In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... and experiences. Meat producers are interested in the stress animals endure because it affects meat quality. Pigs that arrive at slaughterhouses are more sensitive than usual for several reasons. In some cases, pigs are transported for long distances. Not all animals are used to transportation. Upon their arrival......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...
Koolhaas, J.M.; Reenen, van C.G.
This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in fe
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care... SYSTEM § 9.6 Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the... chimpanzees can be trained through positive reinforcement to cooperate with a variety of veterinary...
Kendall, Holli A.; Lobao, Linda M.; Sharp, Jeff S.
While sociologists and the public at large are increasingly interested in the life conditions of animals, conceptual and empirical development of the topic is limited. This paper seeks to further develop the sociological research on attitudes toward animal well-being. We build on insights from contemporary stratification theory to explain the…
Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C
Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.
Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna
This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…
Laura Elizabeth Pinto
Full Text Available This paper draws on Martha Nussbaum’s account of the nature of human well-being to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum equates well-being with human flourishing, and argues that people live well when engaged in essential functions that are particular capabilities, each a necessary but insufficient contributor to well-being. One of these capabilities is the ability to “to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment.” Yet, this condition of well-being remains largely unexplored among in education. In recent years, the benefits of human-animal interaction in education settings has been researched and discussed in the social sciences, particularly the use of dogs to aid reluctant readers in literacy development, and the use of therapy dogs in universities during final examination blocks. This paper presents findings of one particular research project of the effects of a unique, Canadian school-based cooperative education program, “Under One Woof,” in which students work with animals. Based on interviews, students’ own stories of the impact of animal interaction – particularly in light of other challenges they faced academically and socially – appear to support other empirical accounts of positive effects of animals in education settings, and offer insight into the nature and effects of human-animal interaction as an element of well-being.
Meer, Miriam van der
Transgenic animals play an important role in biomedical research. Their use as animal model is still increasing. Although the process of transgenesis may contribute to refinement of animal use, the application of the biotechnological procedures that are involved in the production of transgenic anima
Pérez García, Liumar
Full Text Available ResumenIndependientemente del trabajo de educación ambiental que se realiza en el país, en los últimos tiempos, en una parte de los sectores más jóvenes de la población, se ha despertado el interés por las peleas de perros y de gallos, entre otras prácticas que afectan el bienestar animal.SummaryIndependently of the work of environmental education that is carried out in the country, in the past few years, in a part of the sectors of the younger population's, has raised up the interest for the fights of dogs and of roosters, among other practices that affect the animal well-being.
Blatný, M. (Marek); Šolcová, I. (Iva)
The chapter first discusses two essential theoretical concepts of well-being: subjective well-being and psychological well-being. Then the main findings on the links between well-being and socio-demographic variables are summarized. The main focus of the chapter is on the analysis of the links between personality and well-being. In agreement with the present views on personality domains, the relationships between well-being and personality traits, characteristic adaptations and personal narra...
... Cancer Nutrition Information (AICR) Emotional Well-Being Patient Empowerment Support Get Answers To Your Questions Meet Patients ... with kidney cancer, you may wish to seek professional assistance. These services may be covered by your ...
Canaday, D C; Salak-Johnson, J L; Visconti, A M; Wang, X; Bhalerao, K; Knox, R V
The effects of room temperature and light intensity before breeding and into early gestation were evaluated on the reproductive performance and well-being of gilts housed individually in crates. In eight replicates, estrus was synchronized in mature gilts (n = 198) and after last feeding of Matrix were randomly assigned to a room temperature of 15°C (COLD), 21°C (NEUTRAL), or 30°C (HOT) and a light intensity of 11 (DIM) or 433 (BRIGHT) lx. Estrous detection was performed daily and gilts inseminated twice. Blood samples were collected before and after breeding for determination of immune measures and cortisol concentrations. Gilt ADFI, BW, and body temperature were measured. On d 30 postbreeding, gilts were slaughtered to recover reproductive tracts to evaluate pregnancy and litter characteristics. There were no temperature × light intensity interactions for any response variable. Reproductive measures of follicle development, expression of estrus, ovulation rate, pregnancy rate (83.2%), litter size (14.3 ± 0.5), and fetal measures were not affected by temperature or lighting (P > 0.10). Gilts in COLD (37.6°C) had a lower (P 0.10) of light or interaction with temperature on other immune cells or measures. These results indicate that temperatures in the range of 15 to 30°C or light intensity at 11 to 433 lx do not impact reproduction during the follicular phase and into early gestation for mature gilts housed in gestation crates. However, room temperature does impact physiological, behavioral, and immune responses of mature gilts and should be considered as a potential factor that may influence gilt well-being during the first 30 d postbreeding.
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...... and their findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the Dutch version of the W-BQ. METHODS: A cross-validation design was used. A total of 1472 people with diabetes completed the W-BQ and were randomly assigned to group A or B. In group A (N = 736), exploratory factor...
Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck - Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck
Maikel Díaz Gutierrez
Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojados en tecnología Flat Deck se realiza el trabajo Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck. Para ello se utilizaron 24 bóxer de maternidad de tecnología Flat Deck, de estos 12 de origen chino y 12 de origen español con características similares. Se analizaron un total de 1433 crías mestizas (cruce de hembras Yorkland entre la tercera y cuarta paridad con machos CC-21, L-35 y Duroc. De estas, 715 corresponden a la tecnología de origen chino y 718 a la tecnología de origen español, alojadas aproximadamente a 10 crías por bóxer. Se tuvo en cuenta el tamaño de la camada al nacer (TCN y peso al nacer (PN, peso al destete(PD y ganancia media diaria (GMD; además de los indicadores de salud(enfermos y muertes por tecnología. En los indicadores evaluadosinicialmente que no son influenciados por las tecnologías no sepresentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05. En los indicadores productivos por tecnología no se encontraron diferencia estadísticamente significativa, encontrándose las medias del peso al destete entre 7.08 y 7.15 y una ganancia media diaria de 219.11 y 221.09 respectivamente. No siendo así para los indicadores de salud, quien fue desfavorable para la tecnología de origen chino donde se presentaron 27 animales enfermos por encima de los enfermos en la tecnología de origen español.SummaryWith the objective of evaluating productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck he/she is carried out the work Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck. For they were used it 24 boxers of technology maternity Flat Deck, of these 12 of Chinese origin and 12 of Spanish origin with characteristic similar. They were analyzed a total of 1433
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck - Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck
Maikel Díaz Gutierrez; Yunier Hernández Cruz
ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojados en tecnología Flat Deck se realiza el trabajo Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck. Para ello se utilizaron 24 bóxer de maternidad de tecnología Flat Deck, de estos 12 de origen chino y 12 de origen español con características similares. Se analizaron un total de 1433 crías mestizas (cruce de hembras Yorkland entre la ...
What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…
Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…
Russell, Joyce E. A.
Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…
Lee, S.; Fenge, Lee-Ann
The meaning of sexual well-being for physically disabled people is a little researched area of social work practice. The traditionally hidden nature of sexuality and sexual well-being in disability research means that practitioners have little evidence based guidance to help offer inclusive person-centred care. Because sexual well-being is a sensitive topic, and one which professionals can feel uncomfortable discussing, the absence of guidance reinforces the barriers to its inclusion in pract...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....
Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich
We tested the relation between residential mobility and well-being in a sample of 7,108 American adults who were followed for 10 years. The more residential moves participants had experienced as children, the lower the levels of well-being as adults. As predicted, however, the negative association between the number of residential moves and well-being was observed among introverts but not among extraverts. We further demonstrated that the negative association between residential mobility and well-being among introverts was explained by the relative lack of close social relationships. Finally, we found that introverts who had moved frequently as children were more likely to have died during the 10-year follow-up. Among extraverts, childhood residential mobility was unrelated to their mortality risk as adults. These findings indicate that residential moves can be a risk factor for introverts and that extraversion can be an interpersonal resource for social relationships and well-being in mobile societies.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the different dimensions of well-being (namely, work engagement, job satisfaction, and psychological stress and possible predictors such as personality and perceived organizational support. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with a sample of 490 ambulance personnel in the United Kingdom. Significant correlations were found between the dimensions of job satisfaction, engagement, and stress. The results also supported a hierarchical model with job satisfaction, stress, and engagement loading onto one higher order factor of work well-being. Emotional stability and perceived organizational support were identified as significant predictors of well-being. The findings suggest the importance of measuring the work-related well-being of ambulance personnel holistically and present perceived organizational support as a possible area for interventions to improve well-being.
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...
Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.
Chico Librán, Eliseo
This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.
This thesis examines work and well-being in relationship to teamwork in two organisations employing professionals; one organising work in Japanese style teams and one with self-managing work teams. It offers a critique of current research on employee well-being in teams and outlines some ways forward for filling in the gaps in existing research. Using two case studies, the working conditions may be in teamwork organisations are investigated. Second, the moderating effects of teamwork on t...
according to which it originates in the idea that philosophers take well-being to be a single and general concept, and argue instead that it is likely to be the result of the different theoretical constraints under which philosophy and empirical science respectively operate. Finally, I show...... that communication can be strengthened by developing the empirical articulations of philosophical theories of well-being, and sketch how to do just that....
Indicators for Well -Being Assessment- Oxford Poverty Development Initiative (Sammans, 2007) – Satisfaction with Life (Diener, Emmons, & Griffin, 1985...Physical, mental, and social health-related quality of life – Well -being/ satisfaction – Participation in common activities Health-Related Quality...either of two sets of subjective or psychological attributes: – life satisfaction , higher positive/lower negative affect, by self-assessment (the
Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E
Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.
Leondari, Angeliki; Gialamas, Vasilios
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being in a sample of Greek Orthodox Christians. Previous research has documented that personal devotion, participation in religious activities, and religious salience are positively associated with different criteria of psychological well-being. The sample (83 men and 280 women) with an age range from 18 to 48 years, was strongly skewed with respect to sex (77% female) and education level (95% were university students or university graduates). Religiosity was operationalized as church attendance, frequency of prayer and belief salience. In addition, a single item referring to beliefs about God was used. Depression, anxiety, loneliness, and general life satisfaction were selected as dependent variables because they reflect important dimensions of psychological well-being. Preliminary analyses showed that sex was significantly related to the three religiosity variables (church attendance, frequency of prayer, belief salience), with women being more religious than men. Consistent with previous research, correlations suggested that church attendance and belief salience were associated with better life satisfaction. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant positive association between anxiety and frequency of personal prayer. Finally, personal beliefs about God did not seem to relate to any of the psychological well-being measures. The results of the present study partially support the hypothesized association between religiosity and psychological well-being.
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán
with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...
Moberg, David O.; And Others
This paper on Spiritual Well-Being provides information for leaders concerned with the problems of older people. The first four sections of the paper discuss: the need for religious organizations and society to develop and promote services and programs that will contribute to the spiritual needs of the elderly; goals proposed by previous groups…
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.
Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…
King, Ronnel B.
Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
Brandts, Jordi; Rivas, María Fernanda
Abstract The existence of punishment opportunities has been shown to cause efficiency in some public goods experiments to increase considerably. In this paper we ask whether punishment also has a downside in terms of process dissatisfaction. We conduct an experiment to study the conjecture that an environment with strong punishment possibilities may lead to higher material payoffs but lower subjective well-being, in comparison with weaker punishment or no punishment possibilities a...
Satya R. Chakravarty; Mukherjee, Diganta
A measure of improvement in well-being aggregates increments in the attainment levels of different quality-of-life attributes. This paper first characterizes the entire family of additive improvement indices, where additivity requires that the overall index can be expressed as the arithmetic average of attribute-wise indices. Then we suggest a general family of nonadditive improvement indices, of which the Tsui (1996) index becomes a particular case. Both additive and nonadditive measures are...
Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta
Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.
This investigation studies human well-being from a subjective well-being approach. On the basis of a Mexican database the investigation shows that there is a weak relationship between subjective well-being and indicators of well-being such as income and consumption. Therefore, subjective well-being provides additional useful information to study human well-being and, in consequence, poverty. Three reasons for the existence of a weak relationship are studied: First, the fact that a person is m...
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...
Soini, Tiina; Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne
Teachers' learning and occupational well-being is crucial in attaining educational goals both in the classroom and at the school community level. In this article teachers' occupational well-being that is constructed in teaching-learning processes within the school community is referred to as pedagogical well-being. The article focuses on exploring…
Durkin, John; Joseph, Stephen
Studies have shown that posttraumatic growth is associated with greater well-being. However, it is not clear whether posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being (SWB) or psychological well-being (PWB). Whereas SWB is derived from the hedonistic tradition, PWB is derived from the eudaimonic tradition. In a sample of 125 college…
Recently, Gomez and Fisher (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) proposed that four facets of spiritual well-being exist, namely, personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental spiritual well-being. Based on data from three independent studies, the present research effort tested the validity of a German version of (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ-G). It was found that the SWBQ-G was factorially valid and that each of the four SWBQ-G scales was discriminant to mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Also, it was found that the SWBQ-G predicted levels of subsequent happiness, psychological well-being (positive relationship), and stress (negative relationship). These results add to our knowledge about the validity of the construct of spiritual well-being.
Most conventionally used subjective well-being scales do not include any measurement of sexual well-being, despite the fact most available research and theories indicate that sexuality is to be considered an important and integral part of human well-being. In this paper we propose a five-item subjective well-being scale, including sexual well-being. A representative pilot survey in Belgium (n=2,080) indicates that item non-response on the sexual item remains limited. The new scale is strongly...
... scientific reasons set forth in the research proposal. The basis of the exemption shall be documented in the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environment enhancement to promote psychological well-being. 3.81 Section 3.81 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...
Bruggen, Alida Christina van
Improvement of well-being is a central objective in most policy making and individual behaviour. The pursuit of well-being is so common that it is almost trivial. What well-being is however, and how subjective well-being is affected by objective conditions, are by no means trivial questions. In this
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161961.html Can a Community's 'Well-Being' Help You Live Longer? Study found ... News) -- The level of "well-being" in a community -- including people's emotional health and life satisfaction -- may ...
Ridner, S. Lee; Newton, Karen S.; Staten, Ruth R.; Crawford, Timothy N.; Hall, Lynne A.
Objectives: Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this…
Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin
Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…
Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri
This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?
Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe
Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to evaluat
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...
Koch, Anette Boye
study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development......Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...
Konu, Anne; Rimpelä, Matti
Health and well-being have mostly been separated from other aspects of school life. Health services and health education have been available for school-aged children in Western societies for a long time. Recently, more comprehensive school health programmes have been developed, e.g. the WHO 'health promoting school' and 'coordinated school health programme' in the USA. They focus on how to implement health promotion and health education in school. However, a theoretically grounded model based on the sociological concept of well-being is needed for planning and evaluation of school development programmes. The School Well-being Model is based on Allardt's sociological theory of welfare and assesses well-being as an entity in school setting. Well-being is connected with teaching and education, and with learning and achievements. Indicators of well-being are divided into four categories: school conditions (having), social relationships (loving), means for self-fulfilment (being) and health status. 'Means for self-fulfilment' encompasses possibilities for each pupil to study according to his/her own resources and capabilities. 'Health status' is seen through pupils' symptoms, diseases and illnesses. Each well-being category contains several aspects of pupils' life in school. The model takes into account the important impact of pupils' homes and the surrounding community. Compared with others, The School Well-being Model's main differences are the use of the well-being concept, the definition of health and the subcategory means for self-fulfilment. Making the outline of the well-being concept facilitates the development of theoretically grounded subjective and objective well-being indicators.
Cotten, Shelia R.
This chapter reviews technology use patterns and the social impacts of technology on well-being among college students. It provides empirical evidence delineating the processes through which Internet use affects well-being among college students, and provides suggestions for ways to advance future studies in this area and for higher education…
Olesen, Martin Hammershøj
Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....
Conclusion: By identifying the factors that contribute to a nurse's occupational well-being, the nursing management is better able to address the nurse's needs to maintain a positive well-being. This in turn will decrease the burnout and increase retention of experienced nurses, which will raise the quality of patient care.
Weiss, Laura Anne
In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit
Weiss, Laura Anne
In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit
Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.
This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current st
Juniper, Bridget; Bellamy, Pat; White, Nicola
This study aimed to develop and pilot a questionnaire to determine the ways in which working in a UK public library system can impact the well-being of those deployed in the sector. The methodological framework was based on an approach used to evaluate the well-being of patients in a clinical setting. Based on the responses of 466 employees, the…
Zielinski, David S.
Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…
Pellenbarg, Piet H.; Van Steen, Paul J. M.
Both scientists and politicians increasingly emphasise the importance of well-being as an indicator for economic performance, next to purely financial indicators such as national income and product accounts. There is an ongoing discussion about the most appropriate indicators to measure well-being.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Ryhänen, Eva; Tossavainen, Kerttu
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present well-being, leadership, and the development of each from a communal perspective in a Finnish primary school in the years 2000-2009. Design/methodology/approach: The study included five sets of data. The quantitative research data were collected from the school staff using the Well-Being at Your Work…
Morrison, Ann Judith; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Knoche, Hendrik Ole
the responsive vibroacoustic environment and the vibrotactile vest. We found compelling evidence to support further exploration into vibrotactile and vibroacoustic solutions for improving health and well-being. Conclusions: The work demonstrates capacity for health and well-being solutions with multiple use...
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.
This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…
Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.
Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.
The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…
Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille
Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE...... and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th...
Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce
People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations.
Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction.
Kamaljit K. Sangha
Full Text Available In Australia, role of natural resources in Indigenous well-being is completely ignored to date which further leads to inappropriate and ineffective well-being policies. This research addresses the need to develop an appropriate indigenous well-being approach that incorporates indigenous values in relation to natural systems. It focuses on Indigenous people in Australia and examines the available well-being frameworks from global as well as from local (i.e. Australian and Indigenous, perspectives. It applies a holistic approach to assess the role of natural systems in indigenous well-being demonstrating how people’s social, economic and cultural worlds, and how people’s capabilities relate to their natural systems. It integrates various social, economic and ecological values through the application of Capability Approach and the Millennium Assessment Approach. The study proposes an integrated framework that focuses on people’s belongingness to nature i.e. people’s values and capabilities that link to well-being. It emphasises the importance of each connection that people may have with their country in terms of people’s capabilities. The proposed framework can contribute to improved and better-informed policies on indigenous well-being as well as on the use, value and management of natural systems.
Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves
The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.
Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S
Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment.
Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.
Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with po...
This paper presents a heuristic mathematical model of the changes over time in the statistical distribution of well-being of individuals in a society. The model predicts that when individuals overvalue the more overtly conspicuous aspects of well-being in their lifestyle choices, then under certain conditions the average well-being of the overall population may experience continuous decline. We investigate the influence of various effects, including the incidence of personal misfortune, heterogeneity in the population, and economic and/or technological progress.
GREEN, F.; Felstead, A.; Gallie, D.; Inanc, H.
We study how job-related well-being (measured by Warr’s ‘Enthusiasm’ and ‘Contentment’ scales) altered through the Great Recession, and how this is related to changing job quality. Using nationally representative data for Britain, we find that job-related well-being was stable between 2001 and 2006, but then declined between 2006 and 2012. We report relevant changes in job quality. In modelling the determinants of job-related well-being, we confirm several previously-studied hypotheses and pr...
Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People＇s Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity （PA）, negative affectivity （NA）, job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index （PWI）, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people＇s well-being.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed
Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.
Full Text Available In the last years the thematic of the psychological well-being has generated great interest among the psychologists. In this article a brief revision of the main definitions and investigations is carried out on the topic. The results of a study are presented on the selfperception of the psychological well-being carried out with 271 Argentinean adolescents. For this study one three instruments have been used: a qualitative survey, the scale BIEPS and the SWLS. The data have been analyzed from a qualitative focus. From the results obtained in the scales BIEPS and SWLS they conformed two groups; one with high and the other with low selfperception well-being. The differences are analyzed in each one of these groups, exemplifying with some protocols. The dimensions of personal bonds and acceptance of oneself state the difference between the youths with high and low well-being.
Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper
Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf...... and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels...... of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory...
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;
Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...
Kye Soon Park
@@ How HRT & Exercisc provide the Effect of Women Well - being is discussed here with the Presentation about (1) Information on Hormone & HRT; (9) Introduction to Estrogen Replacemen; (3) Review of Relational Studies.
The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosom...
ÇEÇEN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. A. Rezan; CENKSEVEN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Fulya
The purpose of this study was to determine how university students’ loneliness are predicted by their level of psychological well being self acceptance personal growth purpose in life positive relations with others environmental mastery and autonomy To collect data UCLA R Loneliness Russell Peplau Cutrona 1980 and Psychological Well Being Scales Ryff 1989a were used The sample was consisted of 268 university students from Cukurova University Adana Turkey For the analysis of...
Martina Casullo, María; Castro Solano, Alejandro
The main goal of this study is to develop a brief scale to assess perceived well being in adolescentpopulation. Besides verifying psychometric properties, we identified individual differences between genders, context and age. Participants were adolescent students recruited in three different areas of Argentina (Metropolitan area -Buenos Aires-, Norwest area- Tucuman- and Southwest area Patagonia- ). aged 13 Th. 18. Instruments administered consisted of BIEPS (well being scale) other classics...
I investigate whether two indicators of job-related well-being predict subsequent quitting. I find that both the Depression-Enthusiasm scale and the Anxiety-Comfort scale predict quitting, the former more strongly, and this contributes an element of criterion validity to their use as welfare measures. However, overall job satisfaction, which implicitly captures well-being relative to outside job opportunities, predicts job mobility better than either the Depression-Enthusiasm or the Anxiety-C...
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.
Subjective well-being is predominantly conceived as having 3 components: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. This article reports 2 studies that seek to investigate the factor structure of subjective well-being in Iran. One-, two-, and three-factor models of subjective well-being were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The results of Study 1 (N = 2,197) and Study 2 (N = 207) show that whereas the 1- and 2-factor models do not fit the data well, the 3-factor model provides an adequate fit. These results indicate that the 3 components of subjective well-being constitute 3 interrelated, yet distinct, factors. The analyses demonstrate how traditional CFA and ESEM can be combined to obtain a clear picture of the measurement model of subjective well-being and generate new insights about individual items and cross-loadings needed to derive more parsimonious measures. Nuances relating to the assessment of subjective well-being in more collectivist and Muslim countries are discussed.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.
Annamaria Di Fabio
Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Martínez Taboada, Cristina
Full Text Available The configuration of new intergroup and interpersonal relations that take place in the receiving social context as a result of migratory processes, owns direct influences over the school scene. Having in account there are different paradigms and models in multicultural education (Banks, 2009, the aim of the study is to analyse the impact that has on teacher’s social well-being, the main or minor percentage of immigrant students in the schools. The Social Well-Being Scale of Keyes (1998, adapted by Blanco & Diaz (2005 was applied on a sample of 281 primary education teachers from Guipúzcoa, (Spain. They were distributed in three groups for its comparison. The results indicate, that those teachers that carry out their work in schools with greater concentration of immigrant students, presented the greater level of social well-being with respect to their colleagues who belong to schools characterized by the sociocultural homogeneity of the pupils.
Full Text Available Ubiquitous games and gamification have recently become a widely applied approach for promoting well-being and improving health behaviours such as a physically active lifestyle. In this Special Issue of the Journal ICST Transactions on Ambient Systems, we collected a selection of high-quality papers presented at the workshop on “Ubiquitous games and gamification for promoting behaviour change and wellbeing”, held at the 2013 CHItaly Conference. The articles explore different areas where ubiquitous games and gamification can influence the attitudes, health and behaviours of people towards well-being, from the management of diseases to eco-sustainable mobility, from serious moral games to the monitoring of burnout levels and the well-being of small groups during social occasions such as museum visits.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.
The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....... the family. However, it is still an open ended question, if this means an equal distribution of economic well-being within the family. The paper exercises data from the European Community Household Panel and covers the situation in most of the European Community countries. In most countries husbands economic...
Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas
The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.
Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina
participated in both waves of the study (T1  and T2 ). The three outcomes were analyzed using linear multilevel regression analysis, multilevel Poisson regression analysis, and multilevel logistic regression analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Group-level AOC (T1) significantly predicted individual......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services......-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep...
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well...... nurse. The two groups did not differ for HbA(1c) or in their overall evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. In the monitoring condition, significantly more subjects were referred to the psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and discussing psychological well-being as part of routine diabetes...
Baird, Martha B; Boyle, Joyceen S
The purpose of this study was to understand the health and well-being of Sudanese refugee women who were resettled with their children to the United States. The design was an interpretive ethnography using individual interviews and participant observation with extensive field notes. The findings describe personal factors as well as community and social conditions that influenced the health and well-being of the refugee women and their families. These influences are captured in the three themes that emerged from the study: (1) liminality--living between two cultures, (2) self-support--standing on our own two legs, and (3) hope for the future. These themes describe a process of how refugee women achieve well-being in the transition to a new country and culture. The study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how to develop culturally congruent interventions for resettled refugees.
Phipps, Denham L; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Noyce, Peter R; Ashcroft, Darren M
Healthcare practitioners' fitness to practise has often been linked to their personal and demographic characteristics. It is possible that situational factors, such as the work environment and physical or psychological well-being, also have an influence on an individual's fitness to practise. However, it is unclear how these factors might be linked to behaviours that risk compromising fitness to practise. The aim of this study was to examine the association between job characteristics, well-being and behaviour reflecting risky practice amongst a sample of registered pharmacists in a region of the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional self-report survey of 517 pharmacists. These data were subjected to principal component analysis and path analysis, with job characteristics (demand, autonomy and feedback) and well-being (distress and perceived competence) as the predictors and behaviour as the outcome variable. Two aspects of behaviour were found: Overloading (taking on more work than one can comfortably manage) and risk taking (working at or beyond boundaries of safe practice). Separate path models including either job characteristics or well-being as independent variables provided a good fit to the data-set. Of the job characteristics, demand had the strongest association with behaviour, while the association between well-being and risky behaviour differed according to the aspect of behaviour being assessed. The findings suggest that, in general terms, situational factors should be considered alongside personal factors when assessing, judging or remediating fitness to practise. They also suggest the presence of different facets to the relationship between job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.
In the last years the thematic of the psychological well-being has generated great interest among the psychologists. In this article a brief revision of the main definitions and investigations is carried out on the topic. The results of a study are presented on the selfperception of the psychological well-being carried out with 271 Argentinean adolescents. For this study one three instruments have been used: a qualitative survey, the scale BIEPS and the SWLS. The data have been analyzed from ...
Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…
Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita
This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…
Brown, Susan L.
Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…
In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…
Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy
This paper examines the potential of self-reported information on capabilities as an alternative indicator and aggregator for well-being. We survey a population of 18 year old first-year Bachelor students in applied economics and business studies and demonstrate a way in which capabilities can be measured on the level of life domains as well as on…
Bloom, J. de; Nawijn, J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Korpela, K.
The tourism industry thrives on the notion that holiday travel improves well-being. However, scientific evidence that holiday travel is more beneficial than spending free time at home is lacking. Using the Effort-Recovery and the Limited Resources model as theoretical basis, this study investigates
Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.
This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.
Satabdi Roy CHOUDHURY
Full Text Available The paper explores the objective behind the progressive technologies and societal subjective judgement towards well-being. The association of both the variables (technology and well-being illuminates the impact of technology upon the well-being and its interconnected dimensions which consists of people health, community, happiness, prosperity, welfare and nation as a whole. The paper also focuses on the question- does these developing technologies leads towards positive well-being in general or does also leads to increasing negative effects upon the society. The paper provides a practical overview on the complementary relationship on how scientific advancement and technological innovations are important drivers to increase the ease of human life and how the societal demand to lead a comfortable life, directs the origin of new technologies. In this paper presents a brief empirical evidence delineating the implication of technology in our value system, culture and attitude in common and as well as the emerging known and unknown issues coming in the near future. Classification-JEL: A23
Gordon, Jean; O'Toole, Linda
This article explores the perspective that well-being and creativity can be nurtured in children through understanding and addressing the diverse ways in which children learn, communicate, and develop (inner diversity). In particular, our working hypothesis is that focusing children's and young people's learning towards the realization of their…
Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…
Ess, Brian C.
The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or en...
Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…
Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed
Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.
The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas neurot
Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara
With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…
Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth
The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…
It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…
Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe
The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
Kroesbergen, E.H.; Hooijdonk, M.; van Viersen, S.; Middel-Lalleman, M.M.N.; Reijnders, J.J.W.
This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverba
Ha, Shang E.; Kim, Seokho
Although the statistically significant relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., self-reported happiness and life satisfaction) is well-known in the field of positive psychology, some scholars still cast doubt on the external validity of this finding and the strength of personality dimensions vis-a-vis other…
D.R. Gasper (Des)
textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees f
Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.
We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…
Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E
The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective wellbei
Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.
Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…
The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…
Heukamp, Franz H.; Arino, Miguel A.
It is known that characteristics of individuals explain only a part of the variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between people. The country of origin of an individual accounts for a significant part of these differences. We study what drives the variations in SWB between countries after taking individual characteristics into account. We base…
Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.
Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…
Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin
The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.
Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the
The objective of this PhD-thesis is to summarise the results of a PhD project on the relationship between leaders’ stress and employees stress and wellbeing. The overall aim of the PhD project was to promote a better understanding of the relationship between leader and employee stress and wellbeing......, thus of how employees may be affected by leader stress. A mixed methods approach was applied in order to obtain methodological complementarity: The project includes a systematic review of three decades of research in the field, and quantitative- as well as qualitative study components, presented...... in five papers. In conclusion, the overall findings bring together a negative leader-employee circle in terms of stress on one and a positive leader-employee circle in terms of well-being on the other side. Moreover, a cascade model of support illustrates stress and well-being dynamics; showing how...
Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.
Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.
Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...
Lawrence P. Casalino
Full Text Available We present a model of hypothesized relationships between physician satisfaction, physician well-being and the quality of care, in addition to a review of relevant literature. The model suggests that physicians who are stressed, burned out, depressed, and/or have poor self-care are more likely to be dissatisfied, and vice-versa. Both poor physician well-being and physician dissatisfaction are hypothesized to lead to diminished physician concentration, effort, empathy, and professionalism. This results in misdiagnoses and other medical errors, a higher rate of inappropriate referrals and prescriptions, lower patient satisfaction and adherence to physician recommendations, and worse physician performance in areas not observed by others. Research to date largely supports the model, but high quality studies are few. Research should include studies that are prospective, larger, and have a stronger analytic design, ideally including difference in differences analyses comparing quality of care for patients of physicians who become dissatisfied to those who remain satisfied, and vice versa.Keywords: physician satisfaction, physician dissatisfaction, quality of care, physician well-being, physician burnout
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Gul, Mine; Yazici, Esra; Gul, Gazanfer Kemal
Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey) who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt-Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students' pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.
Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W
The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.
Ahmet Bulent Yazici
Full Text Available Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt- Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students’ pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.
Garrett, Jeremy R; Lantos, John D
Children's well-being has become the focal consideration in legal and public policy debates regarding same-sex marriage. In this article, we critically examine and rebut the central moral argument made by opponents of same-sex marriage: that the state should not license any domestic arrangement other than "traditional marriage" because doing so would be detrimental to children's well-being. Although many have challenged the empirical premise that children raised by same-sex couples fare worse than children in other arrangements, we focus primarily on the normative premises for exclusively licensing traditional (that is, monogamous, heterosexual) marriage. We argue that even if the empirical support for its claims was strong, the argument is morally insufficient for denying state recognition to other types of relationships. Importantly, we affirm the state's vital role in promoting children's well-being. We question, however, the approach of delegitimizing certain relationships as a means to that end. Instead, we argue, the state should encourage and support individuals who want to care for children, presume that any couple or individual is capable of adequate child-rearing, and ensure that all adults who are raising children (whether married or not) have the material resources and support necessary to be good parents. Such a policy would (1) set a reasonable minimal threshold for state recognition, (2) be vigilant in identifying cases falling below this threshold, and then (3) either assist or disqualify underperforming arrangements. It would also, appropriately, decouple arguments about legitimate and illegitimate types of relationships from arguments about what is best for children.
Rudolph, Karen D.; Caldwell, Melissa S.; CONLEY, COLLEEN S.
This research examined the hypothesis that a tendency to base one's self-worth on peer approval is associated with positive and negative aspects of children's well-being. 153 4th - 8th graders (9.0 to 14.8 years) reported on need for approval (NFA), global self-worth, social-evaluative concerns, anxiety and depression, and exposure to victimization. Teachers reported on social behavior. Results confirmed that NFA is a two-dimensional construct composed of positive (enhanced self-worth in the ...
Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
, MEDLINE, PsycInfo and EMBASE. Second, Google Scholar was searched for grey literature. Third, references and cited citations of all retrieved studies were reviewed for additional studies. Studies included were critically appraised and study details were extracted. An analysis inspired by Kvale following...... qualitative studies of lived experiences of well-being and suffering within one year after discharge with hip fracture. Method: Following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a three-step literature search strategy was developed. Initially, a structured search was performed in the databases CINAHL...
CARMO DOS SANTOS, C. A.
This thesis looks at three important aspects of the well-being of individuals. The first chapter looks at earnings and tries to estimate earnings over the life course accounting for selection. It does so by being silent a priori about the relative productivity of those who stay out of work and instead lets the data speak. Data suggest that nonworkers are not always worse than workers, and it also suggests cohort effects are also important when lifecycle profiles do not follow the same people ...
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa
It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some...... research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling...
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions....... There were 3 main outcomes. First, the physical aspects of mobility were a strong frame of reference in the discussions. Second, independent mobility was closely tied to the everyday life practices and ways to perform one's personal lifestyle(s). Third, the obstacles to independent mobility were...
Full Text Available In the currentdifficultglobal economic situationit is beneficialforanycountryto havecreateda solidfoundationsupportive of socio-economic growthand development,includingcompetitivenessand quality of lifeof all residents. This requires all availablecreativity and innovation, including enterprise policy (corporate governance innovation. Here we introduceSIEDES responsible enterprise policy that should provide better stakeholder quality of lifeto show how the enterprise policy should be; as a possible consequencewe presentthe results ofthe OECD ‘Better LifeIndex of well-being measurement’ comparing e.g. Slovenia to OECD countries average,that may follow frommore or lessresponsible enterprisepolicyofSlovenianenterprises. We conclude with some suggestions about education that should enable the desired innovation.
Hasumi, Takahiro; Ahsan, Fatimah; Couper, Caitlin M; Aguayo, Jose L; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
This study examined the association between parental involvement and mental well being among the 6721 school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who participated in Indias nationally representative Global School based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2007. Parental involvement (homework checking, parental understanding of their childrens problems, and parental knowledge of their childrens freetime activities) was reported by students to decrease with age, while poor mental health (loneliness, insomnia due to anxiety, and sadness and hopelessness) increased with age. Age adjusted Logistic regression models showed that high levels of reported parental involvement were significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of poor mental health.
Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kay, Alan
In this article we attempt to make sense of recent policy directions and controversies relating to the 'social enterprise' and 'health' interface. In doing so, we outline the unrecognised potential of social enterprise for generating health and well-being improvement, and the subsequent challenges for government, the sector itself, and for the research community. Although we focus primarily upon the U.K. policy landscape, the key message--that social enterprise could represent an innovative and sustainable public health intervention--is a useful contribution to the ongoing international debate on how best to address the challenge of persistent and widening health inequalities.
Smits, C H; Deeg, D J; Bosscher, R J
The interrelation of six facets of control and their ability to predict well-being in older persons were studied in an age and gender stratified community sample aged fifty-five to eighty-nine. An extended conceptual framework of control facets is introduced including "established" facets, such as mastery, self-efficacy and internal health locus of control and "new" control facets such as neuroticism, social inadequacy, and sense of coherence. An interview and a postal questionnaire included measures of the control facets and the Affect Balance Scale. Correlations between control measures were mostly modest. Negative affect was predicted by neuroticism and sense of coherence. Tendencies of independent association of mastery with global well-being and of social inadequacy with positive affect were established.
Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.
Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.
The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.
Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.
Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia
Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.
Singh, Vivek Kumar; Bozkaya, Burcin; Pentland, Alex
Traditional financial decision systems (e.g. credit) had to rely on explicit individual traits like age, gender, job type, and marital status, while being oblivious to spatio-temporal mobility or the habits of the individual involved. Emerging trends in geo-aware and mobile payment systems, and the resulting "big data," present an opportunity to study human consumption patterns across space and time. Taking inspiration from animal behavior studies that have reported significant interconnections between animal spatio-temporal "foraging" behavior and their life outcomes, we analyzed a corpus of hundreds of thousands of human economic transactions and found that financial outcomes for individuals are intricately linked with their spatio-temporal traits like exploration, engagement, and elasticity. Such features yield models that are 30% to 49% better at predicting future financial difficulties than the comparable demographic models.
Vivek Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Traditional financial decision systems (e.g. credit had to rely on explicit individual traits like age, gender, job type, and marital status, while being oblivious to spatio-temporal mobility or the habits of the individual involved. Emerging trends in geo-aware and mobile payment systems, and the resulting "big data," present an opportunity to study human consumption patterns across space and time. Taking inspiration from animal behavior studies that have reported significant interconnections between animal spatio-temporal "foraging" behavior and their life outcomes, we analyzed a corpus of hundreds of thousands of human economic transactions and found that financial outcomes for individuals are intricately linked with their spatio-temporal traits like exploration, engagement, and elasticity. Such features yield models that are 30% to 49% better at predicting future financial difficulties than the comparable demographic models.
Clark, Andrew E; Etilé, Fabrice
We use life satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) information from three waves of the GSOEP to test for social interactions in BMI between spouses. Social interactions require that the cross-partial effect of partner's weight and own weight in the utility function be positive. Using life satisfaction as a utility proxy, semi-parametric regressions show that the correlation between satisfaction and own BMI is initially positive, but turns negative after some threshold. Critically, this latter threshold increases with partner's BMI when the individual is overweight. The negative well-being impact of own BMI is thus lower when the individual's partner is heavier, which is consistent with social contagion effects in weight. However, this relationship may also reflect selection on the marriage market or omitted variables, and it is difficult to think of convincing instruments that would allow causality to be clearly established.
Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus;
AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age......). Questionnaires were returned by 69 participants who were born moderately premature and 304 participants who were born at term (53 and 57%, respectively, of the original cohort). Multivariate analysis showed that social status and level of education at 32 years were predicted by social status and maternal...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....
MacDonald, Raymond A R
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
RAYMOND A. R. MacDonald
Full Text Available The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa
It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues.
This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.
Full Text Available Health, well-being, quality of life, and lifestyle are central concepts within health science, although generally accepted definitions are still lacking. Lifestyle can either be seen as an independent variable and the cause of unhealthy behaviour or as a dependent variable, which is affected by conditions in the society. In the first case, the attention is directed on each individual case: maintaining or improving health requires changes in lifestyle and living habits. In this perspective, diet and physical activity are important features for health promotion. In the second case the attention is rather directed on structural conditions in society, for example the food industry, the lunches for children at school, and the “fast food” industry should be influenced to protect human health. The structural perspective has, so far, received restricted impact when it concerns prevention and promotion of health. Processes of individualisation in the society have to an increasing extent viewed health as an affair for the individual. The benefits of physical activity, healthy food and beverage, social support, and joy are documented scientifically. In general, the trend towards increasing responsibility for one's lifestyle and health is positive, but might reinforce the inequality in health. With an even harder climate in society there might be a risk that individual health projects undermine the solidarity and the will to accept costs for medical treatment and care for people who risk their health through an unhealthy and risk-taking lifestyle. However, we argue that peoples’ well-being and quality of life presupposes a society that stands up for all people.
