995, o INMETRO iniciou o Programa BPL para reconhecimento e monitoramento baseados em procedimentos, normas, regulamentos administrativos e legais, que estabelecem orientações, políticas e diretrizes para a Coordenação Geral de Acreditação atuar, com total responsabilidade e autoridade, como Autoridade Brasileira de Monitoramento aos princípios das BPL. Estudos BPL são reconhecidos pelos países membros e não membros com adesão plena, aos atos da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico em função do acordo de mútua aceitação de dados e promove redução do número de animais utilizados devido a não repetição dos testes e adoção de métodos alternativos validados. No Brasil, há 31 instalações BPL ativas e cinco realizam testes toxicológicos in vivo. A Resolução Normativa no 17/2014 do Conselho Nacional de Controle da Experimentação Animal estabelece que os testes utilizando animais que tenham métodos alternativos validados reconhecidos pelo Conselho sejam substituídos em até cinco anos, sendo essencial a ampliação da base laboratorial BPL. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Good Laboratory Practice (GLP, a quality system covering the organizational process and the conditions under which non-clinical studies are conducted, aims to ensure uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of the safety tests. The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources formally introduced GLP

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  19. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  20. Animal mouthpieces for human properties and indentity - A Scandinavian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jennbert, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Peoples' relations to animals and their various roles took many different expressions in the pre-Christian era. In certain contexts animals had practical functions, but others they also had symbolic values. Domsticated animals were a kind of life style metaphors in grave rituals. Wild animals and transformation between humans and animals in pictorial images signified social identity. The archaeological analysis of pre-Christian use of animals, and the interpretation of relations between h...

  1. Laboratory animal medicine — Needs and opportunities for Canadian veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V; Baar, Michael; Olfert, Ernest D.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal medicine is a growing field of veterinary practice that emphasizes animal welfare and refinement of research animal care. The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L’association canadienne de la medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) provide a framework within which laboratory animal veterinarians practise. Numerous continuing education and post-graduate training opportunities exist in Canada for veterin...

  2. Cultural Consumer and Copyright: A Case Study of Anime Fansubbing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at discussing copyright and its infringement from the consumers’ perspective by examining ‘anime fansubbing’. Anime fansubbing refers to the practice in which avid anime (Japanese animation) fans copy anime, translate Japanese to another language, and subtitle and release a subtitled version on the Internet to share it with other fans, without permission from the copyright holder. The case study of English fansubbing of anime shows that this activity has been guided by fansu...

  3. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    (Pmore critical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (Pmore positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  4. 动画专业实践型创作团队建设的构建研究%Research on the Construction of a Practice-Based Cre-ation Team for Animation Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万兴; 黎琴

    2013-01-01

    To construct a practice-based professional animation creative team combined with actual college situations is an im-portant issue of higher education. The key of constructing an out-standing creative team is not how to select students, but the prin-ciples and modes for the creative team. To organize student teams is not to seek top-notch students, but to cultivate students' cre-ative ability and cooperative ability. We should stimulate stu-dents' potentials and manifest students' personal characteristics through the teaching in accordance with their aptitudes.%结合院校实际情况建设动画专业实践型创作团队是动画高等教育重要的问题,创建优秀创作团队的关键并不在于如何遴选学生加入团队创作,而是取决于创作团队建立的原则和模式。组织学生团队不是在学生中拔尖子、找苗子的“选秀”,而是有教无类地通过组织创作团队培养学生创作能力和团队协同能力。在创作中激发学生的潜力,展现学生个人的特长,从而因材施教。

  5. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  6. Against the Use of Knowledge Gained from Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Tuvel

    2015-01-01

    While there exists considerable protest against the use of animals in experimentation, less protest is voiced against the use of knowledge gained from animal experimentation. Pulling from arguments against the use of Nazi data, I suggest that using knowledge gained from animal experimentation both disrespects animal victims and sustains the practice. It is thus pro tanto morally wrong.

  7. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  8. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  9. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cult...

  10. 21 CFR 25.33 - Animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... similar animal management practices are used; and (5) Drugs intended for use under prescription or... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal drugs. 25.33 Section 25.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. Research on the Practice of School-Enterprise Coopera-tion and Work-Integrated Learning Talent Cultivation Mode for the Animation Major%动漫专业校企合作、工学结合人才培养模式的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2013-01-01

    As the sunrise industry of the 21st century, animation industry's potential is self-evident, and the development of ani-mation industry drives the demand for animation professionals. The animation major in higher vocational colleges are gradually eliminating the traditional school and classroom-centered talent training mode, and in order to meet the demand of the animation industry and the enterprise post, the animation major in higher vocational colleges began to practice "university-enterprise co-operation and work-integrated learning"talent cultivation mode. Based on the practice of the mode in the animation major in our school, several typical modes are summarized and analyzed.%  作为21世纪的朝阳产业,动漫产业所蕴含的潜力不言而喻,动漫产业的发展推动着对动漫专业人才的需求。各大高职院校的动漫专业教育逐步从传统的以学校和课堂为中心的人才培养模式发生着转变,为了达到动漫行业、企业的岗位需求,各大高职院校动漫专业开始实践“校企合作、工学结合”人才之路。本文正是在无锡工艺职业技术学院动漫专业实践“校企合作、工学结合”人才培养模式的基础上,进行归纳和分析典型的几种模式。

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  18. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  19. Animation Trends in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we give a survey of animation content in education. At present, there is an extensive literature addressing the impact of animation in education and psychology fields. However, in animation field, although some software companies have developed their individual production toolboxes or platforms for animation content in education, there is lack of relevant research from the perspective of animation techniques. This paper first gives a survey of current animation content in educat...

  20. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  1. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  2. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  3. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, Grant; Blackwell, Paul; Goodall, Victoria; King, Ruth; Niu, Mu; Patterson, Toby; Pedersen, Martin; Skarin, Anna; Schick, Robert Schilling

    2013-01-01

    1). Group dynamics are a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognized, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However, to date, practical statistical methods, which can include group dynamics in animal movement models, have been lacking. 2). We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level ...

  4. The Research and Practice of the Construction of the Teaching Material of the Animation Specialty in the University-- Interpretation of the Teaching Material of "Cartoon Character Design"%高等学校动画专业基础课程教材建设的研究与实践--解读《动画人物造型设计》教材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对动画专业基础课程教材《动画人物造型设计》分析,提出了注重教材的专业性,强调对动画基础理论阐释,将理论讲解与实际制作紧密结合,同时注重对学生创造性思维培养的教材建设研究理论。%In this paper, through analysis of animation professional course materials based on the animation character modelling design, proposed focused on teaching professional, emphasizing on the interpretation of the basic theory of the animation, the theory explanation and practice closely, at the same time pay attention to the cultivation of students' creative thinking teaching material construction study theory.

  5. Certain humans, certain animals : attitudes in the long term

    OpenAIRE

    Jennbert, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Do certain humans and animals have greater value than other humans and animals? The question will be discussed using some examples from pre-Christian burial practices and other depositions of human and animal bones in Scandinavia. During the pre-Christian period it seems that certain humans and certain animals were buried in graves made for the purpose, while other humans and animals were deposited in other contexts, for example in settlements and wetlands. The classification of species seems...

  6. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  8. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  9. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  10. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  11. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  12. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  14. Market practices in global networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the role market practices (can) play in relation to improving animal welfare. Specifically, we look at market practices in relation to pork. Recent changes in European animal welfare standards for sows have narrowed the differences in animal welfare between...... conventionally produced pork and production forms with a greater emphasis on animal welfare. Using the market practice approach proposed by (Kjellberg and Helgesson, 2007), we explore how the conditions for animal welfare are shaped by the representational, normalizing and exchange practices of various actors in...... the pork industry and how these practices can reshape the market with a view to improving marketing activities and increasing sales of pork produced to better welfare standards than mandated by regulators. We also draw on the literatures on inter-organisational interaction and business networks....

  15. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  16. “园中院、院中园”动漫人才培养新模式的探索与实践%"A Garden in a College, a College in a Garden"--A New Mode of Anime Talents Training Exploration and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏三强; 陈秋

    2012-01-01

    From file point of view of Anhui cartoon enterprise demand and current situation research of higher voca- tional anime education, this article analyzes the reasons of the commdiction between supply and demmld in animation industry and puts forward the countermeasures on how to sureengthen the "A garden in a college, a college in a gar- den" combination of anime talents training mode with anime enterprise needs. How to carry out "a anime interest group for a anime asscciation", "four levels' contests promote four goals", "campus culture,instruction and manage- ment melt into company' s" practice, cultivation innovation of high-end skilled talents training to meet the needs of animation enterprise are discussed.%从动漫企业需求与高职动漫教育现状的调研人手,分析了动漫行业的供需矛盾缘由,提出了解决问题的对策,就如何加强“园中院、院中园”动漫人才培养新模式与动漫企业需求的结合,如何开展“一组一会”、“四赛四促”、“三融三通”实践,创新培养更加适应动漫企业需求的高端技能型人才进行了探讨。

  17. Exploring the animal turn : Human-animal relations in science, society and culture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Animals' omnipresence in human society makes them both close to and ye tremarkably distant from humans. Human and animal lives have always been entangled, but the way we see and practice the relationships between humans and animals - as close, intertwined, or clearly separate - varies from time to time and between cultures, societies, and even situations. By putting these complex relationships in focus, this anthology investigates the ways in which human society deals with its co-existence wi...

