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Sample records for animals ethnoveterinary practices

  1. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.

  2. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Practices for Mastitis in Dairy Animals in Pakistan

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    S. M. Raihan Dilshad, N. U. Rehman*, Nazir Ahmad and A. Iqbal1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs used for the control and treatment of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in the Sargodha district, Pakistan. The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs over a period of 16 months from September 2005 to December 2006. Thus, 25 different plant species belonging to 20 different families were documented from the study area for the treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis in bovines (cattle and bubalines (dairy buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The most frequently reported (≥10 times plant species were Capsicum annuum L. (n = 32, Lepidium sativum L. (n =31, Allium sativum L. (n = 28, Sesamum indicum L. (n = 24, Citrus limon (L. Burm. f (n = 22, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (n = 18, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (n = 18, Curcuma longa L. (n = 16, Cuminum cyminum L. (n = 14, Rosa indica L. (n = 13, Centratherum anthelmisticum L. (n = 12, Triticum aestivum L (n = 11, Nigella sativa L. (n = 11 and Peganum harmala L. (n = 11. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of this problem included ammonium chloride. The richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for mastitis merit controlled studies for their validation.

  3. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  4. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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    Sharma, Renu; Manhas, R K; Magotra, Rani

    2012-05-07

    The triangle of relationship between human beings, animals and plants has existed for ages, and has given rise to intense-relationships and consequently rich traditions of ethnoveterinary knowledge throughout the world. The predominantly rural population and the strong agricultural base have provided unique situation for rich ethnoveterinary practices in the study area. The present study was conducted in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir between 2007 and 2009 to provide list of the important plants of the region for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and to prepare inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for the future generations. Direct interview of 78 informants was conducted and the information gathered was analyzed for two quantitative methods viz. informant consensus factor (ICF) and use-value (UV). The characteristics of ethnoveterinary plants and practices were also documented. A total of 72 plants were used to cure 33 common ailments of milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Fabaceae (7 species) was the most represented family, along with Poaceae (6 species). Leaves (27.2%) were the most frequently used plant parts, herbs (48.6%) the most frequently used life-form and wild flora (58.3%) the most used source for the ethnoveterinary practices. The highest ICF was reported for urological disorders (0.95) and lowest for nutritional diseases (0.80). The values of ICF were generally on the higher side which shows that the informants share the knowledge about the ailment among themselves. The important ethnoveterinary plant species on the basis of use-values were: Brassica campestris, Saccharun officinarum, Emblica officinalis, Trachyspermum ammi, Asparagus adscendens, Musa paradisica, Oryza sativa, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Tamarindus indica. High diversity of ethnoveterinary plants were found to cure the common milk yielding animals of Kathua district. Further phytochemical and pharmacological

  5. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to generate data on ethnoveterinary practices used for maintaining the health and curing diseases of sheep in Ona - Ara Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Information was collected from fifty two indigenous sheep rearers using direct observation of household and interview ...

  6. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

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    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  7. ETHNOVETERINARY PRACTICES FOR MEDICINAL PROBLEMS FOLLOWED BY TRIBALS OF SABARKANTHA DISTRICT OF GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. SHEIKH AND D. V. PARMAR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. The folk knowledge of ethno-veterinary medicine and its significance has been identified by the traditional communities through a process of experience over hundreds of years. The present paper documented ethno-veterinary practices of tribals related to different medicinal problems in their livestock. The study was conducted in purposively selecte...

  8. Ethnoveterinary health management practices using medicinal plants in South Asia - a review.

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    Suroowan, Shanoo; Javeed, Faisal; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Kayani, Sadaf; Javed, Ali; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi

    2017-06-01

    Animal rearing is the major occupation of most population of South Asian countries. Due to lack of resources and limited approach to modern medicine, most of the livestock raisers prefer to use plant-based traditional medicine also referred to as ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). Indeed, the use of medicinal plants in South Asia dates back to several centuries with documented evidences. However, there is currently a dearth of documentation and compilation of use of medicinal plants for animal diseases in this part of the world. This review aims to provide an up-to-date compilation of common medicinal plants used for the treatment and/or management of common animal diseases in South Asian countries. Extensive literature search was conducted online and relevant data was retrieved from well-known scientific databases. A total of 276 plants belonging to 95 families have been documented to be in common use for managing 14 different categories of animal diseases. Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Leguminosae were most common plant families in terms of their plant species used for EVM. Gastric diseases were commonly reported and accounted for 72 species of plants used for its treatment followed by the miscellaneous disorders category and skin diseases comprising of 65 and 39 plant species respectively. Herbs accounted for 46% of the total plant species, followed by trees (33%), and shrubs (18%). The EVM were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for 72% followed by topical application 27%, while burning of plant parts to create smoke around animals to repel insects was less common (1%). It is anticipated that the present review will stimulate further ethnoveterinary research among livestock disease management practices in South Asia.

  9. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  10. Perception of ethno-veterinary practices in selected villages in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to examine perception of ethno-veterinary practices and information gathering among rural dwellers in selected villages in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun state, Nigeria. The aim was to assess the involvement of rural poultry farmers in the use of herbs as alternatives to antibiotics.

  11. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

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    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants. In this study, we have given detailed description on the ethnoveterinary usage of certain medicinal plants and their recipes. Moreover, we have also elaborated the ethnoveterinary potential of certain plants in relation to their ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemicals reports. Fieldwork comprised of two fields surveys conducted at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. A total of 75 informants from South Waziristan Agency and 80 informants from Bajaur Agency were interviewed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Use reports (URs) were recorded for all the documented taxa. Data were quantitatively analyzed by using informant consensus factor (F ic ) index in order to find out information homogeneity provided by the informants. To analyze the cross-cultural consensus, the recorded data were tabulated as well as shown by Venn diagram. Overall, 94 medicinal plant taxa were recorded in the comparative analysis. Out of these, most of the plants species (72 species) were used at Bajaur Agency than South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural analysis showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by the indigenous communities in both Agencies, which indicates a low interregional consensus with regard to the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. Apiaceae was the dominant family in both regions by representing maximum number of plant species (11 species). Gastro intestinal complexities were common in both regions

  12. Ethnoveterinary practices and Potential Herbal Materials for the Treatment of Ticks in North Gondar

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    Achenef Melaku

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90

  13. Ethno-veterinary practices in Southern India for captive Asian elephant ailments.

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    Jayakumar, Samidurai; Sathiskumar, Selvarasu; Baskaran, Nagarajan; Arumugam, Radjasegarin; Vanitha, Varadhrajan

    2017-03-22

    India has a long tradition of practicing Ayurvedic medicine not only for human ailments, but also for the management of livestock in the form of ethno-veterinary practices. Asian elephant is a significant part of Indian culture, and ethno-veterinary practices have extended to manage and cure various ailments of Asian elephant in captivity. Much of this knowledge has been lost in the light of modern practices. This study is aimed at documenting the existing knowledge on ethno-veterinary medicines practiced by elephant keepers (mahouts) in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. The study was carried out between June 2015 and February 2016 employing a questionnaire survey among 50 selected informants (mahouts) with traditional knowledge on plants in veterinary medicine. Information was elicited from the informants on various diseases prevailing among captive elephants and the traditional treatment employed by them. In total, the study documented 53 plant species belonging to 29 families being used as medicine for 23 types of ailments prevailing among captive elephants. Ferula assa-foetida, Zingiber officinale, Piper longum, P. nigrum, Cuminum cyminum, Trachyspermum roxburghianum and Carum bulbocastanum were the most commonly used plants either independently or in combination. Among them, Ferula assa-foetida (12.4%) and Zingiber officinale (10.4%) had the highest usage. Of the 23 diseases reported, constipation was the most common ailment (14.6%) followed by bloating (8.7%) and flatulence (8.7%). Documentation of this indigenous knowledge is valuable for the communities concerned, both at present and in future and for scientific consideration for wider use of traditional knowledge in treating captive elephants. The study has identified 53 medicinal plants to treat various ailments among captive elephants in southern India. The most frequently used plants in the captive elephant health care practice are F. assafoetida, Z. officinale, P. longum and P.nigrum. Among the 29 families

  14. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  15. Ethnoveterinary plants and practices used for ecto-parasite control in semi-arid smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

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    Nyahangare, Emmanuel Tendai; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Mutibvu, Tonderai

    2015-04-30

    The inclusion of traditional plant-based ecto-parasite control methods in primary health care of livestock is increasingly becoming an important intervention for improving livestock productivity in resource-challenged smallholder farming areas. In this study, commonly used plants used for the control of cattle ticks and other pests were identified through a survey in four semi-arid districts of Zimbabwe. A standard structured questionnaire with details of demographics, socioeconomic status of households, livestock parasites, control practices and list of ethnoveterinary plants used was used to interview 233 knowledgeable smallholder farmers in four districts. Focus group discussions with community members further provided insights on how the plants were being used and other issues surrounding ecto-parasite control and indigenous knowledge systems in the study areas. The older generation (>40 years) of the respondents were knowledgeable about ethnoveterinary plants and practices. Overall, 51 plant species were reportedly effective against cattle ticks and other livestock parasites. The most frequently mentioned plants were in descending order, Cissus quadrangularis (30.1%), Lippia javanica (19.6%), Psydrax livida (14.9%) and Aloe sp (14.9%). Most of the plant materials were prepared by crushing and soaking in water and spraying the extract on animals. Despite the knowledge of these useful pesticidal plants, the preferred animal health care for cattle and other highly ranked livestock species is still the use of commercial acaricides. Cattle dipping services were reported sporadic by 48% of the respondents. Traditional knowledge and plants are considered only as an alternative in the absence of conventional synthetic products. Livestock farming communities know of plant species used for livestock ecto-parasite control. The plant species are mostly used to complement commercial products. More work, is required to confirm the acaricidal properties claimed by the

  16. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    These were administered to the selected village sheep owners and sheep traders. information provided by the respondents were organized under the following sub-headings: socioeconomic background, sheep management practices, major causes of sheep losses, health management practices, local methods for treating ...

  17. The Use of Herbal Drugs in Organic Animal Production: The Case of Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Central Anatolia Region

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    Çağrı Çağlar Sinmez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production is a natural breeding system in which animal health is protected by giving priority to alternative medicines and treatment as needed by applying appropriate management and feeding methods based on the physiological requirements of animals. Increasing numbers of strains resistant to antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs used in animal breeding have brought about the search for alternative herbal remedies that lead to drug residues in animal products and lead to important health problems in people consuming these products. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and protective effects of herbal drugs used in organic animal production in ethnoveterinary medicine in the Central Anatolia Region. The material of the study collected as written and declared facts as well as visual data were obtained from animal breeders in the Central Anatolia Region. The results indicated that 30 herbal drugs were used for the treatment of internal diseases, surgical diseases, obstetric and gynecological problems and parasitic diseases in cattle, sheep, horse, poultry, bee, and dog species. Based on the evaluation of the facts that the use of all kinds of synthetic drugs, especially antibiotics, is prohibited or restricted in organic livestock, it can be said that natural herbal drugs instead of artificial substances will provide positive contributions in the protection and treatment of herd health.

  18. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

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    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  19. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland District, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabalebatse, Moabiemang; Ngwenya, Barbara N; Teketay, Demel; Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2013-01-01

    We carried out a study to determine ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases in Toteng Village in Ngamiland District, northwestern Botswana. Primary data were collected through simple random sampling of 45 households in Toteng. Respondents were either livestock owners or cattle herders. Respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire which had both open and closed-ended questions. Cattle ownership or herdership in Toteng is an inter-generational occupation with people ranging from 15 to 94 years old. Cattle were acquired either through inheritance, buying, mafisa (reciprocal exchange) system or government scheme. Women in the study area were more involved in livestock farming activities. Eleven livestock diseases were reported to be prevalent in the study area. The top six diseases were tlhako le molomo -foot and mouth disease (FMD), matlho -eye infections, letshololo-diarrhea, madi -pasteurollosis, mokokomalo -aphosphorisis and pholoso-contagious abortion. At least nine medicinal plant species having ethno-veterinary applications were recorded in the study area. Single plants are mostly used rather than a combination of plants. A number of social strategies were mentioned such as 'go fetola mafudiso' - to change grazing areas, and 'go thaa lesaka' - to ritualistically 'protect a kraal' or livestock against evil spells and predators (lions). Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable and experienced in treating a range of livestock diseases, but also in performing other veterinary tasks such as assisting in births, treating fractures and range management strategies to mitigate particular threats from their local environment. The efficacy of ethno-veterinary

  20. Natural Remedies and Nutraceuticals Used in Ethnoveterinary Practices in Inland Southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Howard, P.; Volpato, G.; Santoro, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional animal health practices are today only rarely used in Europe, as many natural remedies applied for the treatment of animals have been replaced by modern pharmaceuticals. Modern institutionalized veterinary services tend to cover every aspect of animal health care, and influence most of

  1. Compilation and adoption of ethno-veterinary medicine, traditional and other management practices by small ruminant farmers in Edo State Nigeria.

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    Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J

    2009-10-01

    An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged.

  2. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

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    N. B. Alhaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0% are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0% are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals. Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%, barks (31.6%, roots (10.6%, and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage.

  3. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage.

  4. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies used by agro-pastoralists of Fafan zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

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    Feyera, Teka; Mekonnen, Endalkachew; Wakayo, Befekadu Urga; Assefa, Solomon

    2017-08-09

    In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of therapeutic system still remains at a minimum level. The aim of this study was, thus, to document the traditional knowledge of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in the agro-pastoral communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study employed a cross-sectional participatory survey. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select key respondents with desired knowledge in traditional animal health care system. Data were gathered from a total of 24 (22 males and 2 females) ethnoveterinary practitioners and herbalists using an in-depth-interview complemented with group discussion and field observation. The current ethnobotanical survey indicated that botanical ethnoveterinary therapies are the mainstay of livestock health care system in the studied communities. A total of 49 medicinal plants belonging to 21 families, which are used by traditional healers and livestock raisers for the treatment of 29 types of livestock ailments/health problems, were identified in the study area. The major plant parts used were leaves (43%) followed by roots (35%). In most cases, traditional plant remedies were prepared by pounding the remedial plant part and mixing it with water at room temperature. The various types of identified medicinal plants and their application in ethnoveternary practice of Fafan zone agro pastoralists indicate the depth of indigenous knowledge in ethnobotanical therapy. The identified medicinal plants could be potentially useful for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  5. Ethnoveterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Manhas, R K

    2015-07-01

    Camel is an important mode of transportation in the hot and hilly tracts of Shiwaliks of Kathua districts. The camel owners of the region lack the modern veterinary facilities and therefore depend heavily upon local treatments for the animal. This ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants is acquired by them from their forefathers and generally moves from one generation to another orally. The oral mode of transferring this valuable knowledge is vulnerable to erosion with the passage of time and generations. Ethnoveterinary information was collected by interviewing 38 camel keepers and traditional healers as per the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed quantitatively using three indices viz. use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (Fl %). A total of 41 plants were found to be of ethnoveterinary importance in the present study. Herbs and trees (41.5% each) were the most used life forms. The most used plant part was fruit (27.9%). Rhizome, root and whole plant parts collectively contributed to 18.6%. Most of the ethnoveterinary practices (65.9%) used oral mode of medication. The values of UV and Fl (%) shows that the most important species for curing the ailing camels were Curcuma longa, Trachyspermum ammi, Brassica campestris, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Plumbago zeylanica etc. The high values of ICF (0.91-0.99) show that the informants share the knowledge for the treatment of camels amongst themselves on regular basis. A good number of plants are utilised by the informants to cure camels. Most of the preparations used fruits and leaves. Only 18.6% of the practices required destructive collection and such species need sustainable use and conservation. Some of the species like Tamarindus indica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Albizia lebbeck and Citrus medica require further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Antonio; Amich, Francisco; Postigo-Mota, Salvador; Vallejo, José Ramón

    2016-09-05

    Zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine are important in many socio-cultural environments around the world, particularly in developing countries, and they have recently started to be inventoried and studied in Europe. In light of this, the purpose of this review is to describe the local knowledge and folk remedies based on the use of invertebrates and their derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. An overview in the fields of ethnozoology, ethnoveterinary medicine and folklore was made. Automated searches in the most important databases were performed. All related works were examined thoroughly and use-reports were obtained from 53 documentary sources. The traditional use of 18 invertebrate species and five ethnotaxa and a total of 86 empirical remedies based on the use of a single species was recorded. The two most relevant zoological groups were found to be insects and molluscs. A broad diversity of body parts or derivative products have been and are used to treat or prevent ca. 50 animal diseases or conditions, in particular diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, different infectious livestock diseases, and disorders of the eye and adnexa. Cattle, sheep and equines form the group of domestic animals in which the greatest number of remedies are mentioned. In addition, seven magical remedies and practices are documented. In comparison with other culturally related areas, this is a rich heritage. The use-reports included here will help in the search for new and low-cost drugs for treating livestock and alternative materials for pharmaceutical purposes, future research addressing the validation of the effects and the development of organic farming.

  7. An Ethnoveterinary Remedies Used in the Treatment of Diseases of Aksaray Malaklısı Shepherd Dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    SİNMEZ, Çağrı Çağlar; ASLIM, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    The subjects of our study were to report the usage of herbal, animal and mineral remedies on Aksaray Malaklısı shepherd dogs from traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and to compare the remedies used in traditional veterinary medicine with those used in the other locations of Turkey and countries. The work was carried out in Aksaray province (Turkey) by interviewing dog breeders. Fifty participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for treat...

  8. Survey of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants at se- lected districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciated ethno-medicinal knowledge of the local community. Semi-structured inter- view, guided field ... was the most common route of administration. In conclusion, the participants have a wealth of ... The use of ethno-veterinary practices to treat and control livestock diseases is an old practice in a large part of the world, ...

  9. Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, M; Masika, P J

    2009-12-01

    Mwale and Masika 2009 Ethno-veterinary control of parasites, management and role of village chickens in rural households of Centane district in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Village chickens contribute significantly towards rural livelihood in the African continent through the provision of animal protein, income and socio-cultural uses. However, village chickens are susceptible to parasite infestation. Due to limitations of using western drugs to control these parasites, farmers resort to the use of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM). However, there is dearth of information on EVM use in chickens. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to document various EVM practices used in controlling gastro-intestinal parasites in village chickens. Stratified random sampling was used to select 62 chicken farmers that were interviewed using a structured questionnaire About 70 and 96.7% of farmers provided housing and water for their chickens respectively whereas the rest did not. The chief role of chickens was meat provision (91.7%). Most households (86%) reported parasite problems in chickens, particularly gastro-intestinal parasites. Eighty-three percent of the interviewed respondents use medicinal plants to control both internal and external parasites in chickens. Use of plants increased with parasite incidences (r=0.347; Pparasites were problematic and were largely controlled by medicinal plants. Further research on pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy of these plants is important for improved chicken productivity and hence rural livelihood.

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  11. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  12. Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Tunisia and in Italy. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Results: Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used ...

  13. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-15

    Medicinal plants are utilized for handling health care system and in preventing a variety of diseases. A survey was conducted to document the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in union council Bheri, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Questionnaire format was used to collect the medicinal uses of plants. The 180 informants were interviewed from six villages in total, 30 from each village (20 male and 10 female) regarding the ethnoveterinary uses of plants in several ailments. For the reliability of ethnoveterinary knowledge, the informant consensus factor (FIC), and fidelity level (FL) were calculated and the literature cited was surveyed. The medicinal information was gathered from local inhabitants, healers, shepherds and old men and women of different age groups. A total of 24 medicinal plant species used as ethnoveterinary were found belonging to 22 genera and 19 families. The most dominant family was Polygonaceae (3 species) followed by Araceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae each with 2 species and remaining families having one species. The important medicinal plant species showed the highest fidelity level (FL) such as: Rumex nepalensis, Primula denticulata, (100%) used for dysuria, red urination, Skimmia laureola (100%), Swertia paniculata (99%), and Angelica glauca (97%), used for ague, cold, shivering, gastric ailments, Melia azedarach (100%), used to reduce intestinal worm load in cattle showing the conformity of knowledge on these species. Highest FIC was recorded for foot and mouth diseases and ectoparasite (1) followed by ague (0.98) and dysuria (0.99) depicting that a few species were used to cure various animals׳ ailments. The findings of the research revealed that merely a few species are used as ethnoveterinary medicine supported by pharmacology study. Due to anthropogenic pressure the extinction of each species from the areas could result in disappearing knowledge regarding century׳s old traditional methods of

  14. 12904 ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2017; 17(4): 12904-12915. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand. ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO GRAZING ... food animals results in antibiotic residues in both tissues and products of animals [8] and, ..... Quattrocchi U CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants:.