Mohammad Taghi Iman
Full Text Available Introduction Functional value of the social institution of family is important in any social system. Any society with its values is beginning to look into family to train its future citizens. One of the important issues in this institution is the quality of relationships between parents (spouses. When a relation between the two is satisfactory in a relaxed family on which the ruling family in public life will improve performance. One of the affective factors that impact the process of making marital satisfaction effective is psychological issues. Therefore, according to a mental health problem of the couples can enhance their marital satisfaction and ultimately improve the efficiency of the family. Previous studies indicate that the level of psychological well-being is an affective factor in marital satisfaction of women than men. Also as known the cultural roots in modern cities have been weaken and divorce rate has been increased (Shirazi, 2007; Shie, 2001. While the studies and research in this regard is less. Thus pay attention to mental well-being with regard to the role of social context causes to increase the survival rates of marital satisfaction of women in particular and families in general. We choosed Najafabad and Fooladshahr as different social contexts, because of their cultural, demographic and historical distinctions. In one hand Najafabad is an old and passing city which could maintain its ancient structure and in the other hand has been accepted elements of modern and industrial life. But Fooladshahr is a new and immigrant town which because of this character, it has no homogenous and specific culture and diversity of cultures and ethnos in this city has been caused different positive and negative problems in habitant's lives. The statistics show that the immigration of Fooladshahr is more than Najafabad. Therefore, the total goal of this paper is answering to these questions: what kind of relation is there between
Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology. In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots. In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...
This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.
Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning.
Full Text Available Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine′s other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely.
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to
van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W
Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.
Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.
Full Text Available Stock-breeding is one of the oldest human occupations. A fact that has always raised interest is that the breeder’s degree of involvement influences the animals’ well-being. Some elements of the breeder’s personality, his character, aptitudes and skills, are significant for the organization of the farm so that it becomes profitable, especially in creating proper life conditions for the animals, as well as insuring an optimal atmosphere for the employees. One of the breeder’s standards is the animal’s well-being. It can be achieved with the help of the breeder’s skills, efficient farm management and due to proper and well maintained equipment, thus adding up to the breeder’s managerial qualities.
本研究以403名在校大学生为研究对象，探讨了主观幸福感、心理幸福感与社会幸福感之间的关系。结果表明：（1）主观幸福感、心理幸福感与社会幸福感三者之间在概念意蕴上相互独立，在个体体验上相互分离，但在理论结构上相互关联；（2）幸福感是一个多层次、多维度的结构，包括主观幸福感、心理幸福感和社会幸福感三个因素，该理论结构可以作为今后进一步研究的基础。%With 403 college students as the research objects, this artical discusses the relationship among subjective well-being, psychological well-being and social well-being. The results show that： （1） Subjec- tive well-being, psychological well-being and social well-being are independent in concept connotation, separated in the individual experience, but related in the theoretical structure; （2） Well-being is a multi- level and multi-dimensional structure, including three factors of subjective well-being, psychological well- being and social well-being, this theoretical structure can be used as the basis for the future study.
Linton, Myles-Jay; Dieppe, Paul; Medina-Lara, Antonieta
Objective Investigators within many disciplines are using measures of well-being, but it is not always clear what they are measuring, or which instruments may best meet their objectives. The aims of this review were to: systematically identify well-being instruments, explore the variety of well-being dimensions within instruments and describe how the production of instruments has developed over time. Design Systematic searches, thematic analysis and narrative synthesis were undertaken. Data s...
Hsueh, JoAnn; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project--an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income…
Sara L. Warber
Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.
Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram
In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the…
Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E; Waltner-Toews, D; Tanner, M
Faced with complex patterns of global change, the inextricable interconnection of humans, pet animals, livestock and wildlife and their social and ecological environment is evident and requires integrated approaches to human and animal health and their respective social and environmental contexts. The history of integrative thinking of human and animal health is briefly reviewed from early historical times, to the foundation of universities in Europe, up to the beginning of comparative medicine at the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, Calvin Schwabe coined the concept of "one medicine". It recognises that there is no difference of paradigm between human and veterinary medicine and both disciplines can contribute to the development of each other. Considering a broader approach to health and well-being of societies, the original concept of "one medicine" was extended to "one health" through practical implementations and careful validations in different settings. Given the global health thinking in recent decades, ecosystem approaches to health have emerged. Based on complex ecological thinking that goes beyond humans and animals, these approaches consider inextricable linkages between ecosystems and health, known as "ecosystem health". Despite these integrative conceptual and methodological developments, large portions of human and animal health thinking and actions still remain in separate disciplinary silos. Evidence for added value of a coherent application of "one health" compared to separated sectorial thinking is, however, now growing. Integrative thinking is increasingly being considered in academic curricula, clinical practice, ministries of health and livestock/agriculture and international organizations. Challenges remain, focusing around key questions such as how does "one health" evolve and what are the elements of a modern theory of health? The close interdependence of humans and animals in their social and ecological context relates to the
Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram
In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the determinants of subjective well-being were confirmed. Living with a partner and age were shown to have strong effects, but also social capital indicators...
Schwartz, Seth J.; Waterman, Alan S.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Vernon, Michael; Caraway, S. Jean; Kim, Su Yeong; Forthun, Larry F.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ham, Lindsay S.
The present study investigated the associations of well-being with engagement in illicit drug use, sexual risk taking, and impaired driving in a sample of 9,515 students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities. Participants completed measures of subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, and indicated how many times…
Gamble, Dorothy N.
This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…
This article addresses the question: how can lifelong education contribute to subjective well-being by engaging learners and fostering active citizenship? The question arises due to the fact that governments in the western world have identified well-being as an important policy driver. Well-being research suggests that subjective well-being,…
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and...
Beauvais, Audrey; Stewart, Julie G; DeNisco, Susan
Understanding factors that influence spiritual well-being may improve nurses' spiritual caregiving. This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual well-being (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed.
Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm
This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion crite...
How does participation in nonformal learning influence the self-perceived well-being among older adults? This article looks into that issue through a study of people aged 65 years or older who have participated in Swedish study circles. The data analyzed consists of a nation-wide survey of study circle participants. The results show that there are…
This paper reports the experiences of working with a group of disabled young people over a 12-month period, during which perspectives of subjective well-being were explored. Methodological experiences, and particularly strategies which facilitated accessing young people's views, are described. The paper then moves on to focusing on the challenges…
Oscar N.E. Kjell
Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well-being
Schrank, Beate; Bird, Victoria; Tylee, Andre; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike
Well-being has become a prominent term in the political arena in recent years. However, in research the concept and use of well-being has been unclear, especially in the context of severe mental illness such as psychosis. This systematic review aims to characterise the evidence base relating to well-being in people with psychosis, by reviewing how well-being is measured, developing a new conceptual framework, and summarising empirical evaluations of psychosocial interventions to improve well-being. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of controlled trials of interventions investigating well-being in people with psychosis. The 28 studies meeting the inclusion criteria used 20 different measures of well-being. Five dimensions of well-being emerged: non-observable, observable, proximal, distal, and self-defined. Interventions to improve well-being vary widely. The investigated interventions have been targeted at non-observable, observable and proximal levels, while evaluation measures span all five dimensions. This review offers an evidence based conceptual framework of well-being which can provide an empirical basis for organising future well-being research in psychosis. The review also shows that the evidence base for interventions is small and methodologically weak. Recommendations are made for choosing well-being measures for future research.
Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.
Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…
Feinauer, Leslie; Middleton, Kenneth C.; Hilton, Gil H.
Study seeks to determine if existential well-being has a positive impact on survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Findings reveal that severity of abuse was associated with the level of existential well-being present in the survivor. The relationship between abuse and existential well-being is unclear. (Contains 23 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
Windsor, Timothy D.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Rodgers, Bryan
Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to nonvolunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volunteer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear…
Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…
Saaranen, Terhi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Vertio, Harri
This study aimed to develop a theoretical basis for the promotion of school staff's occupational well-being. The "Content Model for the Promotion of School Community Staff's Occupational Well-being" describes the four aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being ("working conditions", "worker and work", "working community" and "professional…
Bretones, Francisco Diaz; Gonzalez, Maria Julia
This article examines the well-being of workers, observing that subjective and occupational well-being are interrelated but independent dimensions and analyzing their interaction with their modulating factors. Specifically, the relationships between well-being and personal value structures are examined, hypothesizing that congruence between…
Davoren, Martin P
Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.
Klemasheva, Elena Igorevna; Gasanov, Magerram Ali Ogly; Zeremskaya, Yuliya Aleksandrovna
The subject of well-being is an essential one for every society. Nowadays, a lot of scientific researchers have been doing to understand the concept of well-being, to find perfect conditions for individual social well-being and to outline the perfect design and content of well-being. Thus, the key economic goal of a modern society is a social well-being of its population. The concept “social well-being” is examined in different scientific fields, but there is no one unique definition for this...
Baryshev Aleksey A.; Irina Kashchuk
Modern state strategies and development programs of the society are aimed at the improvement of the population quality of life and its well-being. Well-being and ageing of population have become the important theme in the global science. However, there is no separate science or field of knowledge which studies well-being of people and society. This is because of unclear definition of well-being. There is no unique research approach and importance value of well-being for people and society on ...
Culbertson, Satoris S; Fullagar, Clive J; Mills, Maura J
This study seeks to determine the relationship between psychological capital and an employee's eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Panel data were collected from 102 extension agents over a 2-week interval. In addition, daily surveys were collected from 67 of the participants. Results from the panel data indicated that the relation between psychological capital and hedonic well-being, measured two weeks later, is mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Results from the daily surveys found that daily eudaimonic work well-being was significantly associated with both daily positive mood and daily life satisfaction and that variance in eudaimonic work well-being was predicted by one's psychological capital.
Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian; Iversen, Helle K.;
stroke patients were invited to complete The WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and a LUTS instrument, the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire. Of 519 stroke patients invited, 482 subjects were eligible and 407 (84%) respondents answered the questionnaires. Results. Poor well-being......Objective. This study aimed to assess self-reported well-being in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify possible associations with prevalence, severity and bother of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby...... (sum score well-being was significantly (p well-being was significantly (p...
Baryshev Aleksey A.
Full Text Available Modern state strategies and development programs of the society are aimed at the improvement of the population quality of life and its well-being. Well-being and ageing of population have become the important theme in the global science. However, there is no separate science or field of knowledge which studies well-being of people and society. This is because of unclear definition of well-being. There is no unique research approach and importance value of well-being for people and society on the whole. The article deals with a new term «common well-being» through indicators of four main aspects: economic, social, psychological and ecological. An indicator system of common well-being for modern people was develop ed based on two approaches: objective and subjective.
Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real
Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.
Ali, Jadidi; Marhemat, Farahaninia; Sara, Janmohammadi; Hamid, Haghani
This study aims to identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among elderly people residing in Kahrizak Senior House, Tehran, Iran. It was an analytical study. After obtaining approval from the ethics committee of the Iran University of Medical Sciences Research Deputy; the 141 elderly people residing in Kahrizak Senior House who signed the inform consent were recruited by census. Data were collected by Ellison & Palutzian Spiritual Well-Being Index and Short Form Quality of Life (SF-36). The mean score of quality of life was (50.36 ± 11.3). The mean score of spiritual well-being was (96.26 ± 17.93). There was a positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality of life (P = .008). According to positive correlation between spiritual well-being and quality-of-life scores, awareness of the importance of spiritual well-being in caring of these people is recommended.
Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A
Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.
Hunsberger, Monica; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Mehlig, Kirsten
Background: The negative impact of childhood overweight on psychosocial well-being has been demonstrated in a number of studies. There is also evidence that psychosocial well-being may influence future overweight. We examined the bidirectional association between childhood overweight...... and psychosocial well-being in children from a large European cohort. The dual aim was to investigate the chronology of associations between overweight and psychosocial health indicators and the extent to which these associations may be explained by parental education. Methods: Participants from the IDEFICS study...... with weight, height, and psychosocial well-being measurements at both time points (n = 7,831). Psychosocial well-being was measured by the KINDL® and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire respectively. The first instrument measures health-related quality of life including emotional well-being, self...
Mache, Stefanie; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A
This study focuses on the associations between subjective well-being and mental health. In addition, gender differences are evaluated. The research was conducted as a cross-sectional online survey using a standardized questionnaire to assess physicians' mental health and well-being. Results have shown moderate scores for mental health and well-being in physicians. In general, male physicians perceive a better well-being and higher mental health score than female physicians. Well-being and mental health should be improved to increase physicians' work ability and subsequently, the quality of treatment and patient satisfaction. Mental health prevention should be more widely implemented in hospitals, and its awareness and early treatment should be encouraged. Mental health interventions might include modifying physicians' daily work schedules, providing curricula on mental health and offering training on the awareness of distress and well-being.
Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje
Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711
Kinderman, Peter; Tai, Sara; Pontin, Eleanor; Schwannauer, Matthias; Jarman, Ian; Lisboa, Paulo
Background The relationship between well-being and mental ill health is complex; people may experience very low levels of well-being even in the absence of overt mental health problems. Aims This study tested the hypothesis that anxiety, depression and well-being have different causal determinants and psychological mediating mechanisms. Method The influence of causal and mediating factors on anxiety, depression and well-being were investigated in a cross-sectional online questionnaire survey hosted on a UK national broadcasting website. Results Multivariate conditional independence analysis of data from 27 397 participants revealed different association pathways for the two constructs. Anxiety and depression were associated with negative life events mediated by rumination; low levels of subjective well-being were associated with material deprivation and social isolation, mediated by adaptive coping style. Conclusions Our findings support the 'two continua' model of the relationship between psychological well-being and mental health problems, with implications for both treatment and prevention.
Full Text Available This phenomenological study aimed to identify and describe the general meaning structure of the experience of well-being after retirement. We interviewed nine retirees about their lived experiences with well-being and analysed the data with Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method. The general meaning structure described well-being in retirement as a phenomenon that interweaves four constituents: (1 an awareness of and gratitude for a healthy and functioning body, (2 a new experience of time presenting possibilities for action, (3 a heightened sense of agency, and (4 being-in-place in relationships. We discuss these findings in relation to relevant literature of successful aging, the perception of time, eudaimonic and hedonic well-being and generativity. Our findings contribute to the field by comprehensibly describing the phenomenon of well-being as it is experienced by retirees, which we conclude to be a valuable contribution for initiatives promoting well-being in retirement.
Leidenfrost, Corey M; Calabrese, William; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Coggins, Evelyn; Ranney, Michael; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel
While improving the psychological health and well-being of individuals with serious mental illness can help reduce emotional distress and increase resilience, not enough is known about the well-being of incarcerated individuals with mental illness. Using the Schwartz Outcome Scale-10, the authors examined changes in subjective well-being and its association with other clinical symptoms and personality features in 43 mentally ill inmates in a large jail. All participants demonstrated significant improvement in general psychopathology and negative emotions. For well-being, however, different trajectories were associated with high versus low baseline ratings. Furthermore, those in the high well-being group were more likely to show features of aggression, dominance, hostility, mania, and more positive affect. These findings suggest that the level of well-being among inmates with serious mental illness may be an early indicator of personality features, clinical changes, and resilience, which is essential knowledge required when completing effective treatment planning.
Aman, Hina; Aslam, Atifa
Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The goal of care for paraplegic people is the enhancement of their "well-being". However, despite the frequent use of the term "well-being", its definition remains unclear and there is little information in the literature concerning the paraplegic's own perspective. The study was conducted to explore the Pakistani paraplegia's perspective of well-being. Overview of Literature Studies have shown that paraplegia changes not only physical and psychologic...
Adamson, P.; Bradshaw, J; Hoelscher, P; Richardson, D.
This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literature.
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card No. 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literat...
Objective: Adolescence is a hallmark period filling with rapid changes and both positive and negative outcomes. Well-being is one of the most important outcomes should be pursued. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of family environment, academic achievement and parental expectations for educational attainment on emotional well-being among adolescents. Method: Well-being, family environment, academic achievement and parental expectations for educational attainment (PEEA) we...
Evans, Larissa Michelle
This study explored multiple predictors of sexual well-being in a sample of 253 single, sexually active undergraduate females at a public Mid-Atlantic university. Several factors were identified from past research that might impact sexual well-being: casual sex, sexual agency, sexual attitudes, and sexual desire. Of the four factors, only sexual agency and sexual attitudes were found as significant predictors of sexual well-being. The results suggest that -- of single, sexually active undergr...
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Full Text Available Introduction: Social well-being is one of the important aspects of individual’s health. However, the social aspect of health, or social well-being, has not been attended to as equally as the other aspects. Social well-being is people’s perceptions and experiences in social circumstances as well as the degree of successful responses to social challenges. The aim of the study was to investigate the social well-being of a sample of Iranian nurses. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional conducted in 2013. The study population consisted of all 1200 staff nurses working in all hospitals located in Ardabil, Iran. We invited a random sample of 281 practicing nurses to respond to the 33-item Keyes’s Social Well-Being Questionnaire and the possible range of the total score is 33–165. Higher score reflect better SWB. The quantitative analysis of this study used the Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS version 13.0. Results: The results showed that Participants’ mean score of social well-being was 105.45 (15.87. Social well-being was significantly related to participants’ age, gender, work experience, satisfaction with working in hospital and with income, familiarity with nursing prior to entering it, official position, and type of employment. However, there was no significant relationship between nurses’ social well -being and their marital status, their parents and spouses’ educational status, as well as the type of hospital. Conclusion: Nurses’ social well-being deserves special attention. Effective well-being promotion strategies should be executed for promoting their social well-being particularly in areas of social integration and social acceptance. Moreover, nurses, particularly female nurses, need strong financial, emotional, informational, and social support for ensuring their social well-being.
Els, Christoffel Johannes
The aim of this study has been to theoretically and empirically explore the nature of personal archetypes, aspects of personality and psychological well-being, as well as the relationship between archetypes and aspects of personality and psychological well-being. This study was conducted according to the new paradigm emerging with the field of psychology, focusing on health and psychological well-being, so diverging from the conventional pathogenic meta-perspective in which the focus is on il...
Melato, Seleme Revelation
This research using quantitative and qualitative methods studied the psychosocial well-being of marginalised youth of African descent in South Africa. The study of well-being amongst the youth has been the focus of many research studies in the past two decades (Bach, 2011; Koen, 2010; Ungar, 2005); hence the continuing intellectual debate on the best possible ways to promote youth well-being (Koen, 2010; Shah, Graidage, & Valencia, 2005; Van Schalkwyk, 2010). The major shift within the psycho...
Kong, Feng; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu
Social well-being represents primarily public phenomena, which is crucial for mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neural basis of this construct, especially how it is maintained during resting state. To explore the neural correlates of social well-being, this study correlated the regional fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) with social well-being of healthy individuals. The results revealed that the fALFF in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right thalamus and right insula positively predicted individual differences in social well-being. Furthermore, we demonstrated the different role of three pursuits of human well-being (i.e., pleasure, meaning and engagement) in these associations. Specifically, the pursuits of meaning and engagement, not pleasure mediated the effect of the fALFF in right pSTG on social well-being, whereas the pursuit of engagement mediated the effect of the fALFF in right thalamus on social well-being. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that spontaneous brain activity in multiple regions related to self-regulatory and social-cognitive processes contributes to social well-being, suggesting that the spontaneous activity of the human brain reflects the efficiency of social well-being.