  18. Human and animal physiology experiments curriculum educational reform exploration and practice%“人体及动物生理学实验”教学改革的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the importance of human and animal physiology experiment teaching; From Strengthening the teaching management, reforming of teaching contents and changing the traditional teaching method , cultivating creative talents, exs to explore human and animal physiology experimental teaching new direction.%阐述了人体及动物生理学实验教学的重要性,并从加强教学管理,改革教学内容,改变传统教学方法及培养创新人才等方面探究了人体及动物生理学实验教学的新路子。

  19. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  20. Practices to Ensure Animal Product Quality and Safety in Dezhou,Shandong%山东德州市保障畜产品质量安全的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳秋

    2014-01-01

    Animal product quality and safety problems are getting prominent day by day,and to improve the safety level in every link is very important. In this paper,in combination with the actual conditions in Dezhou City,the construction of standard animal farming bases,the control enhancement and the deepening reform of the veterinary management and animal product quality supervision system are introduced in detail so as to provide references for improvement of animal product quality and safety level.%畜产品质量安全问题日益突出,如何从各环节入手提高安全水平十分重要。本文结合德州市实际,从标准化养殖基地建设、加强防管控、深化兽医管理和畜产品质量监管体制改革三个方面进行详细介绍,具有较好的借鉴意义。

  1. The Practice and Reflection of Animal Experiments Ethics Education in Functional Experiment Teaching%在机能实验教学中加强动物实验伦理学教育的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丹丹; 韩仰; 向阳; 文志斌; 秦晓群; 罗自强

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments are the main research method in functional experiment It helped medical students understanding deeply the theoretical knowledge instructed in lecture, and improved their operating skills of animal experiments. Ethical problems in animal experiments have been widely concerned in biomedical research. To strengthen the education of animal experiment ethics in functional experiment teaching is an important way to cultivate the medical ethics of medical students.%动物实验是机能实验学中的主要研究手段,对帮助医学生加深课堂理论知识的理解,提高动物实验操作技能有十分重要的作用.实验动物的伦理问题已经在生物医学研究中得到广泛关注,在机能实验教学中加强动物实验伦理学教育是医学生医德培养的重要途径.

  2. Animals in nuclear research: where ethics and expediency meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has a direct involvement in nuclear medicine, microbiological and environmental studies which utilise animals in the research work. The opposition to experiments on animals is briefly discussed. The Australia codes of practice for the care and use of animals for experimental purposes are outlined

  3. Adolescents'"Anime"-inspired "Fanfictions": An Exploration of Multiliteracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Mahar, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Explores "fanfiction" (fiction written by fans of mass culture, such as "anime," Japanese animation) as a valid literacy practice in the context of the Multiliteracies framework. Strives to understand youth culture better and to make school literacy instruction more responsive to learners' needs. Discusses "Anime" as a source for fanfictions.…

  4. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  5. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  6. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  8. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  9. 三维动画设计在大学生实践创新训练项目中的应用心得--以大孚膜废水深度处理工艺三维动画演示项目为例%Application Experience of 3D Animation Design in Colleague Students' Practice Innovation Training Project:Taking the 3D Animation Demonstration Design Project of“Dafu”Wastage Aster In-depth Purification Process for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒; 陈仲先

    2014-01-01

    大学生创新训练课题,为培养大学生的创新能力,全面提高学生综合素质提供了平台。本文结合自己作为三维动画专业教师指导大学生创新课题的实践体会,以大孚膜废水深度处理工艺三维动画演示项目为例,全面展示项目的研究目标、研究过程、研究成果、研究心得以及项目创新点与特色,希望能为今后大学生创新项目的不断完善和顺利实施提供有益的帮助。%Training Project of colleague student creatively practice has provided a platform where we can cultivate colleague students' creation ability and fully improve overall quality of student. This article took advantage of practical experience from a professional teacher who had guide and enlighten student on subject of creatively practice. By taking 3D animation demonstration design project of "Dafu"wastage aster in-depth purification process for example. We can illustrate the study target, procedure, achievement, experience and project creative achievement and characteristic, our intention is to facilitate further perfection and successful implementation on college students' creatively practice.

  10. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  11. Imaging of Awake Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The 3Rs of reduction, refinement and replacement are the guiding principles of animal research and embedded in national and international legislation regulating the use of animals in scientific procedures. Awake imaging by MRI of rodents can offer a reduction by increasing the quality of scientific data through longitudinal imaging using less animals by avoiding a serial sacrifice design and refinement through reducing the stressful effects animals are exposed to, in comparison to existing mo...

  12. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  13. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  15. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  16. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  17. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  18. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  19. Research and Practice of the Traceable Animal Products Constantly Monitor System%畜产品全程监管可追溯体系的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔先雨; 张淋江

    2015-01-01

    畜产品全程监管可追溯体系,是从畜产品投入品的生产、检验、销售到畜禽养殖的饲养、防疫、监督、检疫、出栏、运输、屠宰,再到畜产品的检疫、运输、销售等每个环节都建立监管和追溯体系,实现真正意义上的全过程监管与追溯。以政府监管的畜产品质量安全监督管理平台为核心,以濮阳市皇哺牛奶有限公司、河南三高农牧股份有限公司为示范企业,依托河南省奶牛生产性能测定中心奶牛生产管理信息服务平台数据,采用标准化的质量安全跟踪与追溯框架,建立畜禽产品质量安全追溯系统,实现“从养殖场到餐桌”整个供应链的全程溯源服务。%The traceable animal products constantly monitor system is a monitor and tracing system from the production, inspection, sale of animal by-products input to livestock breeding, epidemic prevention and supervision, quarantine, market, transportation and slaughter, and then to the quarantine, transport and sale of the animal by-products, aiming to realize the whole process monitor and trace in the true sense. This article takes the government regulated animal products quality and safety supervision and management platform as the core, and Puyang Huangbu Milk Co., Ltd. and Henan Sungo Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd. as the demonstration enterprises. Based on the data on the cow production management information service platform of Henan cow production performance test center, this article uses standard quality and safety of tracking and traceability framework to set up animal products quality safety traceability system to realize the entire tracing system of the supply chain"from farm to table".

  20. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  1. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  2. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...

  3. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  4. Animal Care Practices in Experiments on Biological Rhythms and Sleep: Report of the Joint Task Force of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms and the Sleep Research Society

    OpenAIRE

    Bittman, Eric L; Kilduff, Thomas S.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Szymusiak, Ronald; Toth, Linda A; Turek, Fred W.

    2013-01-01

    Many physiological and molecular processes are strongly rhythmic and profoundly influenced by sleep. The continuing effort of biological, medical, and veterinary science to understand the temporal organization of cellular, physiological, behavioral and cognitive function holds great promise for the improvement of the welfare of animals and human beings. As a result, attending veterinarians and IACUC are often charged with the responsibility of evaluating experiments on such rhythms or the eff...

  5. 石家庄市动物卫生监督技能竞赛活动实践%Practice of Improving Personnel Quality by Animal Health Supervision Skill Competition in Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文龙; 李国方; 李兴杰; 谷红; 安晓珂; 刘璟; 王迈

    2015-01-01

    The animal health supervision skill competition was held in Shijiazhuang,in order to improve the animal health supervision personnel quality . The four parts of the competition were described in detail:written test,questions and answers of disease on the pictures,electronic animal quarantine certification and actual slaughter quarantine inspec-tion with competition procedures and evaluation criterion. The skill competition was considered as characterized by wide field of knowledge,high technological content,scientific procedure and new type and it was a approach to improve the animal health supervision personnel quality,worthwhile to be extended in other places.%为提升动物卫生监督人员的素质,2014年石家庄市动物卫生监督所开展了动物卫生监督技能竞赛活动。通过介绍竞赛活动中笔试、看图辨病现场问答、电子出证和屠宰检疫实际操作四个部分的竞赛内容、流程和评分标准,分析出该竞赛活动具有知识面广、技术含量高、流程设计科学、形式新颖等突出特点,是一种提升动物卫生监督人员综合素质的新方式。

  6. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  7. State and perspectives of national and international animal research

    OpenAIRE

    Nardone, A.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative aspects and the future of Animal Sciences are reported, resulting form a survey of National and EU documents and from personal evaluations of selcted scientists. In the University for animal sciences 395 units are emplyed, 226 in Faculties of Agriculture, 161 in Faculties of Veterinary Sciences and 8 in other Faculties. Approzimately other 165 units are involved in animal research in public or private boards. In practice, nearly 70% of the researchers in Animal Sciences in Italy ...