  15. Investigation of urban ethnoveterinary in three veterinary clinics at east zone of São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, R L; Souza, R M; Furlan, M R; Pedro, C R; Cassas, F; Honda, S; Rodrigues, E

    2015-09-15

    Urban Ethnoveterinary should be further explored because of its value as it resists conventional medical care. In addition, the comparison between the resources used by Ethnoveterinary and Ethnopharmacology should be investigated in depth, increasing the availability of new bioactive potential in human and veterinary medicines. This project aimed to determine whether plants are used in the health care of dogs and/or cats in urban area and to compare its uses with other ethnoveterinary and ethnopharmacological data. Three veterinary clinics from east area of São Paulo city were selected, in order to record the offering of plants to pets by their owners. Individual interviews were conducted from May to November 2012 and consisted of application of semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. A literature search was performed to compare our findings with other ethnopharmacological and ethnoveterinarian data from the literature. A total of 273 people were interviewed and 46 (16.84%) of them utilize medicinal plants for their pets. Most plant species are exclusively home grown (57.9%). The plants most cited were Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. The most frequent route of administration, part utilized and mode of preparation was oral (80.35%), leaves (89.47%) and infusion (61.90%), respectively. From 19 cited plants, 14 (73.7%) are mentioned in ethnoveterinary literature, whereas 11 (57.9%) are used for the same purposes. All plants reported in our study have at least one common use with ethnopharmacology. The survey provided evidence of ethnoveterinary use of medicinal plants for dogs and/or cats in urban area of São Paulo, complementarily with the official veterinary, and showed that the plants used in pets are also used in humans with the same purposes and routes of administration, as well as in other animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Fabian [Aachen Univ. (RWTH) (Germany). Chair of Experimental Molecular Imaging; Pichler, Bernd J. (eds.) [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation

    2011-07-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  17. Small animal imaging. Basics and practical guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Pichler, Bernd J.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal imaging has been recognized as an important tool in preclinical research. Nevertheless, the results of non-invasive imaging are often disappointing owing to choice of a suboptimal imaging modality and/or shortcomings in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. This textbook is a practical guide to the use of non-invasive imaging in preclinical research. Each of the available imaging modalities is discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. In addition, many useful hints are provided on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and the cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods, data postprocessing, and special imaging applications are also considered in depth. This is the first book to cover all the practical basics in small animal imaging, and it will prove an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians. (orig.)

  18. ETHNOVETERINARY MEDICINE AMONG BADE PASTORALISTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To obtain information used for this study, seventy (70) structured questionnaires were designed and distributed to pastoralists aged forty years and above in seven districts of Bade emirate in semi arid zone of northern Nigeria. It was observed that ethno veterinary practices were adopted by 85.7% of the pastoralists.

  19. Wound Healing Properties of Selected Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Marume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have arrays of phytoconstituents that have wide ranging biological effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties key in wound management. In vivo wound healing properties of ointments made of crude methanolic extracts (10% extract w/w in white soft paraffin of three plant species, Cissus quadrangularis L. (whole aerial plant parts, Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch (whole aerial plant parts and Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. (leaves and bark used in ethnoveterinary medicine were evaluated on BALB/c female mice based on wound area changes, regular observations, healing skin's percentage crude protein content and histological examinations. White soft paraffin and 3% oxytetracycline ointment were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Wound area changes over a 15 day period for mice treated with C. quadrangularis and A. multiflorum extract ointments were comparable to those of the positive control (oxytetracycline ointment. Wounds managed with the same extract ointments exhibited high crude protein contents, similar to what was observed on animals treated with the positive control. Histological evaluations revealed that C. quadrangularis had superior wound healing properties with the wound area completely returning to normal skin structure by day 15 of the experiment. E. abyssinica leaf and bark extract ointments exhibited lower wound healing properties though the leaf extract exhibited some modest healing properties.

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...... for establishing stewardship programs at the clinic level. The authors provide suggestions and approaches to overcome constraints and to move from theoretic concepts toward implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in small animal clinics....

  1. Preliminary study of plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine in Tunisia and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegi, Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    A survey relative to the use of plants for the cure of animals in Tunisia was conducted in order to make a comparison with the same species (or similar ones) in central and southern Italy. available bibliographical data both for Italy and for Tunisia were consulted. Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used in Central and Southern Italy. Seven of the 39 species (about the 18% of the total) are not present in Italian flora. Fourteen of the 39 species (35% of the total) are also used in Italy. Camelidae (dromedaries and camels) are the most valuable types of domestic animals cured in Tunisia, but ovines, horses, bulls, dogs are also treated. Some uses coincide with those existing in different Italian regions. The plants used are the most common and most easily found in these areas. The present study confirms the convergence in ethnoveterinary medicine between Tunisia and Italy, even if it appears less significant than in human ethnobotany. Further studies are required in areas of Tunisia that have not yet been studied, in order to get the possibility of an evaluation of active compounds.

  2. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  3. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the ethnoveterinary uses of cow by-products from Nigeria and South Africa. Methods: A field survey was conducted from January to September, 2015 by conducting interviews with 110 respondents who provided information in respect of the use of cow urine, bile and dung in their folk medicine in ...

  4. Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnoveterinary Application of Morinda Citrifolia Fruit Puree on a Commercial Heifer Rearing Facility with Endemic Salmonellosis. VJ Brooks, TJ De Wolfe, TJ Paulus, J Xu, J Cai, NS Keuler, RG Godbee, SF Peek, SM McGuirk, BJ Dariena ...

  5. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  6. Barking up the same tree: a comparison of ethnomedicine and canine ethnoveterinary medicine among the Aguaruna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work focuses on plant-based preparations that the Aguaruna Jivaro of Peru give to hunting dogs. Many plants are considered to improve dogs' sense of smell or stimulate them to hunt better, while others treat common illnesses that prevent dogs from hunting. This work places canine ethnoveterinary medicine within the larger context of Aguaruna ethnomedicine, by testing the following hypotheses: H1 -- Plants that the Aguaruna use to treat dogs will be the same plants that they use to treat people and H2 -- Plants that are used to treat both people and dogs will be used for the same illnesses in both cases. Methods Structured interviews with nine key informants were carried out in 2007, in Aguaruna communities in the Peruvian department of Amazonas. Informants provided freelists of plants given to dogs and explained the purpose, preparation and route of administration used. For each plant, informants also described any uses for treating people. Botanical voucher specimens were collected and additional informal observations were made, accompanying people on hunting trips. Results Out of 35 plant species given to dogs, 29 (83% are also given to humans for some medicinal purpose, while five are used only for dogs. However, the same plant is used to treat the same illness in both humans and dogs in only 53% of the cases. Forty-three percent of plants used to treat a particular illness for both dogs and people are administered in the same manner for both. Conclusion Results suggest that Aguaruna canine ethnoveterinary medicine is, at least partly, an independent cognitive domain. Some of the difference in plant use between dogs and people can be explained by the fact that certain diseases mentioned only apply to dogs. Although reports of canine ethnoveterinary medicine are very sparse in the literature, Aguaruna practices show some similarities with a few trends reported for other Amazonian societies, particularly, in the

  7. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaofei; Tao, Cuixiang; Miao, Xiaolou; Wang, Dongsheng; Tangmuke; Dawa; Wang, Yu; Yang, Yaoguang; Pan, Hu

    2012-07-13

    In this study we aimed to survey and investigate the medicinal plants which are used to treat the veterinary diseases in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. Meanwhile, the important medicinal plants were collected and identified for the further study. Twenty folk veterinary practitioners from 8 township animal husbandry and veterinary stations in Ruoergai region were investigated and interviewed. The important local medicinal materials, including plants, animals and mineral drugs, were collected by scientific methods and identified by the pharmacognosist of Lanzhou University, China. According to the investigation, only 20 folk veterinary practitioners still used 129 species of traditional medicine to treat the livestock`s diseases. In these medicine, 93 species were native and Ranunculaceae (12, 12.90%), Compositae (11, 11.83%), Papaveraceae (7, 7.53%) were the predominant families. At the same time, herbs (36.56%) are the most widely used part of plant, and respiratory diseases (21.02%) and gastrointestinal diseases (19.89%) were the main animal's diseases in this region. Ethno-veterinary medicine made an extraordinary contribution to the sound development of animal husbandry in Ruoergai. But the inherit, protect and development should be paid more attentions in the future, and the species which have not been studied should be developed priority to find biological activities and new bioactive compounds further. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  10. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  11. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at investigating the animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units. A questionnaire was used to assess the veterinary practices including the administration of antibiotics and other veterinary inputs to promote growth, prevent and treat diseases. Sixty-five (65) respondents were involved in ...

  12. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  13. Ethno-veterinary practices: the perception among the Fulani cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Ethno-Veterinary Practices In Pond Disease Prevention And Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felt needs of all the farmers include training on fish health management and provision of subsidized good quality feeds and drugs. Recommended measures in boosting aquaculture in the state in particular and Nigeria as a whole include good quality feeds and drugs. Recommended measures in boosting aquaculture in ...

  15. The assessment and implementation of animal welfare: theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews the procedures and protocols necessary for the development of a practical programme for the assessment and implementation of animal welfare on farms and in other commercial situations. An effective programme must incorporate measures of both husbandry and welfare. Most current systems are based almost entirely on measures of husbandry provision, e.g. resources and management. However, what the public and the animals need are guarantees of satisfactory welfare and these guarantees must involve animal-based measurements of welfare outcomes. The development and testing of the Bristol Welfare Assurance Programme is described in outline and illustrated with detailed reference to the assessment of welfare in dairy cows. The final section describes how such a programme can be incorporated into the broader concept of quality assurance schemes that incorporate a proper concern for animal welfare into the reasonable needs of different societies for wholesome, affordable food.

  16. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  17. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J

    2011-09-01

    Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.

  18. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  19. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  20. Use of ethno-veterinary medicine for the control if cattle parasites by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of ethno-veterinary medicine for the control if cattle parasites by smallholder farmers in Mutas District, Zimbabwe. M Mwale, CT Gadzirayi, C Mapiye, M Menanga, MM Kuchenga, JF Mupangwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  1. Spatial turn and animation practices inspired by cultural anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wieszaczewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial turn is one of the cultural turns, which have recently occurred in the humanities. It stresses the importance of issues such as space and place and can be successfully used as a theoretical perspective gaining use in thought over issues such as globalisation, transnationality, mapping but also education. In the discourses of pedagogical science space and place are considered through their multidimensional impact on education and learning. As significant concepts rooting pedagogy or pedagogy of borderland. The pedagogical reflection on space could be also used in the field of animation practices, especially in activities, which are related to place somehow colonised.

  2. Traditional knowledge on ethno-veterinary and fodder plants in South Angola: an ethnobotanic field survey in Mopane woodlands in Bibala, Namibe province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bruschi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is a critical resource to improve income and household livelihoods in many rural areas. To date, very few studies have investigated farmers’ local knowledge on plants used in managing animal health and welfare in Angolan Mopane woodland. This is a very dry ecosystem where animal husbandry (mostly cattle and goats breeding is highly widespread and is often the main form of subsidence, greatly contributing to local communities food security, especially in periods of resources shortage. An ethnobotanical research project was carried out in Bibala (Namibe province – Angola in 2010 – 2012, in order to collect information on different traditional uses of plants, involving an interviewed sample of 66 informants. Fifty-eight of them (87.9% listed a total of 39 species used as ethno-veterinary and/or fodder plants. Ten ethno-veterinary species (28 citations were reported by 20 informants as used to treat diseases commonly affecting animals in the studied area, namely respiratory tract problems (Laphangium luteoalbum, Gyrocarpus americanus, Craibia brevicaudata subsp. baptistarum, Lepisanthes senegalensis, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Ximenia americana and skin diseases and wounds (Aloe littoralis, Blepharis sp., Ficus thonningii, or acting as a general tonic (Faidherbia albida. Thirty-four plants (235 citations were cited by 58 informants as fodder. In this category of use, the most cited species were Terminalia prunioides (30 citations, Faidherbia albida (28 citations and Spirostachys africana (21 citations. Our study shows that communities living in South Angola Mopane woodlands still retain a valuable traditional knowledge about plants used to maintain animal health and welfare. This body of knowledge and related skills can play a crucial role in the resilience of livestock systems facing present environmental and socioeconomic changes.

  3. Herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review of literature elucidates previous and current status of herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria. It provides background information on the rationale behind ethnoveterinary research in general especially as it relates to the developing nations where cost of drugs majorly limit the full use of modern ...

  4. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A

    2013-03-09

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23-55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided.

  5. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshier, A. L.; McBride, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23–55 years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided. PMID:23475046

  6. The Human-Animal Bond: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, F. Ellen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rapidly expanding area of human-animal bonding. The historical background of human-animal bonding, the current multidisciplinary interest in companion animals, and theoretical perspectives are reviewed. The article examines programmatic and legislative developments in which social workers have participated and presents…

  7. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  8. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  9. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part I — Nonparasitic zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J. S.; Peregrine, A. S.; Armstrong, J.

    2002-01-01

    Zoonotic diseases are an ever-present concern in small animal veterinary practice and are often overlooked. A variety of nonparasitic zoonotic diseases may be encountered in small animal practice, including cat scratch disease (bartonellosis), cat bite abscesses, rabies, leptospirosis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, salmonellosis, avian chlamydiosis, campylobacteriosis, dermatophytosis, and blastomycosis. These may cause human disease r...

  10. Practical Implementation of Animation for Students of Pedagogical Studies at MIAS CTU in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows computer animation as a teaching and learning instrument in technical education. Our aim is to show good practice in creating computer animations. The paper includes an example, which can serve as a practical guide for teachers of technical subjects.

  11. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  12. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Larry; Austin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference) included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC), which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU) which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia). 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE publishing guidelines

  13. Out of the dissection room. An experience of outdoor practical sessions for animal anatomy education

    OpenAIRE

    ParésCasanova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Practical exercises are an essential component of anatomy education, so anatomy sessions including dissection are essentialfor animal anatomy courses. In Spain there are not difficulties in obtaining farm animal corpses for educational purposes(although some sanitary laws restrict it in certain cases) neither in general ethical constraints. From 2009 we have been doingoutdoor animal dissection for 1st level students of the “Animal Health and Science” degree course of the University of Lleidai...

  14. Livestock management practices and mortality profile in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The questionnaire was used in face – to – face interviews carried out between March and December 2013. ... of housing more than one type of animal species in the same housing unit observed in this study may influence the use of antimicrobials, as well as promoting cross-transfer of diseases between different species.

  15. Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also observed that 40.9% of the respondents were aware of environmental risks caused by improper disposal of animal wastes while 59.1% were not aware of such risks, and the risk mentioned was air pollution. About 57.6% of the respondents were aware of the public health risks and they mentioned skin infections, ...

  16. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  17. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  18. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Animal Physiology Practical Guidance Oriented Guided Inquiry for Student of Biology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Z. A. Z.; Sumarmin, R.; Violita, V.

    2018-04-01

    The guides used for practicing animal physiology need to be revised and adapted to the lecture material. This is because in the subject of Animal Physiology. The guidance of animal physiology practitioners is still conventional with prescription model instructions and is so simple that it is necessary to develop a practical guide that can lead to the development of scientific work. One of which is through practice guided inquiry guided practicum guide. This study aims to describe the process development of the practical guidance and reveal the validity, practicality, and effectiveness Guidance Physiology Animals guided inquiry inferior to the subject of Animal Physiology for students Biology Department State University of Padang. This type of research is development research. This development research uses the Plomp model. Stages performed are problem identification and analysis stage, prototype development and prototyping stage, and assessment phase. Data analysis using descriptive analysis. The instrument of data collection using validation and practical questionnaires, competence and affective field of competence observation and psychomotor and cognitive domain competence test. The result of this research shows that guidance of Inquiry Guided Initiative Guided Physiology with 3.23 valid category, practicality by lecturer with value 3.30 practical category, student with value 3.37 practical criterion. Affective effectiveness test with 93,00% criterion is very effective, psychomotor aspect 89,50% with very effective criteria and cognitive domain with value of 67, pass criterion. The conclusion of this research is Guided Inquiry Student Guided Protoxial Guidance For Students stated valid, practical and effective.

  20. Autopsy practice in Ghana – reflections of a pathologist | Anim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autopsy practice in Ghana can be said to be far from satisfactory. Most Ghanaians do not know that there are different categories of death, which categories of death require an autopsy and who is required to perform the autopsy. The problems have further been complicated by the fact that, unlike other countries where ...

  1. A survey of ethnoveterinary botanical remedies in Ogun State and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four villages were visited during a cross sectional survey of ethno veterinary botanical remedies used for the management of animal diseases in four local government areas randomly selected cutting across the four geopolitical zones in Ogun State. A total of 323 households were purposively selected and ...

  2. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among traditional herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. ... The paper deals with 34 ailments commonly found in nine different categories of livestock/animals (i e. buffalo, cow, oxen, sheep, goat, horse, mule, dog and cat) and their treatment with 73 ...

  3. Practical application of stereological methods in experimental kidney animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández García, María Teresa; Núñez Martínez, Paula; García de la Fuente, Vanessa; Sánchez Pitiot, Marta; Muñiz Salgueiro, María Del Carmen; Perillán Méndez, Carmen; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Astudillo González, Aurora

    The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  5. [Practical application of recombinant bovine somatotropin: sequelae for man, animal and animal husbandry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievits, J M; van Dam, H C; Hessel, H W; Renkema, J A; Brand, A

    1988-12-01

    Recombinant Bovine Somtatotropin (r-BST) may be produced commercially in the forseeable future. On the basis of a study of the literature, it may be assumed in all likelihood that administration of r-BST to dairy cows will not have a negative effect on public health. However additional research on potential biological activity of recombinant-BST or its fragments and of somatomedins after oral administration, is advisable. Negative effects on the health, fertility and life-span of animals were not observed so far under experimental conditions but any reference to field situations is absent in the literature. Treatment with r-BST should not be initiated prior to within eighty days after parturition. Administration of r-BST also requires proper management in terms of ration formulation and feeding to ensure maintenance of health and production of dairy cattle. The use of r-BST will result in a less accurate estimation of the breeding potential of selected cows, resulting in a reduction of the genetic improvement of milk production. Increased economic benefits should be obtained on farms having high stocking rates (2.35 dairy cows/ha) compared with those having low stocking rates (1.90), varying with the price of r-BST. It is anticipated that the use of r-BST will have little effect on the reduction of the number of dairy cattle and dairy farms up to 1995.

  6. Speaking Up: Veterinary Ethical Responsibilities and Animal Welfare Issues in Everyday Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Elein; Fawcett, Anne; Brouwer, Emily; Rau, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Veterinarians have an ethical obligation to provide good care for the animals that they see in practice. However, at times, there may be conflicts between the interests of animal caregivers or owners, the interests of veterinarians and the interests of animals. We provide an overview of why and how veterinary ethics is taught to veterinary students, as well as providing a context for thinking about veterinary ethical challenges and animal welfare issues. We argue that veterinarians are ethically obliged to speak up and ask questions when problems arise or are seen and provide a series of clinical case examples in which there is scope for veterinarians to improve animal welfare by ‘speaking up’. Abstract Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed—along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct—to address animal welfare issues. Insufficiently mature ethical reasoning or a lack of veterinary ethical sensitivity can lead to an inability or difficulty in speaking up about concerns with clients and ultimately, failure in their duty of care to animals, leading to poor animal welfare outcomes. A number of examples are provided to illustrate this point. Ensuring that robust ethical frameworks are employed will ultimately help veterinarians to “speak up” to address animal welfare concerns and prevent future harms. PMID:29361786

  7. Fluid Reading Practice: On the Queer Potential of Studying Nonhuman Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Irni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to recent discussions about the relevance of the natural sciences and nonhuman animals in feminist theory by drawing from feminist debates on the queer potential of studying nonhuman animals. The paper discusses readings on the intertwining of scientific accounts of nonhuman animals and politics; how different nonhuman animal bodies have enabled various conceptualisations of sex and physical intimacy and have been enmeshed in the politics of sex; and how to read the relevance of accounts of the diversity of nonhuman animal sex(es for feminist endeavours. These discussions contribute to an exploration of ‘fluid reading’, a feminist reading practice which draws inspiration from and moves with both new materialisms and poststructuralisms. The paper proposes that not only mood is important in feminist reading practices but also movements and flows.