Full Text Available Using data from a random representative survey of South Florida immigrants (n=1,268, our research examines different facets of transnationalism and how they relate to a typically overlooked component of immigrant incorporation–subjective well-being. We examine separately the affective and evaluative components of immigrants’ well-being in their country of reception—the United States—by differentiating between self-reported emotional well-being and self-reported satisfaction with life in the U.S. Findings support that the kinds and frequency of connections that immigrants maintain with the home country are important factors for understanding immigrants’ subjective well-being.
da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Blalock, Kacie; Allen, Chase A; Chan, Fong; Rubin, Stanford E
This study examined the canonical relationships between a set of life skill variables and a set of subjective well-being variables among a national sample of vocational rehabilitation clients in the USA. Self-direction, work tolerance, general employability, and self-care were related to physical, family and social, and financial well-being. This analysis also found that communication skill is related to family and social well-being, while psychological well-being is not related to any life skills in the set. The results showed that vocational rehabilitation services aimed to improve life functioning will lead to an improvement in subjective quality of life.
has been little concensus on the nature of the well-being. In this paper, we will examine the concept of well-being from three perspectives; one of these is utilitarianist view in which well-being means utility of the individual. Second one is John Rawls’ notion of “primary social goods”. Finally, we will mention Amartya Sen’s “capability” perspective which challanges the utilitarianism and Ralw’s theory both. In Sen's Capability Approach, evaluation of well-being should be made in the space ...
The aim of this research was to examine the determinants/factors affecting the well-being of the Thai and Lao people, and the factors that predict the well-being of those respective peoples. Eight hundred and sixty participants were recruited from three major regions of Thailand and Laos and were selected using multistage random sampling. A self-reported well-being questionnaire was developed using the theoretical framework of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and a questionnaire assessing their perceptions/attitudes concerning the factors affecting their well-being was administered. The major findings were the following: (i) the factors affecting the well-being and the self-reported well-being of Thais and Laotians were significantly different; and (ii) the factors predicting the well-being of Thais included the living and working environment and the availability of medical information and technology at their hospitals. On the other hand, one of the factors predicting the well-being of Laotians was their attitudes toward their society and its cultural values. A comprehensive and system-wide review of mental-health policy planning to improve the well-being of people in Thailand and Laos in accordance with those predicted factors is recommended.
Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals' evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......This article examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals' evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-term costs in the form of reductions in people's sense of well-being...
The current study examined the impact of size of social network on subjective well-being of elderly, mainly focused on confirmation of the mediator role of perceived social support. The results revealed that both size of social network and perceived social support were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceived social support partially mediated size of social network to subjective well-being. The final model also revealed significant both paths from size of social network to subjective well-being through perceived social support. The findings extended prior researches and provided valuable evidence on how to promote mental health of the elderly.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens
-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....
Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.
Held, Mary L; Cuellar, Matthew
Objective This study examined the direct and mediating effects of maternal social capital on health and well-being for native- and foreign-born Latina mothers and their children. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline and nine-year follow up waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. The study included a sample of 874 Latina mothers. Mplus7 was used to perform structural equation modeling to determine whether exogenous indicators (age, education, and economic well-being) predicted social capital, whether social capital predicted mother and child well-being, and whether mediating effects helped explain each relationship. Results For native-born Latinas (n = 540), social capital did not predict maternal or child well-being. However, social capital significantly mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal well-being. For foreign-born Latinas (n = 334), social capital was a significant predictor of maternal well-being. Social capital also mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal, but not child well-being. Younger and foreign-born Latinas who report higher educational attainment and economic well-being have greater social capital, and thus better self-reported health. Conclusion Findings suggest that social capital is particularly relevant to the health of foreign-born Latinas. For all Latina mothers, social capital may serve as a protective mitigating factor to better health. Health service providers should evaluate the potential to integrate programs that promote social capital accumulation for Latinas. Further research should examine factors to improve the health of Latinas' children.
Laurika van Straaten
Full Text Available Orientation: A literature search for studies on the well-being of support staff of higher education institutions (HEIs produced very little results. Appreciation was then used to identify elements that might enhance the well-being of a selected HEI’s support staff.Research purpose: The aim was to explore the strengths of a selected HEI that might serve as driving forces for enhancing its support staff’s well-being.Motivation for the study: The lack of research on the well-being of support staff motivated the study. A need was identified to explore driving forces that might enhance their well-being.Research design, approach and method: A literature review guided by theoretical perspectives and theories on staff well-being was conducted. Subsequently, a qualitative action research design involving an Appreciative Inquiry (AI workshop with support staff of an institution was followed.Main findings: The following strengths that might serve as driving forces for enhancing the well-being of the institution’s support services staff were identified: hard-working and dedicated support staff, positive relations among colleagues, a willingness to adapt to change,good remuneration and benefits, job security and a supportive work environment. Appreciative Inquiry was found to be well suited for identifying such strengths, as opposed to methods that focus on identifying problems or weaknesses of an organisation. As a result of this study, the relevant institution might react and build on these identified strengths towards promoting the well-being of its support staff.Practical/managerial implications: Institutions should make an effort to enhance staff well being. The results of the study could also be used to encourage HEIs to use AI to establish optimal staff well-being.Contribution/value add: The study confirmed the power of appreciation to identify the strengths that might serve as driving forces for enhancing the well-being of support staff of an
Chan, S. Fiona; Chau, Albert Wai-Lap; Chan, Kim Yin-Kwan
The study examines relationship between college students' money-related aptitudes, financial management practices and financial well-being. By integrating Kidwell, Brinberg and Turrisi's model of money management (2003) and other research on financial well-being, we surveyed 802 university students in Hong Kong. Our findings confirm the hypothesis…
Brooks, Anthony Lewis
This chapter reflects on luminary work on the use of digital media for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people. It also discusses the importance of multidisciplinarity, end user participation in design, and the future of new technologies of inclusive well-being. A summary...
Jong, T. de; Wiezer, N.; Weerd, M. de; Nielsen, K.; Mattila-Holappa, P.; Mockałłod, Z.
This is a review of published longitudinal empirical research on the impact of restructuring on employee well-being. We investigated whether restructuring accompanied by staff reductions impacts differently on worker well-being than restructuring without staff reductions, and the differences between
Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo
Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...
McNulty, James K; Fincham, Frank D
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.
Maybury, Karol K.
This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway hopefulness,…
Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Kump, Sonja
This article deals with the education of older adults in communities with different levels of well-being. We are interested in whether the educational offerings for older adults depend on the well-being of the local community. We also examine how the educational offerings differ depending on whether the community is primarily rural or urban. In…
Soons, J.P.M.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study examines differences in well-being among young adults across relationship status. Multilevel regression analyses on two waves of data of the Dutch Panel Study of Social Integration (N = 2818) show that singles have the lowest level of well-being, followed by young adults who are steady da
Dijk, E.O.; Nijholt, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Wolferen, G. van; Kuyper, E.
Stimulation of the tactile sense or the hearing sense can be used to improve a person's health and well-being. For example, to make someone relax, feel better or sleep better. In this position paper, we present the concept of auditory-tactile stimulation for health and well-being. Through carefully
Full Text Available Early childhood education teachers’ happiness at work reflects in children. Finnish day care system has faced plenty of changes and they can also reflect in well-being at day care. The aim of this article to dissect the state of well-being and thriving at work in Finnish day care centers from early childhood education teachers’ point of view and to discuss how well-being could be promoted. The data comprises group interviews (N=9 collected with memory-work method among North-Finnish early childhood education teachers (N=4. The results revealed that several factors were reported as threatening early childhood education teachers’ well-being. These kinds of factors were, among others, increasing amount of administrative tasks as well as concern about their educational task becoming narrower, the sufficiency of one’s own resources, and how the economic measures for efficiency have started to extend to day care as well. Perceived well-being increases when early childhood education teachers have time to encounter an individual child and concentrate on their basic work, rearing and teaching children. Based on the findings, suggestions how to enhance early childhood education teachers’ well-being are discussed. Promotion of well-being necessitates development actions both at the level of society, day care system and early childhood education teachers’ personal level. In this article, we highlight how organizational structures enhance or hinder well-being.
Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Abs, Daniel; Casas, Ferran; Bedin, Livia Maria
This paper's main objective is to show relations between interest in media, perceived social support and adolescents' personal well-being. For this purpose, 1,589 Brazilian adolescents answered a questionnaire containing Cummins' Personal Well-Being, Vaux's Social Support Appraisals and Casas' interest in media scales. The media in study are: The…
Vieira, Cristina Rocha; Gaspar, Maria Filomena
The role and functioning of schools are changing as well as what is expected of teachers (who face growing and diversified challenges); consequentially, well-being at the schools is endangered. As teachers and teachers' educators concern is: How to improve schools' and teachers' effectiveness and promote well-being. Believing that the path to…
The aim of the present study is to examine whether subjective well-being is predicted by self-oriented perfectionism and self-assessment. The self-oriented perfectionism scale, self-assessment scale and subjective well-being scale (SWB) were administrated to a sample of voluntary 272 eight-grade students from three secondary schools in Sultangazi,…
Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.
The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if t
Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.
An overarching aim of education is the promotion of children's personal well-being. Liberal educationalists also support the promotion of children's personal autonomy as a central educational aim. On some views, such as John White's, these two goals--furthering well-being and cultivating autonomy--can come apart. Our primary aim in this paper is…
Papavlassopulos, Nikolas; Keppler, David
The paper has two parts. In the first part we offer a definition of well-being which makes life expectancy an explicit variable. We recognize the importance of happiness as a significant aspect of any definition of well-being, but we side-step the issue of what determines its level or how to measure it, and concentrate instead on the consequences…
Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama
Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…
Liaquat, Sidra; Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
The purpose of this study was to address the importance of spiritual well-being and hope among cancer patients diagnosed with its different stages. Through stratified sampling techniques, 120 cancer patients from four stages evenly divided into male and female participated in this study. Spiritual Well-being Scale (Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982)…
Stephenson, Raquel Chapin
This article describes a community art therapy program that was designed to promote health and well-being in old age. Observations of diverse participant interactions in the nondirective therapy studio over the course of 6 years revealed the benefits of art making and how it may influence well-being during the process of advancing age. Program…
Ross, Scott W.; Romer, Natalie; Horner, Robert H.
Teacher well-being has become a major issue in the United States with increasing diversity and demands across classrooms and schools. With this in mind, the current study analyzed the relationship between outcomes of teacher well-being, including burnout and efficacy, and the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and…
This article critically analyzes under-acknowledged influences on the recent turn toward emotions, happiness, and well-being in higher education generally and in writing studies specifically: positive psychology (the science of happiness) and positive education (teaching well-being). I provide an overview of their primary features and complicate…
Visser, Sanne Siete; Bailey, Ajay; Meijering, Louise
This article explores how Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands enhance their gendered social well-being. We provide an in-depth view of gender-specific places and relations that shape the social well-being of migrants, focusing on place-based lived experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews and
Carvalho, Vânia Sofia; Chambel, Maria José
This article aims to analyze work-to-family conflict (WFC) and enrichment (WFE) profiles related to job characteristics and well-being at work and general well-being. A cross-sectional survey data of 1885 employees was analyzed. The Latent Profile Analysis revealed that the five-profile solution exhibited strong statistical significance (p > .001). ANCOVAs were performed to analyze the relationship of the identified profiles with job characteristics and well-being. Employees in the Beneficial profile had the best perception of job characteristics (lowest demands and the highest control and support) and the highest well-being, and those in the Harmful profile had the lowest job characteristics perceptions and the lowest well-being. Through a comparison of the Moderate Active profile and the Moderate Harmful profile, WFE was found to buffer the effects of the WFC on well-being at work (burnout; engagement) and on general well-being (i.e., health perceptions). The promotion of WFE through higher job autonomy, job support, and fewer demands is a crucial aspect to consider. This study helps to consolidate the work-family balance typology and its effects on employees' well-being, and broadens this framework to consider job characteristics.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Kasser, Tim
Happiness and ecological well-being are often portrayed as conflictual pursuits, but they may actually be complementary. In samples of adolescents (Study 1) and adults (Study 2), we tested this proposition and examined the role of three factors in promoting both subjective well-being (SWB) and ecologically responsible behavior (ERB). In both…
Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…
Schick, Vanessa R.; Zucker, Alyssa N.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
Feminists have argued that traditional gender norms can obstruct women's sexual well-being (Amaro, 1995; Morokoff, 2000; Tolman, 2006; Walker, 1997). Therefore, we expected feminist ideology, by virtue of this critique, to be associated with women's sexual subjectivity and sexual well-being. To test this model, we analyzed data from a survey of…
Wu, Ho-tang; Chou, Mei-ju; Chen, Wei-hung; Tu, Chin-Tang
This research aims to analyze the correlation between family support, love attitude, and well-being of junior high school students. After analyzing related literature, it is found that demographic variables like gender, grade, family structure, socioeconomic position have difference in perception of well-being. In addition, family support and love…
Maybury, Karol K.
This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway…
Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical we
Fernandes, Liliana; Mendes, Americo; Teixeira, Aurora A. C.
Research on indicators related to the state of child well-being is a growing field that has experienced several changes over time. The growing supply of data on children, as well as the need to facilitate conclusions and to track trends, has led researchers to develop a number of child well-being indexes. This paper critically reviews the most…
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Full Text Available Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world′s poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being, and the central importance of context and relational aspects of well-being. The review is of particular interest to those engaged in the post-2015 development agenda.
Full Text Available The article assesses well-being in the Czech Republic compared to other Visegrad countries (Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and neighbouring Germany and Austria. By employing various approaches designed by several international organisations it takes an aggregate perspective to assess both the current well-being and its sustainability into the future. All employed indicators that relate to current well-being evaluate the well-being in the Czech Republic as moderate among the OECD countries. The results indicate that the position in well-being rankings improves with the growing number of dimensions or subjective factors included in the well-being measure, mainly due to the reduction in relative importance of income dimension and higher emphasis on the multidimensionality and complexity of well-being. In the case of sustainability, large differences can be identified in evaluation stemming from Happy Planet Index and Sustainable Society Index perspective. Although both of them agree on unfavourable situation as regards environmental sustainability in the Czech Republic, different accent on economic area alters the final result substantially. The analysis shows that for any well-being assessment, the choice of indicators is crucial and a large portion of caution is necessary when interpreting these.
Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.
We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We arg
Ramanathan, Subha; O'Brien, Catherine; Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle
Background: A pan-Canadian School Travel Planning intervention promoted active school travel (AST). A novel component was exploring emotion, well-being, and travel mode framed by the concept of "sustainable happiness." Relationships between travel mode and emotions, parent perceptions of their child's travel mode on well-being, and…
Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.
In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as a
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil
This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…
Background: Young females have been found to out-perform males in terms of grades and university degrees in many studies. At the same time, young women seem to exhibit lower levels of well-being compared with men. Interestingly, little work has evaluated the interplay between educational success and well-being. However, antecedents and…
The extensive literature on workplace stress, its causes, and the consequences for human health and organizational effectiveness, is being complemented by a growing, alternative emphasis on employees' well-being. However, in education (where well-being is particularly at risk) sustained examples of positive organizational approaches, rather than…
Cummings, Sherry M.
Examines the psychological well-being of elderly assisted-living residents and factors associated with well-being. Depression, life satisfaction, and demographic, health, and social support variables were measured through interviews. A sizeable minority of the residents reported high levels of depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction.…
Jelicic, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Passchier, J.
Objective. - The aim of this study was to examine two components of psychological well-being - life satisfaction and affective well-being - in community-dwelling elderly with (n = 321) and without chronic headache (n = 4955). Methods. - A checklist of chronic; medical conditions was used to determin
Petts, Richard J
Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.
Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is a major public health problem. Little is known about the spiritual well-being and its relationship with quality of life (QOL in Iranian Muslim patients with diabetes. This study investigated the spiritual well-being and QOL of Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes and the association between spiritual well-being, QOL, and depression. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done among 203 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran. Quality of life and spiritual well-being were measured using the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2. Descriptive analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment. Results. The mean QOL was 61.00 (SD = 9.97 and the mean spiritual well-being was 30.59 (SD = 6.14. Sixty-four percent of our studied population had depressive disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between all QOL subscales and meaning, peace, and total spiritual well-being score. Conclusion. The results of this study showed poor QOL and spiritual well-being and high prevalence of depression in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes compared to other studies’ findings especially western studies. This indicates the need for psychosocial and spiritual support in caring for Iranian patients with diabetes.
Ryan, Rebecca M.; Kalil, Ariel; Leininger, Lindsey
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 1,162) and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (N = 1,308), we estimate associations between material and instrumental support available to low-income mothers and young children's socioemotional well-being. In multivariate OLS models, we find…
Five holistic health concepts can be incorporated into physical education teaching: (1) integration of the whole person; (2) stress management techniques; (3) establishing a balanced, centered perspective through re-education; (4) awareness training; and (5) responsibility for personal well-being. Well-being is viewed from a physical, mental, and…
Dunn, Laura B.; Iglewicz, Alana; Moutier, Christine
Objective: This article proposes and illustrates a conceptual model of medical student well-being. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical student stress, coping, and well-being and developed a model of medical student coping termed the "coping reservoir." Results: The reservoir can be replenished or drained by various aspects of…
Groenewegen, P.P.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vries, de S.; Verheij, R.A.
Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safe
Full Text Available The present study’s aims are twofold: to introduce job insecurity research in Peru, and to investigate the relationship between job insecurity and a broad range of well-being indicators, including optimal and impaired, and general and work-related well-being. We hypothesise that job insecurity (1 relates negatively to work-related optimal well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, career satisfaction and work engagement and positively to work-related impaired well-being (i.e., burnout, and (2 negatively to general optimal well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positively to general impaired well-being (i.e., psychological distress. In 2008, we administered questionnaires to employees from eight organizations based in Metropolitan Lima, yielding a convenience sample of 651 respondents. We used hierarchical regression analyses and controlled for organizations, age, gender, job-related (e.g., occupational position and family-related (e.g., financial contribution to the household variables. Results supported our hypotheses. We conclude that job insecurity shows a strong association with impaired well-being. A particular strength of this study is that it is situated in Lima, Peru, and in a context of economic growth. It also contributes to understand the association of job insecurity with work-related well-being by including rarely studied variables such as career satisfaction, work engagement and burnout.
Toftum, Jørn; Wargocki, Pawel
This study examines the effect on classroom indoor climate, pupil well-being, school performance, and energy consumption of four different retrofit solutions to improve classroom ventilation.......This study examines the effect on classroom indoor climate, pupil well-being, school performance, and energy consumption of four different retrofit solutions to improve classroom ventilation....
Tran, Thanh V.; And Others
Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…
An adequate theory of happiness or subjective well-being (SWB) needs to link at least three sets of variables: stable person characteristics (including personality traits), life events and measures of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affects) and ill-being (anxiety, depression, negative affects). It also needs to be based on long-term data…
Full Text Available Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative.
Full Text Available Researchers have tried to investigate multiple factors affecting employees' social, emotional, and psychological well-being. In this study particularly, nurses' emotional and psychological well-being is considered. Of most important factors affecting well-being in place of work has known to be busy work and stress, constructive and destructive emotions, and psychological capital which. Present study considered to test a developed model of psychological capital, constructive and destructive emotions, stress, anxiety, and depression as antecedents of well-being. 296 nurses took part in the survey, using path analysis method hypotheses were tested, and the proposed model was evaluated. Results indicated that nurses' high psychological capital increases their constructive emotions, reduces destructive emotions and eventually increase their well-being. The role of destructive emotions was more prominent in increasing wellbeing as well. Furthermore, stress had an incremental influence on well-being. In general, research results emphasize the need for more attention to the components of psychological capital, and intervention and coping strategies. The conclusions of a more detailed is that to improve nurses' well-being the more emphasize should be on decreasing destructive emotions than increasing constructive ones. In addition, keeping an optimal level of stress is necessary for good functioning and improvement of overall well-being.
Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg
Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
This Kids Count data book examines state and national trends from the late 1980s in the well being of children in the United States. The statistical portrait is based on 10 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) teen accidental death, homicide, and suicide rates;…
Groenewegen, Peter P.; Berg, Agnes E. van den; Vries, Sjerp de; Verheij, Robert A.
Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safe
Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…
Morgan, Melissa L.; Vera, Elizabeth M.; Gonzales, Rufus R.; Conner, Wendy; Vacek, Kim Bena; Coyle, Laura Dick
This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being criteria (negative affect, positive affect, and subjective well-being) and individual, family, friend, school, and neighborhood predictor variables in 159 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents. Results indicated that negative affect was significantly predicted by family variables,…
Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…
Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita
There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…
Turkdogan, Turgut; Duru, Erdinc
The aim of this study is to examine the role of fulfillment level of university students' basic needs in predicting the level of their subjective well being. The participants were 627 students (56% female, 44% male) attending different faculties of Pamukkale University. In this study, subjective well being was measured with Life Satisfaction Scale…
Fiorelli, Julie A.; Russ, Sandra W.
Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child's development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect--positive mood--and life satisfaction)…
Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.
Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.
Wang, Peigang; VanderWeele, Tyler J.
Data from the China General Social Survey are used in order to investigate the factors that are related to the subjective well-being of Chinese urban residents. Factors predicting higher subjective well-being include female gender, high-income class, marriage, employment, fashionable consumption, less sense of relative deprivation, and party…
Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy
The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…
Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim
Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…
Carr, Deborah; Freedman, Vicki A; Cornman, Jennifer C; Schwarz, Norbert
The authors examined associations between marital quality and both general life satisfaction and experienced (momentary) well-being among older husbands and wives, the relative importance of own versus spouse's marital appraisals for well-being, and the extent to which the association between own marital appraisals and well-being is moderated by spouse's appraisals. Data are from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time daily diary supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 722). One's own marital satisfaction is a sizable and significant correlate of life satisfaction and momentary happiness; associations do not differ significantly by gender. The authors did not find a significant association between spouse's marital appraisals and own well-being. However, the association between husband's marital quality and life satisfaction is buoyed when his wife also reports a happy marriage, yet flattened when his wife reports low marital quality. Implications for understanding marital dynamics and well-being in later life are discussed.
Domínguez-Guedea, Miriam Teresa; Garcia, Abraham Ocejo
The current study analyzed the influence of burden on the well-being of caregivers by exploring the mediating role of sociocultural and family factors. The study sample comprised 386 Mexican caregivers between ages 19 and 87 (mean age = 49.05; SD =12.41 years). The results from the current research showed that burden scores are negatively associated with well-being, sociocultural, and family scores. However, the effect of burden on subjective well-being is minimized by the mediation effect of sociocultural and family resources between burden and well-being. The complexities of sociocultural and family influences should be taken into account to change the prevailing individualistic approach within the current stress and family caregiver well-being paradigm.
Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Møller, Kurt
The relationship between housing and the well-being of older people is a topic of growing interest. The focus is often on a specific aspect of housing, for example accessibility, location or interior design, and the perspective taken is typically that of a specific discipline. The influence...... of housing on the well-being of older people is a multidimensional phenomenon, however. A large number of different factors influence well-being, and these different factors interact and are often interdependent. The aim of this project is to develop a model for a multidisciplinary approach to investigating...... the relationship between housing and the well-being of dependent elderly. This conceptual framework should encompass the many different factors that influence well-being as well as the interactions between these factors, and at the same time recognise the diversity of dependent elderly. The project is part...
Verduyn, Philippe; Lee, David Seungjae; Park, Jiyoung; Shablack, Holly; Orvell, Ariana; Bayer, Joseph; Ybarra, Oscar; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan
Prior research indicates that Facebook usage predicts declines in subjective well-being over time. How does this come about? We examined this issue in 2 studies using experimental and field methods. In Study 1, cueing people in the laboratory to use Facebook passively (rather than actively) led to declines in affective well-being over time. Study 2 replicated these findings in the field using experience-sampling techniques. It also demonstrated how passive Facebook usage leads to declines in affective well-being: by increasing envy. Critically, the relationship between passive Facebook usage and changes in affective well-being remained significant when controlling for active Facebook use, non-Facebook online social network usage, and direct social interactions, highlighting the specificity of this result. These findings demonstrate that passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being.
Full Text Available The importance of social support for psychological well-being has been aptly highlighted in epidemiological and psychological research. However, it is not clear from the existing research whether gender differences in structural (relationship status, network size, frequency of interactions with friends and functional (support satisfaction aspects of social support exist and -if they do- to what extent they affect males’ and females’ well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses of crossectional data from a Greek community sample showed that support satisfaction was an important predictor of well-being outcomes in males whereas several structural indicators were predictors of different well-being outcomes in females. Females’ anxiety, perceived stress, and loneliness were adversely affected by frequency of interaction with acquaintances. The results are discussed with regard to gender-role differences that may be underlying the social support effects on well-being, as well as related cultural values.
Doralúcia Gil da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.
Kathleen T. Galvin
Full Text Available This article offers a conceptual framework by which different kinds and levels of well-being can be named, and as such, provides a foundation for a resource-oriented approach in situations of illness and vulnerability (rather than a deficit-oriented approach. Building on a previous paper that articulated the philosophical foundations of an existential theory of well-being (“Dwelling-mobility”, we show here how the theory can be further developed towards practice-relevant concerns. We introduce 18 kinds of well-being that are intertwined and inter-related, and consider how each emphasis can lead to the formulation of resources that have the potential to give rise to well-being as a felt experience. By focusing on a much wider range of well-being possibilities, practitioners may find new directions for care that are not just literal but also at an existential level.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the determinants and intercorrelations between teachers’ and pupils’ well-being and motivation in the school context. Based on self-determination theory and job demands-resources theory, we hypothesize that (a teachers’ weekly self-concordant work motivation promotes teachers’ weekly work-related well-being (i.e. work-related positive affect and work engagement, and (b that a crossover effect of teachers’ weekly work-related well-being on pupils’ weekly school-related well-being exists, while controlling for trait-level teachers’ antecedents of trait-level teachers’ work-related well-being: job demands and job resources. A quantitative weekly diary methodology is employed. Participants are primary school pupils and their teachers from six European countries.
Jensen, Anne Holm; Bølling, Mads; Nielsen, Glen;
and academic skills and well-being. However, there is a lack of research on pupils’ own assessment of their subjective well-being, as an indication of how pupils perceive EOtC. Therefore, we aim to investigate how academically strong and academically challenged pupils respectively experience EOtC, and how...... this influences their well-being in school. During the school year 2014/15, a Danish 5th grade school class participated in EOtC twice a week. Five academically strong and five academically challenged pupils were sampled on the basis of their test results in reading (mother tongue) and math. Qualitative...... studies investigating well-being in outdoor learning environment, we expect that EOtC is positively experienced among all pupils corresponding with greater well-being. However, we could also expect that among academically challenged pupils, a more unstructured activity based learning environment may lead...
Henrique Miguel Pereira
Full Text Available Ecosystem services are essential for human well-being, but the links between ecosystem services and human well-being are complex, diverse, context-dependent, and complicated by the need to consider different spatial and temporal scales to assess them properly. We present the results of a study in the rural community of Sistelo in northern Portugal that formed part of the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The main purpose of our study was to assess the linkages between human well-being and ecosystem services at the local level, as perceived by the community. We used a range of tools that included participatory rural appraisal and rapid rural appraisal as well as other field methods such as direct observation, familiarization and participation in activities, semistructured interviews, trend lines, well-being ranking, and other ranking and scoring exercises. Sistelo has a unique landscape of agricultural terraces that are now being abandoned because of the depopulation of the region, a common trend in mountainous rural areas of Europe. From the community perspective, some components of well-being such as material well-being have been improving, whereas some ecosystem services, e.g., food production, have been declining. Although a few of the local criteria for well-being are closely related to local ecosystem services, most of them are not. People recognize many of the services provided by ecosystems, in particular, provisioning, cultural, and regulating services, although they feel that provisioning services are the most important for well-being. It is apparent that, for the Sistelo community, there is an increasing disconnect between local well-being and at least some local ecosystem services. This disconnect is associated with greater freedom of choice at the local level, which gives the local inhabitants the power to find substitutes for ecosystem services. The consequences of land abandonment for human well-being and ecosystem services
Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Sourosh, Maryam; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Nejabat, Mahmoud; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi
ABSTRACT Background: According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution), and some related factors in the school of nursing and midwifery students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between Julys to December 2015 and comprised 346 students in the school of nursing and midwifery in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Social well-being, socio-demographic status and physical activity were measured by valid questionnaires. Univariate linear regression analysis, multiple imputation method, ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used as different statistical methods. The P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean score of social well-being was 50. The minimum and maximum scores of social well-being were 20 to 100. Married students had higher social well-being than single students in univariate linear regression (Beta: 2.111, 95% CI: (0.387 to 3.738), P=0.017). Also, social integration had higher scores in married students (P=0.015). Social actualization was higher in male students (P=0.015); on the other hand, social contribution was higher in female students (P=0.026). Conclusion: The results of our study showed that social well-being status of students in this research was not satisfactory. Designing and conducting programs for promotion of social well-being, for example preparing facilities for marriage of students, can be helpful. Evaluation of social well-being in students of other schools with multicenter studies seems to be useful. PMID:28097181
Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Full signalling of oestrous behaviour is vital for proper timing of AI and good reproductive performance, currently jeopardized by shorter observations of oestrus behaviour. Alternative indicators including progesterone (P4) recordings on-farm are tested. Oestrous intensity of 37 heifers (H) and 30 1st-parity dairy cows (C1) either Swedish Red (32) or Swedish Holstein (35) with high genetic potential for milk production, was studied in relation to AI. P4-levels in blood or milk were monitored...
The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between (psychol......The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between...... (psychological) happiness and (normative) well-being; to wit, happiness may be understood as playing a central part in (1) a formal theory of well-being, (2) a substantive theory of well-being or (3) as an indicator for well-being. I note that, in the relevant literature, happiness is mostly discussed in terms...... of either (1) or (2). In this paper, I attempt to motivate a shift of focus away from such accounts of happiness and towards (3), i.e. its epistemic role. When examined in connection to (normative) well-being, (psychological states of) happiness and unhappiness should be understood as psychological states...
Ford, Brett Q; Dmitrieva, Julia O; Heller, Daniel; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Grossmann, Igor; Tamir, Maya; Uchida, Yukiko; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Floerke, Victoria A; Uhrig, Meike; Bokhan, Tatiana; Mauss, Iris B
Pursuing happiness can paradoxically impair well-being. Here, the authors propose the potential downsides to pursuing happiness may be specific to individualistic cultures. In collectivistic (vs. individualistic) cultures, pursuing happiness may be more successful because happiness is viewed--and thus pursued--in relatively socially engaged ways. In 4 geographical regions that vary in level of collectivism (United States, Germany, Russia, East Asia), we assessed participants' well-being, motivation to pursue happiness, and to what extent they pursued happiness in socially engaged ways. Motivation to pursue happiness predicted lower well-being in the United States, did not predict well-being in Germany, and predicted higher well-being in Russia and in East Asia. These cultural differences in the link between motivation to pursue happiness and well-being were explained by cultural differences in the socially engaged pursuit of happiness. These findings suggest that culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness is linked with better or worse well-being, perhaps via how people pursue happiness.
Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus
Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience--the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being.
Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío
The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.
Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo
In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.
Full Text Available In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.
Barr, Sebastian M; Budge, Stephanie L; Adelson, Jill L
This study examined transgender community belongingness as a mediator between strength of transgender identity and well-being. A total of 571 transgender adults (n = 209 transgender women, n = 217 transgender men, and n = 145 nonbinary-identified individuals) completed an online survey assessing transgender community belongingness, strength of transgender identity (operationalized as the extent to which a person self-categorizes their identity as transgender and the extent to which they believe their gender transition to be important to their self-definition), and well-being (using measures of self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. When controlling for participants' income, age, and stage of gender transition, transgender community belongingness fully mediated the relationship between strength of transgender identity and well-being. Strength of transgender identity was indirectly and positively related to well-being through community belongingness, but was not directly related to well-being. Results suggest that transgender community belongingness is an important construct in the mental health of transgender people. The strength of a person's transgender identity also appears to be a significant construct in transgender people's well-being via its relationship with transgender community belongingness. Implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Barendregt, Charlotte S; van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem of male adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the transition out of secure residential care was studied. Adolescents ( N = 172) were assessed three times with 6 months between each assessment. The sample comprised adolescents who were admitted throughout the entire study ( n = 116) and who had been discharged at 6/12 months follow-up ( n = 56). General well-being and self-esteem were stable concepts over time. The relation between general well-being and self-esteem differed for both groups. Among the admitted group general well-being positively predicted self-esteem and self-esteem negatively predicted general well-being from Time 2 to Time 3. Among the discharged adolescents, self-esteem at Time 1 positively predicted general well-being at Time 2 and general well-being at Time 2 positively predicted self-esteem at Time 3. Changing social contexts, as well as problems experienced during the transition out of secure care, might affect this relationship.
Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which four factors—acculturation, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and resilience—can explain the well-being of Colombian immigrants in the United States across three waves of immigration (wave 1, from 1945–1964; wave 2, from 1965–1989; and wave 3, from 1990–2008. The results indicate that of the four factors, self-esteem most correlated with and was a predictor of well-being. Participants exhibited high levels of well-being as their level of self-esteem increased. Ethnic identity negatively predicted well-being, especially for men who entered during wave 3; as the extent of their ethnic identity increased, their well-being decreased. Correspondingly, Colombians who entered as political refugees reported a lower level of well-being. This research was groundbreaking in assessing factors contributing to the well-being of Colombian immigrants and assisting in the search for appropriate scales to study this population. Although its results have to be considered with caution, the study opens doors to future research, policies, and programs regarding the mental health assessment and treatment of Colombians in the United States.
Full Text Available In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on “homecoming”. We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of being-in-the-world, as well as a felt sense of what this is like as an experience. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Gegnet (abiding expanse, we characterise the deepest possibility of existential well-being as “dwelling-mobility”. This term indicates both the “adventure” of being called into expansive existential possibilities, as well as “being-at-home-with” what has been given. This deepest possibility of well-being carries with it a feeling of rootedness and flow, peace and possibility. However, we also consider how the separate notions of existential mobility and existential dwelling as discrete emphases can be developed to describe multiple variations of well-being possibilities.
Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H
Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.
Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia
The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1249 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.
Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa
By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being.
Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen
Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
Full Text Available The psychological meaning of happiness is subjective well-being. Nowadays, researches on subjective well-being are increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between adolescents’ subjective well-being and personality traits. This studyincludes 541 (270 females and 271 males adolescents who were between ages 14-18. Satisfaction with Life Scale, Adjective Based Personalitiy Test and Positive-Negative Affect Scale were used for gathering the data. The method of this study was hierarchal reggression analysis. According to results, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neoroticism are the most important traits as a predictors for adolescents’ subjective wellbeing.
Full Text Available This review of scientific literature presents some tendencies, conceptual advances, empirical findings and tests that measure the predictive variables of subjective well-being. It was done through the search in bibliographical database like ProQuest, PsycArticles, Psyctest, OVID SP, books and Thesis. Two types of predictive variables were recognized- internal and external to the individual-. Both of them influence the achievement of the subjective well-being. Besides, the studies and conceptualization about Subjetive well-being and some of the Predictive Variables were analyzed in the conclusion.
A. Campus; Porcu, M
The main aim of this paper is to build up and to analyze a composite indicator, the Happy Planet Index (HPI), as an alternative measure to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in evaluating nations’ well-being. HPI was firstly developed by the New Economic Foundation in July 2006 and it is the first well-being composite indicator that considers in its calculation a subjective measure of well-being - life satisfaction. This work updates the HPI for 178 countries using the most recent available dat...
Giorgio Tavano Blessi
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the independent effect of the spatial proximity of green urban areas upon the individual subjective well-being of the Milan population (Italy. The methodology is based on a survey undertaken in 2010 using a sample of 1,000 of Milan citizens. Univariate and multivariate analyses and GIS localization have been employed in order to rank the major individual well-being determinants and the relationship between citizens and urban green areas. Results show that the residential proximity of citizens to urban green areas seems to have little bearing on individual subjective well-being.
Shek, D T
In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.
Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M
Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one's potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being.
Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L
Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.
Reed, Jan; Richardson, Elsie; Marais, Sandra; Moyle, Wendy
This paper reports on the progress of an international study investigating older people's strategies for maintaining well-being in the UK, Germany, South Africa and Australia. It uses an Appreciative Inquiry framework for investigation.
Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria;
controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, this pattern generally remains robust for most of our cross-sectional and panel analyses. Hence, despite significant heterogeneity in the pattern of well-being across the lifespan within the ECA region, we do not observe high levels of cross-country or cross......sing data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western...... Europe. Although our results generally confirm previous studies’ findings of a U-shaped relation between subjective well-being and age for most of the lifecycle, we also find that well-being in ECA declines again after the 70s, giving rise to an S-shape relation across the entire lifespan. When...
Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Yang, Chongming; Toth, Matthew; Corbitt Rivers, Monica; Carder, Kenneth
Measuring spiritual well-being among clergy is particularly important given the high relevance of God to their lives, and yet its measurement is prone to problems such as ceiling effects and conflating religious behaviors with spiritual well-being. To create a measure of closeness to God for Christian clergy, we tested survey items at two time points with 1,513 United Methodist Church clergy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated support for two, six-item factors: Presence and Power of God in Daily Life, and Presence and Power of God in Ministry. The data supported the predictive and concurrent validity of the two factors and evidenced high reliabilities without ceiling effects. This Clergy Spiritual Well-being Scale may be useful to elucidate the relationship among dimensions of health and well-being in clergy populations.
Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G
This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.
Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain; Dhont, Kristof
The relationship between right-wing ideological attitudes and psychological well-being has been intensively studied. Although some studies supported the hypothesis that right-wing attitudes are negatively related with well-being, other research yielded positive or nonsignificant relationships. We conducted a meta-analysis (total samples = 97, total N = 69,221) of measures of well-being, including positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and intrinsic goal pursuit. The obtained effect sizes were generally weak and nonsignificant, except for a moderate relationship between intrinsic goal pursuit and social dominance orientation. Our results thus do not support previous theories that claim that right-wing attitudes yield substantial relationships with psychological well-being.
Banth, Sudha; Talwar, Charu
Anasakti, a Sanskrit term for traits like non-attachment, equipoise, selfless duty orientation, and effort in the absence of concern for the outcome, can be regarded as a Hindu-ideal cluster of personality traits. The relationship of Anasakti with well-being and the three distinct happiness orientations was explored through a study of 676 college students and a sample of 65 yogic practitioners in India. The findings revealed that the yogic practitioners were markedly higher in Anasakti than the secular population. For the yogic population, there was a large correlation between Anasakti and the Orientation to Meaningful Life, and it accounted for more than 20% of the variance in the regression of Anasakti against all the measures of well-being. The yogic population's scores also correlated with several other measures of well-being. The scores of the secular population were less strongly related to the well-being scores; though, several correlation coefficients were statistically significant.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being
Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R
Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination.
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni
Jamaludin, N L; Sam, D L; Sandal, G M; Adam, A A
What are the factors that predict international students' destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N = 182) and (long-term, N = 214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective well-being for short-term students; and (2) subjective well-being was positively related to destination-loyalty intention for all groups. We found that relatively stable and happy individuals might be important for ensuring destination-loyalty intentions. Results also indicated that personal values that emphasize justice and equity are also important for short-term international students' well-being.
Doctors and psychologists often use 'well-being' and 'quality of life' interchangeably, with quality of health overdetermining both. Insights from virtue ethics and St. Thomas Aquinas challenge this. Well-being has a primary 'eudaimonic' dimension, and an accompanying 'subjective' dimension. The 'eudaimonic' consists in a virtuous way of life in which our affective, cognitive, and other capacities are developed in pursuit of worthwhile aims. The 'subjective' consists in attaining and enjoying the goods necessary and fitting to a full human life. Does health - extended to include mental and physical health - account for the 'eudaimonic'? The result would problematically collapse ethics into medicine, and well-being into health. Rather, it is argued that health is a 'subjective' and not an 'eudaimonic' good, and that to a significant degree eudaimonic well-being can persist amid ill-health. Attending to the eudaimonic dimension helps us to overcome characteristic gaps in 'quality of life' discourse.