  8. Animal science: Isotopes and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many regions of the world, animal production is limited by poor growth, reproductive performance and milk output of livestock, thus limiting the availability of animal products such as meat, milk, leather, etc., for use by man. Reduced animal production results from inadequate or unbalanced nutrition, lack of adaptation to climatic conditions, and parasitic and other diseases The production from animals can be improved on the one hand by improving genotypes (the breeds and strains within a given species) to make them better suited to the environment to which they are exposed, and on the other hand by modifying the components of the environment which are limiting the production. In practice, a combination of these two strategies is usually desirable but the relative importance of each is determined by short- and long-term economic considerations and the likely environmental consequences. Isotopes and radiation play an important part in identifying and alleviating the genetic and environmental limitations to animal production

  9. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, A.N.; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A.T.; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, S.J.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; H. P. S. Makkar; Firkins, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  10. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  11. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  12. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  13. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  14. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  15. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  16. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  17. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  18. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  19. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  2. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  3. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  4. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    This contribution will discuss the phenomenon of the so-called Japanese Cat Girls who practice the behavior of cats as a contradiction to Disney's cartoon where animals have a human character. From Disney cartoons we experience how animals are being humanized and are representing human character...... to a degree where it becomes difficult to see them as animals. This is just one example of how animals are attributed with a human character. A trend among keepers of humanizing their pets has emerged, which sometimes goes beyond the interests of the animals’ welfare – as animals. The pets are equipped...... with props that appear to satisfy the owner's need instead of the needs of animal itself and make the animal look like a cartoon character. Pictures of animals represent a large variation of representation forms and genres where Disney represents an example of a cartoon culture of humanized animals...

  5. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  6. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  8. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  9. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  11. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  12. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  13. Ode to an Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  14. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical approaches...... draw on performativity, social aesthetics and visual culture. In the final discussion the humanized animal is related to symmetrical anthropology, brought about by the contradictory position between the humanized animal character and a non-humanized social practice in which humans’ attribute themselves...... with animal behaviors....

  15. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  16. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  17. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week......, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of...

  18. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted for differences in cognitive abilities. Here, we argue that personality is an important source of variation that may affect cognitive performance and we hypothesise mutual influences between personality and cognition across an individual’s lifespan. In particular, we suggest that: 1 personality profiles may be markers of different cognitive styles; 2 success or failure in cognitive tasks could affect different personalities differently; 3 ontogenetic changes of personality profiles could be reflected in changes in cognitive performance. The study of such interplay has implications in animal welfare as well as in neuroscience and in translational medicine [Current Zoology 57 (4: 491–498, 2011].

  19. Analyzing Valuation Practices through Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesnière, Germain; Labatut, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult...

  20. "Flash Animation Design" Course Construction Based on "Theory and Practice Integration"%基于“理实一体化”的《Flash动画设计》的课程建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩玲

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the "flash animation" course from the traditional teaching model to the "truth real integration" model curriculum teaching the process of building,in the teaching content, learning assessment,teaching materials,test environment,made innovative practices.This course features and teaching objectives from the start,created a "Theory and Practice Integration" teaching.%文章介绍了《flash动画设计》课程从传统的教学模式到“理实一体化”教学示范课程的建设过程中,在教学内容、模式、学习评价、教材建设、实验环境等方面所做的创新性实践。本文从课程特色和教学目标出发,创建了“理实一体化”教学模式。

  1. Blended learning in the small animal clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    the implementation of these new teaching methods (e-learning and Skills Lab), teachers have ascertained a more satisfactory level of preparation, students that seem more focused and live-animal surgery that is conducted at a more ‘professional’ level than before. Finally, our research in this field shows......At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Basic Surgical Skills are taught in groups of 30-35 students in the first year of the master program (4th year students). The eight day course is an example of ‘blended learning’ in which students use our e-learning-material (Step 1) to prepare......-lab (one day) and Step 4: live animal surgery (four days). The implementation of the Surgical Skills Lab as an introduction to training on real animals (cadavers and research pigs) seems to be a valuable, practical, economical and safe educational tool that is highly appreciated by students. Since...

  2. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  3. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  4. Kinect driven facial animation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  5. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and...... private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  6. Standing for Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    1999-01-01

    From the legal point of view, there is nothing at all new or unfamiliar in the idea of "animal rights;" on the contrary, it is entirely clear that animals have legal rights. Indeed, the rise of legal rights for animals has been one of the most distinctive features of the last thirty years of federal statutory law. An investigation of the question of standing helps show that the real issues involve problems of enforcement and scope. Human beings often do and should have standing to protect ani...

  7. Creativity as a Chain in Practical Teaching Mode —— An exploration of the teaching reform of New Media Animation specialty%以创意为链条的实践教学模式——高校“新媒体动画”专业教改探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠会

    2012-01-01

    The practical teaching mode reform of New Media Animation specialty, taking creativity as a chain, consists of the following three linear modules: creativity basic practice, creativity creation practice, and creativity social prac- tice, among which the first one is taken as the core, the second the purpose, and the last a test of the practical teach- ing. Complimenting and promoting each other, the three modules turn the students from knowledge receivers into prob- lem researchers and creators, and make them explore actively rather than receive passively. As a result, practical teach- ing, theoretical teaching and social requirement are closely connected but at the same time relatively independent from each other.%“新媒体动画”专业的整个实践教学模式改革中,以创意为链条,由创意基础实践、创意创作实践和创意社会卖践三个模块纵向组合完成。其中创意基础实践为核心,创意创作实践为目的,创意社会实践为实践教学的检验,三个模块互为补充,互相促进,让学生从知识的接受者变为问题的研究者和创作者,从而完成从被动接受到主动探求,进而使得实践教学、理论教学和社会需求既紧密合作又保持其相对独立性。

  8. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  9. Bottom dwelling animals: Benthos

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    . At the bottom/sediment dwelling animal communities are collectively termed as 'BENTHOS'. This extremely valuable component of the marine environment consumes the sediment organic matter from the overlying water column and effectively converts into benthic...

  10. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  12. Retrospectives: Animal Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Koppl

    1991-01-01

    John Maynard Keynes argued that when the conditions for rational action are not present, people are driven by "animal spirits." This article briefly considers Keynes' argument, and the history of the term.

  13. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term. PMID:9581372

  16. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  17. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  18. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  19. Whole animal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be us...

  20. Cultural - Amusement Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovlev, Zlatko; Koteski, Cane; Angelkova, Tanja; Dzambazoski, Kristijan

    2011-01-01

    In the contemporary tourism, the cultural – amusing animation is at the same level as the food and the accommodation. This animation contributes to avoid the monotony and boredom of the guests/visitors.The visitors need diversion and dynamics during their tourist stay.There is nothing more destructive for themas the feeling of boredom, itself. The whole phenomenom of amusement and diversion is very relevant and characteristic for the human and it has its roots in the need for change, because ...

  1. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  2. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  4. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  5. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  6. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  7. Veterinary Teaching Hospital to launch small animal outpatient imaging service

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in June 2009, the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech's Veterinary Teaching Hospital will introduce a new outpatient advanced imaging service for surrounding small animal veterinarian practices.

  8. Animal, animalité, devenir-animal

    OpenAIRE

    Viennet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Question de regard Nous regardons les animaux et les animaux nous regardent. Nous faisons signe à un chat, par la voix, par le geste, le chat nous regarde et cligne des yeux. Il n’a pas la capacité d’exprimer des paroles selon le modèle humain, mais à sa manière il nous répond, par un clin d’œil. Que se passe-t-il dans ce clin d’œil ? Une communication s’établit, un échange a lieu. Nous regardons l’animal qui nous regarde. Que voyons-nous alors ? Le clin d’œil énigmatique nous pousse à regard...

  9. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complete a post exposure monitoring and management plan. Testing may include live-animal testing using a... testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... investigation which may include additional testing of the suspect animal and or animals that have...

  10. SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    C R Hooijmans; Rovers, M M; Vries, R.B.M. de; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Langendam, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessi...

  11. Animal and Meat Production in Ghana-An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Adzitey

    2013-01-01

    Animal production is an integral part of Ghana’s agricultural economy and a major source of livelihood for many rural households in the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. In Ghana, animals are raised under the extensive, semi-intensive and/or intensive system. However, the extensive system is the commonest method and it is practiced most especially in rural communities. Animal production holdings are commercially, family or individually owned. Commercial farm...