  8. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  9. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  10. Evaluation of specific infection control practices used by companion animal veterinarians in community veterinary practices in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C P; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; McEwen, S A

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated specific infection control practices in community veterinary practices in southern Ontario. Environmental disinfection, management of infectious patients and antimicrobial use in clean surgical procedures were investigated. Community companion animal veterinary practices (n=101) in Southern Ontario were recruited, and a questionnaire was administered to one veterinarian and one veterinary technician from each practice. The veterinarian questionnaire gathered data on clinic demographics, management of infectious patients, infectious diseases of concern, environmental disinfection and antimicrobial use in surgical procedures. The veterinary technician questionnaire gathered data on environmental disinfection. None of the veterinary practices had a formal infection control programme. Sixty-five per cent (n=66) of the veterinary practices did not have an isolation area and 61% (n=40) of these practices did not employ any specific infection control measures for infectious cases. The products most frequently used for environmental disinfection were hydrogen peroxide based or quaternary ammonium compounds. Bleach was the agent most commonly used for environmental disinfection of infectious body fluids; however 60% of the veterinarians and 40% of the veterinary technicians did not identify a product for environmental disinfection of infectious body fluids. Twenty-four per cent of the veterinarians reported using antimicrobials in animals undergoing elective sterilization surgeries and 60% reported using antimicrobials in other clean surgical procedures. There is a need for community veterinary practices to develop infection control programmes specific to their individual practice. In addition, veterinarians should discontinue the common use of antimicrobials for clean elective sterilization surgical procedures. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Constraints in adapting animal husbandry practices by the dairy farmers in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gangasagare

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to review the situation of dairying in Marathwada with the objectives to identify major constraints of the dairy farmers in adapting the recommended animal husbandry practices. The survey work was carried out for the milk pocket areas in eight districts of the Marathwada region. Out of 144 dairy farmers, 109 farmers cared crossbred animals; 65 out of 85 dairy farmers adapted cooling arrangement to cross-bred cows during summer; 35 of 45 adapted washing their animals during summer; 98 of 230 dairy farmers followed vaccination to their animals; 45 of 230 dairy farmers followed de-worming their animals; 37 of 230 adapted to control the ecto-parasite; 65 of 230 reacted for removal old debris; 105 of 230 dairy farmers adapted A.I. policy and only 88 of 230 dairy farmers were positive for the animals insurance. Higher proportion of the farmers has accepted the importance of crossbred cows. Higher numbers of farmers have positive response to cool their animals. Significantly more numbers of farmers did not care to vaccinate and accept other health measures for their animals. Non-significant differences between dairy farmers adapting and non-adapting A.I. practices were recorded while significant (P>0.01 difference was observed between the farmers adapting and not adapting the insurance policy. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 347-349

  12. Perceived importance and integration of the human-animal bond in private veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François; Taunton, Anne

    2006-02-15

    To determine perceptions of the human-animal bond (HAB) among veterinarians in private practice and evaluate how these veterinarians incorporate the HAB in their practices. Survey. 1,602 veterinarians in private practice in Washington state. Participants were contacted and asked to complete a survey. Response rate was 26% (415/1,602). Most respondents agreed that veterinarians will be more successful if they recognize and facilitate the HAB, that facilitating the HAB was important to their practices, that they actively evaluated the degree of bonding between clients and their animals, and that the bonding between a client and his or her animal affected the way they practiced medicine. However, > 50% of respondents did not train veterinary technicians and front office staff members in the HAB or encourage veterinary technicians or front office staff members to learn about the HAB. Fifty-one percent of respondents offered few or no HAB resources to clients. When asked to quantify the importance of 10 nontechnical skills associated with private veterinary practice, respondents ranked communication skills, ethical reasoning, and business management first, second, and third; the HAB was ranked fifth. Results suggest that for veterinarians in private practice in Washington state, there is a dichotomy between how important they consider the HAB to be in their practice and the degree to which they facilitate the HAB with regard to communication, training, and client resources. More research on the HAB is necessary to better understand what the HAB encompasses and its implications for private practitioners.

  13. Animal Research Practices and Doctoral Student Identity Development in a Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Karri

    2009-01-01

    This article examines doctoral student identity development in regard to engagement with research practices. Using animal research as a contextual lens, it considers how students develop an identity congruent to their perception of the community which facilitates their social and cognitive activities. The shared, interpretive understanding among…

  14. Characterisation of antimicrobial usage in cats and dogs attending UK primary care companion animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, E L; O'Neill, D; Summers, J; Mateus, A; Church, D; Redmond, L; Brodbelt, D

    2016-11-12

    There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs. The main agents used were aminopenicillin types and cephalosporins. Of the AM events, 60 per cent in dogs and 81 per cent in cats were AMs classified as critically important (CIAs) to human health by the World Health Organisation. CIAs of highest importance (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, third-generation cephalosporins) accounted for just over 6 per cent and 34 per cent of AMs in dogs and cats, respectively. The total quantity of AMs used within the study population was estimated to be 1473 kg for dogs and 58 kg for cats.This study has identified a high frequency of AM usage in companion animal practice and for certain agents classified as of critical importance in human medicine. The study highlights the usefulness of veterinary practice electronic health records for studying AM usage. British Veterinary Association.

  15. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  16. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33-45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21-31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  17. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  18. Use of radiography in small animal practice in the UK and Republic of Ireland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi J; Morley, Samuel J; Ewers, Richard S

    2018-02-24

    Radiography is an essential diagnostic tool in small animal practice. A major transition is currently underway from film screen to digital systems. However, there is limited published research detailing the use of radiography in practices in the UK and Republic of Ireland (ROI). The study aimed to describe the uptake of digital radiographic systems, wider aspects of radiographic practice and use of other diagnostic imaging techniques in the UK and ROI. This is a cross-sectional study using paper and online questionnaires. Veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and veterinary radiographers working in small animal practice in the UK and ROI were eligible to participate in the survey. Seventy-five per cent of respondents worked in practices using digital radiography systems. Cost appeared to be the largest barrier to digital conversion. Chemical restraint was used on 86 per cent of cases; however, 3 per cent of cases were reported to be restrained by hand. Thirty-one per cent of respondents had not received specific training in radiation safety. Ultrasonography is reportedly now widely utilised on a regular basis. These results provide useful information on the use of radiography and additional diagnostic imaging techniques in the UK. These results should be used to indicate future training requirements, particularly to improve radiation safety. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

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    Md. Saiful Islam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods: Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results: Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion: Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong

  20. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  1. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  2. Ethno-Veterinary Practices Amongst Small–Holder Farmers In Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-tested structured and unstructured interview schedules were used to collect quantitative data, while Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to elicit qualitative data from the respondents. Frequency distribution, percentages, means and standard deviation were used to describe the data. Inferential statistics such ...

  3. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  5. Galloping colts, fetal feelings, and reassuring regulations: putting animal-welfare science into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2010-01-01

    About a decade ago, concern was expressed that fetuses might suffer while dying in utero after the death of their dams. However, reference to already published literature provided compelling evidence that fetuses cannot consciously experience negative sensations or feelings, such as breathlessness and pain, and showed that, provided certain precautions are taken, they cannot suffer--their welfare is assured. In this article, I outline the major features of fetal and neonatal physiology that underlie this conclusion as it relates to fetuses that are neurologically exceptionally immature, moderately immature, or mature at birth. As an example of the practical application of this knowledge, I also show how the results of detailed studies reported in the biomedical literature, together with evolving understanding of the capacity of animals to experience negative sensations reported in the animal-welfare science literature, led to the development of international guidelines for the humane management of livestock fetuses when their dams are slaughtered commercially. I also highlight the notion that significant progress in the scientific understanding of animal welfare, and its applications, can be made by remaining open to knowledge developed in disciplines at the margins of or beyond those in the animal-welfare science, ethology, and veterinary sciences arenas.

  6. A theory-to-practice approach for teaching science with animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hatsidimitris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational psychologists have for decades conducted research into the most efficient manner by which information can be assimilated through dynamic visualizations such as animations and video. As a result, a number of research-based guidelines have been formulated to guide the designer, teacher and learner regarding the layout, presentation and self-regulation of transient information. How to apply multimedia learning principles in a considered and creative manner when teaching or learning with dynamic information in a regular classroom situation? This article presents a practical and visual guide for dealing with some of the key issues, such as split attention, signaling, segmentation and strategic learner-control. Some classroom orientated suggestions are offered for the incorporation of these principles when using animations for teaching complex information. The overall objective is to organize the pacing and sequencing of the dynamic information in a manner that is optimally aligned with the students’ prior knowledge and cognitive processing ability.

  7. Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhorvoin Om

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Results Widespread antibiotic use occurred on all farms and was driven by four facilitators: belief that antibiotics were necessary for animal raising, limited knowledge, unrestricted antibiotic access, and weak monitoring and control systems. “If we treat ducks for two days and they aren’t cured we change to human drugs. We cocktail 10 tablets of this, 10 tablets of that and 20 tablets of this one. Altogether 200 tablets are mixed in 100 or 200 L of water for the ducks to drink. No one taught me, just my experiences.” Antibiotics were believed to be necessary for disease prevention. “On the first day when we bring in the chicks, we let them drink Enro [enrofloxacin] and vitamins to make them resist to the weather. We place them in the house and there are some bacteria in the environment. When they are newly arrived, we have to give them feed. So we’re afraid they get diarrhea when they eat feed, we have to use Enro.” All farmers used pre-mixed feed that veterinarians and feed retailers acknowledged contained antibiotics but not all listed the antibiotics. Farmers viewed pre-mixed feed as a necessary ‘feed supplement’ for growth promotion. “….The fatten supplement is mixed in feed. Pigs aren’t growing well unless I use the supplement.” Farmers and veterinarians were concerned that ‘antibiotic residuals’ in animal meat could harm human health. But they did not link this with antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Antibiotic use in

  8. Comparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Julie M; Zutter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    The popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Results of this comparison suggest that heathland shrubs were an important fodder resource for caprines in both Iceland and Greenland while apophytes ("weedy taxa") were part of the cattle fodder in Greenland. Further, the results indicate that mucking out of cattle barns to provide fertilizer was likely practiced at the GUS site in the Western Norse settlement of Greenland.

  9. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2014-06-01

    Canine epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions in dogs but the actual incidence of the disease remains unknown. A Swedish animal insurance database has previously been shown useful for the study of disease occurrence in companion animals. The dogs insured by this company represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence calculations. The aim of the current study was therefore to validate the information contained in the insurance database regarding canine epilepsy. The validation focused on the positive predictive value and the data-transfer from the veterinary practice records to the insurance database. The positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of recorded cases that actually had the disease in question. The quality of the data-transfer was assessed by comparing the diagnostic codes in practice records to the codes in the insurance database. The positive predictive value of the diagnostic codes for canine epilepsy (combining "epileptic convulsions" and "idiopathic epilepsy") in the insurance database was validated in a cross-sectional study where insurance claims for canine epilepsy were compared to diagnostic information in practice records. A random sample of dogs with a reimbursed insurance claim during 2006 was included in the study sample (n=235). Practice records were requested by mail from attending veterinarians. Two independent examiners scrutinized all the records. All 235

  10. Owner response to companion animal death: development of a theory and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C L; Bonnett, B N; Meek, A H

    1999-01-01

    This study used an inductive research method known as grounded theory to develop a theory to describe owner response to the death of a pet. Participants were identified from 8 veterinary clinics in Wellington Country, Ontario. Eighty percent (8 of 10) of the practices approached agreed to participate and there was a 77% (44 of 57) participation rate by clients. Nondirective interviews were conducted with participants approximately 10 days following the death of their pet, and at 3, 6, and 12 mo thereafter. The theory developed suggests that people's reactions are best described as a social and psychological search for meaning. Factors that contributed to the search for meaning included societal values and norms, the cultural milieu of pet death, and the cultural milieu of veterinary medicine. Other factors, such as the participant's personal beliefs, life stage, critical life events, and animal attributes, either alleviated or aggravated the experience. The outcome for participants grieving the death of a pet was a self-governing approach to coping with the death. Practical implications and suggestions for veterinarians are presented.

  11. Evaluation of otoscope cone disinfection techniques and contamination level in small animal private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Allison L; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Ghubash, Rudayna M; Neradilek, Blazej; Polissar, Nayak L

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of bacterial contamination of otoscope cones in veterinary private practice, and to determine the most effective method of disinfection. Fifty small animal practices participated in this study, which included a detailed survey regarding otoscope cleaning, storage and usage and quantitative culture of the cleaned and stored otoscope cones. Using sterile technique, two cones from each of the 50 hospitals were swabbed and submitted for quantitative culture. Contamination was present in 29% of the samples and the following organisms were isolated: Flavobacterium brevis (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Pseudomonas alcaligenes (4%), Staphylococcus intermedius (4%), Corynebacterium spp. (2%), Bacillus spp. (1%), Enterococcus faecalis (1%) Malassezia spp. (1%). There was no statistically significant difference between storage type (dry versus stored in solution) and for the instrumentation used to clean the cones (brush, cotton-tipped applicator, both versus none). There was a statistically significant difference between the different cleaning solutions (P < 0.001) and between the storage solutions (P = 0.003). A single most effective cleaning solution was unable to be determined due to the large number of solutions utilized. Cetylcide G (Cetylite Industries, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ, USA) was the most effective of the three most commonly used storage solutions (Cetylcide G, Benz-all, and 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) when used as directed (P < 0.001). The level of contamination had a positive association with the frequency of cone use and a negative association with the frequency of storage solution replacement.

  12. FIVE FREEDOMS OF ANIMAL WELLFARE APPLIED TO DOGS: PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF THE POPULATION FROM SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term animal welfare, although is frequently used, does not have a precise definition. The scientific community is increasingly accepting that vertebrate animals indeed have consciousness and feelings, with emphasis on the genetic similarities between animal species, including humans. In order to facilitate the identification of the factors that affect and assist, respectively, the animal well being and defense, the Five Freedoms that outline animal welfare was created. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and practice about the welfare factors of dogs in different strata of Sinop city of Mato Grosso State population. Thus, a descriptive qualitative and quantitative study was performed in which 130 dog owners, older than 18 years of age, answered a semi-structured survey with 20 objective and multiple-choice questions. The people that answer the study tried to meet the needs of their animals, even those people who have never heard of animal welfare. Therefore, information related to animal rights and animal welfare need to be provided to the population of Sinop-MT.

  13. Societal sentience: constructions of the public in animal research policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson-West, Pru; Davies, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-human animals as models in research and drug testing is a key route through which contemporary scientific knowledge is certified. Given ethical concerns, regulation of animal research promotes the use of less ‘sentient’ animals. This paper draws on a documentary analysis of legal documents, and qualitative interviews with Named Veterinary Surgeons and others at a commercial laboratory in the UK. Its key claim is that the concept of animal sentience is entangled with a particula...

  14. Impact of Environmental Policies on the Adoption of Animal Waste Management Practices in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...

  15. Mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions that may affect the welfare of farm animals : Implications for welfare research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-01-01

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early

  16. Communicating forest management science and practices through visualized and animated media approaches to community presentations: An exploration and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Jane Kapler Smith; Garrett J. O' Keefe

    2006-01-01

    Natural-resource managers have used a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to diverse publics. We explored the effects of visualizing and animating predictions from mathematical models in computerized presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change through time), fire behavior, and management options...

  17. Mobilising for the animal cause as consumers: an analysis of strategies and practices in Netherlands and Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terragni, L.; Schipper, L.; Torjusen, H.; Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the last years, there has been an increasing focus on consumption as a means for expressing ethical concerns and for influencing questionable market practices. The issue of the treatment of farm animals has been openly discussed for a long time. The focus of this paper is to analyse varying

  18. [Practical problems in criminal laws of prevention of cruelty to animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iburg, U

    2000-03-01

    1. To ascertain serious pains and sufferings in the meaning of section 17 no. 2 b law of prevention of cruelty to animals you cannot do without the help of an expert witness for taking possession of evidence--apart from simple cases. Except the clarifying of fundamental questions concerning prevention of cruelty to animals a professional statement of the administrative veterinary surgeon will be as a rule sufficient. 2. For the actual seizure of animals for the purpose of confiscation and compulsory disposal the criminal justice is extremely dependent on the support of the authorities of administration. Therefore a trouble-free cooperation of criminal justice, veterinary authorities, animal homes and--concerning the protection of species--authorities for protection of endangered nature is imperative. 3. The main problems with the application of the regulation concerning the interdiction of keeping animals according to sections 20 and 20 a law of prevention of cruelty to animals are justified in the legal prerequisites. It is unsatisfactory that an interdiction of keeping animals cannot be imposed by summary punishment order and that a confiscation of animals is not possible by criminal proceedings in case of offence against sections 20 subsection 3, 20 a subsection 3 law of prevention of cruelty to animals. Therefore an admission of the sections as mentioned above to section 19 law of prevention of cruelty to animals seems to be convenient.

  19. Commentary on key aspects of fecal microbiota transplantation in small animal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitman J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Chaitman,1 Albert E Jergens,2 Frederic Gaschen,3 Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro,4 Stanley L Marks,5 Alicia G Marroquin-Cardona,4 Keith Richter,6 Giacomo Rossi,7 Jan S Suchodolski,8 J Scott Weese9 1Veterinary Internal Medicine and Allergy Specialists, New York, NY, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 3School of Veterinary Medicine, Lousiana State University, LA, USA; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico; 5Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, 6Veterinary Specialty Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy; 8Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 9Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of dogs, cats, and other mammals including humans harbors millions of beneficial microorganisms that regulate and maintain health. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a procedure involving the administration of a fecal infusion from a healthy individual (donor to a patient with disease to help improve health. Despite the effectiveness of FMT to treat intestinal disorders in humans, in particular recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, there is a paucity of scientific data regarding the application of FMT in veterinary patients. Here, we outline key aspects of FMT in small animal practice. Keywords: microbiota, health, fecal microbiota transplantation, dysbiosis, enteropathogens, immune system

  20. Synthetic torpor: A method for safely and practically transporting experimental animals aboard spaceflight missions to deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri; Regan, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space. However, new technologies will be required to integrate experimental animals into spacecraft design and transport them beyond LEO in a safe and practical way. In this communication, we propose the use of metabolic control technologies to reversibly depress the metabolic rates of experimental animals while in transit aboard the spacecraft. Compared to holding experimental animals in active metabolic states, the advantages of artificially inducing regulated, depressed metabolic states (called synthetic torpor) include significantly reduced mass, volume, and power requirements within the spacecraft owing to reduced life support requirements, and mitigated radiation- and microgravity-induced negative health effects on the animals owing to intrinsic physiological properties of torpor. In addition to directly benefitting animal research, synthetic torpor-inducing systems will also serve as test beds for systems that may eventually hold human crewmembers in similar metabolic states on long-duration missions. The technologies for inducing synthetic torpor, which we discuss, are at relatively early stages of development, but there is ample evidence to show that this is a viable idea and one with very real benefits to spaceflight programs. The increasingly ambitious goals of world's many spaceflight programs will be most quickly and safely achieved with the help of animal research systems transported beyond LEO; synthetic torpor may

  1. Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent or minimize...