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.
Parker, Philip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick; Marshall, Sarah; Sahdra, Baljinder; Kiuru, Noona
Research on adolescence has previously shown that factors like depression and burnout are influenced by friendship groups. Little research, however, has considered whether similar effects are present for variables such as hope and subjective well-being. Furthermore, there is no research that considers whether the degree of hope of an adolescent's friends is associated with well-being over the individual's level of hope. Data were collected in 2012 from a sample of 15-year-olds (N = 1,972; 62% Caucasian; 46% identified as Catholic; 25% had professional parents) from the East Coast of Australia. Findings suggest that individuals from the same friendship group were somewhat similar in hope and well-being. Multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that friendship group hope was significantly related to psychological and social well-being.
Full Text Available Integrating theories of adult attachment and well-being at the workplace, the present study tested the role of attachment style in predicting work-related well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job involvement, over and above dispositional trait measures (emotional traits and work-related traits. A sample of workers took part in a correlational study that explored the relationships among a adult attachment, b emotional traits, c work-related traits, and d work-related well-being indices. The results showed that both secure and anxious attachment style explained workers’ job involvement, whereas the secure and avoidant attachment styles explained workers’ job satisfaction. The current findings thus confirm and expand the literature's emphasis on studying the variables and processes that underlie people's mental health in the work setting, and have implications for assessing and promoting well-being in the workplace.
Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F
The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.
Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria
sing data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western...... Europe. Although our results generally confirm previous studies’ findings of a U-shaped relation between subjective well-being and age for most of the lifecycle, we also find that well-being in ECA declines again after the 70s, giving rise to an S-shape relation across the entire lifespan. When...... controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, this pattern generally remains robust for most of our cross-sectional and panel analyses. Hence, despite significant heterogeneity in the pattern of well-being across the lifespan within the ECA region, we do not observe high levels of cross-country or cross...
Bülent Baki TELEF
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether subjective well-being of high school students is predicted by their academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy. The sample of this study consisted of 311 high school students of whom 64% (n= 199 were girls and 36% (n= 112 were boys. Data were collected by the Self-Efficacy Scale for Children, the Positive and Negative Experience Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Scale and analyzed through multiple regression analysis. Results showed that high school students’ academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy explained 19% of variance in their subjective well-being and predicted their subjective well-being. Activities performed by school counselors to increase students’ academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy levels are thought to contribute to their subjective well-being.
Jackowska, Marta; Brown, Jennie; Ronaldson, Amy; Steptoe, Andrew
This randomised controlled experiment tested whether a brief subjective well-being intervention would have favourable effects on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine function and on sleep. We compared 2 weeks of a gratitude intervention with an active control (everyday events reporting) and no treatment conditions in 119 young women. The treatment elicited increases in hedonic well-being, optimism and sleep quality along with decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in subjective well-being were correlated with increased sleep quality and reductions in blood pressure, but there were no relationships with cortisol. This brief intervention suggests that subjective well-being may contribute towards lower morbidity and mortality through healthier biological function and restorative health behaviours.
Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor
Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective
Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A
Dispositional private self-focused attention variables such as insight, internal self-awareness (ISA), and self-reflectiveness (SR) have been found to relate to well-being. The present study sought to determine which dispositional private self-focused attention variables have the most predictive power for subjective well-being as measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985) and for a eudaemonic form of well-being as measured by the Psychological Well-Being Scale (C. D. Ryff, 1989). A total of 121 college student participants completed an online version of the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Psychological WellBeing Scale. Results of a multivariate regression analysis using the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised's (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985) subfactors of SR and ISA, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire's (P. D. Trapnell & J. D. Campbell, 1999) subscales of Rumination and Reflection, and the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale's (A. M. Grant, J. Franklin, & P. Langford, 2002) Self-Reflection and Insight subscales revealed that the Insight subscale was the only statistically significant predictor (a positive predictor) for all 6 dimensions of psychological well-being. Insight was also the only significant positive predictor for satisfaction with life. The Rumination subscale was a significant negative predictor for 3 dimensions of psychological well-being, and the Reflection subscale was a significant positive predictor for 1 dimension. Implications of dispositional self-awareness variables and their relation to dimensions of well-being are discussed.
Full Text Available We propose and construct an indicator of labour market well-being in Poland for the year 2013. The indicator is positively related to the degree of civilizational welfare, social welfare, material welfare and psychological well-being in Poland. We conclude that ameliorating the labour market situation improves the quality of the public’s life. The link between our labour market indicator and the total fertility rate turned out to be statistically insignificant.
Sola-Carmona, Juan J; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M
The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life.
Juan Jesus Sola-Carmona
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = -.622, p = .001 and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = -.578, p = .001. A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = .408, p = .001, and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = .417, p = .001. Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction.Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety and increasing their satisfaction with life.
An important goal to psychological research is to advance knowledge on development and sustenance of positive mental health. This study is the first large scale twin study investigating the genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in both psychological well-being and distress during the developmental juncture of young adulthood. The study also aims to illuminate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on indicators of well-being and distress are overlappin...
Wood, S; Menezes, L. M.
Studies on the impact of high-performance work systems on employees' well-being are emerging but the underlying theory remains weak. This paper attempts to develop theory of the effects on well-being of four dimensions of high-performance work systems: enriched jobs, high involvement management, employee voice, and motivational supports. Hypothesized associations are tested using multilevel models and data from Britain's Workplace Employment Relations Survey of 2004 (WERS2004). Results show t...
Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O’Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael
Objective This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children’s school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Methods Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. Results The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. Conclusion The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments. PMID:28095505
Lintonen, Tomi; Konu, A I
For years, the WHO has, in accordance with the 'settings' idea, encouraged a whole school approach when trying to promote health and well-being in schools. This developmental study analyses the implementation and pilot phase experiences of a holistic well-being evaluation tool for schools, the School Well-being Profile, on the Internet. The Profile is based on the theoretically established School Well-being Model. The School Well-being Profile consists of electronic survey forms and an automatic facility that analyses and produces results on the data in graphic and numeric form. After the data has been entered, the primary user within the school can immediately view and print out the results. The figures can be compared with the averages of all schools to pinpoint areas where well-being is different from that in the other schools. The Profile resides on a Finnish National Board of Education server (www2.edu.fi/hyvinvointiprofiili) and its use is free of charge for all schools. The Profile became popular in its first year: it was used by 33 primary schools, 28 lower secondary schools and 9 upper secondary schools with a total of 9,169 respondents. Overall, 94% of the students and 99% of the personnel expressed that it had been at least fairly easy to fill in the questionnaire. The paper shows that theoretical research in health promotion can effectively be put into practice using information technology tools. The project that produced the School Well-being Profile ended in 2004, yet the WWW-Profile continues to gain new users. The school administrators, personnel and students have found the Profile easy to use and worth the time and effort invested by the school. The strategies adopted in the design and dissemination of the Profile seem to have been successful in providing a sustainable resource to contribute to the future promotion of well-being in schools.
Annamaria eDi Fabio; Letizia ePalazzeschi
Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM), the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction...
Diann S. Eley; Robert Cloninger, C.; Lucie Walters; Caroline Laurence; Robyn Synnott; David Wilkinson
Objective. The health and well being of medical doctors is vital to their longevity and safe practice. The concept of resilience is recognised as a key component of well being and is an important factor in medical training to help doctors learn to cope with challenge, stress, and adversity. This study examined the relationship of resilience to personality traits and resilience in doctors in order to identify the key traits that promote or impair resilience. Methods. A cross sectional cohort o...
Full Text Available Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248, any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158, and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222. The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.
Kern, Margaret L.; Waters, Lea E.; Adler, Alejandro; White, Mathew A.
Seligman recently introduced the PERMA model with five core elements of psychological well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. We empirically tested this multidimensional theory with 516 Australian male students (age 13–18). From an extensive well-being assessment, we selected a subset of items theoretically relevant to PERMA. Factor analyses recovered four of the five PERMA elements, and two ill-being factors (depression and anxiety). We then exp...
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.
Adolescents today are confronted with the compounded stressors of life in our high-pressured society and the cognitive, physiological, and emotional changes characteristic of this stage of development. To explore ways to promote well-being in this population, mindfulness, defined as paying attention in the moment in an intentional and purposeful way, was examined in terms of its associations with aspects of emotional well being. It has been reported to have positive effects on emotional well-...
Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David
Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–oﬄine social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through oﬄine social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–oﬄine social contexts. PMID:28197114
Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D
Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.
Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Likitpornswan, Orawan; Triamchaisri, Somporn K; Chandanasotthi, Pimsupa
This study aimed to examine job strain and family well-being among public health nurses. A total of 239 public health nurses participated in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the association of each factor with family well-being. It was found that there was a correlation between job strain and family well-being. Individual and family factors were also associated with family well-being. In all, 67% of nurses had a high rating for family well-being. A large portion of nurses belonged to the category of "active job" (51.5%). More than 50% of nurses were exposed to high "job demand" and 97.5% were in high "job control." The study suggests that nurses should be promoted with the ability to be in authority and display decision-making skills and should receive support and encouragement from supervisors and coworkers in order to improve family well-being.
Walter, Zoe C; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A; Parsell, Cameron; Johnstone, Melissa
People who experience homelessness face many challenges and disadvantages that negatively impact health and well-being and form barriers to achieving stable housing. Further, people who are homeless often have limited social connections and support. Building on previous research that has shown the beneficial effect of group identification on health and well-being, the current study explores the relationship between two social identity processes - multiple group memberships and service identification - and well-being and positive housing outcomes. Measures were collected from 76 participants while they were residing in a homeless accommodation service (T1) and again 2-4 weeks after leaving the service (or 3 months after T1 if participants had not left the service). Mediation analyses revealed that multiple group memberships and service identification at T1 independently predicted well-being at T2 indirectly, via social support. Further, both social identity processes also indirectly predicted housing outcomes via social support. The implications of these findings are twofold. First, while belonging to multiple social groups may provide a pathway to gaining social support and well-being, group belonging may not necessarily be beneficial to achieve stable housing. Second, fostering identification with homeless services may be particularly important as a source of support that contributes to well-being.
The relationship between architecture, housing and well-being of elderly and frail people is a topic of growing interest to consultants and political decision makers working on welfare solutions for elderly citizens. The objective of the research presented here is to highlight which well-being el......The relationship between architecture, housing and well-being of elderly and frail people is a topic of growing interest to consultants and political decision makers working on welfare solutions for elderly citizens. The objective of the research presented here is to highlight which well......-being elements in the nursing home environments that contribute to enhancing the well-being of the elderly and how these elements is ensured attention during a decision making process related to the design and the establishing of nursing homes. With basis in four Danish representative case studies, various case...... data from the decision making process are collected, covering the planning, the design and the realization of four newly built nursing homes in Denmark. The case studies clearly shows that the architectural well-being elements appear weak in the decision making process, when they are conflicting...
Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D
This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that older U.S. adults. Partial support was found: older adults in Japan showed higher scores on personal growth compared to midlife adults, whereas the opposite age pattern was found in the United States. However, purpose in life showed lower scores for older adults in both cultural contexts. Interpersonal well-being, as hypothesized, was rated significantly higher, relative to the overall well-being, among Japanese compared to U.S. respondents, but only among younger adults. Women in both cultures showed higher interpersonal well-being, but also greater negative affect compared with men. Suggestions for future inquiries to advance understanding of aging and well-being in distinct cultural contexts are detailed.
Victor, Karen; Barnard, Antoni
Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees' work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (mal)adjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in.
Full Text Available Happiness is a concept which has become of high importance for the past years because of its role in psychological well-being and the social health of people. The present research has been conducted to study the role of happiness in predicting the psychological well-being of male athlete students. A number of 100 physically active students were chosen through multistep cluster sampling out of male physically active students in the city of Miyandoab in the academic year 1391-92. They responded to the short scale depression-happiness of Joseph et al. (with the stability of 0.69 and Ryff’s scale of psychological well-being (with the stability of 0.68 having six components of self-acceptance, environmental mastery, positive relations with others, purpose in life, personal growth and independence. The results showed that there is a relationship between happiness and well-being (r = 0.53. Also, happiness, in a positive and meaningful way, predicts changes pertaining to psychological well-being (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.282. Enhancing and improving happiness along with physical and sportive activities may help increase psychological well-being of students.
Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S
To assess zoo elephants' welfare using objective population-level indices, we sought data from zoos and other protected populations (potential "benchmarks") on variables affected by poor well-being. Such data were available on fecundity, potential fertility, stillbirths, infant mortality, adult survivorship, and stereotypic behavior. Most of these can also be affected by factors unrelated to well-being; therefore, for each, we analyzed the potential role of these other factors. Population-level comparisons generally indicate poor reproduction, and poor infant and adult survivorship in zoos compared with benchmark populations (with some differences between zoo regions and over time). Stereotypic behavior also occurs in c. 60% of zoo elephants; as the population-level welfare index least open to alternative interpretations, this represents the strongest evidence that well-being is/has been widely compromised. Poor well-being is a parsimonious explanation for the diverse range of population-level effects seen, but to test this hypothesis properly, data are now needed on, for example, potential confounds that can affect these indices (to partition out effects of factors unrelated to well-being), and causes of the observed temporal effects, and differences between species and zoo regions. Regardless of whether such additional data implicate poor well-being, our findings suggest that elephant management has generally been sub-optimal. We also discuss the selection and utilization of benchmark data, as a useful future approach for evaluating such issues.
Schiffrin, Holly; Edelman, Anna; Falkenstern, Melissa; Stewart, Cassandra
Social support provided by interpersonal relationships is one of the most robust correlates of well-being. Self-disclosure serves as a basic building block of these relationships. With the rapid growth of the Internet in recent years, the question remains how self-disclosure, and subsequently relationships and well-being, differ when people communicate over the Internet rather than in person. The purpose of this article is to describe current Internet usage patterns as well as explore the association of Internet usage and well-being. Additionally, it directly compares the perceived benefits of face-to-face communication and computer-mediated communication. A questionnaire was administered to 99 undergraduates to measure Internet usage patterns, communication partners, self-disclosure, extraversion, and subjective well-being. Although Internet communication was found to be common, individuals perceived computer-mediated communication to be less useful than face-to-face communication. In addition, increased Internet usage was associated with decreased well-being. Implications are discussed in terms of a new Internet paradox in which people increasingly use the Internet for communication, although they perceive it to be less beneficial than face-to-face interactions and it is associated with reduced well-being.
Saul Neves de Jesus
Full Text Available This study investigated the immediate influence of a stress management training on teachers’ and physicians’ motivational (professional objective, intrinsic motivation, efficacy expectancies and well-being related outcomes (positive well-being, emotional exhaustion, work distress, irrational beliefs using meta-analytical techniques. In an action-research perspective, the stress management training program was implemented in several groups of physicians and teachers, in Portugal and in Brazil (n=144. It was found that, at all the samples where this intervention was implemented, an increase occurred on all motivational indicators and on positive well-being, and a decrease on negative well-being outcomes; nevertheless, not all obtained results are statistically significant. The largest impact of the implemented training program was at positive well-being at work, with a large effect size (d+=.81, and at the irrational beliefs, with a medium effect size (d+=.61. These results suggest the short-term benefits of this intervention on teachers’ and physicians’ motivation and well-being.
Chae, Gang-Seok; Chang, Moonyoung
[Purpose] This study was performed to evaluate the occupational performance of stroke patients and their environment by occupational self-assessment and to investigate the relationship between occupational performance and well-being. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled ninety-two stroke patients who were receiving occupational therapy at a general hospital, a rehabilitation hospital, or a community welfare center in the cities of Busan and Gimhae, Republic of Korea. Occupational performance and well-being were investigated with Occupational Self-Assessment Version 2.2 and the Personal Well-being Index-Adult. [Results] Analysis of the correlation between occupational performance as assessed by the "Myself" and "My Environment" sections of Occupational Self-Assessment Version 2.2 and well-being revealed moderate positive correlation for both sections. [Conclusion] The relationship between occupational performance and well-being was identified. Further studies are needed to reveal whether improvement of occupational performance could affect well-being in various dimensions.
Full Text Available The paper deals with technological determinants of the lifetime social well-being, as conditions of maintaining the level and style of consumption, social status throughout the whole life. Despite the high importance of the problem of the social well-being and the relevance of its solution for the development of modern society, the issues of its correlation with the technological level of production and the development of information technologies are still poorly researched. As the problem of the life-time wellbeing take on special significance, it is important to analyze its conditions, related not only to social benefits, but also to the scientific and technological progress. For the future innovation and the digital stage of social well-being is its network well-being. It is based on the usage of the Internet for professional activity and personal self-fulfillment during the whole conscious life. Network well-being also reflects the convergence of information and network, industrial, financial, marketing, and social technologies. The formation of the life-time network well-being requires from the Government some measures of social adjustment, fiscal policy and the regulation of employment to encourage Internet Education and Internet employment, enhancing the prestige of working in high-tech industries.
Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate
Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being.
Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.
Marrero, Rosario J; Rey, Mar; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan Andrés
In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36-55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB). Some facets were common to both types of well-being such as depression (explaining between 5-33% of the variance), vulnerability (explaining between 4-21% of the variance), positive emotions (explaining between 2-9% of the variance) and achievement striving (explaining between 2-10% of the variance), whereas others made a unique contribution according to type of well-being. Certain facets had a greater relative importance for women's well-being -e.g., positive emotions explained 9% of the variance of self-acceptance for women vs. 3% for men- and others for men's well-being -e.g., achievement striving explained 9% of the variance of personal growth for men vs. 2% for women-. The present results contribute to the literature by identifying which Big Five facets showed greater relative importance in explaining and distinguishing between PWB and SWB for women and men.
Rhodes, Michael Grant
There are two dominant approaches to describe and understand the anatomy of complete health and well-being systems internationally. Yet, neither approach has been able to either predict or explain occasional but dramatic crises in health and well-being systems around the world and in developed emerging market or developing country contexts. As the impacts of such events can be measured not simply in terms of their social and economic consequences but also public health crises, there is a clear need to look for and formulate an alternative approach. This paper examines multi-disciplinary theoretical evidence to suggest that health systems exhibit natural and observable systemic and long cycle characteristics that can be modelled. A health and well-being system model of two slowly evolving anthropological network sub-systems is defined. The first network sub-system consists of organised professional networks of exclusive suppliers of health and well-being services. The second network sub-system consists of communities organising themselves to resource those exclusive services. Together these two network sub-systems interact to form the specific (sovereign) health and well-being systems we know today. But the core of a truly 'complex adaptive system' can also be identified and a simplified two sub-system model of recurring Lotka-Volterra predator-prey cycles is specified. The implications of such an adaptive and evolving model of system anatomy for effective public health, social security insurance and well-being systems governance could be considerable.
Full Text Available Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees’ work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (maladjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in.
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons J R
In Europe and specifically in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest indigenous ethnic minority exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, poverty, and compromised well-being. To improve their conditions, identifying sources of psychological well-being for Roma is theoretically relevant and practically important. This study investigated the relation between ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient collective identity components for psychological well-being among 194 Roma adolescents (age: M = 16.11 years, SD = 1.36) and their mothers (age: M = 35.95 years, SD = 3.54). The results indicated that in line with marginalization models of acculturation, Roma youth and their mothers showed a low endorsement of both Bulgarian mainstream and Roma ethnic identity. The average scores of well-being were also low. For both groups, familial identity was stronger compared to Roma, Bulgarian, and religious identity. A path model showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of well-being in both adolescents and mothers and that the mothers' collective identity was a predictor of adolescent well-being. Bulgarian mainstream identity had the strongest relationship with collective identity. It is concluded that, for Roma youth and their mothers, family is an important identity domain as it represents the most salient identification source that is not challenged in their environment.