  12. THE BECOMINGS OF SUBJECTIVITY IN ANIMAL WORLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Despret, Vinciane

    2008-01-01

    When philosophers deal with the issue of the difference between human and animal beings, there is always a double ‘‘we’’ that imposes itself: ‘‘we’’ know that ‘‘we’’ are different. In order to resist these ‘‘we’s’’ the author has explored certain situations in which human and animals work together, and more extensively the everyday practices of cow and pig breeders. Interviewing the breeders, however, highlights an important issue: might the question of ‘‘the’’ difference, as philosophers hav...

  13. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  14. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  15. Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad y de Buenas Prácticas en la Producción de Animales Experimentales Producidos en Condiciones Convencionales (System of Administration of the Quality and of Good Practical in the Production of Produced Experimental Animals under Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Roca, Amarilis

    2010-06-01

    establishment of production systems, the standardization of parameters of quality genetic and hygienic sanitariums for the animals and the creation of asystem of surveillance that it guarantees that these they fulfill the necessary demands and maintain their status microbiologic to guarantee the investigations This work it picks up the Design, installation and evaluation that of a System of Administration of Quality based on the Norms ISO 9000 and of Good Practical in the Production of Experimental Animals taken place under Conventional conditions. The study understood the period 9 years from the 2000 to the 2008. The interaction between both systems are not antagonistic neither excluding, on the contrary, he/she has an effect synergicanyone it is since their application environment the general requirements of the System of Administration of the Quality they contribute to guarantee that the requirements of the Good ones are completed you Practice specific Production, facilitating their recognition. With the installation of both systems he/she has allowed to work with excellence achieving productive and reproductive indicators of efficiency, superior sales in quantity and quality,decrease of the complaints and reclamations, better relationships with the clients and organs regulators, besides obtaining satisfactory results in inspections of national and international organizations. As well as, to maintain the licenses for the Holding and reproduction of different species and lines of animals.

  16. Household Animal Raising Behaviour in China’s Developed Regions: The Case of Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xi-An; Guo, Qing-Fang; Teng, Hua-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Due to the dominant role of household animal raising in China’s animal production, an improved understanding of household animal raising practices is essential to study China’s feedgrain markets. It is also noted that the level of local economic development affects animal raising practices and the development of feedgrain markets. This paper reports the findings from a rural household survey we conducted recently in a China’s coastal and developed province. It was specially designed to examin...

  17. Culturing Students' Practical Innovation Ability by Constructing the Opening Experiment Teaching Platform of Animal Reproduction%构建《动物繁殖学》开放式实验教学平台培养学生实践创新能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to further improve the experimental teaching quality of Animal Reproduction,mobilize the initiative and creativity of students,enhance the experimental operation skills of students and cultivate high-quality innovative talent.Based on experimental teaching practice and available experimental teaching resources,the necessity,existing problems and suggestions of constructing the opening experimental teaching platform of Animal Reproduction were discussed.%为进一步提高《动物繁殖学》实验教学质量,充分调动学生的主动性和创新性,提高学生的实验操作技能,培养应用型高素质创新人才,结合多年的实验教学经验和现有实验教学资源,阐述了构建《动物繁殖学》开放式实验教学平台的必要性、存在的问题及建议。

  18. Terrestrial animal ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Ecology project is an integral part of the terrestrial ecology program. For convenience, it is reported separately because of the specialized nature of its techniques. It includes studies to characterize faunal populations taxonomically and ecologically and to estimate density and biomass of important mammal, bird, herpetofauna, and invertebrate populations. Extensive studies of small mammal populations conducted in past years are being summarized for open literature publication. Methodology and techniques developed in the animal ecology program are expected to be vital to studies to be initiated under a newly funded 189 entitled Radioecology of Waste Management Zones. These kinds of supportive studies will be needed to determine dietary habits of important animals inhabiting waste management zones, construction of realistic food chain models, and estimating radioactivity doses to biota

  19. Statistics of lattice animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Nadler, Walder; Grassberger, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The scaling behavior of randomly branched polymers in a good solvent is studied in two to nine dimensions, modeled by lattice animals on simple hypercubic lattices. For the simulations, we use a biased sequential sampling algorithm with re-sampling, similar to the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) used extensively for linear polymers. We obtain high statistics of animals with up to several thousand sites in all dimension 2⩽d⩽9. The partition sum (number of different animals) and gyration radii are estimated. In all dimensions we verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction, and we verify all exactly known critical exponents in dimensions 2, 3, 4, and ⩾8. In addition, we present the hitherto most precise estimates for growth constants in d⩾3. For clusters with one site attached to an attractive surface, we verify the superuniversality of the cross-over exponent at the adsorption transition predicted by Janssen and Lyssy.

  20. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  2. The experiments on healthy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on leukotitin influence on hematosis which was held on :1. healthy animals received the preparation; 2. irradiated animals received the preparation; 3. irradiated animals didn't receive the preparation

  3. Companion animal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  4. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  5. What about animals dealing with working dogs, pets and other animals during terrorism incidents and disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is highly likely that K9 teams (patrol, search and rescue, and cadaver) will be exposed to hazardous materials as a result of an act of CBRN terrorism, and thus require decontamination. Service animals and pets which have been exposed to toxic agents and materials will also need to be decontaminated, along with their owners. Emergency evacuation and sheltering plans need to consider how service animals, pets and livestock will be handled. The United States has recently made significant changes to focus in this regard, to the extent that caring for animals must now be addressed in disaster preparedness planning. In this paper we describe lessons learned from work done by the Massachusetts Urban Search and Rescue Team (USAR), and the response to hurricane Katrina, concerning the handling and decontamination of animals following major incidents. We discuss: how the new Federal and state mandates have changed evacuation and sheltering concepts; cooperation among government entities, veterinarians, animal facilities, humane societies, animal rescue organizations and animal owners; and describe some practical considerations and solutions to sheltering and mass decontamination of animals along with their humans.(author)

  6. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  7. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  8. Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarten, J

    2012-04-01

    It is almost impossible to imagine veterinary medicine today without the use of antimicrobials. Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobials found their way into the veterinary world. They have brought many benefits for the health and welfare of both animals and people, such as the lessening of pain and suffering, reduction in shedding of (zoonotic) bacteria and the containment of potentially large-scale epidemics. Indirectly, they also contribute to food security, protection of livelihoods and animal resources, and poverty alleviation. Given the broad range of animal species under veterinary care and the enormous variety of infectious agents, a complete range of antimicrobials is needed in veterinary medicine. Losing products, either through the occurrence of resistance or through a prohibition on their use, will have serious consequences for the health and welfare of all animals. It will also seriously affect people who depend on these animals. It is a great challenge to everyone involved to stop the growing trend of antimicrobial resistance and to safeguard the effectiveness of antimicrobials for the future. Transparent and responsible use of antimicrobials, together with continuous monitoring and surveillance of the occurrence of resistance, are key elements of any strategy. The current situation also urges us to re-think unsustainable practices and to work on the development of alternatives, in the interests of the health and welfare of both animals and people. PMID:22849278

  9. Soil, pasture and animal product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of pasture, through the use of appropriate stocking rates and grazing systems, influences the feeding behaviour of the animals. The impact of animal behaviour on vegetation can be of great importance for the sustainability of pastures and mantaining their biodiversity. Indeed, a different response in terms of quality of animal products is mediated by the ability of animals to concentrate or transform grass components, according to the characteristics of the soil. The herbage ingested by animals provides them with compounds with aromatic characteristics, such as terpenes, and with functional properties beneficial for human health, such as carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols and polyunsatured fatty acids. The combination of different ecological conditions on different soils through specific management practices determines the differentiation of several pasture vegetation types, a unique patrimony of great value in terms of biodiversity and capability to sustain local production, also important because of their own high added value. This review deals with pasture management aimed at conserving the soil and reducing gas emissions, and takes into consideration the quality of animal products as a result of such management.

  10. COMPAIXÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Seligmann Silva

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho estuda a questão da compaixão, que na história do pensamento foi ora tratada como uma marca da humanidade, ora pensada como uma marca de nossa origem natural e animal. Para Lactâncio, por exemplo, sem piedade o homem é um animal. O texto parte de uma discussão de Buffon, que falava de uma compaixão como uma de nossas “affections naturelles”. Para ele, “a alma tem menos a ver do que o corpo nesse sentimento de piedade natural e os animais, assim como o homem, sã...

  11. L’animal

    OpenAIRE

    Rongier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    On sait que l’amitié entre Maurice Blanchot et Emmanuel Lévinas est dense, complète et exigeante. À partir de quelques textes (et des lignes de fuite), je voudrais souligner ce lien amical et intellectuel, la constance avec laquelle les deux hommes ont mutuellement nourri leur réflexion, leur écriture. Et, au fil des lectures, s’est progressivement dégagée l’idée de l’animal comme espace d’interrogation, l’animal et l’animalité comme enjeu pour lire le lien, mais aussi la distance. Trois text...