  2. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  3. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-02-04

    Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as "the best and the worst" of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This included assessing their agreement with euthanasia in exemplified case scenarios, potentially predicted by demographic variables (e.g. gender, age, working in small animal practice, employment, working in a team, numbers of performed euthanasia). Further describing the veterinarians' agreement with a number of different normative and descriptive statements, including coping strategies. A questionnaire with nine euthanasia scenarios, 26 normative and descriptive statements, and demographic data were sent to all members of the Austrian Chamber of Veterinary Surgeons (n = 2478). In total, 486 veterinarians answered sufficiently completely to enable analyses. Responses were first explored descriptively before being formally analysed using linear regression and additive Bayesian networks - a multivariate regression methodology - in order to identify joint relationships between the demographic variables, the statements and each of the nine euthanasia scenarios. Mutual dependencies between the demographic variables were found, i.e. female compared to male veterinarians worked mostly in small animal practice, and working mostly in small animal practice was linked to performing more euthanasia per month. Gender and age were found to be associated with views on euthanasia: female veterinarians and veterinarians having worked for less years were more likely to disagree with euthanasia in at least some of the convenience euthanasia scenarios. The number of veterinarians working together was found to be

  4. Mating practices and the dissemination of genetic disorders in domestic animals, based on the example of dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of simulations and genealogical data of ten dog breeds, three popular mating practices (popular sire effect, line breeding, close breeding) were investigated along with their effects on the dissemination of genetic disorders. Our results showed that the use of sires in these ten breeds is clearly unbalanced. Depending on the breed, the effective number of sires represented between 33% and 70% of the total number of sires. Mating between close relatives was also found to be quite common, and the percentage of dogs inbred after two generations ranged from 1% to about 8%. A more or less long-term genetic differentiation, linked to line breeding practices, was also emphasized in most breeds. F(IT) index based on gene dropping proved to be efficient in differentiating the effects of the different mating practices, and it ranged from -1.3% to 3.2% when real founders were used to begin a gene dropping process. Simulation results confirmed that the popular sire practice leads to a dissemination of genetic disorders. Under a realistic scenario, regarding the imbalance in the use of sires, the dissemination risk was indeed 4.4 times higher than under random mating conditions. In contrast, line breeding and close breeding practices tend to decrease the risk of the dissemination of genetic disorders. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  6. Development and validation of an instrument for measuring appointment-specific client satisfaction in companion-animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J B; Adams, C L; Eva, K; Desmarais, S; Bonnett, B N

    2010-02-01

    Healthcare research recognizes that 'satisfaction' is an important health outcome of the medical encounter. As a result, many healthcare professions have pursued the development and validation of instruments for measuring patient satisfaction. However, veterinary medicine has developed and properly validated few instruments for measuring client satisfaction. This paper describes the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument for measuring appointment-specific client satisfaction in companion-animal practice. We developed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) in four main phases. Phase I relied on a series of six pet-owner focus groups (n=32) to explore clients' expectations of veterinary care to provide a basis for constructing items for the CSQ. Phase II involved developing items for a first draft of the CSQ, using the content and themes taken from the pet-owner focus groups. In phase III we pre-tested the first draft with six veterinarians in companion-animal practice and a convenience sample of their clients (n=129). Data from the pre-test were used to test the initial psychometric characteristics of each item. Together with participant feedback, these findings were used to design the final, 15-item CSQ. Phase IV involved psychometrically testing the final, 15-item CSQ as part of a larger observational study involving 20 veterinarians and 344 of their clients. We used data from this sample to assess the reliability and validity of the CSQ in companion-animal practice. Assessment was based on descriptive statistics, principal-component analysis, generalizability theory and linear mixed modeling. Findings demonstrate excellent reliability (G-coefficient for internal consistency=0.96) and support the face, content and construct validity of the CSQ as a measure of appointment-specific client satisfaction in companion-animal practice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the Gaps in Practical Ethical Guidance for Animal Welfare Considerations of Field Interventions and Innovations Targeting Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Louisa; Getty, Susan F.; Briggs, Joyce R.; Benka, Valerie A.W.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Large populations of domestic dogs and cats are found living, or in close association with humans. They are often targeted by field interventions or innovations to enhance their welfare or to reduce conflict with communities or wildlife. Ethical review is a cornerstone of responsible engagement that aims to promote animal and human wellbeing. For the review process to be robust, identifying and understanding the ethical dilemmas that may be encountered when working with dogs and cats in field contexts, together with their human communities and in multi-stakeholder partnerships would be advantageous. We explored existing guidance from other disciplines (regulated animal research, veterinary and human clinical trials, and research conducted on wildlife) and identified gaps in ethical frameworks that do not adequately address the specific and practical needs of nongovernmental or intergovernmental organizations, government agencies or independent researchers working with dogs and cats in field contexts. Navigating practical ethical concerns in complex, highly variable field contexts necessitates the development of additional resources that can better inform reliable ethical review processes, and subsequently enhance the humaneness and effectiveness of future interventions and innovations. Abstract Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and cats (Felis silvestris catus) are common species targeted by nongovernmental or intergovernmental organizations, veterinarians and government agencies worldwide, for field interventions (e.g., population management, rabies vaccination programs) or innovations (e.g., development of technologies or pharmaceuticals to improve animal welfare). We have a moral responsibility to ensure that the conduct of this work is humane for dogs or cats, and to consider the human communities in which the animals live. Ethical review is widely accepted as being integral to responsible practice, and it is fundamental to good science that

  8. Small animal practice: billing, third-party payment options, and pet health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Louise

    2006-03-01

    Rising veterinary costs can keep some people from accepting necessary medical care for their pets. This article discusses viable alternative financing options. Each alternative comes with its own pros and cons. Practice owners will want to study the offerings carefully to find the best match for their practice and clients.

  9. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  10. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Vincent-Naulleau, S.

    2001-01-01

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  11. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice about animal bite and rabies among victims attending a rural hospital in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirshendu Chaudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is highly prevalent in India. It is almost always fatal but preventable by timely administration of vaccine and proper wound care. Rural population have high disease burden. This may be partly due to lack of knowledge regarding the disease. Objectives- To identify the knowledge, attitude & practice of rural people attending in a rural hospital for animal bite management. Materials and Methods- Cross sectional observational study with 119 patients (period prevalence in February 2013. Results- Dogs were the main biting animal (87.4%. Children were the main victim(47.9%. 21% (25 of the respondent said that animal bite may lead to rabies. Neighbors were the main source of knowledge (38.7%. Mean duration of delay in presenting to hospital was 5.02 days. Roughly one third applied soap water to clean the wound. Attitude and practice was significantly associated with knowledge and attitude respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion- Rural population lack enough knowledge on rabies. Targeted group approach like educating mother and children may help improving health care utilization correctly.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice about animal bite and rabies among victims attending a rural hospital in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirshendu Chaudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is highly prevalent in India. It is almost always fatal but preventable by timely administration of vaccine and proper wound care. Rural population have high disease burden. This may be partly due to lack of knowledge regarding the disease. Objectives- To identify the knowledge, attitude & practice of rural people attending in a rural hospital for animal bite management. Materials and Methods- Cross sectional observational study with 119 patients (period prevalence in February 2013. Results- Dogs were the main biting animal (87.4%. Children were the main victim (47.9%. 21% (25 of the respondent said that animal bite may lead to rabies. Neighbors were the main source of knowledge (38.7%. Mean duration of delay in presenting to hospital was 5.02 days. Roughly one third applied soap water to clean the wound. Attitude and practice was significantly associated with knowledge and attitude respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Rural population lack enough knowledge on rabies. Targets group approach like education mother and children may help improve healthcare utilization correctly.

  14. Electrophysiology for biomedical engineering students: a practical and theoretical course in animal electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Ana L; Farfán, Fernando D; Coletti, Marcos A; Teruya, Pablo Y; Felice, Carmelo J

    2016-09-01

    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Biomedical Engineering career, we offer short and optional courses to complement studies for students as they initiate their Graduation Project. The objective of these theoretical and practical courses is to introduce students to the topics of their projects. The present work describes an experience in electrophysiology to teach undergraduate students how to extract cortical information using electrocorticographic techniques. Students actively participate in some parts of the experience and then process and analyze the data obtained with different signal processing tools. In postlaboratory evaluations, students described the course as an exceptional opportunity for students interested in following a postgraduate science program and fully appreciated their contents. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Cohabitation with farm animals in urban households with and without occupational farm work: associations between participation in educational activities and good hygiene practices in at-risk households cohabiting with farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphou, Phoupasong; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate patterns of cohabitation with farm animals in urban households in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, with regard to animal-to-human disease transmission. We also investigated the association between participation in hygiene-related educational activities and good hygiene practices in households with or without cohabitation with animals. A survey regarding cohabitation with animals, socioeconomic characteristics and participation in educational activities was conducted among 1,497 households randomly sampled from urban districts of Vientiane in 2001. Rates of satisfactory performance of recommended good hygiene practices according to a program commencing in 1996 were compared among households cohabiting with animals with or without participation in educational activities (reference group). Even among households not engaged in agriculture as a major source of income, 54.4, 34.9, 7.9, 3.1 and 35.7% cohabited with chickens, ducks, cattle, buffaloes and dogs, respectively. The percentage of households fulfilling the recommendations for good hygiene practices was 56.7%. The rates of satisfactory hygiene practices among households participating in health education and cohabitating with chickens, ducks or cattle were greater than those in the reference group (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.2, 2.3; OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3, 3.0; OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.0, 4.9) regardless of socioeconomic factors. Households cohabiting with animals showed poorer rates of satisfactory hygiene practices than those without animals. Cohabitation with farm animals is common in urban Vientiane regardless of household involvement in agriculture. Further effort is required to improve hygiene conditions, despite some positive effects of health education even in households cohabiting with animals.

  16. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors.

  17. Modern Spirometry Supports Anesthetic Management in Small Animal Clinical Practice: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calice, Ivana; Moens, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Modern spirometry, like no other monitoring technique, allows insight into breath-to-breath respiratory mechanics. Spirometers continuously measure volume, airway pressure, and flow while calculating and continuously displaying respiratory system compliance and resistance in the form of loops. The aim of this case series is to show how observation of spirometric loops, similar to electrocardiogram or CO2 curve monitoring, can improve safety of anesthetic management in small animals. Spirometric monitoring cases described in this case series are based on use of the anaesthesia monitor Capnomac Ultima with a side stream spirometry sensor. The cases illustrate how recognition and understanding of spirometric loops allows for easy diagnosis of iatrogenic pneumothorax, incorrect ventilator settings, leaks in the system, kinked or partially obstructed endotracheal tube, and spontaneous breathing interfering with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The case series demonstrates the potential of spirometry to improve the quality and safety of anesthetic management, and, hence, its use can be recommended during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation and procedures in which interference with ventilation can be expected.

  18. Gender differences in veterinarian-client-patient communication in companion animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane R; Bonnett, Brenda N; Roter, Debra L; Adams, Cindy L; Larson, Susan

    2012-07-01

    To describe the relationship between veterinarian and client genders and veterinarian-client-patient communication. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Random sample of 50 companion animal practitioners in southern Ontario and a convenience sample of 300 clients and their pets. For each practitioner, 6 clinical appointments were videotaped, and the resulting 300 videotapes were analyzed with the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). Linear regression was conducted to study the relationship between demographic factors, measures of veterinarian-client-patient communication, and gender of the veterinarian and client. Female veterinarians conducted more relationship-centered appointments, provided more positive and rapport-building statements, talked more to the patient, and were perceived as less hurried or rushed, compared with male veterinarians. Clients were more likely to provide lifestyle-social information to female veterinarians. Same-gender veterinarian-client interactions were relationship centered and included client provision of more lifestyle-social information. Gender influenced veterinarian-client-patient communication, and previously described physician gender differences in medical communication were largely replicated in the veterinary context.

  19. Osteomyelitis following Domestic Animal Bites to the Hand: Two Case Reports and Practical Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Radiographs of both patients showed the presence of osteomyelitis, and in one of the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed with a bone biopsy. After use of empirical antibiotics, intravenous antibiotic therapy that matched the identified bacterium's sensitivity was initiated, and at the same time, secure dressing including debridement was performed to induce secondary healing. In addition, the patients were closely monitored with serial X-rays, and culture and blood test follow-up. One patient fully recovered without sequelae, but the other patient suffered a loss of distal interphalangeal joint motion. When dealing with bite wounds located on the hand, it is important to visit the hospital as soon as possible and receive the appropriate treatment early. Moreover, to prevent severe complications such as osteomyelitis, it is important to administer antibiotic therapy to which the cultured bacteria are sensitive, along with proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  20. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (< 25,000 people). Study practices had a median ± SD NV of 2.3 ± 1.9 veterinarians, median GPI of $704,547 ± 754,839, and median GPIV of $282,065 ± 182,344. Multivariable regression analysis revealed several factors related to practice size, including the number of associate veterinarians and veterinary technicians in the practice, service fee structure, and employment of a business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  1. Awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of large animal hospital surveillance and infection control practices by referring veterinarians and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiri, Abel B; House, Amanda M; Krueger, Traci M; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2014-04-01

    To assess awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of surveillance and infection control practices at a large animal referral hospital among referring veterinarians and clients who sent horses to the facility for veterinary care. Survey. 57 referring veterinarians and 594 clients. A 15-question survey targeting Salmonella enterica as an important pathogen of interest in horses was sent to clients who sent ≥ 1 horse to the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital for veterinary care during July 1, 2007, through July 1, 2011, and to veterinarians who had referred horses to the same hospital prior to July 1, 2011. Responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. The χ(2) test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine associations among variables of interest. Survey response rates were low (57/467 [12%] for veterinarians and 594/3,095 [19%] for clients). Significantly more (35/56 [63%]) veterinarians than clients (227/585 [39%]) were aware that the hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Most veterinarians (56/57 [98%]) and clients (554/574 [97%]) indicated that sampling and testing of horses to detect Salmonella shedding in feces at admission and during hospitalization was justified. In addition, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 10 (very important), veterinarians and clients indicated it was very important (median score, 10 [interquartile range, 8 to 10] for both groups) that a referral hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Survey results indicated that awareness of hospital surveillance and infection control practices was higher among veterinarians than clients, and these practices were considered relevant and well-accepted among participant veterinarians and clients.

  2. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin

    2014-01-01

    represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40......% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence calculations...... was defined as the proportion of recorded cases that actually had the disease in question. The quality of the data-transfer was assessed by comparing the diagnostic codes in practice records to the codes in the insurance database. The positive predictive value of the diagnostic codes for canine epilepsy...

  3. Identifying Neolithic animal management practices in the Adriatic using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Zavodny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We synthesise reported stable isotope values for domesticates and wild herbivores from sites spanning the Neolithic in coastal Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy (6000–3500 calBC. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values are analyzed as proxies of diet and environment, with differences between species possibly indicating anthropogenic influence. Results are used to characterise diets and address questions of the origin and development of husbandry strategies, especially transhumance, in early farming communities. Changes in pig carbon and nitrogen isotope values through time suggest alterations in practices, whereas values remain relatively constant for cattle and ovicaprids during most of the Neolithic, despite assumptions of seasonal mobility.

  4. Perceptions of fourth-year veterinary students about the human-animal bond in veterinary practice and in veterinary college curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Butler, C; Sontag, M A

    1999-11-15

    To assess veterinary students' perceptions regarding the importance of addressing the human-animal bond in veterinary practice and their perceptions about the adequacy of curricula on the human-animal bond as presented in US veterinary colleges. Survey. Data were collected via a brief questionnaire mailed during the summer of 1996. Questionnaires were returned by 552 senior veterinary students representing 21 of 27 veterinary colleges in the United States. Senior veterinary students believed that the human-animal bond should be a concern of practicing veterinarians, but most did not believe they were receiving adequate instruction about the human-animal bond in their veterinary colleges. Gender was significantly related to differences in perceptions; female students appeared to have more interest in addressing the human-animal bond than male students. Students in small animal programs viewed the human-animal bond differently than those in large animal programs. Finally, students attending schools with extensive human-animal bond or human relations curricula were more likely to believe they were receiving adequate instruction in this area than students in other schools. Curricula addressing the human-animal bond need to be developed and implemented in veterinary colleges in the United States.

  5. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  6. Conversation Analysis of Veterinarians' Proposals for Long-Term Dietary Change in Companion Animal Practice in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Clare; Wheat, Hannah C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L

    2018-02-02

    Nutritional changes recommended by veterinarians to clients can have a major role in animal-patient health. Although there is literature on best practices that can inform veterinary communication training, little is known specifically about how veterinarians communicate their recommendations to clients in real-life interactions. This study used the qualitative research method of conversation analysis to investigate the form and content of veterinarian-initiated proposals for long-term dietary change in canine and feline patients to further inform veterinary communication training. We analyzed the characteristics and design of veterinarian-initiated proposals for long-term nutritional modification as well as the appointment phases during which they occurred, in a subsample of 42 videotaped segments drawn from 35 companion animal appointments in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analyses indicated that veterinarians initiated proposals at various points during the consultations rather than as a predictable part of treatment planning at the end. While some proposals were worded strongly (e.g., "She should be on…"), most proposals avoided the presumption that dietary change would inevitably occur. Such proposals described dietary items as options (e.g., "There are also special diets…") or used mitigating language (e.g., "you may want to try…"). These findings seem to reflect delicate veterinarian-client dynamics associated with dietary advice-giving in veterinary medicine that can impact adherence and limit shared decision-making. Our analyses offer guidance for communication training in veterinary education related to dietary treatment decision-making.

  7. Effect of question design on dietary information solicited during veterinarian-client interactions in companion animal practice in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Clare; Wheat, Hannah C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L

    2015-06-01

    To establish the types of initial questions used by veterinarians in companion animal practice to solicit nutritional history information from owners of dogs and cats, the dietary information elicited, and the relationship between initial question-answer sequences and later nutrition-related questions. Cross-sectional qualitative conversation analytic study. 98 appointments featuring 15 veterinarians drawn from an observational study of 284 videotaped veterinarian-client-patient visits involving 17 veterinarians in companion animal practices in eastern Ontario, Canada. Veterinarian and client talk related to patient nutrition was identified and transcribed; conversation analysis was then used to examine the orderly design and details of talk within and across turns. Nutrition-related discussions occurred in 172 visits, 98 of which contained veterinarian-initiated question-answer sequences about patient nutritional history (99 sequences in total, with 2 sequences in 1 visit). The predominant question format used by veterinarians was a what-prefaced question asking about the current content of the patient's diet (75/99). Overall, 63 appointments involved a single what-prefaced question in the first turn of nutrition talk by the veterinarian (64 sequences in total). Dietary information in client responses was typically restricted to the brand name, the subtype (eg, kitten), or the brand name and subtype of a single food item. When additional diet questions were subsequently posed, they typically sought only clarification about the food item previously mentioned by the client. Results suggested that question design can influence the accuracy and completeness of a nutritional history. These findings can potentially provide important evidence-based guidance for communication training in nutritional assessment techniques.

  8. FIVE FREEDOMS OF ANIMAL WELLFARE APPLIED TO DOGS: PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF THE POPULATION FROM SINOP - MT

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Pereira; A. B. Moreira; D. F. Junior

    2017-01-01

    The term animal welfare, although is frequently used, does not have a precise definition. The scientific community is increasingly accepting that vertebrate animals indeed have consciousness and feelings, with emphasis on the genetic similarities between animal species, including humans. In order to facilitate the identification of the factors that affect and assist, respectively, the animal well being and defense, the Five Freedoms that outline animal welfare was created. This study aimed to...

  9. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  10. They See a Rat, We Seek a Cure for Diseases: The Current Status of Animal Experimentation in Medical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kehinde, Elijah O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, maligna...

  11. Practical application of non-whole animal alternatives: summary of IRAG workshop on eye irritation testing. Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlaw, J; Gupta, K; Green, S; Hill, R; Wilcox, N

    1997-01-01

    In November 1993, the Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group (IRAG) sponsored a workshop to examine the current scientific status of alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test by assessing the current practical application of methods used to predict in vivo eye irritation. Laboratories from around the world were invited to submit detailed in vitro and in vivo data in parallel according to a specific set of guidelines in a consistent format. In vitro scores were compared with individual tissue scores. Over 60 data sets from 41 laboratories were received for 29 different test methods. Methods were grouped into five categories: organotypic models, chorioallantoic membrane-based assays, cell function-based assays, cytotoxicity assays and other systems. Data submissions and correlation analyses have been used to demonstrate the application of guidelines in method evaluations. Findings are summarized and future directions are indicated. A significant outcome of the workshop was the co-operation demonstrated among representatives of industry, academia and government in sharing test data on more than 2000 chemicals, products and product formulations for evaluation by their peers. Information obtained from this workshop will add to the weight of scientific evidence and scientific consensus about in vitro test methods and will establish credibility for regulatory acceptance of non-whole animal alternatives for ocular irritation.

  12. ANIMATION CARTOGRAPHY - ONE OF PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS IN CARTOGRAPHIC SCIENCE AND PRACTICE IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS OF MAPPING THE DYNAMICS PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Lisitsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of animated cartographic products – a growing trend in modern domestic and foreign computer mapping. In [Lissitzky, Khoroshilov Kolesnikov, 2014], the authors explained this by saying that «... the abundance and availability of software tools, a wide practice of animation effects in the representation of space in a variety of computer games led to spontaneous activation of the general users to create a variety of map images combination with various animation elements». The estimation of the development of animation cartography based on materials of international cartographic conferences of the International Cartographic Association and the International Congress «Interexpo GEO-Siberia» for the period from 2006 to 2015. The results of calculation of the distribution of papers in international conferences and congresses are presented in the tables illustrated figures and conclusions. The article formulated definitions «animation mapping» and «two-dimensional animation map». Animation in a two-dimensional mapping provide an opportunity to take a fresh look at the general theory of cartographic representation and allows new interpretation of the three main components of semiotic principles.

  13. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-Egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-07-01

    To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  15. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  16. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventio...

  17. Evidence in Practice - A Pilot Study Leveraging Companion Animal and Equine Health Data from Primary Care Veterinary Clinics in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O'Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project

  18. Attitudes of Participants of Tourist Animation – Case Study: Thematic Events as A Practical Training (Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stamenković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists go to tourist resorts not only to rest, but also to learn something new, study the culture, tradition, folklore, national dishes and dances. In that sense, animation and animators represent a link between tourists and hosts. Animation can be defined as an integral part of the tourist offer, which entails enriching the offer with different contents, which provides an incentive for tourists to experience a more eventful travel. The aim of these studies was to develop a new measuring instrument that could be used in Serbia to measure festival motivators that play the key role for travels to destinations that are primarily festival in nature. The results have shown event managers that they need to initiate complex and comprehensive studies of the needs, motives, and expectations of those participating in such events

  19. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  20. Using Representations of Practice to Elicit Mathematics Teachers' Tacit Knowledge of Practice: A Comparison of Responses to Animations and Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Patricio; Kosko, Karl W.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared conversations among groups of teachers of high school geometry that had been elicited by a representation of instruction (either a video or an animation) and facilitated with an open-ended agenda. All artifacts used represented instruction scenarios that departed from what, according to prior work, had been hypothesized as…

  1. The intraportal injection model: A practical animal model for hepatic metastases and tumor cell dissemination in human colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalheimer, Andreas; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Otto, Christoph; Bueter, Marco; Illert, Bertram; Gattenlohner, Stefan; Gasser, Martin; Meyer, Detlef; Fein, Martin; Germer, Christoph T

    2009-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of metastasized colorectal carcinoma requires biologically relevant and adequate animal models that generate both reproducible metastasis and the dissemination of tumor cells in the form of so-called minimal residual disease (MRD), an expression of the systemic character of neoplastic disease. We injected immunoincompetent nude mice intraportally with different numbers (1 × 10 5 , 1 × 10 6 and 5 × 10 6 cells) of the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and SW-620 and investigated by histological studies and CK-20 RT-PCR the occurrence of hematogenous metastases and the dissemination of human tumor cells in bone marrow. Only the injection of 1 × 10 6 cells of each colon carcinoma cell line produced acceptable perioperative mortality with reproducible induction of hepatic metastases in up to 89% of all animals. The injection of 1 × 10 6 cells also generated tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow in up to 63% of animals with hepatic metastases. The present intraportal injection model in immunoincompetent nude mice represents a biologically relevant and adequate animal model for the induction of both reproducible hepatic metastasis and tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow as a sign of MRD

  2. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-03-19

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  3. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  4. Development of a practical animal model of photodynamic therapy using a high concentration of extracellular talaporfin sodium in interstitial fluid: influence of albumin animal species on myocardial cell photocytotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2017-12-01

    Photodynamic reaction-induced photocytotoxicity using talaporfin sodium is inhibited by serum proteins binding to talaporfin sodium. The serum albumin binding site for talaporfin sodium differs among animal species. To identify a practical animal therapeutic model, we studied the ability of human, canine, bovine, and porcine albumin to influence talaporfin sodium-induced photocytotoxicity in rat myocardial cells in vitro. Human, canine, bovine, and porcine serum albumins were used. The ratio of talaporfin sodium binding, which is strongly associated with photocytotoxicity, was measured by ultrafiltration with an albumin concentration of 0.5-20 mg/ml and 20 μg/ml talaporfin sodium to mimic interstitial fluid. Rat myocardial cell lethality was measured by the WST assay 2 h after samples were exposed to a radiant exposure of 20 J/cm 2 by a red diode laser (Optical Fuel™, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) with a wavelength of 663 nm. The binding ratio dependence on albumin concentration differed among the animal species. Bovine albumin exhibited the largest difference from human albumin, with a maximum difference of 31% at 2 mg/ml albumin. The cell lethality characteristic was similar between human and canine albumin. The cell lethality dependence on albumin was not in the same order as the binding ratio. Cell lethality was lowest for human albumin with higher albumin concentrations between 5 and 20 mg/ml. There were no significant differences in cell lethality between bovine and porcine albumin and between human and canine albumin. We suggest that the canine model may be a useful animal therapeutic model for evaluating photodynamic therapy using a high concentration of the photosensitizer in the extracellular space.

  5. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  6. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are common causes of human and livestock illness in Tanzania. Previous studies have shown that brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever account for a large proportion of human febrile illness in northern Tanzania, yet they are infrequently diagnosed. We conducted this study to assess awareness and knowledge regarding selected zoonoses among healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania; to determine what diagnostic and treatment protocols are utilized; and obtain insights into contextual factors contributing to the apparent under-diagnosis of zoonoses.We conducted a questionnaire about zoonoses knowledge, case reporting, and testing with 52 human health practitioners and 10 livestock health providers. Immediately following questionnaire administration, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 of these respondents, using the findings of a previous fever etiology study to prompt conversation. Sixty respondents (97% had heard of brucellosis, 26 (42% leptospirosis, and 20 (32% Q fever. Animal sector respondents reported seeing cases of animal brucellosis (4, rabies (4, and anthrax (3 in the previous 12 months. Human sector respondents reported cases of human brucellosis (15, 29%, rabies (9, 18% and anthrax (6, 12%. None reported leptospirosis or Q fever cases. Nineteen respondents were aware of a local diagnostic test for human brucellosis. Reports of tests for human leptospirosis or Q fever, or for any of the study pathogens in animals, were rare. Many respondents expressed awareness of malaria over-diagnosis and zoonoses under-diagnosis, and many identified low knowledge and testing capacity as reasons for zoonoses under-diagnosis.This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare

  7. Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Benjamin T; De Cupere, Bea; Marinova, Elena; Van Neer, Wim; Waelkens, Marc; Richards, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    An isotopic reconstruction of human dietary patterns and livestock management practices (herding, grazing, foddering, etc.) is presented here from the sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined from bone collagen extracted from humans (n = 49) and animals (n = 454) from five distinct time periods: Classical-Hellenistic (400-200 BC), Early to Middle Imperial (25 BC-300 AD), Late Imperial (300-450 AD), Early Byzantine (450-600 AD), and Middle Byzantine (800-1200 AD). The humans had protein sources that were based on C(3) plants and terrestrial animals. During the Classical-Hellenistic period, all of the domestic animals had δ(13) C and δ(15) N signatures that clustered together; evidence that the animals were herded in the same area or kept in enclosures and fed on similar foods. The diachronic analysis of the isotopic trends in the dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats highlighted subtle but distinct variations in these animals. The δ(13) C values of the dogs and cattle increased (reflecting C(4) plant consumption) during the Imperial and Byzantine periods, but the pigs and the goats displayed little change and a constant C(3) plant-based diet. The sheep had a variable δ(13) C pattern reflecting periods of greater and lesser consumption of C(4) plants in the diet. In addition, the δ(15) N values of the dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep increase substantially from the Classical-Hellenistic to the Imperial periods reflecting a possible increase in protein consumption, but the goats showed a decrease. Finally, these isotopic results are discussed in the context of zooarcheological, archeobotanical, and trace element evidence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cross-sectional survey on the use and impact of the Danish national antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Møller Sørensen, Tina; Lilja, Zenia Littau

    2017-01-01

    of the Danish Small Animal Veterinary Association in October 2015. The survey was completed by 151 veterinarians. Respondents most frequently consulted the recommendations on skin and urinary tract infections (UTI), and users generally reported a high degree of adherence to the recommendations. Sixty-five per...... prudent antimicrobial use. The diagnostic habits were examined in a subgroup of 63 guideline users. Of those, 19 and 39% reported frequent use of culture and susceptibility (C&S) testing prior to treating pyoderma and UTI respectively, whereas 68-84% reported C&S testing in the event of poor response...... in the use of third generation cephalosporins. The aim of the study was to assess if and how the guidelines have impacted diagnostic and antibiotic prescription habits of the users, and to identify user perceived barriers to implementation. Results: An online questionnaire was sent to all 882 members...

  9. Improving Patient Access by Determining Appropriate Staff Mix in the Family Practice Clinic of Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital at Fort Polk, Louisiana Using an Animated Computer Simulation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, R

    1997-01-01

    ... Practice Clinic in order to enhance patience satisfaction by increasing their access to care. This determination was made by developing, running, and analyzing a number of separate animated simulation models using MedModel Simulation Software...

  10. Sexo com animais como prática extrema no pornô bizarro* Sex with animals as an extreme practice in bizarre porn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elvira Díaz-Benítez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do segmento do mercado pornô conhecido como bizarro, a prática considerada extrema por excelência é alocada ao sexo com animais. O Brasil possui uma indústria de produção desses filmes reconhecida mundialmente. Este artigo discute o estigma dessas produções no interior da indústria pornô, traz dados etnográficos sobre a produção desse mercado, introduz uma discussão sobre legalidade, consentimento e direitos, e finalmente, trata essa temática do ponto de vista do erotismo e dos prazeres pensando o lugar do gênero e da sexualidade nessas práticas. Acredita-se que a temática é um campo vasto para pensarmos as relações humano/animal, normal/anormal, prazer/perigo, natureza/cultura.Within the bizarre porn market, the extreme practice is that of sex with animals. Brazil has a worldwide known industry producing this kind of porn. This paper discusses the stigma associated to this kind of production within the porn industry, adds ethnographic data on this market's production, introduces a discussion on the legality, consent and rights and treats the theme from the point of view of eroticism and pleasure, thinking about gender and sexuality in these practices. The question is seen as a vast field to think about dyadic relations like human/animal, normal/abnormal, pleasure/danger, nature/culture.

  11. Using informatics and the electronic medical record to describe antimicrobial use in the clinical management of diarrhea cases at 12 companion animal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Berezowski, John; Ribble, Carl S; Russell, Margaret L; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 participating companion animal practices and warehoused at the University of Calgary. We used the pre-diagnostic, clinical features of diarrhea as the case definition in this study. Using text-mining technologies, cases of diarrhea were described by each of the following variables: diagnostic laboratory tests performed, the etiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies. The ability of the text miner to accurately describe the cases for each of the variables was evaluated. It could not reliably classify cases in terms of diagnostic tests or etiological diagnosis; a manual review of a random sample of 500 diarrhea cases determined that 88/500 (17.6%) of the target cases underwent diagnostic testing of which 36/88 (40.9%) had an etiological diagnosis. Text mining, compared to a human reviewer, could accurately identify cases that had been treated with antimicrobials with high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval, 88.1%-95.4%) and specificity (85%, 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-89.1%). Overall, 7400/15,928 (46.5%) of pets presenting with diarrhea were treated with antimicrobials. Some temporal trends and patterns of the antimicrobial use are described. The results from this study suggest that informatics and the electronic medical records could be useful for monitoring trends in antimicrobial use.

  12. Using informatics and the electronic medical record to describe antimicrobial use in the clinical management of diarrhea cases at 12 companion animal practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Michele Anholt

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 participating companion animal practices and warehoused at the University of Calgary. We used the pre-diagnostic, clinical features of diarrhea as the case definition in this study. Using text-mining technologies, cases of diarrhea were described by each of the following variables: diagnostic laboratory tests performed, the etiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies. The ability of the text miner to accurately describe the cases for each of the variables was evaluated. It could not reliably classify cases in terms of diagnostic tests or etiological diagnosis; a manual review of a random sample of 500 diarrhea cases determined that 88/500 (17.6% of the target cases underwent diagnostic testing of which 36/88 (40.9% had an etiological diagnosis. Text mining, compared to a human reviewer, could accurately identify cases that had been treated with antimicrobials with high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval, 88.1%-95.4% and specificity (85%, 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-89.1%. Overall, 7400/15,928 (46.5% of pets presenting with diarrhea were treated with antimicrobials. Some temporal trends and patterns of the antimicrobial use are described. The results from this study suggest that informatics and the electronic medical records could be useful for monitoring trends in antimicrobial use.

  13. A focus group study of veterinarians' and pet owners' perceptions of veterinarian-client communication in companion animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Bonnett, Brenda N

    2008-10-01

    To compare veterinarians' and pet owners' perceptions of client expectations with respect to veterinarian-client communication and to identify related barriers and challenges to communication. Qualitative study based on focus group interviews. 6 pet owner focus groups (32 owners) and 4 veterinarian focus groups (24 companion animal veterinarians). Independent focus group sessions were conducted with standardized open-ended questions and follow-up probes. Content analysis was performed on transcripts of the focus group discussions. Five themes related to veterinarian-client communication were identified: educating clients (ie, explaining important information, providing information up front, and providing information in various forms), providing choices (ie, providing pet owners with a range of options, being respectful of owners' decisions, and working in partnership with owners), using 2-way communication (ie, using language clients understand, listening to what clients have to say, and asking the right questions), breakdowns in communication that affected the client's experience (ie, owners feeling misinformed, that they had not been given all options, and that their concerns had not been heard), and challenges veterinarians encountered when communicating with clients (ie, monetary concerns, client misinformation, involvement of > 1 client, and time limitations). Results suggested that several factors are involved in providing effective veterinarian-client communication and that breakdowns in communication can have an adverse effect on the veterinarian-client relationship.

  14. Effect of veterinarian-client-patient interactions on client adherence to dentistry and surgery recommendations in companion-animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Noureen; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Shaw, Jane R

    2012-02-15

    To explore the relationship between veterinarian-client-patient interactions and client adherence to dental and surgery recommendations and to test the a priori hypotheses that appointment-specific client satisfaction and relationship-centered care are positively associated with client adherence. Cross-sectional study. A subsample of 19 companion-animal veterinarians and 83 clients from a larger observational study consisting of 20 randomly recruited veterinarians and a convenience sample of 350 clients from eastern Ontario. Videotaped veterinarian-client-patient interactions containing a dentistry recommendation, surgery recommendation, or both were selected for inclusion from the larger sample of interactions coded with the Roter interaction analysis system. Client adherence was measured by evaluating each patient's medical record approximately 6 months after the videotaped interaction. The clarity of the recommendation, appointment-specific client-satisfaction score, and relationship-centered care score were compared between adhering and nonadhering clients. Among the 83 veterinarian-client-patient interactions, 25 (30%) clients adhered to a dentistry recommendation, surgery recommendation, or both. The odds for adherence were 7 times as great for clients who received a clear recommendation, compared with clients who received an ambiguous recommendation from their veterinarian. Moreover, adhering clients were significantly more satisfied as measured after the interview. Interactions resulting in client adherence also had higher scores for relationship-centered care than did interactions leading to nonadherence. Veterinarian use of a relationship-centered care approach, characterized as a collaborative partnership between a veterinarian and a client with provision of clear recommendations and effective communication of the rationale for the recommendations, has positive implications for client adherence.

  15. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  16. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    -pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results...... and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical...

  17. Evaluation of a welfare assessment tool to examine practices for preventing, recognizing, and managing pain at companion-animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lauren C; Dewey, Cate E; Stone, Elizabeth A; Mosley, Cornelia I; Guerin, Michele T; Niel, Lee

    2017-10-01

    Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices. Responses were analyzed according to a scoring scheme developed based on published literature and expert opinion. Based on weighted kappa statistics, interview scoring had substantial inter-observer ( K w = 0.83, 0.73) and near-perfect intra-observer ( K w = 0.92) agreement, which suggests that the tool reliably collects information about pain management practices. Interviews were completed at all recruited clinics, which indicates high feasibility for the methods. Validity could not be assessed, as participants were reluctant to share information about analgesic administration from their clinical records. Descriptive results indicated areas for which many veterinarians are acting in accordance with best practices for pain management, such as pre-emptive and post-surgical analgesia for ovariohysterectomy patients, and post-surgical care instructions. Areas that offer opportunity for enhancement were also highlighted, e.g., training veterinary staff to recognize signs of pain and duration of analgesia in ovariohysterectomy patients after discharge. Overall, based on this limited sample, most veterinarians appear to be effectively managing their patients' pain, although areas with opportunity for enhancement were also identified. Further research is needed to assess trends in a broader sample of participants.

  18. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  19. [Ethics and animal experiments.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Souza, Cláudio de

    2003-04-01

    This is a major subject since the aim is to grant human beings physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being without forgetting the sacred rights of all animals. Most international codes dealing with health-related research practices state that research developed in human beings should be based on previous lab animal experiments or on other scientific data. This article aimed at explaining ethics in animal experiments. The concepts of dissertation and thesis, experimental thesis, experimental essay or pilot experiment and experimental animal facilities are reviewed. Then, a historical retrospective is drawn about the first attempt to develop experimental research policies during the mid 19th Century, in London. It is highlighted that some criteria defined by that time still persist. The first animal research ethical committee was created in Sweden in 1979, followed by the USA in1984. In Brazil, animal research ethical committees were created as late as in the 90s. The Federal Law 6638 was passed in May 1979 and provides for the didactic-scientific practice of animal vivisection. This law, however, is still waiting for regulation. In addition, there are some drafts being analyzed by the Congress, which provide for the use of animals for teaching and research purposes. Finally, the policies adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experiments and the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights are presented. Professors, postgraduates, residents and graduate students of a Medical School involved in animal research should be aware of the ethical principles aiming at protecting animals selected for scientific work.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to brucellosis and factors affecting knowledge sharing on animal diseases: a cross-sectional survey in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothalawala, Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika Hemali Abeyratne; Makita, Kohei; Kothalawala, Hemal; Jiffry, Athambawa Mohamed; Kubota, Satoko; Kono, Hiroichi

    2018-02-01

    Farmers' lack of knowledge is assumed to have affected the presence of brucellosis in Sri Lanka for decades. This study, carried out in the Ampara district in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap for brucellosis compared to foot and mouth disease (FMD) (p < 0.001). Only 8.3% of farmers knew that brucellosis causes cattle abortions. Only 2.6% knew that it is zoonotic. The difference in knowledge of the symptoms and transmission of brucellosis and FMD was significant (p < 0.001). Farmers' attitudes and practices related to the spread of the disease were poor. Farmers' education and spoken language had a negative influence on knowledge. Young people and those with strong social relationships were efficient in knowledge sharing. It can be concluded that brucellosis knowledge, attitudes, and practices are poor; thus, there is a need for more attention in disease control policymaking. Backward farmer groups should be the focus in animal health extension programs.

  1. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    of contributions. In the produced work, I expand upon animation as a sketching approach to communicate, and explore interaction and user experience design concepts that are hard to grasp via traditional means of sketching. I propose that the sequential, temporal, material and narrative qualities of animation may...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...... be established through animation -based sketches. Thus, the scope of this project is practice-inclined, towards qualifying animation as an approach for design sketching in practice....

  2. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  3. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  4. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  5. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  6. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  9. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  10. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  11. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  12. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Vaněček; J. Jirsa

    2011-01-01

    The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  13. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  14. Medicinal Plants used for Dogs in Trinidad and Tobago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, C.; Harper, T.; Georges, K.; Bridgewater, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a

  15. Animal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Emilie; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier; Calandreau, Ludovic; Delon, Nicolas; Deputte, Bertrand; Desmoulin‐Canselier, Sonia; Dunier, Muriel; Faivre, Nathan; Giurfa, Martin; Guichet, Jean‐Luc; Lansade, Léa; Larrère, Raphaël; Mormède, Pierre; Prunet, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on current knowledge about consciousness in humans, we present a state-of-the art discussion on consciousness and related key concepts in animals. Obviously much fewer publications are available on non-human species than on humans, most of them relating to laboratory or wild animal species, and only few to livestock species. Human consciousness is by definition subjective and private. Animal consciousness is usually assessed through behavioural performance. Beha...

  16. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter

    2015-10-26

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice. Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical isolates. Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples by clinical staff and the investigator, respectively. The susceptibility results were interpreted correctly by clinical staff for 70 % of the 94 drug-strain combinations. Higher percentages of correct interpretation were observed when the results were interpreted by the investigator in both the field (76 %) and the in vitro study (94 %). The most frequent errors were false resistance to β-lactams (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephalotin) in Escherichia coli for Flexicult Vet A, and false amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in E. coli and false ampicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for Flexicult Vet B. The latter error can be prevented by categorizing staphylococcal strains growing in the oxacillin compartment as resistant to all β-lactams. Despite the

  17. Animal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed.

  18. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the ...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  19. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  20. Effects of autotomy compared to manual declawing on contests between males for females in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus: implications for fishery practice and animal welfare.

    OpenAIRE

    McCambridge, Claire; Dick, Jaimie; Elwood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In many decapod fisheries, claws are removed and the animal returned to the sea with the assumption that there is little impact on the fitness and welfare of the animal, or onthe productivity of the population. Here, the impact of claw loss, by two methods of claw removal, is examined during competition between males for access to females in thecrab, Cancer pagurus. Males induced to autotomize a claw showed little reduction in their competitive ability, however, those subject to the fishery p...

  1. Fermentation of animal manure by means of energy-rich additives: The Danish practice and Dutch perspectives. Vergisting van dierlijke mest energierijke additieven: Deense praktijk en Nederlandse perspectieven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boo, W. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en schone technologie CE, Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning Koninklijke Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau, Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Moen, A.R. (Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren in Noord-Nederland, Drachten (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    In this report Danish biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes is compared with biogas production in the Netherlands. Proposals are made for chances in Dutch energy and environmental policy by which a friendly environment is created for biogas plants. Higher energy tariffs for energy sources based on 'sustainable' technology are important, as is an efficient legal basis for the use and the amount of organic wastes on agricultural soils is needed. Also environmental policy for the use of animal manure in the Netherlands should be further developed. Due to the extensive surplus of animal manure in Holland, a problem which on such scale does not exist in Denmark, there is much unclarity about future legislation on the use and amount of animal manure. It is expected that this uncertainty will remain up to the year 2000. Therefore, in the coming years the possibilities for commercial collective biogas plants in the Netherlands are not promising, as it is promising in Denmark. It is necessary to create better conditions by the introduction of several demonstration projects for biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes. By such demonstration projects it can be monitored when and how Dutch farmers are in a position for cooperation with biogas plants. The Danish example has shown that digestion of animal manure should be based on the cooperation with the farmers. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 appendices, 38 refs.

  2. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  3. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  4. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  5. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  6. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  7. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  8. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  9. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  11. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    1 Dept.of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine 2Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria .... unnecessary suffering., Administration of poisons .... way that humans are. Vivisection/ Surgical Training And Research. Animal model use: In both the human and veterinary medical practice, there continue to be ...

  12. "To Be a Scientist Sometimes You Have to Break Down Stuff about Animals": Examining the Normative Scientific Practices of a Summer Herpetological Program for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie

    2016-01-01

    When studying informal science programs, researchers often overlook the opportunities enabled and constrained in each program and the practices reinforced for participants. In this case study, I examined the normative scientific practices reinforced in one-week-long "Herpetology" (the study of reptiles and amphibians) program for…

  13. Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  14. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images (2005) J. W. T. Mitchell writes about pictures as “vital signs”, not signs for living things, but signs as living things (Mitchell 6). With a notion from the German art historian and media theorist Hans Belting this symbolic act can be called...... “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  15. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  16. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  17. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  18. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  19. An assessment of the animal carcass disposal practices of the Virginia Department of Transportation and guidance for the selection of alternative carcass management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    More than 54,000 deer-vehicle collisions occurred in Virginia from 2007 through 2008, the fifth highest number of all U.S. states, and the number of these incidents is increasing each year. Removing animal carcasses from the road and properly disposi...

  20. Metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals - practical application in an accidental situation; Transit metabolique du radiocesium chez les animaux domestiques - application a une situation accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Vincent-Naulleau, S

    2001-07-01

    When a serious nuclear accident occurs, the radioisotopes of caesium are very worrying to public health. Because of their long environmental persistence, their diffusion and their solubility in natural environments, they are present in many foodstuffs. Numerous studies were undertaken during the atmospheric nuclear tests, but since the accident of Tchernobyl land Goiania, this research has been pursued anew. By using the experimental data,, this report takes stock of the knowledge on the metabolic transit of radiocaesium in domestic animals. The transfer of this radionuclide in the major foodstuffs of animal origin (milk, meat, eggs) is important and depends on the metabolism of the animal species, and in one species, the age, the physiologic state and the diet. Nevertheless, it is possible to restrict the radioactive contamination by adding to all animal feed, some additives. The methods for in vivo determination of the radioactive measurements in cattle, in laboratory or in real conditions, are discussed too. Finally, all these results are used to consider the short-, middle- and long-term management of an accidental situation. (authors)

  1. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  2. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  3. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  4. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such approach would produce a structured marriage of the conventional and indigenous practices for the benefit of, and acceptance by all in the tropics. Keywords: tropics, livestock production, animal health, veterinary services, indigenous knowledge, participatory research. Animal Production Research Advances Vol.

  5. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  6. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  7. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  8. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  9. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  10. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny

    2012-01-06

    Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities

  11. A survey of Tennessee veterinarian and physician attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding zoonoses prevention among animal owners with HIV infection or AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Petty, Gregory C; Erwin, Paul C; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-06-15

    To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice regarding the risk for and prevention of zoonoses in people with HIV infection or AIDS. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed Tennessee veterinarians and physicians engaged in clinical practice. A survey was mailed in January 2010 to 454 licensed veterinarians and 1,737 licensed physicians. 181 of 419 (43.20%) eligible veterinarians and 201 of 1,376 (14.61%) eligible physicians responded to the survey. A majority of both veterinarians (131/179 [73.18%]) and physicians (97/192 [50.52%]) indicated that veterinarians should always or almost always be involved in advising clients with HIV infection or AIDS. The majority of veterinarians (120/173 [69.36%]) indicated they always or almost always discussed with clients the potential risk to immune-compromised persons after diagnosing a zoonosis. A high proportion (88/94 [93.62%]) of physicians indicated they never or rarely initiated discussions about zoonoses with patients with HIV infection or AIDS. All physicians (94/94 [100%]) indicated they never or rarely contacted veterinarians for advice on zoonoses. Similarly, 174 of 180 (96.76%) veterinarians had never or rarely contacted physicians for advice on zoonoses risks. Only 25.97% of veterinarians and 33.33% of physicians were correctly able to identify zoonotic pathogens of greatest concern to people with HIV infection or AIDS. We identified several implications for veterinary medical and medical practice that may reduce zoonoses transmission risks for people with HIV infection or AIDS, including increased communication between veterinarians and physicians, increased communication between people with HIV infection or AIDS and health-care providers, increased availability of client educational materials, and increased participation in zoonoses continuing education opportunities by health-care providers.

  12. The hygiene practices of three systems of game meat production in South Africa in terms of animal class and health compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Maretha; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J; Calitz, Frikkie Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Three game meat production systems used on game ranches in South Africa are reported on. System one is applied in the game export market and conforms to the hygiene requirements of the European Union (EU). System two and three entail game meat available on the local market not subjected to any regulation. System 2 however, implemented basic meat hygiene values. Measurements of pH, temperature, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), E. coli, Salmonella and S. aureus were subjected to a 3×2 factorial analysis of variance with factors that involve 3 system compliances in 2 classes of game animals in a completely randomised design. The measured bacteriological and quality differences between the three systems do not justify EU standards application on the local market but results indicated a significant compliance×class interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  14. RESTRAINING OF WILD ANIMALS WITH CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedad Škapur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal restrainment technique is one of the most complex procedures in the veterinary practice. Restraining of wild, zoo and exotic animals is completly different from restraining of domestic animals. The restraining and anesthesia processes of the wild animals are often conducted by using a dart gun and blow pipe with the automatic syringes and gas guns, and with application of different chemical preparation/drugs. Key words: restraning, wild, zoo, exotic, animals

  15. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    , and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. The book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences. This thoroughly revised third edition......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  16. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  17. Ethology in animal quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, B J

    1986-01-01

    This contribution will be concerned with the interaction between environment, adaptability optimization and behaviour. Animal laboratory experiments demand repeated measurements under identical environmental conditions. This is a prerequisite for the conventional statistical methodology used in order to clarify causal relationships involved in various biological functions. The understanding of biological functions is a necessary fundament for knowledge to prevent illness and to achieve a palliative or specific therapy. It is reasonable to assume that the routines in the quarters are very artificial, considering an animal's normal living conditions. The experimental situation as well as animal maintenance involves a process of adaptation. Adaptability depends on type of animal, degree of domestification etc. However, even with respect to choice of suitable species, strain and genetic manipulation, the process of adaptation becomes an important variable for ethical and practical points of view. The more emphasis on constancy, the more do we run the risk of increasing the span between normal and laboratory conditions and subsequently increase the factor and problem of adaptation. This vicious circle should be broken rather by finding optimal conditions than by a middle course determined by experimental requirements, economical frames and general notions about what may be good for the animal. Optimization must involve an understanding of how the experiment and the way of maintenance of the animal in the animal quarters influence adaptability. This understanding requires a systematic exploring of what physio-chemical and psychological factors are of importance. We will probably never be able to control the variability in the degree of adaptation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  19. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-12

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  20. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone, Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid, Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin, Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  2. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  3. 21 CFR 211.173 - Laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory animals. 211.173 Section 211.173 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Laboratory Controls § 211.173 Laboratory animals. Animals used in testing components, in-process materials, or drug products for compliance...

  4. Animals, Humans and Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Tedeschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses animal studies from the point of view of sociability as an “inter-subjective field of action” and as an agent and builder of society (“doing society”. In sociology, the zoological connection has availed of the theory of borders and critical realism, but, above all, of constructionism, in its interactionist and ethno-methodological sense and both focused on social micro-interaction. The construction of the identity of social actors (both human and animal is especially evident in interaction regarding play, games, sport, daily life and work. In these spheres, analyses shed light on ambivalent and contradictory human experiences that clash with the dominant culture, while highlighting practical resistance against speciesism, which it is well worth to bring to the attention of future research, using open, mixed methodologies.

  5. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  7. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  8. Use of cultivated plants and non-plant remedies for human and animal home-medication in Liubań district, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Hrynevich, Yanina; Prakofjewa, Julia; Valodzina, Tatsiana; Vasilyeva, Iryna; Paciupa, Jury; Shrubok, Aliaksandra; Hlushko, Aliaksei; Knureva, Yana; Litvinava, Yulia; Vyskvarka, Siarhei; Silivonchyk, Hanna; Paulava, Alena; Kõiva, Mare; Kalle, Raivo

    2017-10-03

    To use any domestic remedy, specific knowledge and skills are required. Simple logic dictates that the use of wild plants in the context of limited interaction with nature requires prior identification, while in the case of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants this step can be omitted. This paper aims to document the current and past uses of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants in the study region for human/animal medication; to analyze the human medicinal and veterinary use areas in the context of the remedy groups; to qualitatively compare the results with relevant historical publications; and to compare the intensity and purpose of use between the remedy groups. During field studies 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted with locals from 11 villages in the Liubań district of Belarus. Currently used home-remedies as well as those used in the past were documented by employing the folk history method. The subject was approached through health-related uses, not by way of remedies. Interview records were digitalized and structured in Detailed Use Records in order to ascertain local perceptions. An Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) was calculated for remedy groups as well as for different use categories. In the human medication area the use of nearby remedies was neither very diverse nor numerous: 266 DUR for 45 taxa belonging to 27 families were recorded for cultivated plants along with 188 DUR for 58 different non-plant remedies. The FIC values for both remedy groups were lower than for wild plants. In the ethnoveterinary medicine use area there were 48 DUR referring to the use of 14 cultivated plant taxa from 12 families and 72 DUR referring to the use of 31 non-plant remedies. The FIC value for the whole veterinary use area of cultivated plants was relatively low, yet similar to the FIC of wild plants. Differences between remedy groups were pronounced, indicating that in domestic human medicine cultivated plants and non-plant remedies are either

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  12. Gaps in US Animal Welfare Law for Laboratory Animals: Perspectives From an Animal Law Attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Pamela D

    2016-05-01

    The use of animals in biomedical, toxicological, and basic research has been common practice, and a tool for scientists and researchers, for many years. And yet, serious conflict continues to exist between those who believe that the use of animals in research will yield scientific results that benefit humans and those who believe such practices are unethical regardless of use or outcome. High-profile undercover cases have further raised public awareness and have put the entire industry under pressure to be transparent, accountable, and aggressive in its adoption of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3R) principles. Many animal law attorneys are deeply frustrated by what they see as weak US laws that are unevenly enforced, especially when compared with legal advances in other countries and regions. This article (1) explores those gaps in US animal welfare laws with an emphasis on the Animal Welfare Act, (2) argues in favor of stronger laws and rigorous enforcement, and (3) suggests steps to advance these goals. These steps include (1) expanding the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), (2) improving and expanding minimum care requirements in USDA regulations, (3) instituting mandatory reporting requirements, improving Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and allowing easier accessibility to laboratory reports and plans, (4) adding a citizen suit provision to the AWA, and (5) continuing education about the emotional and social capacities of animals and a stronger commitment to 3R principles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  14. Long distance animal transport: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Klaas Johan

    2008-01-01

    Too often, the issue of animal welfare during transport is the subject of emotional debates. For farmers within the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, it is important that the economic, scientific and practical aspects be taken into account when setting international rules for animal welfare. Farmers also stress the need to combine scientific data with their practical experience. Raising awareness, adopting a risk-based approach, education, labelling, slaughterhouse capacity and animal health, as well as standards and rules, are issues of importance for developing a long distance transportation infrastructure respectful of animal welfare around the world.

  15. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level...

  16. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  17. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  18. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current fe...

  19. Panorama brasileiro do Programa de Boas Práticas de Laboratório. Impacto na redução do uso de animais | Brazilian Good Laboratory Practices Perspective. Impact on reduction in animal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rosa dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Boas Práticas de Laboratório, sistema da qualidade que abrange o processo organizacional e as condições nas quais estudos não clínicos são realizados, visa garantir a uniformidade, consistência, confiabilidade, reprodutibilidade, qualidade e integridade dos testes. O Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis introduziu formalmente a Boas Práticas de Laboratório em 1994. Em 1995, o INMETRO iniciou o Programa BPL para reconhecimento e monitoramento baseados em procedimentos, normas, regulamentos administrativos e legais, que estabelecem orientações, políticas e diretrizes para a Coordenação Geral de Acreditação atuar, com total responsabilidade e autoridade, como Autoridade Brasileira de Monitoramento aos princípios das BPL. Estudos BPL são reconhecidos pelos países membros e não membros com adesão plena, aos atos da Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico em função do acordo de mútua aceitação de dados e promove redução do número de animais utilizados devido a não repetição dos testes e adoção de métodos alternativos validados. No Brasil, há 31 instalações BPL ativas e cinco realizam testes toxicológicos in vivo. A Resolução Normativa no 17/2014 do Conselho Nacional de Controle da Experimentação Animal estabelece que os testes utilizando animais que tenham métodos alternativos validados reconhecidos pelo Conselho sejam substituídos em até cinco anos, sendo essencial a ampliação da base laboratorial BPL. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Good Laboratory Practice (GLP, a quality system covering the organizational process and the conditions under which non-clinical studies are conducted, aims to ensure uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality, and integrity of the safety tests. The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources formally introduced GLP

  20. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants products are part of the natural products that have been in use in traditional medicine and also a source of novel drugs. Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. Abstract The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  10. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  11. Pig slaughtering in southwestern Nigeria: peculiarities, animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig slaughtering in southwestern Nigeria: peculiarities, animal welfare concerns and public health implications. ... pig slaughtering methods in the three locations vary considerably with some identified areas of animal welfare concerns which include inhumane transportation , restraining, lairaging, and stunning practices.s.

  12. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  13. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  14. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  15. Training veterinary students in animal behavior to preserve the human-animal bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barbara L; Serpell, James A

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animal behavior is an extremely important component of modern veterinary practice. Appreciation of species-typical behavior helps to ensure that veterinary patients are handled safely and humanely, and plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of health and welfare problems in animals, including the recognition of pain and distress. Veterinary students who acquire a good understanding of animal behavior will be better clinicians and will be best able to promote and repair the "human-animal bond," that important connection between people and their pets. Animal behavior problems can negatively impact this critical relationship, leading to abandonment, re-homing, relinquishment to an animal shelter, and sometimes premature euthanasia of the animal. Therefore, identifying, preventing, and treating behavior problems is important in maintaining the human-animal bond. Education in animal behavior should be an essential part of the veterinary curriculum; a board-certified veterinary behaviorist should be an integral member of the veterinary college faculty.

  16. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  17. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  20. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  1. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  2. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  5. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  6. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  7. Objecthood, Agency and Mutualism in Valenced Farm Animal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ian G. Colditz

    2018-01-01

    Genetic selection of farm animals for productivity, and intensification of farming practices have yielded substantial improvements in efficiency; however, the capacity of animals to cope with environmental challenges has diminished. Understanding how the animal and environment interact is central to efforts to improve the health, fitness, and welfare of animals through breeding and management strategies. The review examines aspects of the environment that are sensed by the animal. The predict...

  8. Mainstreaming animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Lori S; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Niemi, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The term animal-assisted therapy (AAT) commonly refers to the presentation of an animal to one or more persons for the purpose of providing a beneficial impact on human health or well-being. AAT is an ideal example of "One Health" because of numerous studies and widespread testimonials indicating that many humans feel better in the presence of pets and other domesticated animals, and, conversely, that some of those creatures appear to respond positively to human company for their emotional and perhaps physical betterment. Many AAT studies have claimed a wide range of human health benefits, but much of the research is characterized by small-scale interventions among disparate fields, resulting in criticisms about weak study design or inconsistent methodology. Such criticisms contrast with the strongly held belief among many that interaction with friendly animals has a strong and innate value for the persons involved. Consequently the appeal of AAT in human medicine today may be generally characterized as a "push" by enthusiastic advocates rather than a "pull" by prescribing physicians. To fully integrate AAT into conventional medical practice as an accepted therapeutic modality, more convincing intervention studies are necessary to confirm its clinical merits, along with an understanding of the underlying mechanism of the human response to the company of friendly animals.

  9. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  14. Why doctors should care about animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Animal cruelty is a significant problem for society, and there are good reasons why doctors should be particularly concerned by it. Increasing evidence for links between animal cruelty and child or spousal abuse is an area of growing concern internationally and of real importance to health professionals. This article aims to raise awareness of the relevance of animal cruelty to medical practice. The links between animal cruelty and human health are discussed broadly and some wider ethical issues raised. Animal cruelty impacts on human health in disparate ways: intentional and unintentional acts of cruelty may reflect underlying mental health problems that need to be addressed. Cruelty within the family setting is an important sentinel for domestic violence and should prompt an assessment for possible child abuse. Furthermore, animal cruelty raises important questions about the nature of empathy, and the type of society that we wish to live in.

  15. An Argument for Animalism

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The view that we are human animals, "animalism", is deeply unpopular. This\\ud paper explains what that claim says and why it is so contentious. It then\\ud argues that those who deny it face an awkward choice. They must either\\ud deny that there are any human animals, deny that human animals can think,\\ud or deny that we are the thinking things located where we are.

  16. Animal Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; F. Bailey Norwood

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights some key areas where economics can contribute to the current debate about animal welfare. Production economics reveals that producers will not maximize animal welfare, even if animal well-being is highly correlated with output. Welfare economics raises thorny issues about the double-counting of benefits when humans exhibit altruism towards animals, while public economics uncovers potential market failures and possible solutions. Consumer economics provides a means of d...

  17. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  19. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  20. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  1. Animals in nuclear research: where ethics and expediency meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, P.J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has a direct involvement in nuclear medicine, microbiological and environmental studies which utilise animals in the research work. The opposition to experiments on animals is briefly discussed. The Australia codes of practice for the care and use of animals for experimental purposes are outlined

  2. Adolescents'"Anime"-inspired "Fanfictions": An Exploration of Multiliteracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Mahar, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Explores "fanfiction" (fiction written by fans of mass culture, such as "anime," Japanese animation) as a valid literacy practice in the context of the Multiliteracies framework. Strives to understand youth culture better and to make school literacy instruction more responsive to learners' needs. Discusses "Anime" as…

  3. A preliminary survey of animal handling and cultural slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey aimed to mainly establish and document the animal slaughter practices among Kenyan communities, and, to also highlight any current provisions related to meeting modern animal welfare requirements, animal handling procedures in the meat trade and discuss their potential influence on meat quality available ...

  4. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  5. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, A.N.; Ott, T.; Tricarico, J.; Rotz, A.; Waghorn, G.; Adesogan, A.T.; Dijkstra, J.; Montes, F.; Oh, J.; Kebreab, E.; Oosting, S.J.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Firkins, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data on animal management practices that mitigate enteric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Increasing animal productivity can be a very effective strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of

  6. Animal care practices in experiments on biological rhythms and sleep: report of the Joint Task Force of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms and the Sleep Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Eric L; Kilduff, Thomas S; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Szymusiak, Ronald; Toth, Linda A; Turek, Fred W

    2013-07-01

    Many physiological and molecular processes are strongly rhythmic and profoundly influenced by sleep. The continuing effort of biological, medical, and veterinary science to understand the temporal organization of cellular, physiological, behavioral and cognitive function holds great promise for the improvement of the welfare of animals and human beings. As a result, attending veterinarians and IACUC are often charged with the responsibility of evaluating experiments on such rhythms or the effects of sleep (or its deprivation) in vertebrate animals. To produce interpretable data, animals used in such research must often be maintained in carefully controlled (often constant) conditions with minimal disruption. The lighting environment must be strictly controlled, frequent changes of cages and bedding are undesirable, and daily visual checks are often not possible. Thus deviations from the standard housing procedures specified in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals are often necessary. This report reviews requirements for experiments on biological rhythms and sleep and discusses how scientific considerations can be reconciled with the recommendations of the Guide.

  7. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  8. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (cha...

  9. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  10. God, Christ and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, David

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant contributions to the field in recent times, David Clough's work On Animals: Volume 1, Systematic Theology, should ensure that theologies of creation, redemption, and eschatological fulfillment give proper attention to animals. In a landmark study, he draws upon resources in Scripture and tradition to present a systematic theology that is alert to the place of animals in the divine economy. Amidst his relentless criticism of all forms of anthropocentrism, however, i...

  11. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  12. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  13. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  14. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  15. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law no. 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law no. 11.794. The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to 1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law no. 11.794 regarding the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty) days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.

  16. Animal identification: links to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, D J; Thaler, A M

    2001-08-01

    Improvements in food safety in the United States of America are currently limited by the lack of an open, reliable and uniform animal identification system. Public health would benefit from the development of such a system because this would permit accountability for an prevention of food safety hazards, including residues and harmful pathogens. In addition, the public would benefit because data collection and long-term research studies are currently hampered by the lack of animal identification. Understanding of the ecology of food-borne pathogens in the production and handling period before slaughter needs to be improved. Animal identification will permit packers and consumers to reward producers for using food safety-related production practices. Food animal producers do not regularly receive an economic advantage for voluntarily undertaking food safety-related production practices. As a result, the original source of many food animals that enter official establishments is unknown. However, the hazard analysis and critical control point system allows some producers to offer identified animals under verified production control programmes or to enter into agreements with packers with regard to the food safety status of animals.

  17. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    This contribution will discuss the phenomenon of the so-called Japanese Cat Girls who practice the behavior of cats as a contradiction to Disney's cartoon where animals have a human character. From Disney cartoons we experience how animals are being humanized and are representing human character...... with props that appear to satisfy the owner's need instead of the needs of animal itself and make the animal look like a cartoon character. Pictures of animals represent a large variation of representation forms and genres where Disney represents an example of a cartoon culture of humanized animals...

  18. Archives: Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: Animal Research International. Journal Home > Archives: Animal Research International. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of 40 ...

  19. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  20. Inuit-Style Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  1. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  2. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  3. Control of pet animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, T F

    1976-06-26

    Pet animals play an important and valuable role in human society, but irresponsible ownership has created problems of surplus animals, threats to health, pollution, nuisance, cruelty and neglect. Urgent and drastic action is required to deal with the situation, and the measures proposed include the appointment of dog wardens, limitation of numbers, enclosure and leash laws, and subsidised spay clinics.

  4. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches are ...

  5. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  6. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  7. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...

  8. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  9. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  10. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  11. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  12. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  13. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  14. Constructing nonhuman animal emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2017-10-01

    Scientists and lay-people alike have long been fascinated with the emotional lives of nonhuman animals. To date, scientific approaches to the study of 'animal' emotion have assumed that emotions are biologically evolutionarily conserved, hardwired and have discrete behavioral and physiological outputs. According to this view, emotions and their outputs are homologous across species, allowing humans to accurately perceive (or 'read') animal emotion using our own concepts of what emotions are. In this paper, I discuss the challenges to that perspective and propose using an alternative theoretical approach to understand animal emotion. Adopting this alternative approach, which represents a collection of similar theories (referred to as 'Theories of Constructed Emotion'), changes the questions that we ask about animal emotion, how we study emotion across phylogeny and advance translational science, and how we understand the evolution of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Market practices in global networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard

    in the pork industry and how these practices can reshape the market with a view to improving marketing activities and increasing sales of pork produced to better welfare standards than mandated by regulators. We also draw on the literatures on inter-organisational interaction and business networks.......The purpose of the paper is to explore the role market practices (can) play in relation to improving animal welfare. Specifically, we look at market practices in relation to pork. Recent changes in European animal welfare standards for sows have narrowed the differences in animal welfare between...... conventionally produced pork and production forms with a greater emphasis on animal welfare. Using the market practice approach proposed by (Kjellberg and Helgesson, 2007), we explore how the conditions for animal welfare are shaped by the representational, normalizing and exchange practices of various actors...

  16. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  17. How animals follow the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J; Smolka, Jochen; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2018-01-31

    Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to use the stars as a source of directional information, the strategies that these animals use to convert this complex and variable pattern of dim-light points into a reliable 'stellar orientation' cue have been more difficult to ascertain. In this review, we assess the stars as a visual stimulus that conveys directional information, and compare the bodies of evidence available for the different stellar orientation strategies proposed to date. In this context, we also introduce new technologies that may aid in the study of stellar orientation, and suggest how field experiments may be used to characterize the mechanisms underlying stellar orientation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Animal Autobiography; Or, Narration beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In engaging with acts of self-narration that cross species lines, creators of animal autobiographies also broach questions about genre, truth status, and the structure as well as the politics of narrative representation. To address these questions, the present article draws not just on scholarship on (animal autobiography but also on ideas from the fields of linguistic semantics, politeness theory, and discourse analysis, including the “framing and footing” approach that focuses on talk emerging in contexts of face-to-face interaction and that derives most directly from the work of Erving Goffman. On the basis of this research, and using case studies that range from animal riddles to Ceridwen Dovey’s Only the Animals (2014, a collection of life stories posthumously narrated by a variety of nonhuman tellers, I profile autobiographical acts that reach beyond the human as ways of speaking for or in behalf of animal others. Some animal autobiographies correlate with acts of telling for which humans themselves remain the principals as well as authors; their animal animators remain relegated to the role of commenting on human institutions, values, practices, and artifacts. Other examples, however, can be read as co-authored acts of narrating in behalf of equally hybrid (or “humanimal” principals. These experiments with narration beyond the human afford solidarity-building projections of other creatures’ ways of being-in-the-world—projections that enable a reassessment, in turn, of forms of human being.

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  20. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  1. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  2. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  3. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... study about the practices of a study administration unit in a university college in Denmark. The study includes ten weeks of participation observation study and five qualitative interviews, both in the central part and in three local study administrations. Managerial initiated organizational change...... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice...

  5. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  6. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  7. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  8. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  9. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  10. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  12. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) for Approved Products Steroid Hormone Implants Used for Growth in Food-Producing Animals Veterinary Medication Errors Veterinary Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ( ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  14. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  16. Enzymes in animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2011-01-01

    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  17. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  19. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  20. Animal production systems in the industrialised world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

    2006-08-01

    The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed.

  1. Blended learning in the small animal clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    -lab (one day) and Step 4: live animal surgery (four days). The implementation of the Surgical Skills Lab as an introduction to training on real animals (cadavers and research pigs) seems to be a valuable, practical, economical and safe educational tool that is highly appreciated by students. Since...... the implementation of these new teaching methods (e-learning and Skills Lab), teachers have ascertained a more satisfactory level of preparation, students that seem more focused and live-animal surgery that is conducted at a more ‘professional’ level than before. Finally, our research in this field shows......At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Basic Surgical Skills are taught in groups of 30-35 students in the first year of the master program (4th year students). The eight day course is an example of ‘blended learning’ in which students use our e-learning-material (Step 1) to prepare...

  2. [Thoughts on the concept of animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouthier, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The human species, granting rights to abstract entities such as businesses, can easily grant such rights to animals, provided that they are clearly defined in relation to human rights. If it is accepted that laws and regulations already afford protection to animals, it may then be said that we already have "animal rights". Such "rights" are thus seen as the opposite of duties and constraints for animal welfare as imposed on humans by humans through laws. Such rights or restrictions should then be extended. From a philosophical point of view, a subtle definition of these rights will lead to the development of a practical and gradual moral stance, granting human rights their rightful position.

  3. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  4. Introductory animal science-based instruction influences attitudes on animal agriculture issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, E A; Combs, D K; Cook, M E

    2014-02-01

    The demographics of incoming university animal science majors have shifted from students with a farm background to urban students with no history of direct livestock contact. Research completed before the Internet was a central source of information indicated that incoming urban students tend to express no opinion or a neutral opinion regarding livestock agriculture issues. Due to the changing background of incoming students enrolled in introductory university-level animal science classes, we sought to determine 1) if livestock background (self-identified as raised in a farm or urban setting), sex, or animal science career interest influenced the opinions of incoming students regarding critical issues involving livestock farming practices and 2) if 15 wk of introductory animal science instruction changed student opinions. A total of 224 students were given 2 identical anonymous surveys (start and end of 15 wk) with 5 demographic questions and 9 animal issue statements. For each statement, students marked their opinion by placing a vertical line on a continuous 130 mm horizontal line, where a vertical line placed at 0 mm = strongly agree and 130 mm = strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by ANOVA to determine any significant effects of instruction, background, sex, and future career preference on survey responses. Before instruction, urban students were less agreeable than farm students that animal farming was moral and humane and that farmers are concerned about animal welfare and livestock are of value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Urban students were more likely than farm students to purchase organic foods or food based on environmental/welfare standards (P ≤ 0.05). Introductory animal science instruction resulted in students becoming more agreeable that animal farming was humane, farmers are concerned about animal welfare, and animal agriculture is a value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Postinstruction, students were more likely to buy food products based on price (P

  5. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2018-01-01

    From Disney cartoons we experience animals being humanized and representing a human character to a degree in which it becomes difficult to see them as animals. This is just one example of how animals are attributed with a human character. The impetus for this contribution, however, is a discussion...... of another cartoon culture of humanized animals: Japanese Manga. Here the animals are not only represented in a humanized way, but Manga culture goes one step further, engaging in the remediation of the cartoon animal to people depicting animals. Female Japanese dress like cats and act like cats....... They are called Catgirls. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical...

  6. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  7. The human-companion animal bond: how humans benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Erika; Son, Heesook

    2009-03-01

    The human-animal bond is extremely important to most clients of small animal veterinary practices. Pet ownership, or just being in the presence of a companion animal, is associated with health benefits, including improvements in mental, social, and physiologic health status. This article provides the research data regarding the human health benefits of companion animals, animal-assisted therapy, animal-assisted activities, and assistance animals; reviews measures that can be taken to enable safe pet ownership for the immunocompromised, and discusses the veterinarian's role in supporting immune-compromised clients and clients who have assistance animals. Client education and enhanced veterinary care can reduce the risk from zoonotic diseases, even for the immunocompromised.

  8. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  10. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  11. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  12. Animals, images, anthropocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Creed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropocentrism is central to the nature of discourse across all disciplines, from science to philosophy and the arts. We argue that anthropocentrism has become particularly marked in modernity despite the avowal by some theorists that modernity signified a radical break with traditional approaches. A powerful strategy, invoked by such discourses, and designed to cement the anthropocentric perspective, is that of contradiction. Media theorists and scholars working in the broader field of (human animal studies have begun to unravel and demystify such discourses, questioning the nature of these contradictory perspectives and the anthropocentric point of view at work in visual texts. This is particularly evident in the current work of contemporary theorists who are researching the representation of animals in media texts. For it is the figure of the animal, as represented in visual discourses, from film to photography and new media, that offers a powerful challenge to the dominant anthropocentric worldview.

  13. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  14. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  15. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  16. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  17. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  18. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    in non-ideal scenarios, we show that generally the estimation of models of this type is both feasible and ecologically informative. We illustrate the approach using real movement data from 11 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Results indicate a directional bias towards a group centroid for reindeer......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...

  19. God, animals and zombies

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Argumentos neo-cartesianos recientes intentan reducir los animales a zombis filosóficos, seres sin estados de conciencia fenoménica. Si tales argumentos fuesen correctos, los animales verdaderamente no sufrirían, y, por tanto, no existiría el problema de Dios y el sufrimiento animal. En mi opinión, la afirmación de que los animales son zombis no es suficientemente plausible para proporcionar una teodicea adecuada acerca del problema de Dios y el dolor animal.

  20. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  1. Spotlight on acupuncture in laboratory animal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magden ER

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth R Magden Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, TX, USA Abstract: Acupuncture has been practiced for thousands of years, although it is only in the past century that science has worked to unravel the mechanisms behind its use. Literature supporting the efficacious use of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions has been and continues to be published, including the randomized controlled studies we all appreciate when practicing evidence-based medicine. The use of acupuncture in veterinary medicine has paralleled the trends observed in people, with an increasingly common use to remedy specific medical conditions. These conditions are commonly related to neurological dysfunction or orthopedic pain. Although pain relief is the most common use of acupuncture, numerous other conditions have been shown to improve with this therapy. Laboratory animals are also benefiting from acupuncture. Its use is starting to be incorporated into research settings, although there is still further progress to be made in this field. Acupuncture has been shown to improve clinical conditions and quality of life in laboratory animals, and should be considered as a tool to treat laboratory animals with conditions known to benefit from therapy. Here we review the history, mechanisms of action, and use of acupuncture to treat veterinary patients and laboratory animals. Keywords: acupuncture, laboratory animals, nonhuman primates

  2. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  3. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  4. Veterinary Teaching Hospital to launch small animal outpatient imaging service

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in June 2009, the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech's Veterinary Teaching Hospital will introduce a new outpatient advanced imaging service for surrounding small animal veterinarian practices.

  5. Technical note - Considerations for MR imaging of small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Martin A., E-mail: m.a.baker@liv.ac.u [Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Routine clinical veterinary use of MR scanning is becoming more common. This article addresses the major technical considerations for radiographers performing MR examinations on small animals and provides practical advice for scanning techniques.

  6. 78 FR 19986 - New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin; Tilmicosin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... address, and at 21 CFR 558.618 to clarify the dosage of tilmicosin phosphate in medicated feeds for beef... environment. List of Subjects 21 CFR Part 510 Administrative practice and procedure, Animal drugs, Labeling...

  7. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  8. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  9. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Hope for Animals. Prasanna Venkhatesh V. Book Review Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 753-754. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/08/0753-0754. Author Affiliations.

  10. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a

  11. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a

  12. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  13. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  14. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It discusses how captive breed- ing programs are trying hard to reintroduce the species in the wild so that they will be back to their rightful homes. It also brings out various problems associated with each of the programs and how smart and dedicated people eventually overcome these problems. Captive-bred animals are ...

  15. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer Statistics Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool allows users to animate cancer trends over time by cancer site and cause of death, race, and sex. Provides access to incidence, mortality, and survival. Select the type of statistic, variables, format, and then extract the statistics in a delimited format for further analyses.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Animals Come Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks-Patnaude, Trina

    2004-01-01

    In teaching drawing and painting, the author encourages students' creative spirits. She also encourages creative writing to accompany their artwork. Colorful language in their written work and personal response to an artwork makes a complete, meaningful lesson. In this mixed-media exploration, using animals as a theme, third-grade artists explored…

  19. An animated virtual drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragtwijk, M.; Giagourta, V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Strintzis, M.G.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  20. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mission is to advance the health of animals. November 16, 2017 Prions – Zombies of the Infectious Disease World In the closing days of 1984, when veterinarian David Bee was called out to look at a sick cow on a farm in Sussex, England, little did he realize that ...

  1. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Hope for Animals. Prasanna Venkhatesh V. Book Review Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 753-754. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/08/0753-0754. Author Affiliations.

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS the animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after being shot the animals were measured and weighed and stomach samples were preserved in either 10 per cent formalin or. 70 per cent alcohol; skulls were also kept for age determinations (Zumpt 1969). In the laboratory the volume of the entire contents of the stomach was measured and the contents ...

  4. Animal models of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, the animal models that have been used for this purpose have often yielded misleading findings. It is likely that there are multiple reasons for the discrepancies between the results obtained in tests of pharmacological agents in animal models of sepsis and the outcomes of human clinical trials. One of important reason may be that the changes in gene expression, which are triggered by trauma or infection, are different in mice, a commonly used species for preclinical testing, and humans. Additionally, many species, including mice and baboons, are remarkably resistant to the toxic effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, whereas humans are exquisitely sensitive. New approaches toward the use of animals for sepsis research are being investigated. But, at present, results from preclinical studies of new therapeutic agents for sepsis must be viewed with a degree of skepticism.

  5. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    capture your attention immediately with its spectacular shining golden hair and a leonine mane. It is disheartening to know that it is still one of the endangered new world primates. 'Hope for Animals' is about the efforts made by several people to conserve such species under the threat of extinction – ranging from the carrion ...

  6. ANIMAL MODELS FOR IMMUNOTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater susceptibility to infection is a hallmark of compromised immune function in humans and animals, and is often considered the benchmark against which the predictive value of immune function tests are compared. This focus of this paper is resistance to infection with the pa...

  7. Bereavement and Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Avery D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a bereavement counseling program at a humane society and reports findings that confirm parallels between human and animal bonding and bereavements. The act of consenting to euthanasia was particularly disturbing. Most of the bereaved owners reported depths of feeling that were unique and in most cases beyond those experienced in other…

  8. Antibiotic alternatives: the substitution of antibiotics in animal husbandry?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Dai, Menghong; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-01-01

    It is a common practice for decades to use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics in food-animal feeds to prevent animals from diseases and to improve production performance in modern animal husbandry. In the meantime, concerns over the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the unreasonable use of antibiotics and an appearance of less novelty antibiotics have prompted efforts to develop so-called alternatives to antibiotics. Whether or not the alternatives could really ...

  9. Animal Health Management perspectives of rural livestock farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of a typical community based rural livestock production system in South-west Nigeria was undertaken using participatory epizootiology (PE) to understand local preferences for animal health management practices and observe if there is any justification or place for community based animal health workers ...

  10. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  11. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  12. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  13. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  14. What about animals dealing with working dogs, pets and other animals during terrorism incidents and disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifried, G.

    2009-01-01

    It is highly likely that K9 teams (patrol, search and rescue, and cadaver) will be exposed to hazardous materials as a result of an act of CBRN terrorism, and thus require decontamination. Service animals and pets which have been exposed to toxic agents and materials will also need to be decontaminated, along with their owners. Emergency evacuation and sheltering plans need to consider how service animals, pets and livestock will be handled. The United States has recently made significant changes to focus in this regard, to the extent that caring for animals must now be addressed in disaster preparedness planning. In this paper we describe lessons learned from work done by the Massachusetts Urban Search and Rescue Team (USAR), and the response to hurricane Katrina, concerning the handling and decontamination of animals following major incidents. We discuss: how the new Federal and state mandates have changed evacuation and sheltering concepts; cooperation among government entities, veterinarians, animal facilities, humane societies, animal rescue organizations and animal owners; and describe some practical considerations and solutions to sheltering and mass decontamination of animals along with their humans.(author)

  15. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  16. Bioenergetics of aquatic animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas, A

    1996-01-01

    .... Bioenergetics can provide answers to the problems of aquaculture in marine and fresh water - practical solutions are thus supplied to the management of farmed and wild fish stocks, for example...

  17. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  18. Possible consequences of the Nagoya Protocol for animal breeding and the worldwide exchange of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martyniuk, E.; Berger, B.; Bojkovski, D.; Bouchel, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Marguerat, C.; Matlova, V.; Sæther, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses animal genetic resources in the context of the Nagoya Protocol, providing an overview of the distinctive features and practices in this sector of genetic resources. It presents how animal genetic resources are utilized, who are the users and providers, and what are the trends in

  19. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  20. Animal intelligence as encephalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerison, H J

    1985-02-13

    There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The most precise quantitative analyses have been of relative brain size, or structural encephalization, undertaken to find biological correlates of mind in animals. Encephalization and its evolution are remarkably orderly, and if the idea of intelligence were unknown it would have to be invented to explain encephalization. The scientific question is: what behaviour or dimensions of behaviour evolved when encephalization evolved? The answer: the relatively unusual behaviours that require increased neural information processing capacity, beyond that attributable to differences among species in body size. In this perspective, the different behaviours that depend on augmented processing capacity in different species are evidence of different intelligences (in the plural) that have evolved.

  1. Animal models of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lories, Rik J U

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review new insights into spondyloarthritis obtained in animal models during the last year. HLA-B27 misfolding has been demonstrated in HLA-B27/human beta2-microglobulin transgenic rats. HLA-B27 misfolding is associated with a typical unfolded protein stress response and with an interferon-response signature. Prebiotic treatment of these rats reduced colitis and arthritis. Proteoglycan-induced spondylitis is distinct from proteoglycan-induced arthritis. Specific susceptibility loci for proteoglycan-induced spondylitis have been demonstrated. Bone morphogenetic proteins are important in new cartilage and bone formation in ankylosing enthesitis. Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis-like disease develops in conditional double JunB/c-Jun knockout mice. Insights into the molecular signaling pathways driving HLA-B27 associated spondylitis, autoimmune spondylitis, ankylosing enthesitis and psoriasis, resulting from animal models, identify new and specific therapeutic targets in spondyloarthritis.

  2. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  3. Nanotechnology and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N R

    2005-04-01

    Nanotechnology, as a new enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionise agriculture and food systems in the United States of America and throughout the world. Examples of potential applications of nanotechnology in the science and engineering of agriculture and food systems include disease treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular biology, the security of agricultural and food systems, new materials for pathogen detection, and protection of the environment. Existing research has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animal systems to seek out and destroy targeted cells. Nanoparticles smaller than one micron have been used to deliver drugs and genes into cells. Thus, some building blocks do exist in isolation and are expected to be integrated into systems over the next 10 to 15 years. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will revolutionise animal health and medicine.

  4. Do all animals sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jerome M

    2008-04-01

    Some animals never exhibit a state that meets the behavioral definition of sleep. Others suspend or greatly reduce 'sleep' behavior for many weeks during the postpartum period or during seasonal migrations without any consequent 'sleep debt.' Rats die from one form of sleep deprivation, but sleep loss has not been shown to cause death in well-controlled studies in other vertebrate species. Some marine mammal species do not show evidence for REM sleep, and convincing evidence for this state in reptiles, fish and insects is lacking. The enormous variation in the nature of rest and sleep states across the animal kingdom and within the mammalian class has important implications for understanding the evolution and functions of sleep.

  5. Animal Models of Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachida A. Bouhenni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of disorders that progressively lead to blindness due to loss of retinal ganglion cells and damage to the optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Although research in the field of glaucoma is substantial, the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing the disease are not completely understood. A wide variety of animal models have been used to study glaucoma. These include monkeys, dogs, cats, rodents, and several other species. Although these models have provided valuable information about the disease, there is still no ideal model for studying glaucoma due to its complexity. In this paper we present a summary of most of the animal models that have been developed and used for the study of the different types of glaucoma, the strengths and limitations associated with each species use, and some potential criteria to develop a suitable model.

  6. Report on Animal Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Chrenek, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The importance of creation of clones is exhibited in attempts to conserve and reproduce genetically valuable animals (meaning of reproductive cloning) and to produce embryonic stem cells (meaning of therapeutic cloning). Further possibility of application of genetically identical individuals is their use in experiments for the study of environmental influences (nutrition, ethology). Other perspective usage of clones can be creation of genetically modified individuals (transgenesis) and in fie...

  7. Animal models of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Mitchell P

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, ...

  8. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies....... Conclusions highlight transformation as relevant for learning to reflect on media and the implications for teaching, given the increasing influence of visual modes of communication....

  9. Symposium on Housing and Diseases of Rabbits, furbearing animals and pet animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Jong, de I.C.; Greef, de K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Welfare Quality® project protocols have been developed to assess animal welfare on-farm in an objective, science based and practically applicable way. For various species like broilers and laying hens, sows and growing pigs, dairy cattle and veal calves, welfare assessment protocols have

  10. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  11. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  12. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  13. Learning by playing, animating words and images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    . The persisting vision). We are aware of the resistance that alternative learning tools suffer from the most traditional school systems, as Sir Ken Robinson claims; we need to change the old teachings paradigms. At the Animated Learning Lab, together, with some of the newest results from other schools......? Visual narrative is a "language" as valid as writing or speaking. Sometimes, a more valuable tool when there's an impediment to use verbal communication. Animation is a feeling and visual thinking media which allows us to "translate" words into images, sentences into stories and scripts into movies...... and institutions, are already promoting and practicing animation as a learning tool. We want to expose and share its effectiveness, which helps to shape creative, emotional and thoughtful minds. Some of the newest studies in the European Community, such as, EMEDEUS, European Media Literacy Education, Pilot study...

  14. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests".

  15. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  16. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  17. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  18. The human-animal bond with laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa R

    2009-04-01

    In the author's experience, a bond--whether intentional or not--is often established between humans and animal research subjects. Behavioral theorists suggest that human-animal relationships can take several different forms. The author discusses several occasions in which she perceived one type of relationship with a research animal and was later surprised when the animal's behavior suggested that the bond was actually of a different nature. In the author's opinion, laboratory staff should be aware of the potential of bonding and should work to ensure that the desired human-animal relationships are developed. This may enhance the well-being of animals and staff and improve research efficacy.

  19. Adverse impact of industrial animal agriculture on the health and welfare of farmed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joyce

    2006-03-01

    Industrial animal agriculture is grounded in the concept of maximizing productivity and profit. Selective breeding for maximum productivity in one characteristic of the animal (e.g. milk yield in cows, or breast meat in broiler chickens) has resulted in genotypes and phenotypes that may predispose the animals to poor health and welfare. The conditions in which these individuals are kept may also frustrate many inherited behaviors that they are strongly motivated to perform. In order to curb the resulting harmful aberrant behaviors, such as feather-pecking in chickens, we sometimes resort to mutilating the animals. In many places chickens are routinely de-beaked by means of a hot metal guillotine. Compassion in World Farming (an international organization that promotes the humane treatment of farm animals) believes that it is unethical to treat sentient beings in such ways. We have a duty to respect farm animals' sentience by providing them with housing conditions that take their needs and wants into account, and by reverting to the use of dual-purpose, slower-growing breeds that have the potential for good welfare. Alternatives to current farming practices are available, and we owe it to the animals, and to our consciences, to pursue them.

  20. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2018-01-01

    From Disney cartoons we experience animals being humanized and representing a human character to a degree in which it becomes difficult to see them as animals. This is just one example of how animals are attributed with a human character. The impetus for this contribution, however, is a discussion....... They are called Catgirls. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical...

  1. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  3. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Gugten, van der, A.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Th...

  4. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  5. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  6. Large animal models for stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John; Roberts, R Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-03-28

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for novel animal models to expand the range of current studies, most of which have been conducted in rodents. Extant models are providing important information but have limitations for a variety of disease categories and can have different size and physiology relative to humans. These differences can preclude the ability to reproduce the results of animal-based preclinical studies in human trials. Larger animal species, such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep, goats, and non-human primates, are better predictors of responses in humans than are rodents, but in each case it will be necessary to choose the best model for a specific application. There is a wide spectrum of potential stem cell-based products that can be used for regenerative medicine, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic stem cells, and differentiated cellular progeny. The state of knowledge and availability of these cells from large animals vary among species. In most cases, significant effort is required for establishing and characterizing cell lines, comparing behavior to human analogs, and testing potential applications. Stem cell-based therapies present significant safety challenges, which cannot be addressed by traditional procedures and require the development of new protocols and test systems, for which the rigorous use of larger animal species more closely resembling human behavior will be required. In this article, we discuss the current status and challenges of and several major directions

  7. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Małecki

    Full Text Available Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912 read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  8. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  9. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  10. Assessment of antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manishimwe, Rosine; Nishimwe, Kizito; Ojok, Lonzy

    2017-08-01

    The irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals is highly related to the emergence and increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. A cross-sectional survey aimed at evaluating the current level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda was carried out countrywide. Interviews were conducted on 229 farmers rearing different types of animals. The study has revealed that almost all respondent farmers could name at least one antibiotic used in farm animals and peni-streptomycin was named by most of them (95.6%). The use of antibiotics in farm animals was observed in the majority of respondents (97.4%). It was found that 44.4 and 26.5% of respondents reported that they used antibiotics for disease prevention and growth promotion, respectively. The use of non-prescribed antibiotics in animals was also reported by more than the half of respondent farmers (55.6%). The majority of farmers had a moderate level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals (73.5%), very few had a high level (26%) and only one respondent had a low level. The high level of practices in regard to antibiotic use in animals was associated with the location of the farm, the type of reared animals, and the rearing system. The results of this study give an insight into antibiotics usage practices in farm animals in Rwanda. The generated information can guide sensitizations and promotions of the prudent use of antibiotics among farmers in order to limit the increase of antibiotic resistance in the country.

  11. A Brave New Animal for a Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of “laboratory animal science” and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision—for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology. PMID:20575490

  12. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2016-03-01

    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys. 2016 FRAME.

  13. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Godfrey S.; Reardon, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to manipulation of the atherogenic process and modeling human atherosclerosis or lipoprotein profile. Useful large animal models include pigs, rabbits and non-human primates. Due in large part to the relative ease of genetic manipulation and the relatively short time frame for the development of atherosclerosis, murine models are currently the most extensively used. While not all aspects of murine atherosclerosis are identical to humans, studies using murine models have suggested potential biological processes and interactions that underlie this process. As it becomes clear that different factors may influence different stages of lesion development, the use of mouse models with the ability to turn on or delete proteins or cells in tissue specific and temporal manner will be very valuable. PMID:22383700

  14. Animal Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication highlight the diversity of both the mechanisms utilized and the structural and functional organization of the proteins at mtDNA replication fork, despite the simplicity of the animal mtDNA genome. DNA polymerase γ, mtDNA helicase and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein- the key replisome proteins, have evolved distinct structural features and biochemical properties. These appear to be correlated with mtDNA genomic features in different metazoan taxa and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantial integrative research is warranted to establish firmly these links. To date, several modes of mtDNA replication have been described for animals: rolling circle, theta, strand-displacement, and RITOLS/bootlace. Resolution of a continuing controversy relevant to mtDNA replication in mammals/vertebrates will have a direct impact on the mechanistic interpretation of mtDNA-related human diseases. Here we review these subjects, integrating earlier and recent data to provide a perspective on the major challenges for future research. PMID:27241933

  15. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  16. Opposing views on animal experimentation: do animals have rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1997-01-01

    Animals have moral standing; that is, they have properties (including the ability to feel pain) that qualify them for the protections of morality. It follows from this that humans have moral obligations toward animals, and because rights are logically correlative to obligations, animals have rights.

  17. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  18. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  19. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites occur in the United States each year. Dogs cause most animal bites. Other biting animals include ... elbow or in the armpit Fever Tiredness Night sweats Shakes If these develop, you should seek emergency ...

  20. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    ...; and reports on specific issues of humane care and use of laboratory animals. ILAR's mission is to help improve the availability, quality, care, and humane and scientifically valid use of laboratory animals...

  1. Cognitive ability and sentience: which aquatic animals should be protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M

    2007-05-04

    It is of scientific and practical interest to consider the levels of cognitive ability in animals, which animals are sentient, which animals have feelings such as pain and which animals should be protected. A sentient being is one that has some ability to evaluate the actions of others in relation to itself and third parties, to remember some of its own actions and their consequences, to assess risk, to have some feelings and to have some degree of awareness. These abilities can be taken into account when evaluating welfare. There is evidence from some species of fish, cephalopods and decapod crustaceans of substantial perceptual ability, pain and adrenal systems, emotional responses, long- and short-term memory, complex cognition, individual differences, deception, tool use, and social learning. The case for protecting these animals would appear to be substantial. A range of causes of poor welfare in farmed aquatic animals is summarised.

  2. Development of FAME Animation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Shirai, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Hideto; Itakura, Hirofumi; Tahata, Yasunori

    1999-02-01

    In order to monitor an animation of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculated by the FAME-II (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium-II) system, a FAME Animation System was developed. This system provides automatically the animation on workstations connected to network with the same period of JT-60U discharge sequence. Then, the system can supply the important information for JT-60U operators to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the overview of the FAME Animation System. (author)

  3. Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in making this planet a better place to live. In the past, researchers have explored behavior of several animals separately. But there is scope to explore in the direction where various artificial animals together solve the optimization problem. In this paper, Satish Gajawada proposed The AnimalPlanet Optimization. The concept of this paper is to imitate all the animals on this planet. The idea is to solve the optimization problem where al...

  4. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  5. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  6. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    , there was a positive link between moral intensity/moral imperative associated with an issue and people’s stated wtp for policy to address the issue. The paper discusses the relevance of the findings of the survey in the context of the debate concerning the relationship between moral and economic values and the use......An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...... issues were chosen for comparison and the contingent valuation method was used to elicit people’s wtp. The findings of the survey suggest that increases in moral characteristics do appear to result in an increase in moral intensity and the degree of moral imperative associated with an issue. Moreover...

  7. Killing animals for recreation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Hunters in the Western world today do not need to hunt to obtain food and other animal products. So why do they hunt? This paper examines the motives of hunters, the motives ascribed to hunters by members of the general public, and the role motives play for the moral acceptability of hunting among...... members of the general public. It draws on a nationally representative survey of the general public (n = 1,001) and hunters (n = 1,130) in Denmark. People with a negative attitude to hunting are more likely to take motives into account when they consider the acceptability of hunting. Three clusters...... of motives defining distinctive hunting motivational orientations were identified: action/harvest, management/care, and natural and social encounters. The general public ascribed action/harvest motives to hunters more than hunters did. In a policy perspective, if hunters’ motives are misperceived, improved...

  8. Animal continuities. Arguments against human/non-human animal dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ignacio Vernal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is still a deep need to differentiate the members of the species Homo sapiens from the individuals belonging to the rest of the animal kingdom. As a consequence of this need arises the dichotomy human/non-human animal based on artificial and groundless differences that leads to actions always harmful to the non-human animals. In this work we want to show, on the one hand, that many of the characteristics proposed as specifically human are shared by at least some non-human animal species, and on the other hand, that specifically human characteristics do exist, but from this fact does not follow that we should draw a sharp line between human and non-human animals. We reject the speciesist and segregationist perspective that establishes that only human beings possess a singular position in nature. Every animal species has its own characteristics and, therefore, there would be no place for a human exception, but there would be as many exceptions as animal species exist in the nature. Instead of the abyss established between human animals and non-human animals, we defend the perspective of the animal continuum, which allows recognizing the characteristics that we share with other animal species and, therefore, promotes the end of the speciesism.

  9. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  10. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  11. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Society for Animal Production was inaugurated in March 1973 during the First International Symposium on Animal Production in the Tropics at the University of Ibadan, lbadan, Nigeria. This society is responsible for the publication of the Nigerian Journal of Animal Production (NJAP) which commenced ...

  12. Collective dimensions in animal ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, B.; Verweij, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its emphasis on experiential interests, animal ethics tends to focus on individuals as the sole unit of moral concern. Many issues in animal ethics can be fruitfully analysed in terms of obligations towards individual animals, but some problems require reflection about collective dimensions

  13. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  14. Communication in Animal Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Animal social networks and animal communication networks are key disciplines for understanding animal social behavior, yet these disciplines remain poorly integrated. In this review, we show how communication and social networks are inherently linked, with social signals reflecting and affecting

  15. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  16. The Tree of Animal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  17. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  18. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official publication of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) that is published twice a year in two issues. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various farm and laboratory animals covering diverse areas such as ...

  19. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia in accordance with accepted veterinary practice. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents,Where waivers are required in relation to the provisions of article V, the decisions should not rest solely with the investigators directly concerned but should be made, with due regard to the provisions of articles IV, and V, by a suitably constituted review body. Such waivers should not be made solely for the purposes of teaching or demonstration,At the end of, or, when appropriate, during an experiment, animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain, distress, discomfort, or disablement that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed,The best possible living conditions should be maintained for animals kept for biomedical purposes. Normally the care of animals should be under the supervision of veterinarians having experience in laboratory animal science. In any case, veterinary care should be available as required,It is the responsibility of the director of an institute or department using animals to ensure that investigators and personnel have appropriate qualifications or experience for conducting procedures on animals. Adequate opportunities shall be provided for in-service training, including the proper and humane concern for the animals under their care. Also see Draft CIOMS Guiding Principles 2011 to be used by the international scientific community to guide the responsible use of vertebrate animals in scientific and/or educational activities[4].Go to:Alternatives for animal in biomedical researchThere remain many areas in biomedical research which, at least for the foreseeable future, will require animal experimentation. An intact live animal is more than the sum of the responses of isolated cells, tissues or organs; there are complex interactions in the whole animal that cannot be

  20. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  1. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Senior Laboratory Animal Technician will be responsible for: Daily tasks associated with the care, breeding and treatment of research animals for experimental purposes Management of rodent breeding colonies consisting of multiple, genetically complex strains and associated record keeping and database management Colony management procedures including: tail clipping, animal identification, weaning Data entry consistent with complex colony management Collection of routine diagnostic samples Coordinating shipment of live animals and specimens Performing rodent experimental procedures including basic necropsy and blood collection Observation and recording of physical signs of animal health Knowledge of safe working practices using chemical carcinogen and biological hazards Work schedule may include weekend and holiday hours This position is in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  2. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. Key Roles/Responsibilities The Senior Laboratory Animal Technician will be responsible for: Daily tasks associated with the care, breeding and treatment of research animals for experimental purposes Management of rodent breeding colonies consisting of multiple, genetically complex strains and associated record keeping and database management Colony management procedures including: tail clipping, animal identification, weaning Data entry consistent with complex colony management Collection of routine diagnostic samples Coordinating shipment of live animals and specimens Performing rodent experimental procedures including basic necropsy and blood collection Observation and recording of physical signs of animal health Knowledge of safe working practices using chemical carcinogen and biological hazards Work schedule may include weekend and holiday hours

  3. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  4. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  5. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  6. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  7. [The 1, 2, 3 of laboratory animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Batista-Castro, Zenia; De Lucca, Marisel; Ruano, Ana; García-Barceló, María; Rivera-Cervantes, Marta; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Sánchez-Mateos, Soledad

    2016-06-01

    The slow scientific development in Latin America in recent decades has delayed the incorporation of laboratory animal experimentation; however, this situation has started to change. Today, extraordinary scientific progress is evident, which has promoted the introduction and increased use of laboratory animals as an important tool for the advancement of biomedical sciences. In the aftermath of this boom, the need to provide the scientific community with training and guidance in all aspects related to animal experimentation has arisen. It is the responsibility of each country to regulate this practice, for both bioethical and legal reasons, to ensure consideration of the animals' rights and welfare. The following manuscript is the result of papers presented at the International Workshop on Laboratory Animal Testing held at the Technical University of Ambato, Ecuador; it contains information regarding the current state of affairs in laboratory animal testing and emphasizes critical aspects such as main species used, ethical and legal principles, and experimental and alternative designs for animal use. These works aim to ensure good practices that should define scientific work. This document will be relevant to both researchers who aim to newly incorporate animal testing into their research and those who seek to update their knowledge.

  8. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  9. The spread of zoonoses and other infectious diseases through the international trade of animals and animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos M. Seimenis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For trade purposes, ever increasing quantities of food animals and animal products that are transported more rapidly than ever before are contributing to the spread of zoonoses and are creating threats on a permanent basis. Most countries in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East are increasing imports of food animals and meat and products of animal origin. They can become potential sources of zoonotic and other infectious diseases if controls are not performed under the most effective conditions. Developing countries with their organisational weakness are particularly vulnerable to fraudulent international trade practices of animals and animal products. To prevent such risks, the World Trade Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and their member countries support the measures stipulated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement which targets the liberalisation of trade in animals and animal products under specific conditions while protecting public health and national economies. Vigilance must be exercised and appropriate inspection made at points of entry by veterinary and other authorities to ensure the strict implementation of international and national regulations. National legislation, appropriate infra-structures and the respect of international regulations can become barriers to avoid animal trade, contributing to the spread of zoonotic and other infectious diseases.

  10. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer).

  11. Dr. Fluffy: An In-Depth Look at Animal-Assisted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grado, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is a fairly new practice whose underlying principles date back to the beginning of time. Man has always found companionship in animals, but now researchers, educators and therapists are finding that by drawing on that comfort, children and adults can attack physical, mental and emotional issues. The use of animals in…

  12. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  13. Animal welfare and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  14. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  15. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  16. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The ability of supply chains to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of actors in the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) consumers actually buying animal-friendly products. Unless citizens are willing to support suppliers who comply with high(er) standards, their votes for better animal welfare risk exporting poor animal welfare to other countries with less rigorous standards. The logic of market failure in the case of animal welfare points to the superiority of consumer subsidies over producer subsidies to deliver improved animal welfare. Abstract Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis. PMID:26479533

  17. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation s...

  18. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Marguerite Elizabeth O'haire; Noémie Adeline Guérin; Noémie Adeline Guérin; Alison Claire Kirkham

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military vete...

  19. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to m...

  20. Where are the food animal veterinarian shortage areas anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-05-01

    In 2010 the United States implemented the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) to address perceived regional shortages in certain veterinary occupations, including food animal practice. With county as the unit of analysis, this paper describes a pair of models to evaluate factors associated with being designated a private practice shortage area in 2010. One model is used to explain food animal veterinarian location choices so as to provide an objective evaluation of comparative shortage. The other model seeks to explain the counties chosen as shortage areas. Model results are then used to evaluate the program. On the whole the program appears to perform quite well. For several states, however, VMLRP shortage designations are inconsistent with the food animal veterinarian location model. Comparative shortage is generally more severe in states that have no VMLRP designated private practice shortage counties than in states that do. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.