Arber, Sara; Fenn, Kirsty; Meadows, Robert
The relationship between health and income is well established, but the link between subjective financial well-being and self-reported health has been relatively ignored. This study investigates the relationship between income, subjective financial well-being and health in mid-life and later life in Britain. Analysis of the General Household Survey for 2006 examined these relationships at ages 45-64 (n = 4639) and 65 and over (n = 3104). Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for income and other socio-economic factors associated with self-reported health. Both income and subjective financial well-being are independently associated with health in mid-life; those with lower incomes and greater subjective financial difficulties had higher risk of reporting 'less than good' health. In contrast in later life, subjective financial well-being was associated with health, but the effect of income on health was mediated entirely through subjective financial well-being. The poorer health of the divorced/separated was also entirely mediated by differences in subjective financial well-being. Research on health inequalities should pay greater attention to the link between subjective financial hardship and ill-health, especially during periods of greater economic difficulties and financial austerity.
The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.
Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne
When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1 Tengku Aizan Hamid,1,2 Rahimah Ibrahim1,21Institute of Gerontology, 2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people's attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents.Methods: Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA.Results: Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55 than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001. The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex.Conclusion: Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people.Keywords: aged, ageism, emotional well-being, positive aging
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W
Adolescents today are confronted with the compounded stressors of life in our high-pressured society and the cognitive, physiological, and emotional changes characteristic of this stage of development. To explore ways to promote well-being in this population, mindfulness, defined as paying attention in the moment in an intentional and purposeful way, was examined in terms of its associations with aspects of emotional well being. It has been reported to have positive effects on emotional well-being in adults, and shows promise for similar results in research with youth. Moreover, the mechanisms through which being mindful may influence positive outcomes have only recently been explored, and have not been investigated with adolescents. Self-compassion, defined by the three components of self-kindness, sensing oneself as part of a common humanity, and maintaining perspective in challenging circumstances, was examined as a potential mediator of the relationship of mindfulness to various outcome measures. Measures assessing mindfulness, self-compassion, and aspects of emotional well-being comprised an online survey that was administered to 67 adolescents in an urban high school. Path analysis was utilized to explore relationships among the variables. An alternate model with self-compassion as the predictor and mindfulness as the mediator was also investigated. Results suggested that both mindfulness and self-compassion functioned as mediators in the pathway to emotional well-being. A theorized model is presented which depicts a reciprocal relationship between mindfulness and self-compassion and describes an iterative process that takes place between these two constructs, promoting emotional well-being. Implications for research and practice include conducting longitudinal studies, which assess constructs at three time points to definitively establish mediation, and developing a self-compassion program tailored for adolescents to facilitate improvements in emotional well-being.
Martin P Davoren
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. METHODS: Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly female (62.66%, in first year (46.9% and living in their parents' house (42.4% or in a rented house or flat (40.8%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04. Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001 were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across
Russell-Jones David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between
Rahman, Rachel Jane; Hudson, Joanne; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Doust, Jonathan H
This research examined the processes underpinning changes in psychological well-being and behavioural regulation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients using self-determination theory (SDT). A repeated measures design was used to identify the longitudinal relationships between SDT variables, psychological well-being and exercise behaviour during and following a structured CR programme. Participants were 389 cardiac patients (aged 36-84 years; M(age) = 64 ± 9 years; 34.3% female) referred to a 12-week-supervised CR programme. Psychological need satisfaction, behavioural regulation, health-related quality of life, physical self-worth, anxiety and depression were measured at programme entry, exit and six month post-programme. During the programme, increases in autonomy satisfaction predicted positive changes in behavioural regulation, and improvements in competence and relatedness satisfaction predicted improvements in behavioural regulation and well-being. Competence satisfaction also positively predicted habitual physical activity. Decreases in external regulation and increases in intrinsic motivation predicted improvements in physical self-worth and physical well-being, respectively. Significant longitudinal relationships were identified whereby changes during the programme predicted changes in habitual physical activity and the mental quality of life from exit to six month follow-up. Findings provide insight into the factors explaining psychological changes seen during CR. They highlight the importance of increasing patients' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction and self-determined motivation to improve well-being during the structured component of a CR programme and longer term physical activity.
Phan, Huy P; Ngu, Bing H; Alrashidi, Oqab
The present study explored the effects of academic and social self-efficacy beliefs on students' well-being at school, academic engagement, and achievement outcome. Well-being at school is conceptualized as a central mediator of students' engagement and learning in achievement contexts. It was hypothesized that well-being at school would mediate the effects of social and academic self-efficacy beliefs on engagement and achievement outcome. This research focus has credence and may provide grounding for educational-social interventions. A cohort of 284 (122 girls, 162 boys) Year 11 secondary school students participated in this correlational study. A theoretical-conceptual model was explored and tested using structural equation modeling. Subsequent structural equation modeling analyses provided moderate support for the hypothesized model. The results showed that both academic and social self-efficacy depended on each other in their effect on well-being at school. Both academic engagement and well-being at school served as partial mediators of the effects of academic and social self-efficacy on academic engagement.
Nadia Brittany Maiolino
Full Text Available In this study we investigated how individual differences and personality constructs taken from the positive psychology and humor domains of psychology may play an important role in psychological well-being. Participants completed measures assessing trait gratitude, savoring, and humor styles; along with several positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect, depression, and anxiety. We first examined the degree of empirical and conceptual overlap among the personality constructs from these two domains. Here, we found that higher levels of gratitude and savoring were associated with higher levels of self-enhancing and affiliative humor, whereas higher levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor were primarily associated with lower levels of gratitude. Subsequent regression analyses indicated that the positive psychology construct of gratitude was predictive of several different indices of positive and negative well-being, whereas savoring was most predictive of greater positive affect. In addition, these regression analyses also revealed that the humor styles of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor provided a significant increase in the prediction of several positive and negative indices of well-being, above and beyond the effects attributable to the positive psychology constructs alone. These findings were then discussed in terms of developing a broader and more integrated theoretical approach to the understanding of psychological well-being.
Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Lichtenberg, Peter A
Active engagement in life is a critical factor for successful aging. Research indicates that community engagement is strongly associated with health and well-being in late life. However, less is understood regarding the influence of neighborhood conditions on health and well-being, particularly in older African-American adults. The current study describes a convenience sample of older African Americans (N = 501, mean age = 70.7 [range 55-95] years) living in Detroit. The specific goal is to examine the relationships between their perceptions of neighborhood conditions, level of community engagement, and their health and well-being. Survey findings reveal a sample of highly engaged older African Americans in reasonable health who perceive their neighborhoods favorably. Regression analysis results indicate that community engagement is closely associated with both neighborhood perceptions and well-being in this sample. We propose that community engagement or "participation" mediates the relationship between neighborhood conditions and well-being for older African Americans living in Detroit.
Full Text Available We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions should help individuals to be more effective in various aspects of positive functioning. One hundred fifty two teachers filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ, and the short version of Riff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (RPWB. Results showed good predictive validity of personality traits, for they accounted for 22 to 43% of variability in different psychological well-being scales. Predictive validity of EI is also excellent, but when controlling for personality traits is far worse, since it accounts for only 1 to 3% of variance in well-being scales. Discriminant validity of EI scales measured by ESCQ is therefore unsatisfactory.
Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena
The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women.
Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo
Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors.
Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra
Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed.
Paloma, Virginia; García-Ramírez, Manuel; Camacho, Carlos
The decision to migrate is normally based on expectations of improving one's actual living conditions and therefore, one's well-being. However, these expectations are not usually met in receiving contexts that relegate newcomers to lower power positions. From a liberating community psychology approach, this study aims to develop a predictive model of the well-being of Moroccan migrants living in southern Spain. Data were collected from a survey sample of 633 migrants (the average age was 31.9 years and 51.8 % were women) from 20 territorial units of Andalusia. Through a process of multilevel regression analysis, this study reveals that the well-being of the Moroccan community is closely determined by the following: (a) the level of social justice in the receiving context (openness to diversity of receiving communities, cultural sensitivity of community services, and residential integration); and (b) the individual strengths of the population (use of active coping strategies, satisfaction with the receiving context, and temporal stability in the new environment). These results empirically support the impact that different ecological levels of analysis have on well-being. Major theoretical contributions of the model and useful suggestions for improving migrant well-being are discussed.
Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being.
Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
Nearly 9 million Americans live in extreme-poverty neighborhoods, places that also tend to be racially segregated and dangerous. Yet, the effects on the well-being of residents of moving out of such communities into less distressed areas remain uncertain. Using data from Moving to Opportunity, a unique randomized housing mobility experiment, we found that moving from a high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhood leads to long-term (10- to 15-year) improvements in adult physical and mental health and subjective well-being, despite not affecting economic self-sufficiency. A 1-standard deviation decline in neighborhood poverty (13 percentage points) increases subjective well-being by an amount equal to the gap in subjective well-being between people whose annual incomes differ by $13,000--a large amount given that the average control group income is $20,000. Subjective well-being is more strongly affected by changes in neighborhood economic disadvantage than racial segregation, which is important because racial segregation has been declining since 1970, but income segregation has been increasing.
Hai-Ying Qu; Chun-Mei Wang
Objective: To study factors influencing nurses' job burnout and their subjective well-being and to explore the relationships between these two phenomena. Methods: A total of 250 nurses from three hospitals in Shandong were evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a subjective well-being scale. Results: Nursing staff showed significantly different levels of job burnout ( P<0. 05) according to the following characteristics: age, marital status, educational background, technical title, years of nursing experience, monthly income, manning quotas and parental status. Level of burnout is higher for nursing staff who are under the age of 30 years, are unmarried, had secondary educa-tion, had unofficial manning quota status, are childless, hold a primary title and whose years of nursing experience are less than five years. Statistical significance was found for life satisfaction ( P<0. 05) with differences in age; marital status; technical title; years of nursing experience;monthly income; manning quota status; and parental status in positive emotion, negative emotion and degree. There is a significant negative correlation between every dimension of job burnout and life satisfaction and positive emotions for subjective well-being. Every component of job burnout was significantly positively correlated with negative emotions. ( P<0. 05) Conclusions: Age, marital status, educational background, technical title, years of nursing ex-perience, monthly income, manning quotas and parental status have different influences on occu-pation burnout and subjective well-being. Dimensions of occupation burnout have functions of pre-dicting subjective well-being.
Orsila, Reetta; Luukkaala, Tiina; Manka, Marja-Liisa; Nygard, Clas-Hakan
The main aim of this study was to develop a short questionnaire to assess work-related well-being from the organizational behaviour perspective. The short well-being questionnaire enables measuring longitudinal work-related well-being. Work-related well-being was assessed with a 147-item questionnaire covering both organizational and intrinsic factors of work-related well-being. The questionnaire consisted of 27 categories. The respondents were 114 women (65%) and 62 men (35%), mean age 39.2 years, in various occupations. From the extensive questionnaire a shorter questionnaire with 33 items was developed by principal component analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure to test the sampling adequacy of 27 factor solutions varied from .62 to .91 and Cronbach?s α was .74-.94. Most κ values of the shorter questionnaire were .50-.94 (p < .001). The reliability of the short version was comparable to that of the original questionnaire. The short one could also be suitable for Internet and mobile questionnaire applications.
Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan
Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified.
Full Text Available Communities across the United States, in both urban and rural areas, are seeking ways to promote well-being for their citizens in sustainable ways. This paper provides a descriptive case study of one rural community that used an inquiry-based approach to ask, “How can we engage our citizens to improve child and family well-being in our community?” The group also wondered “What if Brookings had one place for families to access all family resources that support well-being?” “What if all families had a place where their needs were heard?” and “What if all resources for families looked at the well-being of children and families in a holistic way?” This paper describes the initial journey of a community of practice advocating on several different community levels, including the role of university students, the process of the community of practice formation, its growing connections to community agencies and its initial efforts to build calls to action through participatory research and grassroots community efforts. While conveying a linear narrative, the authors also maintain a focus on the organic processes of knowledge construction and the evolution of a community of practice. Data collection, using the Delphi approach, is underway to access initial ground-up definitions of well-being and to identify areas of focus.
Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290).
Full Text Available Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1 the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2 both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3 teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified.
Kaufmann, Elke G; Engel, Sabine A
The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of psychological needs and well-being in dementia based on the self-report of individuals with moderate or severe dementia and to differentiate and elaborate this model in the light of the empirical qualitative data. Nineteen inhabitants of a special long-term care unit were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using content analysis. Thirty components within Kitwood's model have been identified. A conceptual framework of subjective well-being in dementia was developed based on a theoretical background. The study was able to find indications that Kitwood's model has empirical relevance. Nevertheless, it requires to be extended by the domain agency. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals with dementia are important informants of their subjective well-being.
Full Text Available Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9 during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010. The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.
Vanessa Barbosa Romera Leme
Full Text Available There is no consensus in the literature regarding the influence of family configuration on the psychological well-being of adolescents. Based on the perception of adolescents, this study evaluates the influence of family configuration, social skills and social support appraisals as potential predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The participants were 454 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from nuclear, separated and remarried families. The adolescents were students in the first and second years of public high school. The data were collectively obtained in the classroom using the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents, the Social Support Appraisal Scale and the Psychological Well-being Scale. The results indicated that family configuration is not associated with the psychological well-being of adolescents. The social skills of empathy, self-control, civility, social resourcefulness and affective approach as well as the social support appraisals from friends and family were the best predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. The implications of the results are discussed with respect to future research and interventions.
Atkinson, Sarah; Scott, Karen
The pursuit of subjective well-being has become an important object of policy and personal action, which within geography has been engaged largely by those with an interest in health. But to date, geography has given little attention to the ways in which subjective well-being changes and in particular, the ways in which it may be understood as both stable and amenable to change. Similarly, the field of arts and health asserts the value of participation in the creative arts for enhancing subjective well-being, but has also hardly addressed how this may come about. The paper explores stability and change in well-being through a case study of a dance and movement intervention in an English primary school. We draw on Deleuze and Guattari’s notions of assemblages and of striated and smooth space to explore how participation in the arts may enable escape from habituated practices. This exploration expands the scope of geographies of health towards capturing the moments and processes through which transitions in subjective well-being may occur. The study indicates the need for greater attention to gentler and gendered forms of transition. PMID:25729326
The social capital surrounding health including health and well-being, the way in which they function as multi-dimensional constructs, and the potential stability of relationships among the social capital were examined across universities in Hawaii and Japan. Maintaining or strengthening social factors of collective and individual health and well-being is a core factor of social capital and is instrumental in reducing worry and increasing trust. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 64 male and female college students (32 college students at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; 32 college students at Reitaku University in Japan) were used to collect information on social capital of health and well-being and associated concepts; students' perceptions were grouped under 11 themes. The data indicates that social capital has an impact on college students' health and well-being. They also suggest that differences in health status and well-being can be plausibly attributed to processes associated with socio-environmental circumstances and situations.
Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan
Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified. PMID:27649216
Mammals（哺乳动物）Mammals are the world＇s most dominant（最占优势的）animal.They are extremely（非常）diverse（多种多样的）creatures（生物，动物）that include（包括）the biggest ever animal （the blue whale鲸，which eats up to 6 tons every day）,the smallest（leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠） and the laziest（sloth树獭，who spends 80% of their time sleeping）.There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments（环境）—oceans（海洋）,rivers,the jungle（丛林）,deserts,and plains（平原）.
Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang
, and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents–Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television......Importance Identifying associations between preschool-aged children’s electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. Objective To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children’s electronic media use with their later well...... electronic media use. Main Outcomes and Measures The following 6 indicators of well-being from 2 validated instruments were used as outcomes at follow-up: Peer problems and Emotional problems subscales from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Emotional well-being, Self-esteem, Family functioning...
Schrøder, Katja; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Jørgensen, Jan Stener;
Objective this study investigates the self-reported psychosocial health and well-being of obstetricians and midwives in Denmark during the most recent four weeks as well as their recall of their health and well-being immediately following their exposure to a traumatic childbirth. Material...... and methods a 2012 national survey of all Danish obstetricians and midwives (n=2098). The response rate was 59% of which 85% (n=1027) stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. The psychosocial health and well-being of the participants was investigated using six scales from the Copenhagen...... significantly higher scores than obstetricians, to a minor extent during the most recent four weeks and to a greater extent immediately following a traumatic childbirth scale, indicating higher levels of self-reported psychosocial health problems. Sub-group analyses showed that this difference might be gender...
Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.
Hansen, Karsten Bruun
of hedonic well-being have grown continuously. Apparently economic prosperity is not a key factor providing meaning and personal flourishing. Based on social constructivist theory, this paper reveals leisure time as a important sources providing EWB in terms of shaping frames for existential meaning......, personal flourishing and social interaction. However, the topic is complex; social norms and intrinsic contra extrinsic oriented values are discussed in relation to what people see as the good life and a sustainable everyday living (In terms of lowering present personal CO2 emission levels with 60...... to be in place: subjective well-being (Subjective well-being comprises in this paper; (1) “hedonic well-being”, characterized by materialistic oriented values, such as; material possessions, -pleasure, -comfort and positive emotions, and (2) “eudaimonic well-being”, such as; meaning in life, feelings of vitality...
Ready, Rebecca E; Åkerstedt, Anna M; Mroczek, Daniel K
Older and midlife adults tend to report greater emotional complexity and greater emotional well-being than younger adults but there is variability in these factors across the lifespan. This study determined how the personality trait of neuroticism at baseline predicts emotional complexity and emotional well-being 10 years later; a goal was to determine if neuroticism is a stronger predictor of these emotion outcomes with increasing age in adulthood. Data were obtained from two waves of the MIDUS projects (N = 1503; aged 34-84). Greater neuroticism predicted less emotional complexity as indicated by associations between positive and negative affect, particularly for older participants. Neuroticism predicted lower emotional well-being and this association was stronger for older and midlife than for younger adults. Overall, high neuroticism may be a greater liability for poor emotion outcomes for older and perhaps for midlife adults than for younger persons. Clinical and theoretical implications of this conclusion are discussed.
Benjamin, Daniel J.; Kimball, Miles S.; Heffetz, Ori; Szembrot, Nichole
This paper proposes foundations and a methodology for survey-based tracking of well-being. First, we develop a theory in which utility depends on “fundamental aspects” of well-being, measurable with surveys. Second, drawing from psychologists, philosophers, and economists, we compile a comprehensive list of such aspects. Third, we demonstrate our proposed method for estimating the aspects’ relative marginal utilities—a necessary input for constructing an individual-level well-being index—by asking ~4,600 U.S. survey respondents to state their preference between pairs of aspect bundles. We estimate high relative marginal utilities for aspects related to family, health, security, values, freedom, happiness, and life satisfaction. PMID:25404760
Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Reidy, Erin; Knodel, John
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender differences across indicators and provide an important qualification to widely held views concerning the globally disadvantaged position of older women. Whereas men tend to report higher levels of income than women, there is generally little gender difference in housing characteristics, asset ownership, or reports of subjective economic well-being. Unmarried women are economically advantaged compared to unmarried men in some respects, in part because they are more likely to be embedded in multigenerational households and receive both direct and indirect forms of support from family members.
Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R
The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion.
Benjamin, Daniel J; Kimball, Miles S; Heffetz, Ori; Szembrot, Nichole
This paper proposes foundations and a methodology for survey-based tracking of well-being. First, we develop a theory in which utility depends on "fundamental aspects" of well-being, measurable with surveys. Second, drawing from psychologists, philosophers, and economists, we compile a comprehensive list of such aspects. Third, we demonstrate our proposed method for estimating the aspects' relative marginal utilities-a necessary input for constructing an individual-level well-being index-by asking ~4,600 U.S. survey respondents to state their preference between pairs of aspect bundles. We estimate high relative marginal utilities for aspects related to family, health, security, values, freedom, happiness, and life satisfaction.
Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila
Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.