  12. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  13. God, animals and zombies

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Argumentos neo-cartesianos recientes intentan reducir los animales a zombis filosóficos, seres sin estados de conciencia fenoménica. Si tales argumentos fuesen correctos, los animales verdaderamente no sufrirían, y, por tanto, no existiría el problema de Dios y el sufrimiento animal. En mi opinión, la afirmación de que los animales son zombis no es suficientemente plausible para proporcionar una teodicea adecuada acerca del problema de Dios y el dolor animal.

  14. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Laboratorio de sanidad animal

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2009-01-01

    El laboratorio de Sanidad Animal de Jove, integrado orgánicamente en el CIATA, es el Laboratorio Oficial de Análisis en el campo de la Sanidad Animal del Principado de Asturias. Entre sus objetivos está el análisis y diagnóstico de las enfermedades animales con mayor interés sanitario y el apoyo técnico y análisis de muestras para la erradicación de la Brucelosis, Perineumonia Bovina y Leucosis Enzoótica bovina.

  16. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryo......; instead we pinpoint issues and events pivotal to the development of current farm animal cloning practices and their possible applications....... and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal...... welfare problems and critically assess different applications of farm animal cloning. The scope is confined to animal biotechnologies in which the use of cell nuclear transfer is an essential part and extends to both biomedical and agricultural applications of farm animal cloning. These applications...

  17. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  18. Survey of western Canadian veterinary practices: A demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray D; Barth, Katrina K

    2015-12-01

    A mixed-mode survey was used to describe the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada and to assess the demand for veterinary practitioners. Data were received from 655 practices (response rate = 52%), providing demographic data on 1636 individual practitioners. Most (60%) respondents self-classified their practices as exclusively small animal, while 25% and 4% were mixed animal or exclusively food animal practices, respectively. Across all practices, 77% of practitioners' time was devoted to small animals and the average mixed animal practice devoted 60% of practitioners' time to small animals. After accounting for practices that did not respond, there were ~300 full-time equivalent (FTE) vacant positions for veterinary associates; however, only 12% of practices were in urgent need of hiring an associate veterinarian. This report informs both prospective employees and employers on the state of the marketplace for veterinary associates, and provides an overview of the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada. PMID:26663919

  19. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  20. Freeing Captive Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even though theymight not haveenough food intheir own stom-achs,Tibetan peasantswould feed their draughtcattle with the best food,asthey depended on them forplowing. Such good treat-ment lasted until the ani-mals died,after which,some peasants would burythem in their own fields,

  1. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  2. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies the...

  3. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  4. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  5. Counting Hexagonal Lattice Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohamud

    2002-01-01

    We describe Maple packages for the automatic generation of generating functions(and series expansions) for counting lattice animals(fixed polyominoes), in the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, of bounded but arbitrary width. Our Maple packages(complete with source code) are easy-to-use and available from my website.

  6. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  7. Simple Animations with Excels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickensderfer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  9. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways to...

  10. Impactor No More (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Quick Time Movie for PIA02130 Realtime Ejecta (Animation) This movie was taken by Deep Impact's flyby spacecraft shows the flash that occurred when comet Tempel 1 ran over the spacecraft's probe. It was taken by the flyby craft's medium-resolution camera.

  11. From Spirit's Perspective (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the perspective from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before and after its automated stand-up process. After standing up, the rover is approximately 12 inches higher off of the lander, resulting in a better view of the surrounding terrain.

  12. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  13. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  14. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  15. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  16. People vs. animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engram, S

    1992-07-12

    Animal rights activists demonstrated against physicians in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had transplanted a baboon liver into a man. They complained that baboons should not serve as spare parts for humans, but the complaint misfired when another man with liver disease challenged them. Nevertheless the rapidly growing population in the world is threatening animal species such as elephants. In Zimbabwe where a severe drought exists and which has been somewhat able to protect animals from poachers, the government now allows people to kill elephants and other animals for their meat. The great numbers of wildlife have placed considerable population pressure on Gonarezhou National Park. The government hopes the good will plan will reduce the number of illegal poachings in the future. This illustrates the need for population stability to protect the environment. Yet the 1992 UN environment conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, did not address population growth as a threat to biodiversity and the environment. Indeed if population continues to grow at its present rate, the population in 2100 will stand at 19 billion and each year before that the Earth will lose more farmland and forests and witness more days of smog, polluted water, political instabilities, and environmental refugees. Viruses like HIV may afflict the population. Most of the population growth will be in developing countries where drought and economic and political instabilities are common. In 2100 with such a hugh population, a national park for wildlife will most likely only be a luxury. We can no longer be complacent and must take action now to prevent this disaster. It will soon be clear that a growing population does not produce more prosperity as many economists would like us to believe, and discussions about using animals for spare parts will be ludicrous. PMID:12286283

  17. Learning by playing, animating words and images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    ? Visual narrative is a "language" as valid as writing or speaking. Sometimes, a more valuable tool when there's an impediment to use verbal communication. Animation is a feeling and visual thinking media which allows us to "translate" words into images, sentences into stories and scripts into movies....... The persisting vision). We are aware of the resistance that alternative learning tools suffer from the most traditional school systems, as Sir Ken Robinson claims; we need to change the old teachings paradigms. At the Animated Learning Lab, together, with some of the newest results from other schools...... and institutions, are already promoting and practicing animation as a learning tool. We want to expose and share its effectiveness, which helps to shape creative, emotional and thoughtful minds. Some of the newest studies in the European Community, such as, EMEDEUS, European Media Literacy Education, Pilot study...

  18. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  19. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wereldwijd overzicht van dierenwelzijnswetgeving, praktijken en percepties, met voorbeeldstudies over kippenvlees uit Brazilië en Thailand, eieren uit India en de Verenigde Staten, welzijnswetgeving voor kweekvis en welzijnsaspecten van (vermeende) overpopulatie van wilde dieren.Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects r...

  20. Large animal models for stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, John; Roberts, R. Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for nov...

  1. Cooperative Marketing of Animal Health Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    This report uses eight case studies to identify elements of successful cooperative programs for retailing over-the-counter animal health products (AHP). It provides practical information on AHP marketing strategies and methods for cooperative retailers, planners, and researchers. All participating cooperatives except one provided information for fiscal years ending during calendar year 1986. The exception was for 1987. Information. about five AHP suppliers and their marketing programs is incl...

  2. Attitudes towards animal use and belief in animal mind

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Sarah; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie; Nunkoosing, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Animals are used by humans in many ways, yet science has paid little attention to the study of human-animal relationships (Melson 2002). In the present study participants (n= 96) completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards animal use and individual differences were examined to determine which characteristics might underlie these attitudes (‘belief in animal mind’, age, gender, experience of animals, vegetarianism, political stance, and living area). It emerged that participants held differ...

  3. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Isabella WY; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal mo...

  4. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    OpenAIRE

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is esse...

  5. The ethical dimension in published animal research in critical care: the dark side of our moon

    OpenAIRE

    Huet, Olivier; de Haan, Judy B.

    2014-01-01

    The replacement, refinement, and reduction (3Rs) guidelines are the cornerstone of animal welfare practice for medical research. Nowadays, no animal research can be performed without being approved by an animal ethics committee. Therefore, we should expect that any published article would respect and promote the highest standard of animal welfare. However, in the previous issue of Critical Care, Bara and Joffe reported an unexpected finding: animal welfare is extremely poorly reported in crit...

  6. Quality management for the international transport of laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Leary

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased collaboration between investigators at different institutions has increased the number of laboratory animals being transported. The current system of laws and regulations governing animal shipments is inconsistent and government agencies often have areas of overlapping regulatory management. Furthermore, the lack of industry-wide shipping standards and good practices contributes to confusion among those responsible for shipment. One answer to these quality control issues would be the establishment of independent, industry-regulated 'good practices' for animal transport, similar to those used in laboratories for experimental design. These good practices could be based on the existing International Air Transport Association Live Animals Regulations, with contributions from representatives of the specialties involved. Additionally, quality control under the current system of patchwork regulations could be improved if each institution, both academic and commercial, would designate a single point of contact to follow each shipment from start to finish.

  7. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  8. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  9. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J.; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal sci...

  10. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  11. Weak-willed Animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spitzley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to answering the conceptual question whether there can be weak-willed non-human animals. After some preliminary clarifications concerning the phenomenon of weakness of will three different accounts are examined for the conditions a being has to fulfill in order to be in a position to display weakness of will. It is argued that these conditions are very strong and that there are good reasons to assume that, e.g., only language users can be weak-willed. This is taken as an independent argument for Davidson's thesis that non-human animals which are not language users cannot act intentionally.

  12. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  13. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. [Influenza in heterothermic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi, Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade, Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto, José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus) and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana) were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin) or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection. PMID:15330057

  16. Modeling animal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  17. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2016-03-01

    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys. PMID:27031601

  18. Animal traction in Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Nazaire; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Bobobee, Emmanuel; Owusu, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The recent interest of the government of Ghana in agricultural mechanization has largely focused on the provision of tractors and imported machinery to the farming population. Animal traction has not received much attention from the country’s policymakers. The strong demand for mechanization services (Houssou et al., 2012; Benin et al., 2012) and inadequate number of tractors to meet the demand in the country call for more effective use of other power sources for the agriculture sector. Usi...

  19. Animal models of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Mitchell P.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, ...

  20. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey S Getz; Reardon, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to...

  1. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  2. Metacognition in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    Metacognition is thinking about thinking. There is considerable interest in developing animal models of metacognition to provide insight about the evolution of mind and a basis for investigating neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in people. Formal modeling of low-level (i.e., alternative) mechanisms has recently demonstrated that prevailing standards for documenting metacognition are inadequate. Indeed, low-level mechanisms are sufficient to explain data from existing methods...

  3. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCARLEY, ROBERT W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  4. AnimalChange

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes; Bellocchi, Gianni; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Saetnan, Eli Rudinow

    2014-01-01

    The EU-FP7 project AnimalChange (AN Integration of Mitigation and Adaptation options for sustainable Livestock production under climate CHANGE, http://www.animalchange.eu, 2011-2015) addresses mitigation and adaptation options and provides scientific guidance for their integration in sustainable development pathways for livestock production under climate change in Europe, Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. The project provides insights, innovations, tools and models for lives...

  5. Slaughter - not only about animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    In order to get meat for human consumption animals have to be slaughtered. In Sweden, about 450,000 cattle are slaughtered every year; in 2011 93% of these were slaughtered at the 16 largest slaughter plants. Maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards in the industrial slaughter of animals places great demands on the management and staff. Good animal welfare means that consideration has been given to the animals' biology and subjective experience and to its possibilities to adapt to the ...

  6. Transfer to animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data have been compiled to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides to update the values given in Technical Reports Series No. 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. The resultant database has been used to provide reference transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used are given. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in Technical Reports Series No. 364 are provided, although some elements were considered in the earlier evaluation which were not included in this review. Differences between the Technical Reports Series No. 364 'expected' values and the reference values from this document, which will be incorporated into the revised transfer parameter handbook, are discussed. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios is evaluated and CR values which could be applied across animal species have been provided for milk and meat. Information on fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants has been compiled and reference values presented. Despite these improvements many data gaps remain. (author)

  7. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  8. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  9. SPECIAL TOPICS-Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, AN; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G; Adesogan, A; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, SJ; Gerber, PJ; Henderson, B.; Makkar, HPS.; Firkins, JL

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of livestock product. Improving the genetic potential of animals through planned cross-breeding or selection within breeds and achieving this genetic potential through proper nutrition and improvements...

  10. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mitchell M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...

  11. From the 'cinematic' to the 'anime-ic': Issues of movement in anime

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddell, C

    2008-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. This article explores the way that movement is formally depicted in anime. Drawing on Thomas Lamarre's concepts of the `cinematic' and the `anime-ic', the article interrogates further the differences in movement and action in anime from traditional filmic form. While often considered in terms of `flatness', anime offers spectacle, character development and, ironically, depth through the ...

  12. Piracy or productivity; unlawful practices in anime fansubbing

    OpenAIRE

    Mäntylä, Teemu

    2010-01-01

    Japanilaisen animaation eli animen suosio maailmalla on lyhyessä ajassa kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti. Tämä kasvu on Yhdysvalloissa perustunut tekijänoikeuksien rikkomiseen, missä fanit ovat tekstittäneet animesarjoja itse ja julkaisseet ne fanikäännöksinä. Virallisten julkaisujen puutteessa fanikäännökset ovat luoneet animen nykyisen suosion, jota yhtiöt voivat nyt hyödyntää. Yhtiöt ovat alusta asti sietäneet ja jopa kannustaneet fanien toimia, osaksi koska fanit ovat noudattaneet omia sään...

  13. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist : from animal studies to clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Campoccia Jalde, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) undergoing ventilator treatment may experience asynchrony with the ventilator, which has been associated with increased need of sedation, sleep disruption, prolonged mechanical ventilation and unsuccessful weaning from the ventilator. The search for new strategies to improve patient-ventilator interaction is ongoing. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a recently developed ventilator support that uses the Electrical Activity of the diaphrag...

  14. Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Richard P

    2011-06-01

    Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

  15. Additional resource for diabetes diagnostics in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vitalyevich Drozdov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary doctors often observe cases of unexplained elevated glucose and ketones in urine of domestic animals without any other signs of diabetes. We studies these effects from the standpoint of the phenomenon of interdependent conditions in animals and humans, described by T.V.Novosadyuk in 2000. She was the first to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for clinical cases of simultaneously developing similar diseases in domestic animals and their owners. During the last 5 years we studied health of humans in families where domestic animals are affected by the laboratory abnormalities described above. In vast majority of cases it has been found out that animal owners have diabetes mellitus of variable severity. At the same time there were no disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in animal owners in 11 cases. We recommended members of these families to undergo a specialized examination. In all of these cases latent diabetes mellitus was found in humans who had especially close relationships with animals. These findings led to initiation of treatment in humans. At the same time animals were treated with a collar with a linen sack attached containing Peganum Harmala 30 globules. Repeated laboratory tests were performed after one month of such treatment. Normalization of laboratory variables was observed in all of the cases. Based on the study results we developed an algorhythm of activities that helps to diagnose early and latent forms of diabetes mellitus in domestic animals and their owners. This algorhythm includes: - test for glucose and/or ketones in animal urine after correction of feeding and care defects. - blood and urine glucose tests in family members of animal owners. In cases of deviations from normal values we recommended them to consult appropriate specialists and begin treatment immediately. - animals are given collars with Peganum Harmala 30 globules in a linen sack attached. - granules are removed when

  16. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  17. Fission products uptake into the body of farm animals and radionuclide transilocation into farm animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects produced by fission products in the organism of dairy cattle are considered. The presence of radionuclides in the animal body leads to the danger of radioactive contamination of milk and may result in the loss of milk productivity and reproductive capacity of the irradiated animals or even in their death. Of greatest practical interest is an experimental evaluation of the intake of fission products, since, on the one hand, milk is one of the basic and valuable foods and, on the other, it is the principal source of biologically dangerous radionuclides in human diet

  18. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  19. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  20. Weak-willed Animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Spitzley

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to answering the conceptual question whether there can be weak-willed non-human animals. After some preliminary clarifications concerning the phenomenon of weakness of will three different accounts are examined for the conditions a being has to fulfill in order to be in a position to display weakness of will. It is argued that these conditions are very strong and that there are good reasons to assume that, e.g., only language users can be weak-willed. Th...

  1. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  4. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  5. Nostril Aerodynamics of Scenting Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, G. S.

    1997-11-01

    Dogs and other scenting animals detect airborne odors with extraordinary sensitivity. Aerodynamic sampling plays a key role, but the literature on olfaction contains little on the external aerodynamics thereof. To shed some light on this, the airflows generated by a scenting dog were visualized using the schlieren technique. It was seen that the dog stops panting in order to scent, since panting produces a turbulent jet which disturbs scent-bearing air currents. Inspiratory airflow enters the nostrils from straight ahead, while expiration is directed to the sides of the nose and downward, as was found elsewhere in the case of rats and rabbits. The musculature and geometry of the dog's nose thus modulates the airflow during scenting. The aerodynamics of a nostril which must act reversibly as both inlet and outlet is briefly discussed. The eventual practical goal of this preliminary work is to achieve a level of understanding of the aerodynamics of canine olfaction sufficient for the design of a mimicking device. (Research supported by the DARPA Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Neutralization Program.)

  6. Dr. Fluffy: An In-Depth Look at Animal-Assisted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grado, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is a fairly new practice whose underlying principles date back to the beginning of time. Man has always found companionship in animals, but now researchers, educators and therapists are finding that by drawing on that comfort, children and adults can attack physical, mental and emotional issues. The use of animals in…

  7. 40 CFR 160.90 - Animal and other test system care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.90 Animal and other test... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animal and other test system care. 160... as raw data. (h) Bedding used in animal cages or pens shall not interfere with the purpose or...

  8. Validating Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of ex...

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer Gerhard; Khan Tonya; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Boepple Willi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a particip...

  11. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series To use the sharing ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  12. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... This conclusion stems from an extensive study of animal cloning and related food safety, culminating in the release ...

  13. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Knowledge Base Browse AVMA Policies Browse by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources ... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for ...

  14. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  15. Anthropomorphism, Teleology, Animism, and Personification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin

    1973-01-01

    The question of attributing a purpose to animal's actions is still being debated by scientists. Consensus seems to be that animal behavior should be described in terms of function rather than purpose. (PS)

  16. Companion animal parasitology: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Peter J

    2002-05-01

    In recent years there have been many changes to the ways that clinical veterinary science is conducted and nowhere is this more evident than in companion animal practice. Veterinarians working with pet dogs and cats are facing new challenges associated with the emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases. Some, such as Neospora caninum, have been recently recognised; others like Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been reported with increasing frequency, in part as a result of laboratory tests with improved sensitivity and specificity. In many regions, the emergence of parasitic diseases has been a consequence of pet travel and exotic diseases pose a unique diagnostic challenge for the veterinarian, as the index of suspicion for these conditions may be absent. The ranges of certain vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniasis and dirofilariasis are extending due to ecological and climatic changes and enhanced by animals with subclinical infection returning home from endemic areas. In companion animal practice, veterinarians have the additional responsibility of providing accurate information about the zoonotic transmission of parasite infections from pets, especially to those most vulnerable such as children, the elderly and the immunocompromised. Effective education is vital to allay public concerns and promote responsible pet ownership. PMID:11943231

  17. The ethics of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lane-Petter, W.

    2007-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquir...

  18. Inducible chemical defences in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Heyttyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Buskirk, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is extremely widespread in the behaviour, morphology and life-history of animals. However, inducible changes in the production of defensive chemicals are described mostly in plants and surprisingly little is known about similar plasticity in chemical defences of animals. Inducible chemical defences may be common in animals because many are known to produce toxins, the synthesis of toxins is likely to be costly, and there are a few known cases of animals adjusting their t...

  19. Directed animals in the gas

    OpenAIRE

    Borgne, Yvan Le; Marckert, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  20. Development of FAME Animation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Shirai, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki [Department of Fusion Plasma Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Hideto; Itakura, Hirofumi; Tahata, Yasunori

    1999-02-01

    In order to monitor an animation of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculated by the FAME-II (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium-II) system, a FAME Animation System was developed. This system provides automatically the animation on workstations connected to network with the same period of JT-60U discharge sequence. Then, the system can supply the important information for JT-60U operators to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the overview of the FAME Animation System. (author)

  1. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  2. Animal Rights - a critical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Ingemar

    2001-01-01

    Do animals have rights similar to humans? In the philosophical debate concerning this question there have been two major ethical approaches. One of them is Peter Singer’s utilitarian theory, and the other is Tom Regan’s theory of animal rights. In this work these arguments for animal rights are extensively presented and discussed. Contrary to Singer and Regan, it is argued that there are ethically relevant biological distinctions between non-human animals and all humans. Although there are st...

  3. Animal models of gene-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Danielle R

    2008-12-01

    Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study against the whirligig aspects of human life in a modern age. The study of animals provides a useful alternative. Humans have a history of studying animal food intake, for agricultural reasons (e.g., pigs and cows), and for personal reasons (e.g., dogs and cats), and these practical concerns have been joined with the appreciation that other models can teach us the principles of behavior, genetics, and nutrition. Thus there is a steady use of the traditional animal models in this type of research, as well as growth in the use of other systems such as worms and flies. Rats and mice occupy a special niche as animal models for two reasons; first, they share with humans a love of the same types of food, and second, they are the target of a number of well-developed genetic tools. The available genetic tools that make mice a popular model include a well-annotated genome (Mouse Build 37), profiles of RNA expression from many tissues, a diverse panel of inbred strains, and the ability to manipulate genes in the whole animal, including removing a gene only in specific tissues (e.g., Cre-lox system). Mice have been harnessed to find genotypes that contribute to sweet-liking, and other studies are underway to understand how genetic variation might at least partially explain other puzzles of human appetites. Animal models provide a way to study the genetic determinants of food selection with experimental rigor and therefore complement human genetics studies. PMID:19037208

  4. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  5. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs

  6. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    OpenAIRE

    Sakina Mussarat; Rahila Amber; Akash Tariq; Muhammad Adnan; Naser M. AbdElsalam; Riaz Ullah; Roqaia Bibi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powderi...

  7. The Tree of Animal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  8. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  9. Animals in life and works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振娟

    2014-01-01

    Many learners have made researches on animal words. Because animals have been keeping a good relationship with human beings since the human were born. So animals are important in daily life, they are also used in many works to express the Author’s thoughts.

  10. Flash Animation Project: Written Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A written report about a Flash animation project to include the 3 headings of Animation Techniques, Story Telling and Audio along with a critique and an appendix. The Flash animation project is based upon one of Aesop's fables entitled 'The King's Son & the Painted Lion'.

  11. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  12. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  13. Animal Enclosure Module (AEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  14. AGATE animation - business theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  15. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  17. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  18. Popular Geopolitics of Japan: Geopolitical Discourses of Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Zorko; Hrvoje Mostarac

    2014-01-01

    Geopolitical discourses are an integral part of the contemporary geopolitics of each state. Driven by geopolitical traditions and imagination, they intercept and thus create all aspects of the discipline of critical geopolitics- the formal, practical and popular. The main area of our research is the discourse embedded in the popular geopolitics of a specific cultural product of Japan, anime. Anime are unique and thus suited for analysis for two reasons. The first is their specific, local prod...

  19. Participatory media fandom: a case study of anime fansubbing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of consumers’ voluntary translation and distribution of foreign cultural products on a global scale. Such a practice not only facilitates the grassroots globalization of culture but also questions the cultural industries’ current model of global distribution. This article explores the nature and implications of fan-translation and distribution of cultural commodities through a case study of English fansubbing of anime (subtitling of Japanese animation in Englis...

  20. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    OpenAIRE

    Yongming Sang; Frank Blecha

    2014-01-01

    Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ...

  1. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Furtado Flores; Rudi Weiblen; Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti; Fernando Viçosa Bauermann; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Enio Mori; Ana Cláudia Franco

    2013-01-01

    The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmit...

  2. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to m...

  3. A Multi-Criteria Decision Framework for Animal Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstrom, J.; Bicknell, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Policy decisions aimed at improving farm animal welfare involve balancing several competing objectives. Not only do such decisions involve tradeoffs between social, ethical, economic and welfare considerations, animal welfare itself is a multi-dimensional concept and some husbandry practices may satisfy some welfare needs but fail to satisfy others. Multi-criteria decision analysis is a decision theoretic tool that has been used to inform decision making in fields such as environmental policy...

  4. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  5. Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowitz Peter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the findings in relation to zoonotic surveillance and the linkage of human and animal data. Methods The Canary Database, an online bibliographic database of animal-sentinel studies was searched and articles were classified according to four linkage categories. Results 465 studies were identified and assigned to linkage categories involving: descriptive, analytic, molecular, or no human outcomes of human and animal health. Descriptive linkage was the most common, whereby both animal and human health outcomes were presented, but without quantitative linkage between the two. Rarely, analytic linkage was utilized in which animal data was used to quantitatively predict human risk. The other two categories included molecular linkage, and no human outcomes, which present health outcomes in animals but not humans. Discussion We found limited use of animal data to quantitatively predict human risk and listed the methods from the literature that performed analytic linkage. The lack of analytic linkage in the literature might not be solely related to technological barriers including access to electronic database, statistical software packages, and Geographical Information System (GIS. Rather, the problem might be from a lack of understanding by researchers of the importance of animal data as a 'sentinel' for human health. Researchers performing zoonotic surveillance should be aware of the value of animal-sentinel approaches for predicting human risk and consider analytic methods for linking animal and human data. Qualitative work needs to be done in

  6. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  7. Treating animal behaviour problems with sex hormones: an animal welfare issue

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.E.; McBride, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    In England and Germany, the methods used to modify unwanted animal behaviour in veterinary practices were investigated by questionnaire. The samples were created by a systematic section. Of the 216 questionnaires posted in each country, 66 replies from Germany (30.5%) and 76 from the UK (35.2%) were obtained and evaluated. The majority of veterinarians in both countries considered hormones effective in treating behaviour problems, but English veterinarians do so significantly more for cat...

  8. Bioluminescence imaging in live cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jack K; Berglund, Ken; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Gross, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The use of bioluminescent reporters in neuroscience research continues to grow at a rapid pace as their applications and unique advantages over conventional fluorescent reporters become more appreciated. Here, we describe practical methods and principles for detecting and imaging bioluminescence from live cells and animals. We systematically tested various components of our conventional fluorescence microscope to optimize it for long-term bioluminescence imaging. High-resolution bioluminescence images from live neurons were obtained with our microscope setup, which could be continuously captured for several hours with no signs of phototoxicity. Bioluminescence from the mouse brain was also imaged noninvasively through the intact skull with a conventional luminescence imager. These methods demonstrate how bioluminescence can be routinely detected and measured from live cells and animals in a cost-effective way with common reagents and equipment. PMID:27226972

  9. Služby animácie v turistických strediskách a hoteloch

    OpenAIRE

    Bubniaková, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses animation in tourism. The first part of the thesis theoretically specifies meaning of animation and the topics with a direct connection to it. It explains the importancy of leisure time as a main element affecting tourism. Furthermore, it gives an idea of historical developement of animation and its connection to the club tourism. It also deals with the typology of animation, animation teams and animators. The practical part evaluates animation services mainly from the hu...

  10. Application of synthetic pheromones on animals in captivity: A possibility on wild ungulates?

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Urgell, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Póster There is an increasing evidence proving the existence of diverse abnormal behaviours due to stress on captive animals. The growing awareness for animal welfare, specifically for those captive in zoos or similar centres accommodating wild animals, has triggered that numerous measures of environmental enrichment are being implemented all over the globe. A recent practice of environmental enrichment to reduce the stress of wild animals in captivity is the employment of different odours...

  11. A search filter for increasing the retrieval of animal studies in Embase

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2011-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting a new animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing systematic reviews of animal research. In practice, finding all animal studies relevant to a specific research question turns out to be anything but simple. In order to facilitate this search process, we previously developed a search filter for retrieving animal studies in the most often used biomedical database, PubMed. It is a general requirement for sy...

  12. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants...

  13. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-04-20

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented. PMID:27096187

  14. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  15. Laboratory Animal Science in China 1988-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In 1988, I had the opportunity to visit China and present a series of lectures on laboratory animal medicine subjects at the Beijing Agricultural University College of Veterinary Medicine. Students from veterinary schools in different regions of the country attended, and I had the opportunity to meet and talk with them. I visited some laboratory animal research facilities and got an impression of the level of laboratory animal science being practiced. I also visited the cities of Xian and Shanghai as well as Beijing during that visit.

  16. Diagnosis of esophageal disorders in carnivorous animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esophagus serves to carry food, water and saliva from the pharynx to the stomach. Interruption of this function results in severe consequences for the animal, and complications of the esophageal disorders (e.g. pneumonia, mediastinitis, pleuritis, pyothorax, pneumothorax) can cause similarly serious problems. Clinical signs of esophageal disorders are similar to that of other gastrointestinal diseases. Diagnosis (based on the patient's medical history and clinical signs) is confirmed by supplementary examination. Radiology, possibly including contrast studies, is the primary in the home practice in consequence of the limited financial possibilities. The article reviews radiology, complications, prognosis and some treatment methods of esophageal disorders

  17. CERN OVERVIEW animation

    CERN Multimedia

    Arzur Catel Torres

    2015-01-01

    This animation shows how the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) works. The film begins with an aerial view of CERN near Geneva, with outlines of the accelerator complex, including the underground Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 27-km in circumference. The positions of the four largest LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are revealed before we see protons travelling around the LHC ring. The proton source is a simple bottle of hydrogen gas. An electric field is used to strip hydrogen atoms of their electrons to yield protons. Linac 2, the first accelerator in the chain, accelerates the protons to the energy of 50 MeV. The beam is then injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. Protons are then sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) where they are accelerated to 450 GeV. The protons are finally transferred to the two beam pipes of the LHC. The beam in one pipe circulates clockwise while ...

  18. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  19. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

  20. Social Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The present understanding of LCM as a product management system supported by a number of tools and methods does not pay attention to the importance of social practices that the employees develop in relation to the systematic approach. A new conceptual model of LCM including the social practices i...

  1. Ophthalmic practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sue Stevens

    2005-01-01

    Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  2. Ophthalmic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Stevens

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  3. Situation of animal health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The animal healthy service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall government, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economical and public support, animal health service attempt to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country aiming at improving standards of living of its inhabitants. One of this approaches is through a practical way of reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing productivity in animal population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring human treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for an uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control of the country. The vision of National Animal Health Program (NAHP) is to improve the health and welfare of animals, which meets the needs of stakeholders, enables safe production of food, improves health of the public, sustains the rural society, and support the rural economy. The concept and requirements for this vision - The current veterinary services section in the country, including the veterinary diagnostic institution, is very weak. The few resources in place are fragmented and reflect a historic paradigm of previous regimen with incomplete transition to market economy. The veterinary services on the 12 districts/regions appear to have been connected from administrable aspect but their field operations are not connected with the national interest and the above mission. - There is a need to link food safety and zoonotic aspect to public health sectors so that public interest and funding resources can be increased. - The livestock sector is undeveloped and consumers do not have much influence or organization. The veterinary service should take this opportunity to present a comprehensive plan of

  4. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:27356872

  5. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  6. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H

    2016-05-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems. PMID:27210489

  7. Development of experimental animals for studies of radiation effects. Contribution to the studies of the team for laboratory animal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author's team for the title purpose in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) mainly handles the reproductive physiology and embryonic technology to meet the researchers' needs. For developing gene-modified animals, the system is established for freeze-storing the ovum of those animals based on techniques of the micro-manipulation for external handling of ovum, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and early embryo culture. For preparing transgenic and/or knockout mice, embryos of 2-8 cell stages are usually freeze-stored. IVF/implanting fertilized ovum systems are also run for requests for storing the gene-modified ova and for supplying quickly many (up to about 100) animals. Techniques for freeze-storing unfertilized ova are to be established within this year. As well, the team is conducting the practical studies for the animals like genetic diagnoses of diseases and for the rapid supply of animals in accordance to research needs. (S.I.)

  8. Percepção de alunos de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia da FAEM/UFPEL a respeito de sua capacitação para a docência Perception of Post-Graduation students in Animal Science of FAEM/UFPEL about their training for teaching practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Simões Valente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar a contribuição do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (FAEM da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL para a formação e o exercício do trabalho docente a partir da percepção de alguns de seus alunos. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como qualitativa do tipo etnográfico, onde se utilizou para a coleta de dados um questionário e uma entrevista semiestruturada, que foi aplicada a seis doutorandos do referido Programa. Percebemos, por meio da análise das convergências e divergências das respostas obtidas, que o sentimento de insegurança e desconforto esteve presente durante a primeira experiência docente de todas as entrevistadas, o que parece ainda ser uma constante. Entretanto, ressaltam o estágio de docência orientada como um dos pontos positivos de sua formação dentro do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia. Contudo, as alunas têm plena consciência de que a profissionalização docente não se baseia em uma perspectiva de ensaio e erro, em decorrência das aprendizagens que realizam com seus próprios alunos.Acreditam que sejam necessários os saberes pedagógicos da profissionalização do ofício docente, mesmo que muitas vezes não saibam quais. Desta forma, sugerem que disciplinas da área pedagógica sejam inseridas na grade curricular do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, sendo ministradas por professores da área da Educação.This study aims to investigate the contribution of the Post-Graduation Program in Animal Science of Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (FAEM from Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL for the formation and the teaching practice from the perspective of some of its students. The study is characterized as qualitative and of the ethnographic kind. A questionnaire and a semi-structured interview applied to six doctorate students from the Program were used for the data gathering. Through the analysis of

  9. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander. Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol. Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened. The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe. Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  11. Animal-computer interaction SIG

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Clara; Lawson, Shaun; Van Der Linden, Janet; Häkkilä, Jonna; Noz, Frank; Juhlin, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    User-computer interaction research is demonstrating growing interest in the relation between animals and technology (e.g., computer-mediated interspecies interactions and animal-computer interfaces). However, as a research area, this topic is still underexplored and fragmented, and researchers lack opportunities to exchange ideas, identify resources, form collaborations and co-operatively develop a coherent research agenda. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) SIG meeting aims to provide ...

  12. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Serge H Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  13. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  14. Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.; Steven E Hyman

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many key symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models of mental illness, with a focus on schizophrenia, depression, a...

  15. Biometric Recognition for Pet Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Missing, swapping, false insurance claims and reallocation of pet animals (dog) are global problems throughout the world and research done to solve this problem is minimal. Traditional biometrics and non-biometrics methods have their own boundaries and they fail to provide competent level of security to pet animal (dog). The work on animal identification based on their phenotype appearance (coat patterns) has been an active research area in recent years and automatic face recognition for...

  16. Animal Studies of Human Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Animals have provided a surrogate for the study of human health. This has been particularly important in the definition of the effects of pollutants generated in our society. Electromagnetic fields provide an example of the use of animals as models. A review of the animal model literature provides the following information in response to three basic toxicologic elements in defining whether electromagnetic fields are a hazard: 1. Various scientific committees have determined that, in general, ...

  17. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  18. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  19. Tool use by aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...

  20. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…