Alves, Priscila Castro; Neves, Vanessa Faria; Coleta, Marilia Ferreira Dela; Oliveira, Áurea de Fátima
Well-being at work is based on Positive Psychology, and is defined as a psychological state with positive affective links towards work and also towards the organisation. The purpose of this study was to look at the degree of well-being at work among nursing professionals who work at a University hospital and also identify differences between occupational categories and types of work contracts. The sample was made up of 340 professionals who answered valid scales of the following constructs: Work Satisfaction, Involvement with Work and Affective Organisational Commitment. For the analysis of the data we used SPSS, version 12, for descriptive statistics, and also for testing differences between means. The results showed an average level of well-being in the workplace and also differences between professional categories and work regime, when it comes to satisfaction with salaries and promotions, which can have a reflection in the quality of service provided to the patients of this University hospital.
Hill, Rachel T; Morganson, Valerie J; Matthews, Russell A; Atkinson, Theresa P
Despite research advances, work-family scholars still lack an understanding of how leadership constructs relate to an employee's ability to effectively manage the work-family interface. In addition, there remains a need to examine the process through which leadership and work-family conflict influence well-being outcomes. Using a sample of 312 workers, a mediated process model grounded in social exchange theory is tested wherein the authors seek to explain how leaders shape employee perceptions, which, in turn, impact organizational fulfillment of expectations (i.e., psychological contract breach), work-family conflict, and well-being. A fully latent structural equation model was used to test study hypotheses, all of which were supported. Building on existing theory, findings suggest that the supervisor plays a critical role as a frontline representative for the organization and that work-family conflict is reduced and well-being enhanced through a process of social exchange between the supervisor and worker.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Sullivan, Helen W
In two studies, we examined the role of perceived fulfillment of parental expectations in the subjective well-being of college students. In Study 1, we found that American college students reported having higher levels of life satisfaction and self-esteem than did Japanese college students. American college students also reported having fulfilled parental expectations to a greater degree than did Japanese college students. Most importantly, the cultural difference in well-being was mediated by perceived fulfillment of parental expectations. In Study 2, we replicated the mediational finding with Asian American and European American college students. Asian American participants also perceived their parents' expectations about their academic performance to be more specific than did European Americans, which was associated with the cultural difference in perceived fulfillment of parental expectations. In short, perceived parental expectations play an important role in the cultural difference in the well-being of Asians and European Americans.
Fenelon, Andrew; Danielsen, Sabrina
Religious disaffiliation-leaving the religious tradition in which one was raised for no religious affiliation in adulthood-has become more common in recent years, though few studies have examined its consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. We use an innovative approach, comparing the health and subjective well-being of religious disaffiliates to those who remain affiliated using pooled General Social Survey samples from 1973 through 2012. We find that religious disaffiliates experience poorer health and lower well-being than those consistently affiliated and those who are consistently unaffiliated. We also demonstrate that the disadvantage for those who leave religious traditions is completely mediated by the frequency of church attendance, as disaffiliates attend church less often. Our results point to the importance of the social processes surrounding religious disaffiliation and emphasize the role of dynamics in the relationship between religious affiliation and health.
Full Text Available This research was conducted to analyze the contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR perceived motives in enhancing poor children's well being and consumer loyalty. CSR strategy studied were CSR strategies implemented by two companies, Garuda Indonesia and Pertamina, which are State Owned Companies (fully or partially owned by government of Indonesia. Garuda Indonesia is a service company engaged in airline industry, and Pertamina is a non service company engaged in oil and gas industry.Using factor analysis and multiple regression, the result indicates some differences between firms CSR activities in in developing children well being and customer loyalty. This result has implication for the firm that different type of CSR activities and different industry will reflect different motives, further have different impact in children’s well being.
Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the problem of social well-being of elderly people and analyses the outcome of appraisals given by elderly people to their own health and health maintenance activities. Basing on the sociological tradition of studying a social well-being and health phenomenon, the authors have identified the peculiarities of social practices of elderly people living in Tomsk Oblast and correlated social well-being of elderly people with their own health appraisals. The paper gives the survey results (the sample included 400 persons that allow evaluating the degree of satisfaction with life, health, material status, social activity and identifying life preferences, values and orientations of the elderly in Tomsk Oblast. During the problem studying the hermeneutical approach and the methods of comparative analysis and mathematical statistics were applied.
Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Cortina, Lilia M
This study examined how working in an organizational context perceived as hostile toward women affects employees' well-being, even in the absence of personal hostility experiences. Participants were 289 public-sector employees who denied any personal history of being targeted with general or gender-based hostility at work. They completed measures of personal demographics, occupational and physical well-being, and perceptions of the organizational context for women. Results showed that 2 contextual indices of hostility toward women related to declines in well-being for male and female employees. The gender ratio of the workgroup moderated this relationship, with employees in male-skewed units reporting the most negative effects. These findings suggest that all employees in the workplace can suffer from working in a context of perceived misogyny.
Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A
Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities.
Foster, Mindi D
Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being.
Nielsen, B.B.; Kalvåg, H.; Pons, Francisco
Most research on class size effect focuses on pupils’ school achievement but few on pupils’ psychosocial well-being. On the other hand an increasing number of studies have showed that there is a link between pupils’ psychosocial well-being and their school achievement. 97 Danish typically...... developing 3rd grade pupils were tested. They were divided into 3 class size groups: Small (10 pupils), Medium (20 pupils), and Large (25 pupils). The average age (10 years) and the proportion of boys and girls (50%) and SES (medium) were similar in the 3 class size groups. Pupils’ psychosocial well......-being was assessed with the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment, the Test of Emotion Comprehension, the Me and the School questionnaire, and The Pupil’s Self-report. Preliminary analyses showed that increasing class size had a significant increasing impact on pupils’ disruptive behaviours...
Westerhof, G J; Lamers, S M A; de Vries, D R S L
This experiment examined the effect of different ways of recollecting autobiographical memories on emotional well-being. Participants between 65 and 80 years old (N = 70) were instructed to write about a memory from their life when they were 15 to 30 years old. They were asked to do this in a narrative way about a positive memory, in a narrative way about a negative memory or in an interpretative way about a negative memory. We also examined whether spontaneous reminiscence types in everyday life moderate the effects of the experimental manipulation on emotional well-being. Narrating positive memories is more favourable for negative affect than narrating or interpreting negative memories. There is no moderating role for everyday reminiscence types, even though these are related to emotional well-being. Manipulated and spontaneous reminiscence are therefore different. This is a favourable finding for reminiscence interventions, because they can stimulate positive memories, no matter how older people are used to memorize their past.
The importance of social comparison in shaping individual utility has been widely documented by subjective well-being literature. So far, income and unemployment have been the main dimensions considered in social comparison. This paper aims to investigate whether subjective well-being is influenced by inter-personal comparison with respect to health. Thus, we study the effects of the health of others and relative health hypotheses on two measures of subjective well-being: happiness and subjective health. Using data from the Italian Health Conditions survey, we show that a high incidence of chronic conditions and disability among reference groups negatively affects both happiness and subjective health. Such effects are stronger among people in the same condition. These results, robust to different econometric specifications and estimation techniques, suggest the presence of some sympathy in individual preferences with respect to health and reveal that other people's health status serves as a benchmark to assess one's own health condition.
Buruck, Gabriele; Dörfel, Denise; Kugler, Joachim; Brom, Sarah Susanne
Dealing with negative emotions is a crucial work demand, particularly for employees in health care. Job resources (e.g., autonomy, social support, or reward) but also personal resources (such as emotion regulation strategies) might reduce job stress and support well-being. Following this, the present study focused on strengthening emotion regulation as 1 way of dealing with high job demands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized emotion regulation training (Affect Regulation Training [ART]; Berking, 2010) to improve emotion regulation skills and well-being of employees in elderly health care. Therefore, 96 elderly care workers filled out an established questionnaire of emotion regulation skills as well as a measure of well-being at pretreatment, posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The findings show that the ART fosters emotion regulation skills. In particularly, acceptance, tolerance, and modification of negative emotions was enhanced in the training groups in comparison to a control-group. Modification, meaning the ability to actively change emotions, improved even more over the follow-up-period. Simultaneously, well-being of participants increased over all measurement time points in the ART-group compared with the control-group. Additionally, the improvement in emotion regulation skills from pre to posttreatment was related to well-being at follow-up. In summary, our results support the ART as an effective intervention for dealing with negative emotions and to enhance well-being among employees in elderly care. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.
Patricia Mwesiga Lyatuu
Full Text Available Understanding the influence of specific livelihood variables on a household’s well-being provides a crucial basis for effective focus of poverty intervention, and consequently wiser resource allocation. This paper analyses the influence of land access, livelihood strategies (LS and selected demographic characteristics on household well-being status (HWBS in Mvomero District, Tanzania. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby quantitative data were collected once from 267 randomly selected households in 8 villages. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Unlike the hypothesis, multinomial logistic regression results demonstrated that per capita land size and location have a positive significant influence (p < 0.05 on HWBS. Likewise, unlike the hypothesis, three more variables including exclusive farming, number of dependents and distance to farms were confirmed to have a negative significant influence (p < 0.05 on well-being. It is concluded that though per capita land size has a positive influence on HWBS, expanding farms through adding plots and distant farming hinders the attainment of well-being. Moreover, households with many dependents and those working in exclusive farming are disadvantaged in the attainment of well-being. There is therefore room to enhance progress in attainment of well-being through reducing the distance to farms and promoting diversification of livelihood strategies. The Tanzania government is advised to support distant farmers with settlements in their destinations. The government and other development agencies are also advised to enhance the capacity of the studied communities and dwellers of other rural land scarce areas in Tanzania for a meaningful diversification of livelihood strategies. This can be through supporting them to gain education and labor skills and also to engage in saving and credits projects. To be inclusive the strategies may pay special attention to households with a large number
Pearsall, Douglas R.; Kahl, Katherine J.; Washburn, Erika L.; May, Christopher A.; Franks Taylor, Rachael; Cole, James B.; Ewert, David N.; Game, Edward T.; Doran, Patrick J.
Conservation scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB). We conducted an optimization analysis using 26 features representing ecological and human well-being priorities (13 of each), and included seven cost layers. The influence that including human well-being had on project results was tested by running five scenarios and setting targets for human well-being at different levels in each scenario. The most important areas for conservation to achieve multiple goals are clustered along the coast, reflecting a concentration of existing or potentially restorable coastal wetlands, coastal landbird stopover habitat and terrestrial biodiversity, as well as important recreational activities. Inland important areas tended to cluster around trails and high quality inland landbird stopover habitat. Most concentrated areas of importance also are centered on lands that are already conserved, reflecting the lower costs and higher benefits of enlarging these conserved areas rather than conserving isolated, dispersed areas. Including human well-being features in the analysis only influenced the solution at the highest target levels. PMID:28241018
Full Text Available Background Most people do not appreciate the aging period because of lack of knowledge or unknown backgrounds; therefore, they get affected by chronic mental disorders. Depression is one of the most predominant chronic mental disorders. Objectives In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between quality of life (QOL and spiritual well-being among geriatric retired employees of the oil industry in Khuzestan, Iran, who had chronic depression. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 200 retired employees of the oil industry in Khuzestan, Iran, selected using simple random sampling technique. The variables were measured by three different standard questionnaires, including the QOL questionnaire (SF12, spiritual well-being scale (SWB, and depression scale (GDS. Results The mean age of the study group was 65 ± 4 years. Most of the patients had elementary or middle school level of education (44%. Hypertension was the predominant chronic disease associated with depression (37%. The mean QOL, spiritual well-being, and depression scores were 27.9 ± 6.4, 105 ± 13.8, and 4.2 ± 4.35, respectively. Spiritual well-being had a significant negative correlation with depression (P = 0.0001, indicating that the prevalence of chronic diseases such as depression decreased as spiritual well-being increased. There was also a significant negative correlation between the QOL and depression (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The results of our study showed that chronic depression disorder was significantly correlated with QOL and spiritual well-being of the elderly. To have healthy, independent, and happy geriatrics, it is important to consider such problems.
Full Text Available The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS, Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES. The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are
Delavega, Elena; Lennon-Dearing, Robin
The social context of living in poverty has a direct and indirect impact on a woman's health and well-being. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between housing and adherence to treatment, emotional wellness, environmental safety, physical health status, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive women receiving services from an AIDS service organization in the mid-South. Significant differences were found between stably housed and unstably housed women on the dependent outcome variables. Results suggest that housing services for HIV-positive women may be an effective way to increase their health and well-being as well as prevent transmission to others.
Vollman, Michael W; LaMontagne, Lynda L; Wallston, Kenneth A
This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and perceived control (PC) in adult patients with heart failure (HF). The sample included 75 adults ranging in age from 27 to 82 years. Participants verbally completed study questionnaires in a clinic room selected for privacy. Multiple linear regression results indicated that increased existential spiritual well-being (a subscale of SWB) predicted increased PC. Thus, patients with HF who adjust to personal changes and who also connect with others may develop meaning and purpose in life and may perceive increased control over their heart disease.
Burke, Shaunna M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Vallerand, Robert J
This study (1) identified the activities that breast cancer survivors report as passionate; (2) examined whether levels of passion differed based on the types of passionate activities reported and; (3) examined the association between harmonious and obsessive passion and emotional well-being. Early post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 177) reported passionate physical activities as most prevalent, and reported higher harmonious passion scores compared to women reporting relaxing and social leisure activities. Harmonious passion was associated with higher positive affect and lower cancer worry. Obsessive passion was linked to higher negative affect, cancer worry, and posttraumatic growth. Passion is important for enhanced well-being.
Bølling, Mads; Niclasen, Janni; Nielsen, Glen
Education Outside the Classroom (EOtC) activities are characterised by teachers making use of the local environment when teaching specific subjects. EOtC is described as involving innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem solving, experimentation, cooperation, physical activity......’ well-being. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effect of EOtC on pupils’ general psychological well-being using a quasi-experimental equivalent groups design. In total, 28 EOtC-classes and 20 non-EOtC parallel classes participated. The EOtC teachers participated in a two day course about...
Jessica Dye; Stephanie Rossouw; Gail Pacheco
As the first country to give women the right to vote in 1893, New Zealand (NZ) has often been viewed as a leader in the global movement towards gender equality. This paper aims to assess trends in overall well-being for NZ women, by pulling together a range of statistical indicators across five key facets of well-being: demographic and family changes, education, employment, health, and crime and violence. From our analysis two contrasting pictures emerge. The first is that NZ women are clearl...
Cervinka, Renate; Röderer, Kathrin; Hefler, Elisabeth
Connectedness with nature (CN) is seen as a personal disposition relevant for environmental as well as human health. In five questionnaire studies (N = 547) we systematically investigated the relationship between various operationalizations of well-being and CN. CN was assessed with two different tools in parallel. All significant correlations were controlled for the effects of age and gender. Psychological well-being, meaningfulness and vitality were found to be robustly correlated with CN. We highlight the relevance of CN with respect to human health and further discuss conceptual differences unraveled by the concurrent application of two CN-tools.
Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan
This study investigates relations between the five-factor model (FFM) and self-determination theory in predicting well-being. Nine-hundred-and-sixty-four students completed e-based measures of extroversion & neuroticism (NEO-FFI); autonomous- & impersonal general causality orientation (GCOS......) and positive- & negative affect (PANAS). Correlation analysis showed moderate positive relationships between extroversion, autonomous and positive affect; neuroticism, impersonal and negative affect. Regression analysis revealed that autonomous explained additional 2% of variance in positive affect, when...... controlling for extroversion (Pneuroticism. Self-Determination Theory seems inadequate in explaining variance in well-being supporting an integration with FFM....
McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R
This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.
Rosen, Raymond C; Bachmann, Gloria A
Based on results of large-scale survey studies, there is evidence of an association between sexual activity and satisfaction, on the one hand, and aspects of emotional well-being, partner satisfaction, and overall quality of life on the other. Although the nature of the casual relationship is unclear, women with more active and satisfying sexual relationships report consistently higher ratings of emotional and relationship satisfaction. This heightened sense of well-being potentially contributes to improved subjective health and other positive outcomes. In this commentary article, we review recent findings and propose a new conceptual model for addressing these effects in controlled studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of life in patients with diabetes is reduced and emotional coping with the disease has great impact on patient well-being. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the psychological well-being and treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care. Study Design and Setting Patients (n = 112 with type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis for at least six months were enrolled. The Well-Being Questionnaire-22 and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire were used. Physical examination and laboratory investigations were performed. Results The rates of the achieved targets were 32.1% for hemoglobin A1c, 62.5% for cholesterol and 20.5% for blood pressure. The mean scores for the general well-being, depression, anxiety, positive well-being and energy were 44.40 ± 13.23 (range = 16-62, 12.65 ± 3.80 (range = 5-18, 10.57 ± 4.47 (range = 1-18, 12.00 ± 4.01 (range = 2-18, and 9.16 ± 2.47 (range = 2-12, respectively. The mean scores for the treatment satisfaction, perception for hyperglycemia and perception for hypoglycemia were 22.37 ± 9.53 (range = 0.00-36.00, 1.71 ± 1.59 (range = 0-6, and 0.51 ± 0.98 (range = 0-6, respectively. There were significant associations between the depression score and the educational status, compliance to diet and physical exercise, and diabetic complications; between the anxiety score and the educational status, glycemic control, compliance to diet and physical exercise; between the energy score and the educational status, compliance to physical exercise, and diabetic complications; between the positive well-being score and the educational status, compliance to diet and physical exercise, complications and type of treatment; between the general well-being score and the educational status, compliance for diet and physical exercise, and complications. Treatment satisfaction was significantly associated to the educational status, glycemic control and
Riverón Hernández, Karina; Jocik Hung, Georgina
The main objective of this article is present the meanings that the Bayamo elderly adult uses to construct his perception of subjective well-being in interaction with society. Also, it addresses the definitions of subjective well-being that elderly people have as well as the necessary elements to perceived wellness in your life. The meanings are identified in two directions of society towards the elderly (social support, understanding, respect) and the elderly to society (social contribution)...
Full Text Available The present paper attempts at stating few theoretical principles which could underlie efficient stress audits and interventions. An example of a case when these few and straightforward principles have been applied in practice will be discussed. The paper will argue that empirically valid stress interventions are possible and needed, and highlights that in order to build an empirically valid approach, one should pay attention to both the current state of science in the field of stress and psychological well-being, and to financial indicators associated with individual and organizational outcomes of stress and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the theme of subjective well-being of elderly people living in geriatric homes. Social and psychological peculiarities of life satisfaction of senior people were analysed in the works of Ukrainian and foreign authors. The research found life satisfaction of people who have a lack of social contacts is connected with the value orientations of hedonism and spirituality, hardiness, mental health and low sense of pain. These physiological, social and psychological components were generalized into the structure of subjective well-being
Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....
B. van Praag
In this paper it is argued that subjective well-being of the individual depends on two types of variables. The first type consists of characteristics of the individual himself, such as age, health, income, etc. The second type of variables consists of the characteristics of the individuals belonging
B. van Praag
In this paper it is argued that subjective well-being (SWB) of the individual depends on two types of variables. The first type consists of characteristics of the individual himself, such as age, health, income, etc. The second type of variables consists of the characteristics of the individuals bel
Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.
The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…
Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry
This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed…
Wichmann, Sonia Secher
According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.
Kocayörük, Ercan; Uzman, Ersin; Mert, Abdullah
The present study examined emotional well-being as a mediator between parental attachment (mother and father) and student alienation. A total of 227 high school students from the city of Ankara completed the self-report measures of parental attachment, positive and negative affect, and alienation. Using structural equation modeling, a model was…
Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.
In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…
Results: We identified significant increase in parents' subjective well-being and self compassion levels after eight session of psychoeducation (p<0.05. Conclusions: As a result, we believe there is very few intervention practices directed to parents of children with mental disabilities and that these practices should be enhanced. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 181-188
Linssen, R.; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.
Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption