Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C
Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980
..., and euthanasia. 9.6 Section 9.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... SYSTEM § 9.6 Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the... humans. The Facility Veterinarian may recommend euthanasia in those cases that do not respond to...
Pérez García, Liumar
Full Text Available ResumenIndependientemente del trabajo de educación ambiental que se realiza en el país, en los últimos tiempos, en una parte de los sectores más jóvenes de la población, se ha despertado el interés por las peleas de perros y de gallos, entre otras prácticas que afectan el bienestar animal.SummaryIndependently of the work of environmental education that is carried out in the country, in the past few years, in a part of the sectors of the younger population's, has raised up the interest for the fights of dogs and of roosters, among other practices that affect the animal well-being.
Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G
This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed. PMID:27285906
Blatný, Marek; Šolcová, Iva
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, s. 20-59. ISBN 978-1-137-43995-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * well-being * development Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck - Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck
Maikel Díaz Gutierrez
Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojados en tecnología Flat Deck se realiza el trabajo Bienestar Animal: Comportamiento productivo y de salud de las crías de cerdos alojadas en tecnología Flat Deck. Para ello se utilizaron 24 bóxer de maternidad de tecnología Flat Deck, de estos 12 de origen chino y 12 de origen español con características similares. Se analizaron un total de 1433 crías mestizas (cruce de hembras Yorkland entre la tercera y cuarta paridad con machos CC-21, L-35 y Duroc. De estas, 715 corresponden a la tecnología de origen chino y 718 a la tecnología de origen español, alojadas aproximadamente a 10 crías por bóxer. Se tuvo en cuenta el tamaño de la camada al nacer (TCN y peso al nacer (PN, peso al destete(PD y ganancia media diaria (GMD; además de los indicadores de salud(enfermos y muertes por tecnología. En los indicadores evaluadosinicialmente que no son influenciados por las tecnologías no sepresentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05. En los indicadores productivos por tecnología no se encontraron diferencia estadísticamente significativa, encontrándose las medias del peso al destete entre 7.08 y 7.15 y una ganancia media diaria de 219.11 y 221.09 respectivamente. No siendo así para los indicadores de salud, quien fue desfavorable para la tecnología de origen chino donde se presentaron 27 animales enfermos por encima de los enfermos en la tecnología de origen español.SummaryWith the objective of evaluating productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck he/she is carried out the work Animal Well-being: Productive behaviour and of health of the breeding of pigs housed in technology Flat Deck. For they were used it 24 boxers of technology maternity Flat Deck, of these 12 of Chinese origin and 12 of Spanish origin with characteristic similar. They were analyzed a total of 1433
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as on...
What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…
Li, Xing; Muchie, Mammo
-going endeavours by many scholars in an attempt to contribute to the discussion of social well-being. It has three objectives: 1) to offer a framework of understanding the notion of well-being as essential part of social development; 2) to signify the limits of conventional measures of well-being attainment...... and performance; and 3) to propose an alternative interdisciplinary approach to constructing well-being measures. The overall objective is to formulate conceptual framework and a fresh approach for ranking the different countries in the world not merely on the number of individually reckoned well-being...
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...
This paper provides a review and critical discussion of indicators, which attempt to combine the measurement of sustainability with that of well-being. It starts with some commonly agreed definitions of sustainability, showing how most well-being indicators tell us little if anything at all about this issue. Sustainability is most commonly defined in economics as non-declining utility or well-being over time. Yet, due to its future orientation, most indicators of sustainability such as Genuin...
Some researchers have defined well-being as being content, happy, healthy and prosperous. It consists of experiencing enjoyment, completeness, and meaning, rather than merely avoiding pain and conflict. To experience personal well-being it is necessary that all aspects of being function in a healthy manner. Research on the relationship between the Christian religion and well-being has concluded that nurturing, non-punitive religion is associated with mental and physical health, and that activ...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This article examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals' evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals' evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people's sense of well-being...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....
Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.
This chapter presents an integrated economic approach that organizes and interprets the evidence on child development. It also discusses the indicators of child well-being that are used in international comparisons. Recent evidence on child development is summarized, and policies to promote child well-being are discussed. The chapter concludes with some open questions and suggestions for future research.
In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism, or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards
Williams, Dorie Giles
Used national survey data to examine gender differences in relationships of marital status and of marital quality to psychosocial well-being. Findings suggest that it is quality of marital interaction rather than marriage per se that is more important for individual well-being, and that effects of marital quality are stronger among women than…
Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija
Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre…
Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping
Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support. PMID:24028138
In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? PMID:27030478
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
Green, Morgan; Elliott, Marta
This study compares the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, controlling for work and family. With 2006 GSS data, we assess the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, net of job satisfaction, marital happiness, and financial status. The results indicate that people who identify as religious tend to report better health and happiness, regardless of religious affiliation, religious activities, work and family, social support, or financial status. People with liberal religious beliefs tend to be healthier but less happy than people with fundamentalist beliefs. Future research should probe how religious identity and beliefs impact health and well-being. PMID:19283486
Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S;
BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has...
Sustainable Development Commission
'Redefining prosperity : delivering well-being' was a workshop jointly convened by the Sustainable Development Commission, the Cabinet Office Strategy Unit and the Economic and Social Research Council Environment and Human Behaviour Programme. Publisher PDF
Díaz, Sandra; Fargione, Joseph; CHAPIN, F. STUART; Tilman, David
Biodiversity lies at the core of ecosystem processes fueling our planet's vital life-support systems; its degradation--by us--is threatening our own well-being and will disproportionately impact the poor.
This thesis examines work and well-being in relationship to teamwork in two organisations employing professionals; one organising work in Japanese style teams and one with self-managing work teams. It offers a critique of current research on employee well-being in teams and outlines some ways forward for filling in the gaps in existing research. Using two case studies, the working conditions may be in teamwork organisations are investigated. Second, the moderating effects of teamwork on t...
People have long argued over the relation of income and material well-being to happiness. A variety of studies have examined the happiness of those living at the lowest economic levels as well as those living in relatively affluent nations. Taken together, this body of research suggests that income is correlated with subjective well-being (SWB), but is neither the most important factor in happiness, nor is this relationship unmediated or context free. The studies in the current dissertation o...
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing. PMID:26630513
Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it....... This charge can be found in the recent work of both Joseph Raz and Thomas Scanlon. According to the latter the concept of well-being plays an unimportant role in an agent’s deliberation. As I will show, to claim this much is to undermine our initial claim; and to do that is to undermine some of the most...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well-being...
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán;
(mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in...... with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most...... students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the...
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Tuzgol Dost, Meliha
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…
The relationship among global development, markets, and well-being is an important theoretical and methodologicalassociation to address and analyze theoretical ways of ‘value framing and talking’ among experts, institutions, and people.These relations may take the forms of interfaces, dislocations,
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real lif
Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko
This paper shows that the partisan composition of government is strongly related to the well-being of citizens, measured by the reported level of life satisfaction and suicide rates in industrial countries. Our analysis, using survey data of 14 nations between 1980 and 2002, shows that the presence of left-leaning parties in government is…
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
The enter of an offenders to prison can be seen as a dramatic life change. A critical and difficult moment will occur during imprisonment. Inmate will alter from a free man to fetter who experience lack of liberty. Family, community, even prison staff rise a fear in inmates. In general, life in prison could harm psychological condition in person. Problems occured in their life may caused physical and psychological distress and lead to affect psychological well-being (PWB). PWB is a conditi...
FitzRoy, Felix; Nolan, Michael
In a model with heterogeneous workers and both intensive and extensive margins of employment, we consider two systems of redistribution: a universal basic income, and a categorical unemployment benefit. Well-being depends on own-consumption relative to average employed workers’ consumption, and concern for relativity is a parameter that affects model outcomes. While labour supply incurs positive marginal disutility, we allow negative welfare effects of unemployment. We also compare Rawlsian a...
Reeder, Richard J.; Brown, Dennis M.
The promotion of recreation and tourism has been both praised and criticized as a rural development strategy. This study uses regression analysis to assess the effect of recreation and tourism development on socioeconomic conditions in rural recreation counties. The findings imply that recreation and tourism development contributes to rural well-being, increasing local employment, wage levels, and income, reducing poverty, and improving education and health. But recreation and tourism develop...
In Indonesia, lesbians come into many challenges because its major society still believe that homosexual is a disorder behaviour and against religious norm. The belief leads to rejection, insults and condemnation . lack of knowledge about sexual orientation of lesbian causes many of lesbian tend to live in disguese, be isolated, depressed,etc. And eventually end up with poor Psychological Well-being. This descriptive research is intended to figure out the desciption of Psychological well-b...
Mark McGillivray; J. Ram Pillarisetti
This paper examines inter-country inequality in indicators of human well-being. It is primarily concerned with inequality in two gender-related, composite indicators of development levels proposed: the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). A number of inequality indices are calculated using data for the period 1992 to 1998. A special interest of the paper is whether the GDI and GEM tell different stories with respect to inequality than the Human Deve...
Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.
The purpose of this Chapter is to help design a research agenda on risk and child well-being that is suitable for the Young Lives project. A large literature exists that documents the effect of various shocks on the material welfare of children. This literature has documented the negative effects that bad rainfall and other low income shocks has on child schooling (e.g. Jacoby and Skoufias 1997, Sawada 1997, Case, Fertig and Paxson 2005), health (e.g. Banerjee, Duflo, Postel-Vinay and Watts 2...
Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot. PMID:22299505
King, L A; Broyles, S J
Study participants (175 men, 230 women) made three wishes and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, optimism, life satisfaction, and depression. Common wishes were for achievement, affiliation, intimacy, and power as well as for happiness and money. T tests showed women were more likely to wish for improved appearance, happiness, and health; men were more likely to make power wishes and wishes for sex. Among participants who were highly involved in the wishing process, Extraversion was related to making more interpersonal wishes and wishes for positive affect. Neuroticism was related to wishes for emotional stability. Agreeableness and Openness to Experience related to wishes reflective of these traits. Conscientiousness was related to low impulsivity. Depression was related to making highly idiosyncratic, specific wishes, suggesting the use of wishful thinking as a coping mechanism. In addition, happy participants were more likely to rate their wishes as likely to come true. Results indicate that the relatively commonplace process of wishing relates to traits, gender, and well-being. PMID:9143145
Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or engagement in life (eudaimonia). Science has recently made progress in relating hedonic pleasure to brain function, and so here we survey new insights into how brains generate the hedonic ingredient of sustained or frequent pleasure. We also briefly discuss how brains might connect hedonia states of pleasure to eudaimonia assessments of meaningfulness, and so create balanced states of positive well-being. RESULTS: Notable progress has been made in understanding brain bases of hedonic processing, producing insights into that brain systems that cause and/or code sensory pleasures. Progress has been facilitated by the recognition that hedonic brain mechanisms are largely shared between humans and other mammals, allowing application of conclusions from animal studies to a better understanding of human pleasures. In the past few years, evidence has also grown to indicate that for humans, brain mechanisms of higher abstract pleasures strongly overlap with more basic sensory pleasures. This overlap may provide a window into underlying brain circuitry that generates all pleasures, including even the hedonic quality of pervasive well-being that detaches from any particular sensation to apply to daily life in a more sustained or frequent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: Hedonic insights are applied to understanding human well-being here. Our strategy combines new findings on brain mediators that generate the pleasure of sensations with evidence that human brains use many of the same hedonic circuits from sensory pleasures to create the higher pleasures. This in turn may be linked to how hedonic systems interact with other brain systems relevant to self-understanding and the meaning components of
... Current Report 2012 Older Americans: Key indicators of Well-Being Section HTML PDF PPT XLS Entire Chartbook ... Related Statistics. Older Americans 2012: Key Indicators of Well-Being. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, ...
Russell Smyth; Ingrid Nielsen; Qingguo Zhai; Tiemin Liu; Yin Liu; Chunyong Tang; Zhihong Wang; Zuxiang Wang; Juyong Zhang
We examine the relationship between atmospheric pollution, water pollution, traffic congestion, access to parkland and personal well-being using a survey administered across six Chinese cities in 2007. In contrast to existing studies of the determinants of well-being by economists, which have typically employed single item indicators to measure well-being, we use the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI). We also employ the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) to measure job satisfaction, which is one of ...
Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.
There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…
Ridner, S. Lee; Newton, Karen S.; Staten, Ruth R.; Crawford, Timothy N.; Hall, Lynne A.
Objectives: Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this…
McMahan, Ethan A.; Estes, David
Conceptions of well-being are cognitive representations of the nature and experience of well-being. These conceptions can be described generally by the degree to which hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions are emphasized as important aspects of the experience of well-being. In two studies, the prediction that eudaimonic dimensions of individual…
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.
ÖZMETE, Doç. Dr. Emine; BAYOĞLU, Dr. Ayşe Sezen
This research was carried out to determine the emotional well-being perceptions of youngs’ who were attending university education were totally 300 (168 female, 132 male). Data were collected by using interview technique. The t-test and ANOVA were performed for determining the differences between gender, age and, the main scientific topics variables and the emotional well-being perceptions of youngs. Research findings showed that; when youngs’ own emotional well-being perceptions are positive...
Nevin, Sheila; CARR, ALAN; Shelvin, Mark; Dooley, Barbara A.
294 Irish adolescents were profiled after being classified as having high, moderate or low subjective well - being on the basis of their scores on the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Satisfaction With Life Scale and the General Hea lth Questionnaire – 12. Compared with the low well - being group, the high well - being group reported fewer family and personal stressful life events, more task - focused and less emotion - focused coping. They...
Sweeting, H; Hunt, K; Bhaskar, A.
It has been suggested that consumerism is negatively related to well-being in children and adolescents, as well as adults. Few studies have explored whether certain aspects of consumerism have stronger associations with well-being than others, or between-group differences in associations. This article uses data from a sample of early adolescents to examine: levels of consumerism; relationships between different aspects of consumerism and well-being; and differences according to gender, school...
Faren Grant; Constance Guille; Srijan Sen
Improving our ability to accurately predict individual risk for depression would have profound public health benefits. While there has been growing interest in understanding the relation between measures of positive emotion, such as well-being, and depression, it is not clear whether low well-being is an independent predictor of short term depression risk. We assessed whether low well-being is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Medical internship is a well-established period of stress whe...
Lau, Hi-po; 劉喜寶
Gratitude is a ubiquitous emotional experience. A simple “thank you” could just be a casual gesture of politeness; yet, religions, philosophers, and psychologists have long proposed that heart-felt experiences of gratefulness is the key to well-being. This dissertation examined the mediating mechanisms of the effects of gratitude on subjective well-being. I proposed a resources-coping model, which postulates that gratitude fosters subjective well-being through first enhancing perceptions of c...
The aim of this study was to come to a better understanding of possible neuropsychological mechanisms underlying psychosocial well-being and therefore to determine whether a relationship between neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being does indeed exist. Research was conducted in the domains of neuropsychology and positive psychology. This thesis consists of three articles, namely I ) Neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being: ...
This study asks how well the Nordic nations have managed in a new social environment of globalization, increasing competition and new challenges to the Nordic welfare model? The focus is on well-being outcomes, rather than on welfare inputs (expenditure generosity or rights and institutional features). For this purpose we have constructed a data bank with well-being measures for 29 modern nations, based on 69 variables in 9 well-being dimensions. With this data we have constructed an overall ...
Kim, Tae Sook; Park, Jeong Sook; Kim, Myung Ae
The purpose of this research is to examine the relation of meditation to power and well-being in Korean adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, meditation was provided through a chakra meditation music program over a 4 week period. The Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool and the Well-Being Picture Scale were used, after being translated into Korean. Statistically significant interaction effects of power and group (p<.001), and well-being and group (p<.05) were found. Meditation has a potential to facilitate power and well-being in the human and environmental field patterning process. PMID:18096986
Ryff, Carol D.
This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296
Diener, Ed; Seligman, Martin E P
Policy decisions at the organizational, corporate, and governmental levels should be more heavily influenced by issues related to well-being-people's evaluations and feelings about their lives. Domestic policy currently focuses heavily on economic outcomes, although economic indicators omit, and even mislead about, much of what society values. We show that economic indicators have many shortcomings, and that measures of well-being point to important conclusions that are not apparent from economic indicators alone. For example, although economic output has risen steeply over the past decades, there has been no rise in life satisfaction during this period, and there has been a substantial increase in depression and distrust. We argue that economic indicators were extremely important in the early stages of economic development, when the fulfillment of basic needs was the main issue. As societies grow wealthy, however, differences in well-being are less frequently due to income, and are more frequently due to factors such as social relationships and enjoyment at work. Important noneconomic predictors of the average levels of well-being of societies include social capital, democratic governance, and human rights. In the workplace, noneconomic factors influence work satisfaction and profitability. It is therefore important that organizations, as well as nations, monitor the well-being of workers, and take steps to improve it. Assessing the well-being of individuals with mental disorders casts light on policy problems that do not emerge from economic indicators. Mental disorders cause widespread suffering, and their impact is growing, especially in relation to the influence of medical disorders, which is declining. Although many studies now show that the suffering due to mental disorders can be alleviated by treatment, a large proportion of persons with mental disorders go untreated. Thus, a policy imperative is to offer treatment to more people with mental disorders, and
Full Text Available Ecosystem services are necessary, yet not sufficient for human well-being (however defined. Insufficient access to the ecosystem provisioning service of food is a particularly important factor in the loss of human well-being, but all ecosystem services contribute in some way to well-being. Although perhaps long obvious to ecologists, the links between ecosystems and aspects of human well-being, including health, have been less well understood among the social science community. This situation may now be starting to change, thanks in part to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA. Causality between ecosystem services and well-being is bidirectional; it is increasingly clear that functioning societies can protect or enhance ecosystem services, and accordingly, that societies with impaired well-being (best documented in the case of chronic diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS can also experience a related decline in ecosystem services. The future state of human well-being and of ecosystem services is more than the co-evolution of these two fundamental elements. Human well-being also depends, critically, upon the human institutions that govern relationships between human individuals and groups, and also between humans and ecosystem services. The scenarios working group of the MA found that human well-being is highest in the Global Orchestration scenario, which assumes the fastest evolution of beneficial institutions, and is lowest in the Order from Strength scenario. Human well-being was found to be intermediate in the other two scenarios (Adapting Mosaic and Techno-Garden even though these scenarios share a much greater recognition of the importance of ecosystem services to human well-being.
Olesen, Martin Hammershøj
Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....
Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.
This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current st
Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.
Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…
Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas
This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
This paper introduces the context for young people in the United Kingdom today, identifies some of the key factors associated with well-being, and then focuses on ways spiritual well-being can be promoted through informal education. Informal education is the widely acknowledged primary pedagogical approach for professional youth workers. Using…
Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.
This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…
Hawks, Steven R.; Goudy, Marylynn B.; Gast, Julie A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating and spiritual well-being. It was found that among college women lower levels of spiritual well-being correlated with higher levels of emotional eating (r = -0.22, p = 0.0015). In other studies emotional eating has been found to contribute to higher…
Newland, Lisa A.
Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children's subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health,…
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.
Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873
Sears, Lindsay E; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A; Castle, Patricia H; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Coberley, Carter R; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E; Harter, James K
Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. PMID:24892873
Robak, Rostyslaw W; Chiffriller, Sheila H; Zappone, Melinda C
Previous research indicates that, while making money is important to college students, it is negatively correlated with subjective well-being. This study asked 157 undergraduate business and psychology students about the importance of making money, their motives for doing so, and several dimensions of subjective well-being: satisfaction with life, self-actualization, and mood/affect. Making money remains very important to college students. Being motivated to make money was not globally related to subjective well-being, but wanting to make money to help others, to feel secure, and to feel proud of oneself were predictive of happiness or subjective well-being. Motives such as comparing oneself favorably to others, spending impulsively, and overcoming self-doubt were not correlated with subjective well-being. Business students appeared more motivated to make money than other students and also to have more negative affect. PMID:17451017
Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Rula, Elizabeth Y.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E; Harter, James K.
Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and va...
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R
This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pself-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. PMID:26162660
Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves
The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look. PMID:23866210
This paper presents a heuristic mathematical model of the changes over time in the statistical distribution of well-being of individuals in a society. The model predicts that when individuals overvalue the more overtly conspicuous aspects of well-being in their lifestyle choices, then under certain conditions the average well-being of the overall population may experience continuous decline. We investigate the influence of various effects, including the incidence of personal misfortune, heterogeneity in the population, and economic and/or technological progress.
Kye Soon Park
@@ How HRT & Exercisc provide the Effect of Women Well - being is discussed here with the Presentation about (1) Information on Hormone & HRT; (9) Introduction to Estrogen Replacemen; (3) Review of Relational Studies.
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Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed
Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation. PMID:22157676
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People＇s Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity （PA）, negative affectivity （NA）, job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index （PWI）, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people＇s well-being.
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;
Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences...... people to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...
Full Text Available A descriptive survey design was utilized to examine the relationship between multiple roles and the psychosocial well-being among non-academic female staff of a public university in Ghana. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were employed to recruit one hundred married working mothers as participants for the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data, which was analyzed using descriptive and Pearson Correlation statistics. The findings indicated a statistically significant negative relationship between respondents’ psychosocial well-being and some childcare and household responsibilities. While romantic activities were inversely correlated with the psychosocial well-being of the participants, the relationships were not statistically significant. The findings reinforce the need for healthcare and other professionals, such as social workers to deepen their understanding of the effects of multiple roles on the psychosocial well-being of women who combine employment with parenthood and marriage.
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Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich
This exploratory paper estimates the effects on well-being of two very important institutional symbols of 59 countries in 2007: national flags and constitutions. The results indicate that well-being responds positively to investment in material things as well as the existence of flags. However, nationalwell-being is highly inelastic with respect to measures of constitutions and national flag colors. In fact, nations with fewer flag colors, infrequent constitutional changes, and small constitu...
von Möllendorff, Charlotte; Welsch, Heinz
Electricity from renewable sources avoids the disadvantages of conventional power generation (air pollution, greenhouse gases, nuclear risk) but often meets with local resistance due to visual, acoustic, and odor nuisance. We use representative panel data on the subjective well-being of 36,475 individuals in Germany, 1994-2012, for identifying and valuing the local externalities from wind, solar and biomass plants. While the well-being effects of wind turbines refer mainly to initial installa...
Perelli-Harris, Brienna; Styrc, Marta
Historically, the married have had better well-being outcomes than the unmarried. The decline in marriage and increase in cohabitation raises questions about whether marriage still provides these benefits. Do partnerships in general, and marriage in particular, provide benefits to mental wellbeing among the middle aged in the UK today? Do differences in well-being by partnership hold when childhood characteristics are taken into account?
The starting point of this paper is the idea that individuals are characterized by hierarchical behavior. The theory of hierarchical needs implies that individuals have a priority approach to psychological well-being. This means that the most important needs must be satisfied first before the secondary needs come into the picture. The theory can also offer additional insights to the research field which investigates the relationship between labor earnings and psychological well-being levels. ...
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-be...
Lincoln, Karen D.
Research examining the relationship between social support and psychological well-being has largely ignored the negative side of social interactions. However, empirical evidence suggests that negative interactions can potentially be more harmful than social support is helpful. This article critically reviews the literature investigating the relationship between social support and negative social interactions and their simultaneous effect on psychological well-being. A review of 28 studies rev...
Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald
This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in values that give feelings of agency greater weight in shaping human well-being. In the second part, we test the key links in this model with data from ...
Lorenna Cláudia Carvalho Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate attitudes and psychological well-being of the elderly in Santo Antônio de Jesus-Ba. This is a descriptive, field, quantitative, where the sample was non-probabilistic, consisting of 54 seniors. The elderly showed positive attitudes towards old age and a positive sense of psychological well-being. Attitudes can act as coping mechanisms in the face of losses of old age by increasing the psychological adjustment.
Spokane, Arnold R.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Mason, Craig A.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Brown, Scott C.; Perrino, Tatiana; Szapocznik, José
To determine effective relationships between the built environment and health and well-being, a transdisciplinary team of architectural, behavioral and health scientists developed a built environment coding system (UMBECS). They examined the relationship of resulting streetscape features to health and well-being at the block level. The research team conducted studies of the validity of UMBECS focusing on children through school conduct and grades, and on elders through a longitudinal cognitiv...
As a guest editor of the special edition of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being I would like to present seven designated articles. The current thematic cluster represents qualitative research illustrating the challenges in supporting the central aspects of health and well-being for individuals in various situations linked to human vulnerability. This theme cluster will provide the reader with a new and greater understanding of the inner meaning of vulnera...
Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Gul, Mine; Yazici, Esra; Gul, Gazanfer Kemal
Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was car...
Farajzadegan, Ziba; Koosha, Pooya; Sufi, Ghazaleh Jamalipour; Keshvari, Mahrokh
Background: Health measurement is one of the major challenges in today's researches. Various indicators including well-being are used to evaluate health. Many factors including culture, structures, and values can be effective on family health, quality of life, and well-being of family members that these elements themselves are effective on the whole society's health. One of other effective factors on these indicators is family function. Materials and Methods: The data collecting tools include...
Ravindranath K. Murthy
The concept of health and well-being has recently gained increased attention and has emerged as an important area of research in organizational behaviour literature. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between psychological well-being and organizational commitment in executives. Using psychometrically sound instruments to measure psychological wellbeing and organizational commitment on executives, the primary data for the study was generated. Data ...
Marko Tončić; Petra Anic
People pursue happiness through different paths: pleasure, engagement and meaning, which are differently related to well-being. The aim of this research was to compare subjective well-being, life goals and self-control of people with different profiles of orientations to happiness.Students (484 females, 278 males; mean age 20.60) rated their life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, orientations to happiness, and self-control.Based on the K-means cluster analysis participants were grou...
Del Boca Daniela
Child poverty matters directly as children constitute a large share of the population and indirectly for future individual and national well- being. Measures of child poverty are dominated by incomepoverty, although education and well-being are now often included. Data in the most recent international and EU reports indicate that Italy performs worse than most developed countries in this respect, in spite of the extremely low fertility rates. The purpose of this report is to examine several d...
Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.
Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with poorer physical health, self-compassion was associated with greater subjective well-being. In Study 2, 71 participants between the ages of 63 and 97 completed a questionnaire assessing self-compassion, well-being, and their willingness to use assistance for walking, hearing, and memory. Self-compassionate participants reported being less bothered by the use of assistance than those low in self-compassion, although the relationship between self-compassion and willingness to use assistive devices was mixed. These findings suggest that self-compassion is associated with well-being in later life and that interventions to promote self-compassion may improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23525647
Full Text Available Improving our ability to accurately predict individual risk for depression would have profound public health benefits. While there has been growing interest in understanding the relation between measures of positive emotion, such as well-being, and depression, it is not clear whether low well-being is an independent predictor of short term depression risk. We assessed whether low well-being is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Medical internship is a well-established period of stress when levels of depressive symptoms increase dramatically. 1621 individuals beginning medical internship were assessed for well-being, depressive symptoms, and a set of psychological and demographic traits prior to starting internship year and again for depressive symptoms at 3 month intervals during the year. Low subjective well-being significantly predicted increased depression symptom scores during the stress of medical internship and accounted for individual level inter-variability in depression symptom trends across time. Assessing well-being may have utility in predicting future depression risk.
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.
Subjective well-being is predominantly conceived as having 3 components: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. This article reports 2 studies that seek to investigate the factor structure of subjective well-being in Iran. One-, two-, and three-factor models of subjective well-being were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The results of Study 1 (N = 2,197) and Study 2 (N = 207) show that whereas the 1- and 2-factor models do not fit the data well, the 3-factor model provides an adequate fit. These results indicate that the 3 components of subjective well-being constitute 3 interrelated, yet distinct, factors. The analyses demonstrate how traditional CFA and ESEM can be combined to obtain a clear picture of the measurement model of subjective well-being and generate new insights about individual items and cross-loadings needed to derive more parsimonious measures. Nuances relating to the assessment of subjective well-being in more collectivist and Muslim countries are discussed. PMID:26673220
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713
Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Junhyoung
The Internet has become an important social context in the lives of older adults. Extant research has focused on the use of the Internet and how it influences well-being. However, conflicting findings exist. The purpose of the study was to develop an integrative research model in order to determine the nature of the relationships among Internet use, loneliness, social support, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Specifically, loneliness and social support were tested as potential mediators that may modify the relationship between Internet use and indicators of well-being. Data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used, and the association among Internet use, social support, loneliness, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being was explored. The sample consisted of 5,203 older adults (aged 65 years and older). The results indicated that higher levels of Internet use were significant predictors of higher levels of social support, reduced loneliness, and better life satisfaction and psychological well-being among older adults. PMID:25919967
Abed, Nazanin; Pakdaman, Shahla; Heidari, Mahmood; Tahmassian, Karineh
The aim of this research was to develop a scale in order to measure psychological well-being in preschool children. Three hundred and seventy five to six year old children participated in the research from 5 regions of Tehran, using accidental sampling method. The participants were individually interviewed with the Well-Being in Preschool Children Scale, and their teachers completed Rutter's Child Behavior Questionnaire about each of them. Data was analyzed with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods using WLSMV and GEOMIN oblique rotation, to examine factorial structure. Samejima's graded response model was used to access psychometric features of the items. Test-retest reliability was measured and Pearson's correlation was also used to assess divergent and convergent validity. Findings revealed that this scale has 3 main factors: self-concept, life satisfaction and resilience. The validity and reliability of the scale is also satisfactory. The well-being indicators in this scale are consistent with previous research on components of well-being in children. In addition there is a negative correlation between psychological well-being and behavioral problems, which is also illustrated in previous research. PMID:27241414
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713
Martínez Taboada, Cristina
Full Text Available The configuration of new intergroup and interpersonal relations that take place in the receiving social context as a result of migratory processes, owns direct influences over the school scene. Having in account there are different paradigms and models in multicultural education (Banks, 2009, the aim of the study is to analyse the impact that has on teacher’s social well-being, the main or minor percentage of immigrant students in the schools. The Social Well-Being Scale of Keyes (1998, adapted by Blanco & Diaz (2005 was applied on a sample of 281 primary education teachers from Guipúzcoa, (Spain. They were distributed in three groups for its comparison. The results indicate, that those teachers that carry out their work in schools with greater concentration of immigrant students, presented the greater level of social well-being with respect to their colleagues who belong to schools characterized by the sociocultural homogeneity of the pupils.
Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...... participated in both waves of the study (T1  and T2 ). The three outcomes were analyzed using linear multilevel regression analysis, multilevel Poisson regression analysis, and multilevel logistic regression analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Group-level AOC (T1) significantly predicted individual......-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness...... to eudaimonia assessments of meaningfulness, and so create balanced states of positive well-being. RESULTS: Notable progress has been made in understanding brain bases of hedonic processing, producing insights into that brain systems that cause and/or code sensory pleasures. Progress has been facilitated...... pleasures strongly overlap with more basic sensory pleasures. This overlap may provide a window into underlying brain circuitry that generates all pleasures, including even the hedonic quality of pervasive well-being that detaches from any particular sensation to apply to daily life in a more sustained...
Singla, Rashmi; Holm, Dagny
Intermarried couples in Denmark face a range of psychosocial challenges in the context of dominant discourses of homogeneity coexisting with ethnic diversity. This article deals with the couples’ managing of everyday life, mental health, well-being and implications for health promotion and...... mental health and well-being over the life course....... focussing on the fun part, are in interplay with external aspects such as formal and informal acceptance of the intermarriage in society, dominant gender roles, recognition and inclusion for the mixed couples. Recognition of the significance of these aspects and practices is important for promoting positive...
A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Clinical PsychologyCandidate: Peter James TaylorTitle: Prosociality and Well-Being in Young PeopleJune 2013Prosociality describes the tendency to engage in behaviours that aim to enhance or maintain the well-being of others, for example, sharing and co-operating. In children and adolescents this trait is often viewed as a core aspect of social competence and an important developmental outcome. Prosociality may also...
The well-being of immigrant youth — of the first or second generation — is intimately tied up with their socio-economic status and success; in turn, their success and how immigrant youth relate to the society around them are important elements of social cohesion and well-being for those societies. Institutional settings, in relation to immigrants and to Welfare State structures more broadly, as well as the policies adopted within those settings, vary greatly from one developed country to the ...
Martínez de Taboada, Cristina; Alonso, María L
The configuration of new intergroup and interpersonal relations that take place in the receiving social context as a result of migratory processes, owns direct influences over the school scene. Having in account there are different paradigms and models in multicultural education (Banks, 2009), the aim of the study is to analyse the impact that has on teacher’s social well-being, the main or minor percentage of immigrant students in the schools. The Social Well-Being Scale of Keyes (1998), ada...
Joaquín García-Alandete; Gloria Bernabé Valero
This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7%) and 42 men (23.3%), aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1) a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation an...
Ha, Shang E.; Kim, Seokho
Although the statistically significant relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., self-reported happiness and life satisfaction) is well-known in the field of positive psychology, some scholars still cast doubt on the external validity of this finding and the strength of personality dimensions vis-a-vis other…
In this paper, I explore the enhancement agenda, which aims to enhance well-being nationwide and particularly among young people. Although it is said by its proponents to embody the ideas of Aristotle, I argue that its true theoretical underpinning is the polarised thinking of positive psychology. The sharp distinction between positive and…
Rudolph, Karen D.; Caldwell, Melissa S.; Conley, Colleen S.
This research examined the hypothesis that a tendency to base one's self-worth on peer approval is associated with positive and negative aspects of children's well-being. A sample of 153 fourth through eighth graders (9.0 to 14.8 years) reported on need for approval, global self-worth, social-evaluative concerns, anxiety and depression, and…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…
Waddell, Erin L.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of background, psychological, and social variables on older adults' well-being, and how this may differ for men and women. Participants included 800 adults from the 2002 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), aged 60 to 101 years old (M = 71.22, SD = 8.46), who completed the optional positive…
Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during rehabilita......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...... qualitative studies of lived experiences of well-being and suffering within one year after discharge with hip fracture. Method: Following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a three-step literature search strategy was developed. Initially, a structured search was performed in the databases CINAHL...... five steps of meaning condensation was performed. Results: 30 studies were critically appraised, leaving 29 studies for inclusion in the analysis. Two main categories emerged, each containing three sub-categories. “Balancing a new life” described how participants strived to regain well-being through...
Ess, Brian C.
The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E
The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective wellbei
Brown, Susan L.
Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…
Willoughby, Brian J; Belt, Dallin
The aim of this study was to expand on previous studies of cohabitation to understand the relationship between marital orientations and the relationship well-being of cohabiting couples with a particular focus on using dyadic analyses to understand within-couple patterns. Results from a sample of 1,837 couples provided evidence that an intent to delay marriage and a lower importance placed on marriage for 1 partner was related to lower relationship well-being assessments for both partners in the areas of couple satisfaction, stability, and communication. Greater differences between partners in the intent to delay marriage and importance placed on marriage were also found to be associated with some outcomes. When female partners had a greater intention to marry or a greater importance placed on marriage than male partners, couples began to report lower assessments of couple well-being. Finally, whether or not a couple was engaged at the time of cohabitation moderated some of the findings, suggesting that some associations were stronger or only present among cohabiters that were not engaged. The findings of the study provide further evidence that cohabiting couples are not all the same and that marital orientations and engagement status are important indicators of relationship well-being for many such couples. PMID:26348109
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2 sam
Gargiulo, R.; Stokes, Mark A.
The Theory of Homeostasis posits that Subjective Well-being (SWB) is regulated by a dynamic biological mechanism, assisting to maintain a positive view of life. Further, the theory suggests that clinical depression is the loss of SWB due to the defeat of this homeostatic defence system. To test this hypothesis it was predicted that people who were…
Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald
This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…
The purpose of the study was to reveal the main factors of teachers' professional well being. Theoretically constructed model was tested on large scale data belong to 72.190 teachers working at lower secondary level. Theoretical model included teachers' individual, professional and organizational characteristics. Professional well-being…
Leyendecker, Birgit; Agache, Alexandru
This study examined paternal involvement in parenting, the association between parents' perception of mutual support, and the relation to their children's well-being before (t1) and after the transition to first grade (t2). Participants were first and second generation immigrant families from Turkey (n = 134). In addition, German families (n = 45) were included for the comparison of paternal involvement. The percentage of highly involved fathers was higher in the German sub-sample (54 %) than in the Turkish sub-sample (38 %), but we found no influence of parents' education, household income, employment status, or children's gender. First generation fathers were more likely to be highly involved than second generation fathers. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that mothers with highly involved fathers were more likely to report higher marital support. This pattern was less clear for fathers. Children with highly involved fathers reported significantly higher well-being at t1. For t2, a moderator analysis revealed a positive effect on children's well-being only for those fathers who were both highly involved and reported the highest fathering self-efficacy. Among other variables, we controlled for children's well-being at t1, their health status, fathers' work hours and mothers' marital satisfaction. PMID:26758342
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…
Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn
Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…
Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva
Roč. 44, 1-2 (2006), s. 59-61. ISSN 0960-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Well-being * social gradient * resilience factors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Makiwane, Monde; Kwizera, Stella
This paper was a result of an analysis from various data sources with a purpose to develop a better understanding of the level of socio-economic well being of young people in South Africa. Such understanding is aimed at enabling government to plan and implement well-structured and integrated development programmes that are relevant to the…
Full Text Available ... R S T U V W X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being— ...
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Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter
Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development. PMID:21692245
Lever, Joaquina Palomar; Pinol, Nuria Lanzagorta; Uralde, Jorge Hernandez
This study was carried out for the purpose of explaining the mediating effects of a number of psychological variables (strategies for coping with stress, competitiveness, mastery, locus of control, depression and self-esteem) in the relationship between poverty and the well-being of individuals. To carry out the study, a non-probabilistic,…
Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
The links between single mothers' employment patterns and change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children were investigated using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents were ages 14 to 16 at baseline, and they and their mothers were followed for 2 years. Relative to being continuously employed in a good job,…
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van Hooijdonk, Mare; Van Viersen, Sietske; Middel-Lalleman, Marieke M. N.; Reijnders, Julièt J. W.
This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverbal reasoning ability) and 34 typically developing…
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...
van der Wal, Reine C.; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although the ability to forgive offending peers may be crucial for maintaining long-term friendships in childhood, little is actually known about forgiveness among peers in childhood. In the present research, we examined whether forgiveness among children is related to enhanced psychological well-being. Importantly, we hypothesized that this…
Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed
Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…
It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…
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Full Text Available In this paper we examine the intersection of well-being, agency and the current political and economic structures which impact on social work with adults and in doing so contribute to ‘interpreting and mapping out the force fields of meaning production' (Fornäs, Fredriksson & Johannisson 2011: 7. In it we draw upon Sointu's (2005 work which identified the shift from conceptualising well-being in terms of ‘the body politic' to conceptualising it in terms of ‘the body personal' and identified parallels with understanding well-being in English social work. There has been a shift in the nature of social work in the United Kingdom in how the question of agency has been addressed. For many years this was through the traditional notion of autonomy and self-determination (Biestek 1961 and later collective approaches to welfare and services (Bailey and Brake 1975. The development of paradigms of mainly personal empowerment in the 1980s and 1990s (Braye & Preston-Shoot 1995 saw social work become less associated with collective engagement in welfare and more concerned with the enhancement of individual well-being (Jordan 2007. Whilst the rhetoric of well-being, in contemporary English social work, continues to include autonomy and self-determination, this is focused primarily upon the narrower concepts of independence and choice (Simpson 2012. The UK Department of Health's A Vision for Adult Social Care: Capable Communities and Active Citizens (DoH 2010 is the template for national social care policy to which all Local Authorities in England had to respond with an implementation plan. This paper draws on a documentary analysis of two such plans drafted in 2012 in the wake of an ‘austerity budget' and consequent public ex-penditure reductions. The analysis considers the effect of economic imperatives on the conceptualisation of individual choices and needs in the context of Local Au-thorities' responsibilities to people collectively. A concept of
Bruno, Andreina; Bracco, Fabrizio
Practitioners' well-being and clinical risk management are two interrelated concepts in healthcare. Patient safety, workers' safety and practitioners well-being have often been managed and measured with different methods, even though they are tightly linked. In this paper we propose a method that is suitable to increase organizational health. The action-research project aims to increase the commitment of healthcare managers and practitioners toward the development of an organizational culture which is oriented to patient and practitioner safety and well-being. These are crucial organizational resource for an effective process management. The project lasted 18 months and involved 60 nurses and physicians working in the operating room of six hospitals in the North of Italy. The project aimed to develop an inter-organizational methodology for noticing and monitoring critical threats to safety and well-being. The tool consisted of a report form in which practitioners could describe possible threats, solutions and personal contributions to the solutions. The participants designed it according to their practice and it was considered suitable and usable in their current work activities. Its added value is to overcome the habitual bottleneck between anomalies investigation and action planning, by identifying a specific role in the learning process to take care of the transition from data gathering to data use. The tool aims to enable individuals and teams to monitor and share ideas about critical aspects that affect their safety and well-being, collect contributions to solve them, sustain dissemination of good practices and frame health promotion as a crucial organizational resource. PMID:27570515
Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin
The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. PMID:26354155
Disabato, David J; Goodman, Fallon R; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Jarden, Aaron
A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348031
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year
Although investigators have identified some of the social and economic forces that influence levels of economic resources among elderly adults, little has been done to organize these factors into predictive lifespan models of economic well-being. Applying path analysis to data on retiring workers from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the present research offers a beginning recursive model. It traces the influences of demographic/family background, human capital, and work-related characteristics on economic position in retirement. Controlling for differences in labor force participation and other human capital measures, race and family background lose their direct significance, whereas sex remains directly significant in predicting economic resource levels for recently retired workers. In addition, the model estimates the direct and indirect effects played by industrial sector location and social class position. In total the structurally based capital attainment model explains 65% of the variance in a measure of economic well-being that includes retirement income and wealth. PMID:4008884
Brunetto, Yvonne; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Shacklock, Kate
Within a context of global nurse shortages, replacing nurses is difficult; training and retention is a critical concern for healthcare management. Similarities and differences in the impact of supervisor-nurse relationships upon satisfaction with training and development, well-being and affective commitment were examined across 3 different nursing generations in Australia. Nine hundred nurses from 7 private hospitals (small, medium, and large) across Australia responded. Path analysis, using an ordinary least squares approach, and multivariate analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Three factors accounted for almost half the variance of Generation Xs' and Baby Boomers' and a third of Generation Ys' affective commitment. Practical implications for hospital management include differences in generations and the pivotal role of nurse supervisors. For all 3 generations of nurses, supervisor-subordinate communication relationships are important because they contribute to satisfaction with training and development and well-being, but also significantly impact affective commitment. PMID:21703652
Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25189189
, thus of how employees may be affected by leader stress. A mixed methods approach was applied in order to obtain methodological complementarity: The project includes a systematic review of three decades of research in the field, and quantitative- as well as qualitative study components, presented in......The objective of this PhD-thesis is to summarise the results of a PhD project on the relationship between leaders’ stress and employees stress and wellbeing. The overall aim of the PhD project was to promote a better understanding of the relationship between leader and employee stress and wellbeing...... five papers. In conclusion, the overall findings bring together a negative leader-employee circle in terms of stress on one and a positive leader-employee circle in terms of well-being on the other side. Moreover, a cascade model of support illustrates stress and well-being dynamics; showing how...
Roelen, Keetie; Gassmann, Franziska
Due to the acknowledgment that children deserve special focus in poverty measurement, the measurement of child poverty and well-being has received increasing attention within the academic and policy arena. The dependence of children on their direct environment for the provision of basic needs, the child-specific requirements in terms of their basic needs and the request for specific information for the formulation of child-focused policies are important reasons calling for the development of ...
Ove Svensson; Lillemor R-M Hallberg
Health, well-being, quality of life, and lifestyle are central concepts within health science, although generally accepted definitions are still lacking. Lifestyle can either be seen as an independent variable and the cause of unhealthy behaviour or as a dependent variable, which is affected by conditions in the society. In the first case, the attention is directed on each individual case: maintaining or improving health requires changes in lifestyle and living habits. In this perspective, di...
Musick, Kelly; BUMPASS, LARRY
Prior research on marriage has tended to focus on cross-sectional differences between the married and unmarried, with little attention to selectivity, change over time, or the substantive implications of statistically different means. This paper addresses these issues and provides a perspective for thinking about the relative benefits of marriage. It examines how transitions into marriage and cohabitation are associated with change over time in multiple measures of well-being and social relat...
ABSTRACT This dissertation is composed of three essays that measure the impact of social programs and policies on the well being of their target populations. The first essay entitled "The Wage Impact of Historically Black College and University Attendance" examines the impact of attending a Historically Black College or University on the wages of Blacks attending HBCUs versus other four year colleges or universities using a sample of Blacks from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (...
As a Guest Editor of the International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being’s special edition on perspectives on health and well-being in nursing, it is my wish to present four original articles embracing some essential core aspects of nursing science irrespective of their specialization. They represent different aspects of qualitative research that focus on; the challenge of integrating core concepts of health into mental health nursing praxis, the experiences in psychiatr...
Silva, Fábio; Cesar ANALIDE
The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT)) aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being s...
Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea
This paper addresses (1) the development of identity and personal control over development through adulthood; (2) their developmental background in early adolescence; and (3) their associations with adult psychosocial well-being and selfperceptions of health. Personal growth in the areas of identity and personal control over development was relatively stable from age 27 to 42, with earlier levels predicting later levels. Identity achievement was fostered by success in school an...
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher fr...
Michela Ferron; Stefano De Paoli; Paolo Massa
Ubiquitous games and gamification have recently become a widely applied approach for promoting well-being and improving health behaviours such as a physically active lifestyle. In this Special Issue of the Journal ICST Transactions on Ambient Systems, we collected a selection of high-quality papers presented at the workshop on “Ubiquitous games and gamification for promoting behaviour change and wellbeing”, held at the 2013 CHItaly Conference. The articles explore different areas where ubiqui...
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, freq...
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population – the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants – happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, freq...
Most people want to be happy. But if happiness, or well-being, comes in different forms, which one should they pursue? Some researchers do argue that the traditional hedonic view of life satisfaction and pleasant feelings are necessary but not sufficient constituents of a good life. This alternative viewpoint contains both hedonia and eudaimonia which emphasizes personal growth and engagement. With the use of participants from Lofoten Folk High School, Norway (N = 89) orientations and feelin...
Headey, Bruce; Wooden, Mark
It is widely assumed that since income is usually found to account for a relatively small proportion of the variance across individuals in self-reported well-being, money does not matter for personal happiness. This hypothesis is re-examined in this paper by including measures of household wealth alongside the more usual household income measure in regression equations of life satisfaction. Using data drawn from four large population surveys from four different countries,evidence is found ind...
Blanchflower, David G.; Oswald, Andrew J.
The standard of living in the industrialized nations has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. Yet some observers wonder whether we are really getting any happier. This paper addresses that question by examining well-being data on 100,000 randomly sampled Americans and Britons from the early 1970s to the late 1990s. Reported levels of happiness have declined over the period in the United States. Life satisfaction has been approximately flat through time in Great Britain. Counter...
Flexible work time and retirement options are a potential solution for the challenges of unemployment, aging populations, and unsustainable pensions systems around the world. Voluntary part-time workers in Europe and the US are happier, experience less stress and anger, and are more satisfied with their jobs than other employees. Late-life workers, meanwhile, have higher levels of well-being than retirees. The feasibility of a policy that is based on more flexible work arrangements will vary ...
Singh, Ajai R.
Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine′s other big challenge. Advances in vaccine...
Kern, Margaret L; Benson, Lizbeth; Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Steinberg, Laurence
We introduce the EPOCH Measure of Adolescent Well-Being, which assesses 5 positive psychological characteristics (Engagement, Perseverance, Optimism, Connectedness, and Happiness) that might foster well-being, physical health, and other positive outcomes in adulthood. To create the measure, a pool of 60 items was compiled, and a series of 10 studies with 4,480 adolescents (age 10-18) from the United States and Australia were used to develop and test the measure, including the factor structure, internal and test-retest reliability, and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The final 20-item measure demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, although additional studies are needed to further validate the measure, extend to other population groups, and examine the extent to which it predicts long-term outcomes. As a brief multidimensional measure, the EPOCH measure contributes to the empirical testing and application of well-being theory, and offers a valuable addition to batteries designed to assess adolescent positive psychological functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302102
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W
The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed. PMID:26436716
Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Gul, Mine; Yazici, Esra; Gul, Gazanfer Kemal
Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey) who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt-Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students' pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people. PMID:27403277
Ahmet Bulent Yazici
Full Text Available Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt- Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students’ pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.
Umeh, Kanayo; Mackay, Michael; Mulhearn, Chris
The relationship between use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and well-being is an increasingly debated public health issue. Currently, there is limited understanding of how the ethnic digital divide influences this association. Thus, this study assessed how ethnicity has historically moderated relations between ICT (mobile phone, computer, and TV) uptake, and several well-being indicators: (a) long-term health (chronic illness), (b) cigarette smoking, and (c) self-perceptions of personal health. Archived data from a U.K. Office for National Statistics household survey 2007-2011 (97,697 participant records) were analyzed, controlling for multiple sociodemographic confounders. Mobile phone dependence was associated with poorer health perceptions in Caucasian women, but more favorable appraisals in ethnic minority females (OR = 0.51). Furthermore, mobile phone uptake was more strongly related to increased behavioral risk (cigarette smoking) in Caucasian men compared with ethnic minority males (OR = 1.68). Ethnicity did not influence relations between ICT uptake and long-term health. Overall, ethnicity was implicated in relations between mobile phone use and well-being indicators: unfavorable associations occurred primarily in Caucasians. PMID:26794148
An intervention was carried out with primary school staff to promote well-being with weekly sessions of a project which became known as Chill and Chat. Data were gathered via questionnaires completed before and after the project and from three focus groups (before, during and after the intervention), and were analysed using thematic analysis.…
Rudolph, Karen D.; Caldwell, Melissa S.; Conley, Colleen S.
This research examined the hypothesis that a tendency to base one's self-worth on peer approval is associated with positive and negative aspects of children's well-being. 153 4th - 8th graders (9.0 to 14.8 years) reported on need for approval (NFA), global self-worth, social-evaluative concerns, anxiety and depression, and exposure to victimization. Teachers reported on social behavior. Results confirmed that NFA is a two-dimensional construct composed of positive (enhanced self-worth in the ...
Full Text Available In the currentdifficultglobal economic situationit is beneficialforanycountryto havecreateda solidfoundationsupportive of socio-economic growthand development,includingcompetitivenessand quality of lifeof all residents. This requires all availablecreativity and innovation, including enterprise policy (corporate governance innovation. Here we introduceSIEDES responsible enterprise policy that should provide better stakeholder quality of lifeto show how the enterprise policy should be; as a possible consequencewe presentthe results ofthe OECD ‘Better LifeIndex of well-being measurement’ comparing e.g. Slovenia to OECD countries average,that may follow frommore or lessresponsible enterprisepolicyofSlovenianenterprises. We conclude with some suggestions about education that should enable the desired innovation.
Hao, Bibo; Li, Lin; Gao, Rui; Li, Ang; Zhu, Tingshao
Subjective Well-being(SWB), which refers to how people experience the quality of their lives, is of great use to public policy-makers as well as economic, sociological research, etc. Traditionally, the measurement of SWB relies on time-consuming and costly self-report questionnaires. Nowadays, people are motivated to share their experiences and feelings on social media, so we propose to sense SWB from the vast user generated data on social media. By utilizing 1785 users' social media data wit...
Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus;
AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....
Jones, Carol Adaire; Milkove, Daniel
Traditionally, the economic well-being of households is gauged by indicators of the financial resources availableâ€“â€” household income and, when available, wealth. ERS publishes estimates of farm household income and wealth based on responses to USDAâ€™s annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS). Since 1998, average farm operator household income has exceeded that of the typical U.S. household by 3 to 21 percent, and median farm household wealth has been 4-5 times that of all U....
Vivek Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Traditional financial decision systems (e.g. credit had to rely on explicit individual traits like age, gender, job type, and marital status, while being oblivious to spatio-temporal mobility or the habits of the individual involved. Emerging trends in geo-aware and mobile payment systems, and the resulting "big data," present an opportunity to study human consumption patterns across space and time. Taking inspiration from animal behavior studies that have reported significant interconnections between animal spatio-temporal "foraging" behavior and their life outcomes, we analyzed a corpus of hundreds of thousands of human economic transactions and found that financial outcomes for individuals are intricately linked with their spatio-temporal traits like exploration, engagement, and elasticity. Such features yield models that are 30% to 49% better at predicting future financial difficulties than the comparable demographic models.
Vivek Kumar Singh; Burcin Bozkaya; Alex Pentland
Traditional financial decision systems (e.g. credit) had to rely on explicit individual traits like age, gender, job type, and marital status, while being oblivious to spatio-temporal mobility or the habits of the individual involved. Emerging trends in geo-aware and mobile payment systems, and the resulting "big data," present an opportunity to study human consumption patterns across space and time. Taking inspiration from animal behavior studies that have reported significant interconnectio...
Ramsden, Jeremy J.
Hunters and gatherers—our ancestors until about 10 000 years ago—presumably invariably ate fresh food. Given that degradation sets in within seconds of an animal being killed or a fruit or vegetable being plucked, this would appear to be a highly commendable state of affairs, conducive to good health. Nevertheless, hunting and gathering implies that most of man’s waking hours had to be spent in search of food: without leisure, little development of civilization is poss...
Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.
Steger, Michael F; Kashdan, Todd B
Dysfunctional social behavior has been implicated in the experience of depression. People with greater depressive symptoms report more frequent negative social interactions and react more strongly to them. It remains unknown, however, whether reaction strength differs depending on whether social interactions are positive or negative. Drawing on socio-evolutionary models of depression (N. B. Allen & P. B. T. Badcock, 2003), we proposed that people with greater depressive symptoms should not only react more strongly to negative social interactions but also to positive social interactions and a sense of belonging. Using non-clinical samples, two daily process studies examined the role of depression in people's reactivity to social interactions in natural, ongoing, social contexts. In Study 1, the number of positive and negative social events showed a stronger relation to well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms. Study 2 extended this finding to perceptions of belonging in memorable social interactions, finding a stronger link between belonging and well-being among people with greater depressive symptoms. Together these studies provide the first indication that depressive symptoms may sensitize people to everyday experiences of both social rejection and social acceptance. PMID:20428460
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa
It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues. PMID:23631941
Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija
This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...... facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation....... institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. It was successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue that...
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa
It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some...... research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling...... the process’ different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design...
Full Text Available Health, well-being, quality of life, and lifestyle are central concepts within health science, although generally accepted definitions are still lacking. Lifestyle can either be seen as an independent variable and the cause of unhealthy behaviour or as a dependent variable, which is affected by conditions in the society. In the first case, the attention is directed on each individual case: maintaining or improving health requires changes in lifestyle and living habits. In this perspective, diet and physical activity are important features for health promotion. In the second case the attention is rather directed on structural conditions in society, for example the food industry, the lunches for children at school, and the “fast food” industry should be influenced to protect human health. The structural perspective has, so far, received restricted impact when it concerns prevention and promotion of health. Processes of individualisation in the society have to an increasing extent viewed health as an affair for the individual. The benefits of physical activity, healthy food and beverage, social support, and joy are documented scientifically. In general, the trend towards increasing responsibility for one's lifestyle and health is positive, but might reinforce the inequality in health. With an even harder climate in society there might be a risk that individual health projects undermine the solidarity and the will to accept costs for medical treatment and care for people who risk their health through an unhealthy and risk-taking lifestyle. However, we argue that peoples’ well-being and quality of life presupposes a society that stands up for all people.
This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910
Mohammad Taghi Iman
Full Text Available Introduction Functional value of the social institution of family is important in any social system. Any society with its values is beginning to look into family to train its future citizens. One of the important issues in this institution is the quality of relationships between parents (spouses. When a relation between the two is satisfactory in a relaxed family on which the ruling family in public life will improve performance. One of the affective factors that impact the process of making marital satisfaction effective is psychological issues. Therefore, according to a mental health problem of the couples can enhance their marital satisfaction and ultimately improve the efficiency of the family. Previous studies indicate that the level of psychological well-being is an affective factor in marital satisfaction of women than men. Also as known the cultural roots in modern cities have been weaken and divorce rate has been increased (Shirazi, 2007; Shie, 2001. While the studies and research in this regard is less. Thus pay attention to mental well-being with regard to the role of social context causes to increase the survival rates of marital satisfaction of women in particular and families in general. We choosed Najafabad and Fooladshahr as different social contexts, because of their cultural, demographic and historical distinctions. In one hand Najafabad is an old and passing city which could maintain its ancient structure and in the other hand has been accepted elements of modern and industrial life. But Fooladshahr is a new and immigrant town which because of this character, it has no homogenous and specific culture and diversity of cultures and ethnos in this city has been caused different positive and negative problems in habitant's lives. The statistics show that the immigration of Fooladshahr is more than Najafabad. Therefore, the total goal of this paper is answering to these questions: what kind of relation is there between
Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Rodríguez-Arauz, Gloriana; Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; Smith-Castro, Vanessa
Previous cross-cultural studies have found differences in food attitudes. For example, Americans are more concerned about weight gain than people from France and India. This study aimed to add on the literature on cross-cultural differences in food attitudes by comparing Euro-Americans with Costa Ricans on three different food attitudes: concern about gaining weight, food negativity, and the belief in the link between diet and health. This study also analyzes the implications of food attitudes on well-being. Specifically, within and across cultures, analyses were done to test the relationship between food attitudes and both anxiety and depression. Results showed that Costa Ricans are significantly less concerned about weight and less food negative than Euro-Americans. In further analyses an interaction was revealed, in which Costa Ricans that are high on weight concern but low on food negativity show lower levels of depression, compared to Euro-Americans. Results and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:27215838
Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi
This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26167841
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159432
Long, Rachel F; Huebner, E Scott; Wedell, Douglas H; Hills, Kimberly J
The tripartite model of subjective well-being (SWB) incorporates 3 components: frequent positive emotions, infrequent negative emotions, and an overall positive evaluation of life circumstances (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). In light of the large amount of time that youth spend in school, this study investigated a tripartite model of school-related SWB among adolescents, based on 3 measures of SWB appropriate for adolescents. The measures included a measure of school satisfaction (SS) and measures of positive and negative emotions experienced specifically during school hours. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to analyze the factorial validity of 3- and 4-factor models of school-related SWB in a sample of 921 adolescents. Results indicated that a 4-factor model comprised of positive emotions, negative emotions, fear-related negative emotions, and SS best described the structure of school-related SWB in the current sample. Results also revealed a comparable factor structure for male and female students. The study points to the possible benefits of a contextualized approach to SWB that takes into account the specific environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22239393
Ajai R Singh
Full Text Available Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine's other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely.
Singh, Ajai R
Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine's other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely. PMID:21327168
This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl
Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways. PMID:24944164
Franks, Becca; Champagne, Frances A.; Higgins, E. Tory
We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding ‘the good life.’ Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60) were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched ...
Gates, Nicola; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A
Objectives Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB). Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention. Methods Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB. Results Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance of PWB in MCI. Discussion Our empirical findings support a theoretical tiered model of PWB in MCI and contribute to an understanding of the way in which early subtle cognitive deficits impact upon PWB. Multiple targets and entry points for clinical intervention were identified. These include improving the cognitive difficulties associated with MCI. Additionally, these highlight the importance of reducing memory concern, addressing low mood, and suggest that improving a person’s quality of life may attenuate the negative effects of depression and anxiety on PWB in this cohort. PMID:24855347
The Great Recession was associated with large changes in income, wealth, and unemployment, changes that affected many lives. Since January 2008, the Gallup Organization has been collecting daily data on 1,000 Americans each day, with a range of self-reported well-being (SWB) questions. I use these data to examine how the recession affected the emotional and evaluative lives of the population, as well as of subgroups within it. In the fall of 2008, around the time of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and lasting into the spring of 2009, at the bottom of the stock market, Americans reported sharp declines in their life evaluation, sharp increases in worry and stress, and declines in positive affect. By the end of 2010, in spite of continuing high unemployment, these measures had largely recovered, though worry remained higher and life evaluation lower than in January 2008. The SWB measures do a much better job of monitoring short-run levels of anxiety as the crisis unfolded than they do of reflecting the evolution of the economy over a year or two. Even large macroeconomic shocks to income and unemployment can be expected to produce only small and hard to detect effects on SWB measures. SWB, particularly evaluation of life as a whole, is sensitive to question order effects. Asking political questions before the life evaluation question reduces reported life evaluation by an amount that dwarfs the effects of even the worst of the crisis; these order effects persist deep into the interview, and condition the reporting of hedonic experience and of satisfaction with standard of living. Methods for controlling these effects need to be developed and tested if national measures are to be comparable over space and time. PMID:22389532
Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to
Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.
Brooks, Clifford W., Jr.; Matthews, Charles O.
Examines the impact of counselors' spiritual well-being on the spiritual well-being of patients in their clinical care. Results indicate that the values of wisdom and loving from the Rokeach Value Survey and self-acceptance from the Personal Orientation Inventory account for approximately half of the spiritual well-being variance. Follow-up…
objective of this report is to characterize well-being at multiple scales in order to evaluate the relationship of service flows in terms of sustainable well-being. The HWBI results presented represent snapshot assessments for the 2000-2010 time period. Based on the spatial and t...
Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...
Schlacht, I.; Masali, M.; Ferrino, M.
Foreword In a microgravitational space environment the human biorhythm its sensory perception and all its psycho-physiological system comes completely upset by the absence of gravity and of external terrestrial references beyond the effects of constraint in a limited space This type of environment is defined extreme confined In order to create a human centered design in sight of missions of long duration We will have to consider above all these factors in order to try to increase the well-being the comfort and the productivity of the astronauts In this context we have elaborated a design concept that forecasts to resume the variety and the variability of the terrestrial stimuli through factors like the light and the color so as to recreate the input of the normal circadian cycle subsubsection Light and color and psycho-physiological well-being The human circadian rhythms day all around cycle of the organism s function are regulated by a sort of biological clock presumably localized in the hypothalamus The more obvious examples of this clock are the heartbeat the menstrual cycle the variation of the body temperature and the hormonal production during the day the behavior of plants and animals Those organism functions are influenced by the variation of the light around of the 24 hours The emission of an environmental light can restore sout s the earthly solar cycle irradiating the subject with the same frequency beams present on the Earth this irradiation should vary the intensity during the day like the
Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie
Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings. PMID:27383093
Pontin, Eleanor; Schwannauer, Matthias; Tai, Sara; Kinderman, Peter
Background The BBC Subjective Well-being scale (BBC-SWB) is a recently developed questionnaire designed to measure people’s subjective experiences across the wide breadth of domains commonly included in definitions of well-being. Although it has previously been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of subjective well-being in the general population with good psychometric properties, a limitation of the initial version was that it was developed using responses on a 4-point Likert-style scal...
Valtorta, S E; Leva, P E; Gallardo, M R
Two tree shades (TS1 and TS2) and an artificial shade structure (AS) were evaluated using black globe temperatures (BGTs) to assess their effectiveness in reducing heat load. The artificial structure consisted of a black woven polypropylene cloth providing 80% shade, mounted on 2.5-m-high eucalyptus posts. The work was carried out at Rafaela Experimental Station, Argentina, during the summer (January and February) 1994. BGTs and floor temperatures were measured in concrete floor holding pens with and without artificial shade. The results showed no difference between TS1, TS2 and AS, their average BGTs being 30.2 (SD 0.58), 29.0 (SD 0.70) and 30.2 (SD 0.74) degrees C, respectively. BGTs under all three shades were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the average BGT recorded outside: 35.5 (SD 1.12) degrees C. Average BGTs in holding pens were 32.4 (SD 1.38) and 39.9 (SD 1.91) degrees C for shaded and non-shaded areas (P < 0.01). The corresponding average floor temperatures were 27.8 (SD 0.68) degrees C and 47.7 (SD 2.13) degrees C (P < 0.01). To assess the effects of shade on animal well-being, afternoon rectal temperatures (RT) and respiratory rate (respirations per minute, RR) of lactating cows were recorded twice a week. Rectal temperatures were significantly higher for non-shaded cows (P < 0.01), mean RT being 40.1 (SD 0.65) degrees C vs 39.3 (SD 0.42) degrees C for the shaded animals. Corresponding RRs were 78.9 (SD 18.0) and 60.7 (SD 10.6) (P < 0.05). It was concluded that: (1) tree and artificial shades produced similar effects, (2) shading the holding pen with an 80% shading cloth was effective in reducing heat load and floor temperatures, and (3) access to shade in our pasture-based system improved animal well-being. PMID:9429340
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...
Huppert, Felicia A.; So, Timothy T. C.
Governments around the world are recognising the importance of measuring subjective well-being as an indicator of progress. But how should well-being be measured? A conceptual framework is offered which equates high well-being with positive mental health. Well-being is seen as lying at the opposite end of a spectrum to the common mental disorders…
This article addresses the question: how can lifelong education contribute to subjective well-being by engaging learners and fostering active citizenship? The question arises due to the fact that governments in the western world have identified well-being as an important policy driver. Well-being research suggests that subjective well-being,…
Gamble, Dorothy N.
This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…
Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm;
This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion...... criteria, which include the requirements for papers to report empirical studies and to be published during the period 1980 to 2009 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. The studies were mostly cross-sectional (43/49 papers) and examined the impact of leaders’ stress (4 papers), leaders’ behaviours (e.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress and...
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)
Westerhof, Gerben J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.
Background There is a rapidly growing interest in psychological well-being (PWB) as outcome of interventions. Ryff developed theory-based indicators of PWB that are consistent with a eudaimonic perspective of happiness. Numerous interventions have been developed with the aim to increase PWB. However, the effects on PWB measured as coherent outcome have not been examined across studies yet. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions aims to answer the question whether it is possible to enhance PWB. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in PsycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science. To be included, studies had to be randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions with psychological well-being as primary or secondary outcome measure, measured with either Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales or the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. From the 2,298 articles found, 27 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 3,579 participants. Results We found a moderate effect (Cohen’s d = 0.44; z = 5.62; p research of psychological well-being. Heterogeneity is a limitation of the study and there is need for more high-quality studies. PMID:27328124
Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.
Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843
Oscar N.E. Kjell
Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose. Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being. Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being. Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well-being
Huppert, Felicia A.; So, Timothy T. C.
Governments around the world are recognising the importance of measuring subjective well-being as an indicator of progress. But how should well-being be measured? A conceptual framework is offered which equates high well-being with positive mental health. Well-being is seen as lying at the opposite end of a spectrum to the common mental disorders (depression, anxiety). By examining internationally agreed criteria for depression and anxiety (DSM and ICD classifications), and defining the oppos...
Oscar N.E. Kjell; Nima, Ali A.; Sverker Sikström; Trevor Archer; Danilo Garcia
Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011) in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose). Method...
"Child subjective well-being has gained growing international acknowledgement in the last decade, but there are still open questions. How do we measure child subjective wellbeing, and are the same indicators relevant for children and adults? Is child subjective well-being directly associated with material wealth? Does the subjective well-being of children vary between countries? How does it vary? What explains that variation? In the past the subjective well-being of children ha...
Joana Santos; Gabriela Gonçalves; Alexandra Gomes
This study investigated the determination of Organizational Culture on the Well-Being at Work and determination on the Subjective Well-being of employees of Public Institutions of Higher Education in Portugal. The final total sample had 635 participants, employees of Portuguese Public Higher Education Institutions. The hierarchical regression shows a significant effect of Organizational Culture on the criterion variable, Subjective Well-Being. By adding Well-Being at Work, it increased the...
Willeto, Angela A. A.
American Indian/Alaska Native well-being, survival-based data are rare. This study explores the question of whether or not it is possible to produce such well-being information using secondary data sources. The answer is yes, with some limitations. Hence, Native American data for 10 well-being indicators nationally and for New Mexico and South…
Foundation for Child Development, 2009
The Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issues an annual comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of wellbeing that are grouped into seven "Quality-of-Life/Well-Being Domains,"…
Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina
The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…
Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra
Many studies have examined the effect of life events, education, and income on well-being. Conversely, research concerning well-being as a predictor of life course outcomes is sparse. Diener's suggestion "to inquire about the effects of well-being on future behavior and success" has, with some exceptions, not yet come to fruition. This article…
Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Kebza, V.
Brno: Psychologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i, 2014 - (Blatný, M.), s. 165-181 ISBN 978-80-86174-18-1 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : subjective well-being * subjective well-being * psychological well-being * personality * power * social support Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Davoren, Martin P
Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.
Davoren, Martin P; Eimear Fitzgerald; Frances Shiely; Perry, Ivan J
INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third...
Ruben Gustav Leonhardt Real
Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this longitudinal study was to identify predictors of instantaneous well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Based on flow theory well-being was expected to be highest when perceived demands and perceived control were in balance, and that thinking about the past would be a risk factor for rumination which would in turn reduce well-being.MethodsUsing the experience sampling method, data on current activities, associated aspects of perceived demands, control, and well-being were collected from 10 patients with ALS three times a day for two weeks.ResultsResults show that perceived control was uniformly and positively associated with well-being, but that demands were only positively associated with well-being when they were perceived as controllable. Mediation analysis confirmed thinking about the past, but not thinking about the future, to be a risk factor for rumination and reduced well-being. DiscussionFindings extend our knowledge of factors contributing to well-being in ALS as not only perceived control but also perceived demands can contribute to well-being. They further show that a focus on present experiences might contribute to increased well-being.
Jonathan M Adler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. METHODS: 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. RESULTS: The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being.
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Full Text Available Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and Chiche, adaptation VM Sokolova. The findings relate to the need to include indicators of psychosocial well-being of the person in the system of corresponding psycho-pedagogical and socio-psychological support of the university.
Schulte, Paul A; Guerin, Rebecca J; Schill, Anita L; Bhattacharya, Anasua; Cunningham, Thomas R; Pandalai, Sudha P; Eggerth, Donald; Stephenson, Carol M
Action to address workforce functioning and productivity requires a broader approach than the traditional scope of occupational safety and health. Focus on "well-being" may be one way to develop a more encompassing objective. Well-being is widely cited in public policy pronouncements, but often as ". . . and well-being" (e.g., health and well-being). It is generally not defined in policy and rarely operationalized for functional use. Many definitions of well-being exist in the occupational realm. Generally, it is a synonym for health and a summative term to describe a flourishing worker who benefits from a safe, supportive workplace, engages in satisfying work, and enjoys a fulfilling work life. We identified issues for considering well-being in public policy related to workers and the workplace. PMID:26066933
Anaby, D.; Miller, W C; Jarus, T.; Eng, J. J.; Noreau, L
This study explored the unique contribution of participation (daily activities and social roles) in explaining well-being of older adults living with chronic conditions and examined which aspect of participation (accomplishment of participation or satisfaction with participation) was more important in describing their well-being. Two hundred older adults with chronic conditions completed the following assessments: Satisfaction with Life Scale to measure well-being; Assessment of Life Habits t...
De Vos, Jonas; Schwanen, Tim; Van Acker, Veronique; Witlox, Frank
Well-being has recently found acceptance in mobility studies. Travel can influence well-being in numerous ways, going from feelings experienced during travel to participation in activities facilitated by travel. However, most of these studies have emphasized on experienced feelings and moods and levels of satisfaction. This is however only one approach to well-being. Other approaches, stressing (among others) on achieving important goals in life and strengthening social bonds have only receiv...
Adler, Jonathan M.; Hershfield, Hal E.
Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for em...
Zulkarnain Amin; Kharissa Pratiwi Akbar
Turnover intentions can be reduced if the employees feel the organization have met their needs, through improving of psychological well-being. Employees' psychological well-being must be fulfilled, to get their best performance. This study aims to find out the relations between psychological well-being (i.e. autonomy, environmental mastery, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance and personal growth) and turnover intention of hotel employees. The subjects were 212 hot...
Sudip Ranjan Basu
This paper investigates the hypothesis that economic growth is critical in inducing well-being during economic reforms. The regional (16 Indian states and 28 Chinese provinces) level study of India and China show that the quality of growth has been essential for well-being. We estimate level of economic well-being by aggregating different socio- economic indicators through multivariate statistical method of factor analysis. We estimate economic growth (per capita income, real) along with thei...
Objective: Adolescence is a hallmark period filling with rapid changes and both positive and negative outcomes. Well-being is one of the most important outcomes should be pursued. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of family environment, academic achievement and parental expectations for educational attainment on emotional well-being among adolescents. Method: Well-being, family environment, academic achievement and parental expectations for educational attainment (PEEA) we...
Maja Tadic; Irina Gioaba; Eduardo Garcia Garzon; Buse Gonul; Loredana Lucatuorto; Cormac McCarthy; Danaja Rutar
The present study investigates the determinants and intercorrelations between teachers’ and pupils’ well-being and motivation in the school context. Based on self-determination theory and job demands-resources theory, we hypothesize that (a) teachers’ weekly self-concordant work motivation promotes teachers’ weekly work-related well-being (i.e. work-related positive affect and work engagement), and (b) that a crossover effect of teachers’ weekly work-related well-being on pupils’ weekly schoo...
Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D
Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. PMID:24641551
Fredrickson, Barbara L; Grewen, Karen M; Algoe, Sara B; Firestine, Ann M; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steve W
Research in human social genomics has identified a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by up-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulated expression of Type I interferon- and antibody-related genes. This report seeks to identify the specific aspects of positive psychological well-being that oppose such effects and predict reduced CTRA gene expression. In a new confirmation study of 122 healthy adults that replicated the approach of a previously reported discovery study, mixed effect linear model analyses identified a significant inverse association between expression of CTRA indicator genes and a summary measure of eudaimonic well-being from the Mental Health Continuum - Short Form. Analyses of a 2- representation of eudaimonia converged in finding correlated psychological and social subdomains of eudaimonic well-being to be the primary carriers of CTRA associations. Hedonic well-being showed no consistent CTRA association independent of eudaimonic well-being, and summary measures integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being showed less stable CTRA associations than did focal measures of eudaimonia (psychological and social well-being). Similar results emerged from analyses of pooled discovery and confirmation samples (n = 198). Similar results also emerged from analyses of a second new generalization study of 107 healthy adults that included the more detailed Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being and found this more robust measure of eudaimonic well-being to also associate with reduced CTRA gene expression. Five of the 6 major sub-domains of psychological well-being predicted reduced CTRA gene expression when analyzed separately, and 3 remained distinctively prognostic in mutually adjusted analyses. All associations were independent of demographic characteristics, health-related confounders, and RNA indicators of leukocyte subset distribution. These results identify specific sub-dimensions of eudaimonic well-being
Binder, Martin; Witt, Ulrich
While there is little doubt that innovations drive economic growth, their effects on well-being are less clear. One reason for this are ambivalent effects of innovations on well-being that result from pecuniary and technological externalities of innovations, argued to be inevitable. Another major reason lies in the fact that, as a result of innovations, preferences can change over time. Under such conditions, a time-consistent measuring rod for changes in well-being is hard to construct. Exis...
Adamson, P.; Bradshaw, J.; Hoelscher, P; Richardson, D
This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literature.
Background. Various studies have demonstrated that nursing is a very stressful occupation and that levels of well-being in nurses are lower than that of individuals in other occupations. Personality has also been shown to relate to stress and well-being levels. This study examines self-reported personality, stress and well-being levels in nursing students (n = 22) and psychology students (n = 57). Method. Personality was measured using the short version of Goldberg’s Interna...
Does goal attainment relate to the development of meaning in life and psychological well-being? If so, do these relationships depend on the nature of the goal and why one pursues it? This study sought to generalize the relationship between goal attainment and subjective well-being to meaning in life and psychological well-being, and test whether goal contents and motives moderate this relationship. At two times about seven weeks apart, 360 undergraduates rated their meaning in life and sub...
J. Kevin Summers; Smith, Lisa M.; Linda C. Harwell; Jason L. Case; Christina M. Wade; Kendra R. Straub; Smith, Heather M.
In 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agencyâ€™s (EPA) Office of Research and Development program, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, coined the term TRIO (Total Resources Impact Outcome) to represent approaches that fully incorporate all three pillars of community sustainabilityâ€”environmental, economic and social. This holistic approach to sustainability is embodied in the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI) comprised of sub-indices representing environmental well-being, economic well-being...
Beirens, Koen; Fontaine, Johnny
The present studies investigate differences in well-being between Turkish immigrants, Belgian majority members, and Turkish majority members. Furthermore, the relationships between two acculturation dimensions (adaptation and maintenance) and well-being is investigated within the immigrant group. In a first study, somatic well-being is studied in a sample of 519 Belgian majority members, 229 Turkish immigrants, and 232 Turkish majority members. Turkish immigrants reported the most somatic com...
Benjamin, Daniel J.; Ori Heffetz; Kimball, Miles S.; Nichole Szembrot
This paper proposes foundations and a methodology for survey-based tracking of well-being. First, we develop a theory in which utility depends on "fundamental aspects" of well-being, measurable with surveys. Second, drawing from psychologists, philosophers, and economists, we compile a comprehensive list of such aspects. Third, we demonstrate our proposed method for estimating the aspects' relative marginal utilities--a necessary input for constructing an individual-level well-being index--by...
Słodkowska, Joanna; Bokszczanin, Anna
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the link between perfectionism treated as a personality’s trait, academic stress and college students’ psychological well-being. It was expected that the greater intensity of perfectionism achieved, the lower level of psychological well-being and the higher level of stress experienced. It was also assumed that the level of experienced stress would be a mediator of the relationship between perfectionism and psychological well-being. Alternative model w...
Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain; Dhont, Kristof
The relationship between right-wing ideological attitudes and psychological well-being has been intensively studied. While some studies supported the hypothesis that right-wing attitudes are negatively related with well-being, other research yielded positive or non-significant relationships. We conducted a meta-analysis (total samples = 97, total N = 69,221) of measures of well-being, including positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem and intrinsic goal pursuit. The obtain...
Ilmakunnas, Pekka; Bockerman, Petri; Johansson, Edvard
We examine the effects of establishment- and industry-level labor market turnover on employees’ well-being. The linked employer-employee panel data contain both survey information on employees’ subjective well-being and comprehensive register-based information on job and worker flows. Labor market turbulence decreases well-being as experienced job satisfaction and satisfaction with job security are negatively related to the previous year’s flows. We test for the existence of compensating wage...
Edward N. Wolff; Zacharias, Ajit; Caner, Asena
Standard official measures of economic well-being are based on money income. The general consensus is that such measures are seriously flawed because they ignore several crucial determinants of well-being. We examine two such determinants--household wealth and public consumption--in the context of the United States. Our findings suggest that the level and distribution of economic well-being is substantially altered when money income is adjusted for wealth or public consumption.
Bekelman, David B.; Dy, Sydney M.; Becker, Diane M.; Wittstein, Ilan S.; Hendricks, Danetta E.; Yamashita, Traci E.; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.
Background In patients with chronic heart failure, depression is common and associated with poor quality of life, more frequent hospitalizations, and higher mortality. Spiritual well-being is an important, modifiable coping resource in patients with terminal cancer and is associated with less depression, but little is known about the role of spiritual well-being in patients with heart failure. Objective To identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and depression in patients with ...
Melato, Seleme Revelation
This research using quantitative and qualitative methods studied the psychosocial well-being of marginalised youth of African descent in South Africa. The study of well-being amongst the youth has been the focus of many research studies in the past two decades (Bach, 2011; Koen, 2010; Ungar, 2005); hence the continuing intellectual debate on the best possible ways to promote youth well-being (Koen, 2010; Shah, Graidage, & Valencia, 2005; Van Schalkwyk, 2010). The major shift within the psycho...
NiemistÃ¶, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Tallberg, Teemu; Niemi, Hertta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda
This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being. The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries. The overall aim is to eval...
Fabio Scorsolini-Comin; Anne Marie Germaine Victorine Fontaine; Silvia Helena Koller; Manoel Antônio dos Santos
The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002) to the well-being theory (2011), both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning), highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Wherea...
Niet, J.E.; Koning, C.M.; Pastoor, H.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo; Valkenburg, Olivier; Ramakers, M.J.; Passchier, Jan; Klerk, Cora; Laven, Joop
textabstractBackground The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics and psychological well-being as well as sexarche. Methods Patients (n = 1148) underwent standardized clinical evaluation. Psychological well-being was investigated in 480 patients with the Rosenbe...
Fariborz Rahimnia; Ahmadreza Karimi Mazidi; Zahra Mohammadzadeh
Researchers have tried to investigate multiple factors affecting employees' social, emotional, and psychological well-being. In this study particularly, nurses' emotional and psychological well-being is considered. Of most important factors affecting well-being in place of work has known to be busy work and stress, constructive and destructive emotions, and psychological capital which. Present study considered to test a developed model of psychological capital, constructive and destructive em...
Milla S Linna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila
Background Body mass index (BMI) is associated with subjective well-being. Higher BMI is believed to be related with lower well-being. However, the association may not be linear. Therefore, we investigated whether a nonlinear (U-shaped) trend would better describe this relationship, and whether eating disorders might account for the association in young adults. Methods FinnTwin16 study evaluated multiple measures of subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, General Health Questionna...
Artūras Gataūlinas; Rasa Zabarauskaitė
The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were...
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Introduction. Diabetes is a major public health problem. Little is known about the spiritual well-being and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) in Iranian Muslim patients with diabetes. This study investigated the spiritual well-being and QOL of Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes and the association between spiritual well-being, QOL, and depression. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done among 203 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Isfahan, Iran. Quality of life and spiritu...
Full Text Available Using data from a random representative survey of South Florida immigrants (n=1,268, our research examines different facets of transnationalism and how they relate to a typically overlooked component of immigrant incorporation–subjective well-being. We examine separately the affective and evaluative components of immigrants’ well-being in their country of reception—the United States—by differentiating between self-reported emotional well-being and self-reported satisfaction with life in the U.S. Findings support that the kinds and frequency of connections that immigrants maintain with the home country are important factors for understanding immigrants’ subjective well-being.
Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich
This paper utilizes a simple production function model to assess the relative importance of national flags and national flag colors on the well-being of 93 nations in 2007. It finds that the existence of national flags affects well-being positively. Well-being is inelastic with respect to national flag colors. In other words, it is far more important to well-being to have a national flag than whether the flag is a certain color combination. There is considerable regional variation...
Ryff, Carol D
This article reviews research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from 6 thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life; (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being; (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life; (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities; (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, and (6) via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever-greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience - the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296
da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Blalock, Kacie; Allen, Chase A; Chan, Fong; Rubin, Stanford E
This study examined the canonical relationships between a set of life skill variables and a set of subjective well-being variables among a national sample of vocational rehabilitation clients in the USA. Self-direction, work tolerance, general employability, and self-care were related to physical, family and social, and financial well-being. This analysis also found that communication skill is related to family and social well-being, while psychological well-being is not related to any life skills in the set. The results showed that vocational rehabilitation services aimed to improve life functioning will lead to an improvement in subjective quality of life. PMID:15573000
Summers, J. K.; Smith, L. M.
A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-being. These elements can interact in a myriad of ways to influence overall well-being. What makes changes in human well-being sustainable for a population or a nation? Two major interactional concepts can push changes in...
Mokhethi, Thelma Joalane
The history of HIV/AIDS dates back to 1985, when it was thought to be a disease affecting animals. Later, HIV/AIDS was regarded as an illness which affected gay individuals. However, research world-wide has shown that HIV/AIDS is a disease that affects everyone irrespective of race, gender, social status and sexual orientation. Research regarding the psychological well-being (coping, sense of coherence, locus of control and general health) of HIV infected persons in the workpla...
The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.
Full Text Available Early childhood education teachers’ happiness at work reflects in children. Finnish day care system has faced plenty of changes and they can also reflect in well-being at day care. The aim of this article to dissect the state of well-being and thriving at work in Finnish day care centers from early childhood education teachers’ point of view and to discuss how well-being could be promoted. The data comprises group interviews (N=9 collected with memory-work method among North-Finnish early childhood education teachers (N=4. The results revealed that several factors were reported as threatening early childhood education teachers’ well-being. These kinds of factors were, among others, increasing amount of administrative tasks as well as concern about their educational task becoming narrower, the sufficiency of one’s own resources, and how the economic measures for efficiency have started to extend to day care as well. Perceived well-being increases when early childhood education teachers have time to encounter an individual child and concentrate on their basic work, rearing and teaching children. Based on the findings, suggestions how to enhance early childhood education teachers’ well-being are discussed. Promotion of well-being necessitates development actions both at the level of society, day care system and early childhood education teachers’ personal level. In this article, we highlight how organizational structures enhance or hinder well-being.
Child and Family Policy Center, 2011
This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2010: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including infant…
Child and Family Policy Center, 2009
This new Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2008: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," is the latest annually produced book containing data on 18 different indicators of child and family well-being for the United States, Iowa and its 99 counties. The 18 indicators provide a wealth of health, education, welfare and economic data…
Child and Family Policy Center, 2010
This latest annually produced Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2009: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 18 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county-level. The 18 indicators presented in the data book contain an expanse of data from economic, welfare,…
Child and Family Policy Center, 2012
This most recent Iowa Kids Count data book, "Iowa Kids Count 2011: Trends in the Well-Being of Iowa Children," provides data on 20 different indicators of child and family well-being at the United States, Iowa, substate and county level. The annually produced data book presents health, education, welfare and economic data including infant…
Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.
This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component repre
Religious education (RE) is under serious political and professional pressure to justify its existence and, for some, positive psychology seems to offer a more compelling route to well-being. In response, this article establishes a case for the inherent value of the subject whilst showing that the well-being of pupils, in the broader sense of…
Maybury, Karol K.
This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway…
Lu, Chunlei; Buchanan, Andrew
There is a growing concern in general education and physical education about students' emotional well-being. However, there is minimal literature addressing what emotional well-being is and how it can be developed in physical education. To examine these concerns, this article presents the following findings: a review of relevant literature…
O'Hare, William P.
This Kids Count data book examines national and statewide trends in the well being of the nation's children. Statistical portraits are based on 10 indicators of well being: (1) percent of low birth weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) teen birth rate; (6)…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
This Kids Count report examines national and statewide trends in the well-being of the nation's children. The statistical portrait is based on 10 indicators of well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) child death; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) teen birth rate; (6) number of teens who are high…
O'Hare, William P.
This KIDS COUNT data book examines national and statewide trends in the well being of the nations children. Statistical portraits are based on 10 indicators of well being: (1) percent of low birth weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) teen birth rate; (6)…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
This Kids Count report examines national and statewide trends in the well-being of the nation's children. The statistical portrait is based on 10 indicators of well being: (1) percent of low birth weight babies; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide and suicide; (5) teen birth rate; (6)…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
This Kids Count data book examines state and national trends from the late 1980s in the well being of children in the United States. The statistical portrait is based on 10 indicators of child well being: (1) percent low birth-weight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) teen accidental death, homicide, and suicide rates;…
A range of initiatives to promote well-being and empowerment have been introduced into English schools. These ostensibly support the citizenship curriculum that seeks to foster a more active and engaged populace. Whilst children are being encouraged to view their own well-being as a personal project (and as a badge of successful citizenship), this…
Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy
The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…
Chan, S. Fiona; Chau, Albert Wai-Lap; Chan, Kim Yin-Kwan
The study examines relationship between college students' money-related aptitudes, financial management practices and financial well-being. By integrating Kidwell, Brinberg and Turrisi's model of money management (2003) and other research on financial well-being, we surveyed 802 university students in Hong Kong. Our findings confirm the hypothesis…
The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…
Stephenson, Raquel Chapin
This article describes a community art therapy program that was designed to promote health and well-being in old age. Observations of diverse participant interactions in the nondirective therapy studio over the course of 6 years revealed the benefits of art making and how it may influence well-being during the process of advancing age. Program…
Ö. Gökdemir (Özge); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractWell-being is a broad concept which covers development, income, education, marriage, family life etc. When speaking about well-being in a nation we denote how well its citizens live. There are two approaches to assess how well people live. One is to consider to what extent the country pr
September, Aysa N.; McCarrey, Michael; Baranowsky, Anna; Parent, Chantal; Schindler, Dwayne
Based on a sample of Canadian university students (n=379), examines six components within a model of well-being: (1) self-acceptance; (2) positive relations with others; (3) autonomy; (4) environmental mastery; (5) purpose in life; and (6) personal growth. Focuses on how well-being was related to stereotypic gender roles and the impostor…
Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steve D.
Subjective well-being has often been studied as a context-free construct, reflecting overall life satisfaction and characteristic levels of positive affect and negative affect. But there has also been much interest in domain-specific aspects of subjective well-being, such as job satisfaction. The authors provide a brief overview of the two primary…
Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Houben, J.M.J.; Kromhout, D.; Kafatos, A.; Mast, van der R.C.; Zitman, F.G.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hageman, G.J.; Giltay, E.J.
Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences that promote chromosomal stability, have been related to different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, but mainly in women during adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether accelerated telomere shortening is associated with poor mental well-being
Mandemakers, J.J.; Kalmijn, M.
We use the British Cohort Study to investigate to what extent parental resources moderate the association between parental divorce in childhood and lowered child well-being as indicated by maternal reports of child psychological well-being and by academic test scores (reading and math tests). We arg
Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra
Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…
Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Abs, Daniel; Casas, Ferran; Bedin, Livia Maria
This paper's main objective is to show relations between interest in media, perceived social support and adolescents' personal well-being. For this purpose, 1,589 Brazilian adolescents answered a questionnaire containing Cummins' Personal Well-Being, Vaux's Social Support Appraisals and Casas' interest in media scales. The media in study are: The…
Full Text Available Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world′s poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being, and the central importance of context and relational aspects of well-being. The review is of particular interest to those engaged in the post-2015 development agenda.
Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil
This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…
Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.
This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…
The paper focuses on the possibilities for physical education as an effective policy conduit and constructive contributor to the type of life-affirming values which are widely endorsed. After a critical review of recent well-being theorising, ideas on how values central to physical education and well-being could be coherently conceptualised are…
Vieira, Cristina Rocha; Gaspar, Maria Filomena
The role and functioning of schools are changing as well as what is expected of teachers (who face growing and diversified challenges); consequentially, well-being at the schools is endangered. As teachers and teachers' educators concern is: How to improve schools' and teachers' effectiveness and promote well-being. Believing that the path to…
Welch-Scalco, Rhonda Jeannean
Parenting a child with a disability is a lifelong journey. The coping strategies utilized by parents impact the well-being of the family, especially the mothers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the maternal well-being of Latina and Anglo mothers who have a child with severe to profound disabilities. Predictive variables, such as…
Fialová, Kamila; Štika, Pavel
Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 70-87. ISSN 1213-2446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : well-being * sustainability * subjective life satisfaction Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://nho.econ.muni.cz/15-2015/1-2015/well-being-czech-republic-aggregate-perspective
Full Text Available Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative.
Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller
The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…
Bradshaw, Jonathan; Hoelscher, Petra; Richardson, Dominic
While the living conditions of children and young people in the European Union have gained increasing recognition across the EU, the well-being of children is not monitored on the European level. Based on a rights-based, multi-dimensional understanding of child well-being we analyse data already available for the EU 25, using series data as well…
Sense of well-being was investigated in 1966 among more than 3,000 ninth-grade students in Norway. Causes cited for low sense of well-being included pressure to achieve, over emphasis on intellectual ambitions, suppression of experience, emotions, social contract, and personal activity. (DS)
Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.
Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…
Dunn, Laura B.; Iglewicz, Alana; Moutier, Christine
Objective: This article proposes and illustrates a conceptual model of medical student well-being. Method: The authors reviewed the literature on medical student stress, coping, and well-being and developed a model of medical student coping termed the "coping reservoir." Results: The reservoir can be replenished or drained by various aspects of…
Thomas, G. Dale; Jesse, Neal G.
This paper examines the question of how social well-being, or quality of life, in Northern Ireland has changed through time from 1958 to 1998. After reviewing major economic trends and governmental policy affecting the region, we develop an overall measure of quality of life based on previous research into social well-being in Northern Ireland. We…
Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S.; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.
This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that…
Mayr, Toni; Ulich, Michaela
Used educators' ratings to describe preschool children's well-being in day care centers. Identified 11 independent dimensions of well-being: empathic, prosocial behavior; social initiative and vitality; self-assertiveness, openness; pleasure in exploring; coping with stress; positive self-defense; pleasure in sensory experiences;…
This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Survey (N = 2,427) to examine the association between the chronicity and timing of maternal depression and child well-being. Maternal depression, particularly chronic depression, is linked to internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in children, and children have worse…
The aim of the present study is to examine whether subjective well-being is predicted by self-oriented perfectionism and self-assessment. The self-oriented perfectionism scale, self-assessment scale and subjective well-being scale (SWB) were administrated to a sample of voluntary 272 eight-grade students from three secondary schools in Sultangazi,…
Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg
Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Winthrop, Rebecca; Kirk, Jackie
During and after armed conflicts, policy makers and practitioners often advocate education to support the physical, psychological, and social well-being of children. In such advocacy they reference education's role in promoting children's welfare, although there is evidence that schooling in particular can jeopardize children's well-being. In this…
Morris, Ruth Williams; Martin, Bess; Hopson, Jamal; Welch-Murphy, Kristin
A total of 235 adolescents and college students from Aruba, St. Lucia, Tennessee, and Alabama participated in this study that measured various aspects of well-being. The Life Factors Questionnaire measured participants' responses on such self-reported measures as health, intelligence, subjective well-being, responses to stress, optimism,…
Ramanathan, Subha; O'Brien, Catherine; Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle
Background: A pan-Canadian School Travel Planning intervention promoted active school travel (AST). A novel component was exploring emotion, well-being, and travel mode framed by the concept of "sustainable happiness." Relationships between travel mode and emotions, parent perceptions of their child's travel mode on well-being, and…
Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama
Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2012
The Annie E. Casey Foundation's 2012 KIDS COUNT[R] Data Book shows both promising progress and discouraging setbacks for the nation's children: While their academic achievement and health improved in most states, their economic well-being continued to decline. This year's Data Book uses an updated index of 16 indicators of child well-being,…
Full Text Available ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: taichi_nccamIMG_2962.jpg © Mariann Seriff ... Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Video › Tai Chi and Qi Gong for ...
Wu, Ho-tang; Chou, Mei-ju; Chen, Wei-hung; Tu, Chin-Tang
This research aims to analyze the correlation between family support, love attitude, and well-being of junior high school students. After analyzing related literature, it is found that demographic variables like gender, grade, family structure, socioeconomic position have difference in perception of well-being. In addition, family support and love…
Fernandes, Liliana; Mendes, Americo; Teixeira, Aurora A. C.
Research on indicators related to the state of child well-being is a growing field that has experienced several changes over time. The growing supply of data on children, as well as the need to facilitate conclusions and to track trends, has led researchers to develop a number of child well-being indexes. This paper critically reviews the most…
... related notice published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2011 (76 FR 41302). Interested parties are...; Well-Being Supplement to the American Time Use Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor...) titled, ``Well-being Supplement to the American Time Use Survey,'' to the Office of Management and...
... Register on January 11, 2013 (78 FR 2446). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB...; Well-being Supplement to the American Time Use Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor...) titled, ``Well-being Supplement to the American Time Use Survey,'' to the Office of Management and...
Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical we
Turkdogan, Turgut; Duru, Erdinc
The aim of this study is to examine the role of fulfillment level of university students' basic needs in predicting the level of their subjective well being. The participants were 627 students (56% female, 44% male) attending different faculties of Pamukkale University. In this study, subjective well being was measured with Life Satisfaction Scale…
Margolis, Jason; Hodge, Ashley; Alexandrou, Alex
This article addresses the teacher educator's role in defining and facilitating teacher well-being. It does so by first exploring the literature on teacher well-being, resilience, resistance, morality and professional dispositions. It then examines the policies and rhetoric of two countries, the USA and England, as examples of a global tilt…
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.
This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors…
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.
Full Text Available The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002 to the well-being theory (2011, both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning, highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Whereas authentic happiness seeks life satisfaction, well-being aspires to flourishing - a more complex and dynamic construct. Well-being theory opens the possibility of developing public policies related to promotion of quality of life without ruling out the need for constant review of such approach.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the determinants and intercorrelations between teachers’ and pupils’ well-being and motivation in the school context. Based on self-determination theory and job demands-resources theory, we hypothesize that (a teachers’ weekly self-concordant work motivation promotes teachers’ weekly work-related well-being (i.e. work-related positive affect and work engagement, and (b that a crossover effect of teachers’ weekly work-related well-being on pupils’ weekly school-related well-being exists, while controlling for trait-level teachers’ antecedents of trait-level teachers’ work-related well-being: job demands and job resources. A quantitative weekly diary methodology is employed. Participants are primary school pupils and their teachers from six European countries.
Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H
We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being. PMID:26776214
Nielsen, Bo Birk
Most research on class size effect focuses on pupils’ school achievement but few on pupils’ psychosocial well-being. On the other hand an increasing number of studies have showed that there is a link between pupils’ psychosocial well-being and their school achievement. 97 Danish typically develop...... of risk factors such as pupils’ psychosocial well-being.......Most research on class size effect focuses on pupils’ school achievement but few on pupils’ psychosocial well-being. On the other hand an increasing number of studies have showed that there is a link between pupils’ psychosocial well-being and their school achievement. 97 Danish typically...... developing 3rd grade pupils were tested. They were divided into 3 class size groups: Small (10 pupils), Medium (20 pupils), and Large (25 pupils). The average age (10 years) and the proportion of boys and girls (50%) and SES (medium) were similar in the 3 class size groups. Pupils’ psychosocial well...
Ladusingh, Laishram; Ngangbam, Sapana
This study proposes a well-being index of older adults which integrates five domains, namely, activities of daily living, health status, psychological strength, life accomplishment and social ties, and examines potential socio-demographic, living arrangement, lifestyle and religiosity determinants of well-being. The present study uses micro data of 1255 older adults from the recent pilot survey for the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI) conducted in 2010. The results suggest that normal activities of daily life, health, and social ties decline with advancing age, while life accomplishment remains stable over age. However, when all domains are integrated, well-being tends to fade out with advancing age. While smoking has a deterrent effect on well-being, better economic status, literacy, living in a joint family with spouse, religiosity, and regular physical exercise have a statistically significant positive effect on the well-being of older adults in India. PMID:26797966
J. Kevin Summers
Full Text Available In 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA Office of Research and Development program, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, coined the term TRIO (Total Resources Impact Outcome to represent approaches that fully incorporate all three pillars of community sustainability—environmental, economic and social. This holistic approach to sustainability is embodied in the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI comprised of sub-indices representing environmental well-being, economic well-being and societal well-being (which includes basic human needs and subjective well-being. The development of the HWBI is described in this manuscript along with its application at national, state and county spatial scales. In addition, application at even smaller spatial scales (communities, neighborhoods, demographic and economic sub-groups, and even individuals is discussed. The potential utility of HWBI for comparing the intended and unintended consequences of alternative decisions is described.
Percy-Smith, L.; Jensen, J.H.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Thomsen, J.; Gudman, M.; Lopez, A.G.
well-being. Data relate to 167 children with cochlear implants. In structural interviews, parents rated their children's level of social well-being regarding the degree of their child's personal-social adjustment. Five different factors were considered. Logistic regression models and proportional odds...... models were used to analyse the relationship between the considered factors and the assessments. The analyses showed that the communication mode at home was the most highly associated factor. A statistically significant association was found between the level of social well-being and speech understanding......The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of social well-being for cochlear implanted children and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for the children's well-being. Another aim was to analyse associations between speech and language level and the level of social...
Full Text Available The importance of social support for psychological well-being has been aptly highlighted in epidemiological and psychological research. However, it is not clear from the existing research whether gender differences in structural (relationship status, network size, frequency of interactions with friends and functional (support satisfaction aspects of social support exist and -if they do- to what extent they affect males’ and females’ well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses of crossectional data from a Greek community sample showed that support satisfaction was an important predictor of well-being outcomes in males whereas several structural indicators were predictors of different well-being outcomes in females. Females’ anxiety, perceived stress, and loneliness were adversely affected by frequency of interaction with acquaintances. The results are discussed with regard to gender-role differences that may be underlying the social support effects on well-being, as well as related cultural values.
Full Text Available In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on “homecoming”. We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of being-in-the-world, as well as a felt sense of what this is like as an experience. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Gegnet (abiding expanse, we characterise the deepest possibility of existential well-being as “dwelling-mobility”. This term indicates both the “adventure” of being called into expansive existential possibilities, as well as “being-at-home-with” what has been given. This deepest possibility of well-being carries with it a feeling of rootedness and flow, peace and possibility. However, we also consider how the separate notions of existential mobility and existential dwelling as discrete emphases can be developed to describe multiple variations of well-being possibilities.
Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner
We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. PMID:26098169
Barr, Sebastian M; Budge, Stephanie L; Adelson, Jill L
This study examined transgender community belongingness as a mediator between strength of transgender identity and well-being. A total of 571 transgender adults (n = 209 transgender women, n = 217 transgender men, and n = 145 nonbinary-identified individuals) completed an online survey assessing transgender community belongingness, strength of transgender identity (operationalized as the extent to which a person self-categorizes their identity as transgender and the extent to which they believe their gender transition to be important to their self-definition), and well-being (using measures of self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. When controlling for participants' income, age, and stage of gender transition, transgender community belongingness fully mediated the relationship between strength of transgender identity and well-being. Strength of transgender identity was indirectly and positively related to well-being through community belongingness, but was not directly related to well-being. Results suggest that transgender community belongingness is an important construct in the mental health of transgender people. The strength of a person's transgender identity also appears to be a significant construct in transgender people's well-being via its relationship with transgender community belongingness. Implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751157
Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which four factors—acculturation, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and resilience—can explain the well-being of Colombian immigrants in the United States across three waves of immigration (wave 1, from 1945–1964; wave 2, from 1965–1989; and wave 3, from 1990–2008. The results indicate that of the four factors, self-esteem most correlated with and was a predictor of well-being. Participants exhibited high levels of well-being as their level of self-esteem increased. Ethnic identity negatively predicted well-being, especially for men who entered during wave 3; as the extent of their ethnic identity increased, their well-being decreased. Correspondingly, Colombians who entered as political refugees reported a lower level of well-being. This research was groundbreaking in assessing factors contributing to the well-being of Colombian immigrants and assisting in the search for appropriate scales to study this population. Although its results have to be considered with caution, the study opens doors to future research, policies, and programs regarding the mental health assessment and treatment of Colombians in the United States.
Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío
The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology. PMID:25769861
Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus
Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience--the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of well-being. We report an analysis of more than 450,000 responses to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, a daily survey of 1,000 US residents conducted by the Gallup Organization. We find that emotional well-being (measured by questions about emotional experiences yesterday) and life evaluation (measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale) have different correlates. Income and education are more closely related to life evaluation, but health, care giving, loneliness, and smoking are relatively stronger predictors of daily emotions. When plotted against log income, life evaluation rises steadily. Emotional well-being also rises with log income, but there is no further progress beyond an annual income of ~$75,000. Low income exacerbates the emotional pain associated with such misfortunes as divorce, ill health, and being alone. We conclude that high income buys life satisfaction but not happiness, and that low income is associated both with low life evaluation and low emotional well-being. PMID:20823223
The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between (psychol......The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between...... (psychological) happiness and (normative) well-being; to wit, happiness may be understood as playing a central part in (1) a formal theory of well-being, (2) a substantive theory of well-being or (3) as an indicator for well-being. I note that, in the relevant literature, happiness is mostly discussed in terms...... of either (1) or (2). In this paper, I attempt to motivate a shift of focus away from such accounts of happiness and towards (3), i.e. its epistemic role. When examined in connection to (normative) well-being, (psychological states of) happiness and unhappiness should be understood as psychological...
Mammals（哺乳动物）Mammals are the world＇s most dominant（最占优势的）animal.They are extremely（非常）diverse（多种多样的）creatures（生物，动物）that include（包括）the biggest ever animal （the blue whale鲸，which eats up to 6 tons every day）,the smallest（leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠） and the laziest（sloth树獭，who spends 80% of their time sleeping）.There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments（环境）—oceans（海洋）,rivers,the jungle（丛林）,deserts,and plains（平原）.
Full Text Available Starting from the recent UNICEF publications on child poverty in the developed countries, which received a wide audience in the political and scientific world, in this paper we further analyze the UNICEF study data base and present three composite indices that are multidimensional and quantitative measures of child well-being. While the original UNICEF studies simply added together the ranks on different measurement scales, we present a much more sophisticated approach, with the first of our indicators being a non-parametric measure, while the remaining two are parametric. In the non-parametric index of child welfare, the well-being indicators are given the same weights in their aggregation to form different components from which an overall index is being constructed. Two different forms of the parametric index are estimated by using principal component analysis. The first model uses a pool of all indicators without classification of the indicators by type of well-being, while the second model estimates first the sub-components separately and then uses the share of variance explained by each principal component to compute the weighted average of each component and their aggregation into an index of overall child well-being. The indices indicate which countries have the best system of child welfare and show how child well-being varies across countries and regions. The indices are composed of six well-being components including material, health and safety, educational well-being, family and peer relationships, behaviours and risks and subjective well-being. Each of the components is generated from a number of well-being sub-indicators.
Armadans-Tremolosa, Imma; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Visauta-Vinacua, Bienvenido; Guilera, Georgina; Pinal-Fernández, Iago; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and well-being are concepts that attempt to objectively capture a person's subjective perceptions of vitality and energy. Our objectives were to determine HRQoL and well-being in adult patients diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy who attended at our outpatient clinic and to investigate clinical and biological correlations with these concepts. Sixty-two patients (52 women), with a mean age of 50.7 years, were evaluated in this cross-sectional study-47 with dermatomyositis and 15 with polymyositis. Disease damage and activity were assessed with the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies-validated instruments. Manual muscle testing was used to evaluate muscle strength. Quality of life was evaluated with the WHO instrument (WHO Quality of Life Measure (WHOQOL-BREF)), adapted for use in the Spanish population, and well-being with the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5). t tests were conducted to examine differences in HRQoL and well-being outcomes in relation to several disease- and patient-related variables. Correlation analyses were performed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. None of the clinical or biological variables analyzed was significantly associated with a poorer HRQoL or well-being. No differences in HRQoL or WHO-5 well-being score were found between the two myositis subgroups (dermatomyositis vs. polymyositis). Disease activity and muscle weakness were negatively associated with the physical and environmental domains of the HRQoL, respectively (p < 0.002), but not with well-being. Disease duration did not have a significant impact on HRQoL or well-being. In adult patients with myositis, disease activity and muscle weakness are associated with poorer HRQoL in the physical health and environmental domains, respectively. PMID:24894104
Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia
The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1249 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others. PMID:26400043
Stewart, William C; Reynolds, Kelly E; Jones, Lydia J; Stewart, Jeanette A; Nelson, Lindsay A
The purpose of this study was to review four parameters (forgiveness, gratitude, hope and empathy) frequently noted when evaluating well-being. We reviewed clinical studies from 1966 to present. We included 63 articles. All four of the parameters were shown to generally improve an individual's well-being. These parameters demonstrated a positive influence within more specific societal issues including improvement in social relationships, delinquent behavior and physical health. These parameters were generally derived from training and religion. This study suggests that these parameters may improve either one of general well-being, pro-social and positive relational behavior and demonstrate positive health effects. PMID:26087913
This article discusses gains and opportunities in policy and law in the United States related to transgender health and well-being. Topics include (1) how the bathroom myth has been used every time a trans nondiscrimination bill is considered, (2) transgender nondiscrimination laws and policies, (3) the expansion of gender discrimination, (4) strategies for promoting mental health and well-being among trans people, (5) policy developments supporting the mental health and well-being of trans people, and (6) opportunities for action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27380152
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the predictive power of university students’ positive-negative moods in their psychological well-being. The sample consisted of 188 undergraduate students from Faculty of Education at Gazi University. Positive-Negative Emotion Scale (Watson, Clark, & Fellegen, 1988 and Psychological Well-Being Scale (Ryff, 1989 were used to collect data which were then analyzed by Pearson moment correlation and regression. Results revealed that positive emotions predicted positive relations with others only while negative emotions predicted all under psychological well-being. Results were discussed in light of the recent literature, and suggestions were made for further research and counseling practices.
Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Møller, Kurt
The relationship between housing and the well-being of older people is a topic of growing interest. The focus is often on a specific aspect of housing, for example accessibility, location or interior design, and the perspective taken is typically that of a specific discipline. The influence of...... the relationship between housing and the well-being of dependent elderly. This conceptual framework should encompass the many different factors that influence well-being as well as the interactions between these factors, and at the same time recognise the diversity of dependent elderly. The project is...
Spencer, DA; Budd, JW
The importance of worker well-being is widely-embraced both in theory and policy, but there are numerous perspectives on what it is, how to measure it, whether it needs improving and if so, how to improve it. We argue that a more complete approach to worker well-being needs to consider workers as full citizens who derive and experience both public and private benefits and costs from working. A broad framework on the meanings of work is used to expand the boundaries of worker well-being to ref...
Keverne, Eric B.
Much of the work on well-being and positive emotions has tended to focus on the adult, partly because this is when problems are manifest and well-being often becomes an issue by its absence. However, it is pertinent to ask if early life events might engender certain predispositions that have consequences for adult well-being. The human brain undergoes much of its growth and development postnatally until the age of seven and continues to extend its synaptic connections well into the second dec...
Edward N. Wolff; Zacharias, Ajit
The standard official measure of household economic well-being in the United States is gross money income. The general consensus is that such measures are limited because they ignore other crucial determinants of well-being. We modify the standard measure to account for one such determinant: household wealth. We then analyze the level and distribution of economic well-being in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s, using the standard measure and a measure that differs from the standard...
Beckers, Debby Geertruda Johanna
The aim of this thesis was to render more insight into the relationship between overtime work and well-being. The thesis contains four studies on this topic and the findings resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Overtime work should not be conceptualized as a phenomenon which, by definition, has negative implications for health and well-being. The thesis shows that overtime can be related to both positive and negative well-being. (2) Overtime work comes in many qualities and the quality ...
Kokko, Katja; Rantanen, Johanna; Pulkkinen, Lea
The associations between personality traits and mental well-being are analyzed using data from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (initial N = 369; 53% males). At ages 33/36 to 50, the NEO-PI and Scales of Psychological and Social Well-Being as well as indicators of emotional well-being were administered. At ages 8 and 14, socioemotional behaviors were assessed by teachers. First, both genders show high relative continuity in the Big Five per...
Full Text Available The psychological meaning of happiness is subjective well-being. Nowadays, researches on subjective well-being are increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between adolescents’ subjective well-being and personality traits. This studyincludes 541 (270 females and 271 males adolescents who were between ages 14-18. Satisfaction with Life Scale, Adjective Based Personalitiy Test and Positive-Negative Affect Scale were used for gathering the data. The method of this study was hierarchal reggression analysis. According to results, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neoroticism are the most important traits as a predictors for adolescents’ subjective wellbeing.
Conchita D’Ambrosio; Frick, Joachim R.; Markus Jäntti
The relationship between an individual’s economic well-being and satisfaction with own life has been the focus of many studies both within and across countries, in one period of time and over time. As a proxy of economic well-being household income both adjusted and unadjusted for household needs has been generally used. The aim of the present paper is to propose a more comprehensive measure of well-being considering the role that wealth and permanent income play in simultaneously determining...
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157485.html For Transgender Kids, Support Is Key to Emotional Well-Being ... 26, 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Transgender children who feel supported seem to have no ...
Full Text Available The growing recognition that happiness and well-being are intertwined with sustainability is leading to new opportunities for enhancing happiness and well-being, sustainably. The education sector has a critical role in advancing this work but has been slow to incorporate sustainability education and applications of positive psychology. The concept of sustainable happiness (happiness that contributes to individual, community and/or global well-being without exploiting other people, the environment or future generations (O’Brien, 2010a offers an innovative perspective to re-invigorate sustainability education and shape priorities for 21st century learning – contributing to resilient, sustainable happiness and well-being for all.
Standen, P; Daniels, K; Lamond, D
Home-based telework is a growing phenomenon with great potential to affect employees' psychological well-being. Although prior studies show both positive and negative effects on work-family interaction, conclusions are limited by the way telework, well-being, and work-family interaction have been modeled. The authors present a conceptual framework that describes telework as a multidimensional phenomenon and separates the effects of the home environment from those of distance from the organization. Propositions concerning work-family interaction are developed from P. Warr's (1987) model of the environmental antecedents of well-being, prior telework studies, and the work-family literature. Spillover between work and nonwork domains of well-being is discussed, and suggestions for future research on this complex issue are presented. PMID:10526841
Shek, D T
In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611
Full Text Available Integrating theories of adult attachment and well-being at the workplace, the present study tested the role of attachment style in predicting work-related well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job involvement, over and above dispositional trait measures (emotional traits and work-related traits. A sample of workers took part in a correlational study that explored the relationships among a adult attachment, b emotional traits, c work-related traits, and d work-related well-being indices. The results showed that both secure and anxious attachment style explained workers’ job involvement, whereas the secure and avoidant attachment styles explained workers’ job satisfaction. The current findings thus confirm and expand the literature's emphasis on studying the variables and processes that underlie people's mental health in the work setting, and have implications for assessing and promoting well-being in the workplace.
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Hudson, Nathan W; Fraley, R Chris
Recent research has found that a vast majority of people want to change their personality traits--and they may be able to find some degree of success in doing so. However, desires for self-change have been theoretically and empirically linked to reduced well-being. The present study utilized a longitudinal design to better understand the associations between people's desires and attempts to change their personality traits and their psychological well-being. Results indicated that possessing change goals did not necessarily predict growing deficits in well-being over time. In contrast, people who were able to change their personality traits in ways that aligned with their desires tended to experience increases in well-being over time. These findings are consistent with theory that dissatisfaction can precipitate change goals, and successful change can ameliorate dissatisfaction. PMID:27016068
Schrøder, Katja; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Jørgensen, Jan Stener;
Objective this study investigates the self-reported psychosocial health and well-being of obstetricians and midwives in Denmark during the most recent four weeks as well as their recall of their health and well-being immediately following their exposure to a traumatic childbirth. Material and...... methods a 2012 national survey of all Danish obstetricians and midwives (n=2098). The response rate was 59% of which 85% (n=1027) stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. The psychosocial health and well-being of the participants was investigated using six scales from the Copenhagen...... scales were associated with age or seniority in the time after the traumatic birth indicating that both junior and senior staff may experience similar levels of psychosocial health and well-being in the aftermath. Key conclusions and implications this study shows an association between profession...
Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz
Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017
Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.
Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn
Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630
Full Text Available Improving human well-being is increasingly recognized as essential for movement toward a sustainable and desirable future. Estimates of different aspects of human well-being, such as Gross Domestic Product, or percentage of population with access to electric power, or measuring the distribution of income in society are often fraught with problems. There are few standardized methods of data collection; in addition, the required data is not obtained in a reliable manner and on a repetitive basis in many parts of the world. Consequently, inter-comparability of the data that does exist becomes problematic. Data derived from nighttime satellite imagery has helped develop various globally consistent proxy measures of human well-being at the gridded, sub-national, and national level. We review several ways in which nighttime satellite imagery has been used to measure the human well-being within nations.
Jamaludin, N L; Sam, D L; Sandal, G M; Adam, A A
What are the factors that predict international students' destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N = 182) and (long-term, N = 214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective well-being for short-term students; and (2) subjective well-being was positively related to destination-loyalty intention for all groups. We found that relatively stable and happy individuals might be important for ensuring destination-loyalty intentions. Results also indicated that personal values that emphasize justice and equity are also important for short-term international students' well-being. PMID:27375989
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni
Hamidi, Maryam S; Boggild, Miranda K; Cheung, Angela M
Resident and physician burnout is a complex issue. Adequate nutrition and hydration play important roles in the maintenance of health and well-being of all individuals. Given the high prevalence of burnout in physicians, we believe that in addition to issues related to heavy workload, structure and length of shifts, the current status of physicians' nutrition and hydration and their effects on their work performance and well-being should also be addressed. In this review, we summarise the current evidence on the potential effects of nutrition and hydration on physicians' occupational well-being and performance, identify gaps and discuss opportunities to address nutrition as one of the important means of improving physicians' well-being. PMID:27215232
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being. PMID:17034326
Full Text Available ... News & Events Press Releases Alerts & Advisories Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly ... and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following video is intended to be an educational tool that ...
Full Text Available The Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health and Well-Being was used as the theoretical base for the development of several spiritual well-being questionnaires, with progressive fine-tuning leading to the Spiritual Health And Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM. SHALOM comprises 20 items with five items reflecting the quality of relationships of each person with themselves, other people, the environment and/or God, in the Personal, Communal, Environmental and Transcendental domains of spiritual well-being. SHALOM has undergone rigorous statistical testing in several languages. SHALOM has been used with school and university students, teachers, nurses, medical doctors, church-attenders, in industry and business settings, with abused women, troubled youth and alcoholics. SHALOM provides a unique way of assessing spiritual well-being as it compares each person’s ideals with their lived experiences, providing a measure of spiritual harmony or dissonance in each of the four domains.
Saul Neves de Jesus; Claudia Rus; Juan Tobal
This study investigated the immediate influence of a stress management training on teachers’ and physicians’ motivational (professional objective, intrinsic motivation, efficacy expectancies) and well-being related outcomes (positive well-being, emotional exhaustion, work distress, irrational beliefs) using meta-analytical techniques. In an action-research perspective, the stress management training program was implemented in several groups of physicians and teachers, in Portugal and in...
Kim, Jinyoung; Ahn, June; Vitak, Jessica
This study investigates the relationship between life contexts, SNS use, and psychological well-being, by focusing on Korean mothers’ interactions on a popular social network site (SNS), KakaoStory. Through analysis of survey and interview data, we find (1) a positive relationship between KakaoStory use and mothers’ perceptions of positive relations with others (a construct of psychological well-being), but no relationship with overall life satisfaction; (2) employment status is an important ...
This paper analyzes the impact of job insecurity perceptions on individual well-being. While previous studies on the subject have used the concept of perceived job insecurity rather arbitrarily, the present analysis explicitly takes into account individual perceptions about both the likelihood and the potential costs of job loss. We demonstrate that any model assessing the impact of perceived job insecurity on individual well-being potentially suffers from simultaneity bias yielding upward-bi...
Anna Grochowska; Paweł Strawiński
In this paper we attempt to quantify the impact of social capital on individual well-being. We follow the Putnam (1995) approach and select five key social capital components to construct a synthetic index for social capital using a multivariate probit model. Social capital is considered as one of the three crucial individual endowments: physical capital, human capital and social capital. The impact of the synthetically constructed social capital index on individual’s well-being is estimated ...
McCormack, Hannah M.; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O’Shea, Deirdre; Campbell, Mark J.; Igou, Eric R.
Well-being and mental health of psychologists and their clients can be strongly linked to the psychologists’ experience of work. We know from general theories of occupational health psychology that certain work factors will have a greater impact on well-being than others. Work engagement is positively related with occupational health, while burnout and workaholic tendencies relate negatively. An individual’s resources can buffer against these negative effects. Specifically, the environmental ...
Zeynep Merve Unal
Humor is a common dimension of human interaction. Therefore, it has an effect on working groups and organizations. The influence of humor on interpersonal relationship and behavior has been considered by various enterprises. In this work, we report that adaptive humor styles employed by leader buffers job related positive affective well-being of employees whereas maladaptive humor styles employed by leaders buffers job related negative affective well-being of employees. Our results indicate t...
Sara Ramos; Elias Soukiazis
The Subjective Well-Being status has gained a growing research attention in social sciences during the last decades. The attention given by the academic world to this issue has been followed by the community in general. This line of research is still undeveloped in Portugal, and therefore needs further investigation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of Life Satisfaction and Happiness as proxies for Subjective Well-Being of the Portuguese citizens using micro-data from ...
Konrad, Artie William
Reflection is a systematic process of reviewing memories. Reflection on past positive and negative memories increases well-being, as does reflection that is mediated by technology to provide rich digital records of past personal experiences. Technology mediated reflection (TMR) is rapidly growing in popularity, with many deployed systems, however we know little about how one’s mood when using TMR might influence well-being. I use theories of memory and emotion-regulation to motivate hypothes...
Konrad, Artie; Tucker, Simon; Crane, John; Whittaker, Steve
Background We report a psychologically motivated intervention to explore Technology Mediated Reflection (TMR), the process of systematically reviewing rich digital records of past personal experiences. Although TMR benefits well-being, and is increasingly being deployed, we know little about how one’s mood when using TMR influences these benefits. We use theories of memory and emotion-regulation to motivate hypotheses about the relationship between reflection, mood, and well-being when using ...
Zeynep Karatas; Ozlem Tagay
The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final year (fourth grade) university students. Subjective Well-Being Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rotter Internal External Locus of Control Scale ...
Sola-Carmona, Juan J.; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T.; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M.
The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life. PMID:27092095
Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Segawa, Eisuke; Yu, Lei; Begeny, Christopher T; Anagnos, Sophia E; Bennett, David A
This study addressed the hypothesis that late life cognitive decline leads to loss of well-being. Participants are older persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Beginning in 2001, they underwent annual clinical evaluations that included detailed cognitive performance testing and a 10-item self-report measure of purpose in life, an aspect of well-being. Initial analyses involved 1,049 individuals who were without dementia at baseline and followed a mean of 5.0 years. The intercepts and slopes of global cognition and purpose were positively correlated, and level of cognition at a given evaluation predicted level of purpose at the subsequent evaluation, consistent with the study hypothesis. Purpose also predicted subsequent cognition. These findings persisted in analyses that excluded mild cognitive impairment or controlled for time varying levels of depressive symptoms or disability. To see whether cognitive decline's correlation with purpose differed from its correlation with other aspects of well-being, we conducted additional analyses on a subgroup of 560 persons without dementia who completed a multidimensional measure of well-being once between 2008 and 2011. More rapid cognitive decline in the period preceding well-being assessment (M = 5.5 years, SD = 2.8) was associated with lower level of nearly all aspects of well-being (5 of 6 measures), but the extent of the association varied across well-being dimensions and was stronger for purpose than for self-acceptance and autonomy. The results support the hypothesis that cognitive aging leads to diminished well-being, particularly aspects such as purpose in life that involve behavioral regulation. PMID:23421323
Background Admiration and adoration (also referred to as reverence or worship) have 2 received little empirical attention, although the two emotions theoretically have been related to individual and collective well-being. This research tested for associations of dispositional admiration and adoration with dimensions of psychological well-being and life satisfaction. Methods We developed a new measure of dispositional admiration and adoration and employed it in a questionnaire study with 342 p...
Research has only recently begun to examine how individuals can be mentally healthy as opposed to simply showing the absence of distress. One way of defining mental wellness, Psychological Well-Being (PWB; Ryff, 1989), encompasses six dimensions of positive functioning. Cognitions relating to the future are a key element of well-being and are particularly relevant in the late adolescent developmental stage. The study’s first aim was to examine how the positive and negative events adolescents ...
In this study an attempt has been made to study subjective wellbeing among diabetics and non diabetics. Subjective well being instrument has been used for this purpose. This tool was administered to 160 diabetics and 160 non diabetics from Pathanamthitta district in Kerala. The sample mainly consisted of working people. The result of the analysis reveals that subjective well being seems to have no significant effect on both diabetics and non diabetics. Whereas non diabetic workers who are doi...
Andreja Avsec; Polona Masnec; Luka Komidar
We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI) regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions s...
Kamerāde, Daiga; McKay, Steve
Abstract Previous studies have found that employment in the voluntary sector offers a so-called ‘job satisfaction premium’: despite lower salaries, voluntary sector employees are more satisfied with their jobs than workers in other sectors. This paper examines whether voluntary sector employees also experience a subjective well-being premium. Using data from the UK Annual Population Survey 2012/2013, we find that voluntary sector employees do have higher levels of subjective well-being but...
von Möllendorff, Charlotte; Welsch, Heinz
Electricity from renewable sources avoids the disadvantages of conventional power generation (air pollution, greenhouse gases, nuclear risk) but often meets with local resistance due to visual, acoustic, and odor nuisance. We use representative panel data on the subjective well-being of 36,475 individuals in Germany, 1994 - 2012, for identifying and valuing the local externalities from wind, solar and biomass plants. While the well-being effects of windturbines refer mainly to initial install...
Mills, Paul J.; Wilson, Kathleen; Punga, Meredith A.; Chinh, Kelly; Pruitt, Chris; Greenberg, Barry; Lunde, Ottar; Wood, Alex.; Redwine, Laura; Chopra, Deepak
Spirituality and gratitude are associated with well-being. Few if any studies have examined the role of gratitude in heart failure (HF) patients or whether it is a mechanism through which spirituality may exert its beneficial effects on physical and mental health in this clinical population. This study examined associations between gratitude, spiritual well-being, sleep, mood, fatigue, cardiac-specific self-efficacy, and inflammation in 186 men and women with stage B asymptomatic HF (age 66.5...
Previous research has suggested that there is a strong and positive relationship between being an entrepreneur and possessing a high degree of subjective well-being as well as job satisfaction. The big five personality traits have also been argued to be significantly related to both subjective well-being and job satisfaction. Little is however known if personality affects entrepreneurs and regular employees differently. In this paper the impact of personality traits on the cognitive part of s...
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effect of a prenatal hypnotherapeutic programme on the maintenance and promotion of postpartum psychological well-being of a group of first-time mother. Relevant literature on pregnancy, early motherhood and psychological well-being were explained in order to abstract important facets and perspectives to use as a background for the development and implementation of an intervention programme for the facilitation of psychol...
Vandeleur, C. L.; Jeanpretre, N.; Perrez, Meinrad; Schoebi, D.
The present paper investigated whether highercohesion and satisfaction with family bondswere associated with the daily experience of emotional well-being in varying social circumstances. Using a sample of school-age adolescents (N = 95) and both their parents, data were gathered daily over 1 week using a diary approach in addition to self-report instruments. Multilevel analyses revealed higher cohesion to be associated with well-being in fathers and adolescents, but not in mothers. Parents al...
Hannah eMcCormack; Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre; Deirdre eO'Shea; Campbell, Mark J.; Igou, Eric R.
Well-being and mental health of psychologists and their clients can be strongly linked to the psychologists’ experience of work. We know from general theories of occupational health psychology that certain work factors will have a greater impact on well-being than others. Work engagement is positively related with occupational health, while burnout and workaholic tendencies relate negatively. An individual’s resources can buffer against these negative effects. Specifically, the environmental ...
Musick, Kelly; BUMPASS, LARRY
This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed differences between individuals by relating union transitions to changes in well-being. This study is unique in examining the persistence of changes ...
Ho, Ting-yan; 何庭欣
The present study aims to investigate whether online social support could function in the same way as the offline social support to protect our well-being from stress, and to examine how different Internet activities affected Hong Kong adolescents’ online and offline social support, and their subsequent well-being.305 Hong Kong students from grade 10 and 11 participated in the present study. Descriptive statistics found that female adolescents had a higher level of perceived offline social su...
Sandra Emma Carmona Valdés
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of family support (instrumental, economic, emotional) and social relations in the personal well-being of the elderly in Monterrey, Mexico. The central research hypothesis assumed the existence of a predictive association of family support and social interaction with the personal well-being of the elderly. We studied information from 952 individuals ranging in age from 65 to 100 years, were built summations of instrumental support, economi...
Andreja Avsec; Gregor Sočan
Metric characteristics of Slovene version of the Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (RPWB; Ryff, 1989) were analysed. The scales are based on the theoretical model of psychological well-being and refer to six areas of positive functioning of individual: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, personal growth, meaning in life, and autonomy. The construct validity of the original 84- item version of the RPWB was examined on the sample of 423 participants. Results of the multigroup co...
Religiosity has been researched in relation to psychological well-being through assessing cognitive and behavioural components of religion (e.g. prayer). The lack of consensus in defining and measuring religiosity is a complex matter. Different forms of religiosity are measured in relation to positive and negative psychological well-being. The literature review identifies orthodoxy and spirituality as two forms of religiosity. Research is examined in detail to establish how orthodoxy relates ...
In todayÂŽs work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoreti...
Full Text Available Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248, any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158, and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222. The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.
Claudio G. Cortese; Biggio, Gianluca
Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on fo...
The main purpose of this study was to describe patients with gastro-intestinal cancer and their general health and well-being during different stages of the disease. Questionnaires concerning coping ability, general health, well-being and the frequencies and occurrences of symptoms were used to collect data about the patient's pre- and post-surgical situation. Two of these questionnaires, the Health Index (Hl) and the General Health Rating Index (GHRI), were addressed to a ...
Dillard, Maria K.; Goedeke, Theresa L.; Lovelace, Susan; Orthmeyer, Angela
The intersection of social and environmental forces is complex in coastal communities. The well-being of a coastal community is caught up in the health of its environment, the stability of its economy, the provision of services to its residents, and a multitude of other factors. With this in mind, the project investigators sought to develop an approach that would enable researchers to measure these social and environmental interactions. The concept of well-being proved extremely useful for th...
Woodhouse, E.; HOMEWOOD, K. M.; Beauchamp, E.; Clements, T; McCabe, J.T.; Wilkie, D.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.
Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on h...
Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.
This study examined associations between adult children's cumulative problems and their parents' psychological and relational well-being, as well as whether such associations are similar for married and single parents. Regression models were estimated using data from 1,188 parents in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the United States whose youngest child was at least 19 years old. Participants reporting children with more problems indicated moderately poorer levels of well-being across ...
Bracco, Fabrizio; Bruno, Andreina; Sossai, Dimitri
Building and maintaining resilience in health care requires psychological and organizational attitudes that could be affected by the lack of worker well-being. Resilience requires the ability to give strong responses to weak signals, but, if well-being is threatened, workers are more committed to defend it, than detecting and monitoring weak signals in foresight. Malaise is a weak signal itself that, as well as leading to accidents due to fatigue, miscommunication, distraction, etc., blocks o...
Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Jones, Alyson; Perkins, Clare; McHale, Philip
Objectives To examine the hypothesis that adult well-being is related to childhood experiences independent of current adult sociodemographic conditions. Design A cross-sectional, stratified, randomised sample survey using self-assessed measures of current well-being and retrospective measures of childhood experiences. Setting Households in North West England (September 2012–March 2013). Participants The individual with the next birthday in randomly selected households (n=11 500; compliance 89...
Lee, Wang-Sheng; Zhao, Zhong
In general, the happiness literature has paid little attention to the relationship between physical appearance and well-being. In this paper, we examine the link between weight, height and well-being for three distinct samples in China given that attractiveness effects likely vary greatly across sociocultural contexts. As China has recently undergone rapid economic transformation in the urban areas, this empirical exercise is particularly interesting because it can highlight how changing soci...
Kahneman, Daniel; Deaton, Angus
Recent research has begun to distinguish two aspects of subjective well-being. Emotional well-being refers to the emotional quality of an individual's everyday experience—the frequency and intensity of experiences of joy, stress, sadness, anger, and affection that make one's life pleasant or unpleasant. Life evaluation refers to the thoughts that people have about their life when they think about it. We raise the question of whether money buys happiness, separately for these two aspects of we...
Nína María Saviolidis 1984
The first part of this paper (Chapter 1) serves as background to the brief research report in the second part. It examines one of the core values of consumer culture, materialism and its effects on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being as a measure of happiness is briefly discussed. Then, three approaches to conceptualizing and measuring materialism in psychology are briefly reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each discussed. This is followed by a summary of the major rese...
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia
Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (EWB) in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale...
Annamaria eDi Fabio; Letizia ePalazzeschi
Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM), the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Satisfaction...
Lee DM., Vanhoutte B., Nazroo J., Pendleton N.
Objectives. We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function, and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Method. Using data from a sexual relationships and activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) in wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis (LCA) identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexu...
Welsch, Heinz; Kühling, Jan
This paper studies whether pro-environmental consumption choices are consistent with utility maximization and what role the consumption behavior of reference persons and one’s own past behavior play in this context. By combining data on individuals’ pro-environmental consumption from a unique data set with data on subjective well-being, we find that people could attain higher well-being (utility) by unilaterally consuming more environmentally friendly while at the same time reducing the quant...
Sørensen, Ole Henning; Hasle, Peter; Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt
In the last decades there has been a growing focus in working life and management research on sustainable organizational development that simultaneously improve organizational outcomes such as productivity and quality and employee outcomes such as well-being and job-satisfaction. Research has pointed to trust as an important component of participatory management practices having simultaneous positive outcomes for organizational productivity and employee well-being. The aim of this paper is to...
Mäkikangas, Anne; RANTANEN, Johanna; Arnold B. Bakker; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja
The purpose of this study was to identify different types of occupational well-being based on the circumplex model (Russell, 1980; Warr, 1994), and to examine how these types are related to the Big Five personality profiles. The middle-aged participants were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development (N = 183). Application of a person-oriented approach with latent profile analysis yielded four types of occupational well-being: (a) Engaged (30...
Rae, James R.; Susan D Lonborg
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...
HYVIS Pirkanmaa project, operating at Tampere Region Economic Development Agency Tredea, develops the health and well-being growth enterprises situated in Tampere region. I have conducted a survey for HYVIS Pirkanmaa project to provide it information about obstacles to growth, development challenges and internationalization of health and well-being growth enterprises in Tampere region. According to my survey results, market instability was considered as most significant obstacle to g...
D’Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Somayaji, Ganesha; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh
This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. Thes...
Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Grimani, Katerina
One of the main economic outcomes of the recent great recession was the decrease of labour earnings in many countries. The relevant literature indicates that earnings and other socioeconomic predictors can influence psychological well-being. The same holds true for job satisfaction. This chapter tests the effect of pay cuts on the psychological well-being and job satisfaction. The data used in this chapter was drawn from the 5th European Survey on Working Conditions which focuses on European ...
Background. In this paper I discuss the interdependence between the revitalization of minority languages and well-being at the population level. Objectives. The paper aims to describe the history and current status of three northern minority languages, Kven, Meänkieli and Viena Karelian, and the ways in which revitalization of these languages and restoration of their linguistic rights could enhance the well-being of the speakers of these languages. Methods. A number of research findings are p...
Full Text Available Turnover intentions can be reduced if the employees feel the organization have met their needs, through improving of psychological well-being. Employees' psychological well-being must be fulfilled, to get their best performance. This study aims to find out the relations between psychological well-being (i.e. autonomy, environmental mastery, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance and personal growth and turnover intention of hotel employees. The subjects were 212 hotel employees in Medan, Indonesia. Data were collected using turnover intention scale and psychological well-being scale. The result showed negative correlations between psychological well-being and turnover intentions towards hotel employees. To find out the determinants of turnover intention, a stepwise regression method was used. Based on the stepwise method used, the two predictor variables were found to be of significance in explaining turnover intentions. The two predictor variables were autonomy and positive relations with others. The result of this study will contribute to the guide lines for the policy makers for implementation of better human resource policy and provide evidence in favor of managerial interventions aimed at enhancing employee well-being and, consequently, minimizing the negative effects of an actual turnover in Hotel employee. Implication of this study could help management understand how to reduce the turnover intentions based on the employee and organization needs.
Full Text Available The paper deals with technological determinants of the lifetime social well-being, as conditions of maintaining the level and style of consumption, social status throughout the whole life. Despite the high importance of the problem of the social well-being and the relevance of its solution for the development of modern society, the issues of its correlation with the technological level of production and the development of information technologies are still poorly researched. As the problem of the life-time wellbeing take on special significance, it is important to analyze its conditions, related not only to social benefits, but also to the scientific and technological progress. For the future innovation and the digital stage of social well-being is its network well-being. It is based on the usage of the Internet for professional activity and personal self-fulfillment during the whole conscious life. Network well-being also reflects the convergence of information and network, industrial, financial, marketing, and social technologies. The formation of the life-time network well-being requires from the Government some measures of social adjustment, fiscal policy and the regulation of employment to encourage Internet Education and Internet employment, enhancing the prestige of working in high-tech industries.
Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D
Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect. PMID:25858019
Saul Neves de Jesus
Full Text Available This study investigated the immediate influence of a stress management training on teachers’ and physicians’ motivational (professional objective, intrinsic motivation, efficacy expectancies and well-being related outcomes (positive well-being, emotional exhaustion, work distress, irrational beliefs using meta-analytical techniques. In an action-research perspective, the stress management training program was implemented in several groups of physicians and teachers, in Portugal and in Brazil (n=144. It was found that, at all the samples where this intervention was implemented, an increase occurred on all motivational indicators and on positive well-being, and a decrease on negative well-being outcomes; nevertheless, not all obtained results are statistically significant. The largest impact of the implemented training program was at positive well-being at work, with a large effect size (d+=.81, and at the irrational beliefs, with a medium effect size (d+=.61. These results suggest the short-term benefits of this intervention on teachers’ and physicians’ motivation and well-being.
Walter, Zoe C; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A; Parsell, Cameron; Johnstone, Melissa
People who experience homelessness face many challenges and disadvantages that negatively impact health and well-being and form barriers to achieving stable housing. Further, people who are homeless often have limited social connections and support. Building on previous research that has shown the beneficial effect of group identification on health and well-being, the current study explores the relationship between two social identity processes - multiple group memberships and service identification - and well-being and positive housing outcomes. Measures were collected from 76 participants while they were residing in a homeless accommodation service (T1) and again 2-4 weeks after leaving the service (or 3 months after T1 if participants had not left the service). Mediation analyses revealed that multiple group memberships and service identification at T1 independently predicted well-being at T2 indirectly, via social support. Further, both social identity processes also indirectly predicted housing outcomes via social support. The implications of these findings are twofold. First, while belonging to multiple social groups may provide a pathway to gaining social support and well-being, group belonging may not necessarily be beneficial to achieve stable housing. Second, fostering identification with homeless services may be particularly important as a source of support that contributes to well-being. PMID:26333919
Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to explain why well-being in the workplace is a theme of increasing interest and why many studies have analyzed its functioning and diffusion. From the literature on well-being it is evident that the findings of previous research are sometimes discordant and theoretical models particularly use diverse variables according to different needs and objectives. Despite the influence of a number of different factors, well-being can be studied by looking at three main aspects: physical well-being, mental health, and job satisfaction. The variables influencing it, however, are numerous and often analyzed from different perspectives. Methods of analysis vary across national and disciplinary contexts. The present work is based on a local survey of a small Italian district that investigates two hypotheses about the correlation between locus of control and variables determining work well-being (Spector et al., 2002 and the possibility of using perceptions and desires on the variables influencing well-being as predictors of it. We use the concepts of cybernetic theory and feedback loop (Edwards, 1992. Findings of statistical correlation and hierarchic regression are discussed; limitations and suggestions for further research are presented.
Full Text Available Happiness is a concept which has become of high importance for the past years because of its role in psychological well-being and the social health of people. The present research has been conducted to study the role of happiness in predicting the psychological well-being of male athlete students. A number of 100 physically active students were chosen through multistep cluster sampling out of male physically active students in the city of Miyandoab in the academic year 1391-92. They responded to the short scale depression-happiness of Joseph et al. (with the stability of 0.69 and Ryff’s scale of psychological well-being (with the stability of 0.68 having six components of self-acceptance, environmental mastery, positive relations with others, purpose in life, personal growth and independence. The results showed that there is a relationship between happiness and well-being (r = 0.53. Also, happiness, in a positive and meaningful way, predicts changes pertaining to psychological well-being (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.282. Enhancing and improving happiness along with physical and sportive activities may help increase psychological well-being of students.
Victor, Karen; Barnard, Antoni
Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees' work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (mal)adjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in. PMID:27104340
Breines, Juliana G; Crocker, Jennifer; Garcia, Julie A
Laboratory experiments and surveys show that self-objectification increases body shame, disrupts attention, and negatively predicts well-being. Using experience sampling methodology, the authors investigated self-objectification in the daily lives of 49 female college students. Building on the predictions of objectification theory, they examined associations between internalizing an observer's perspective on the self and psychological well-being, and examined the moderating roles of trait self-esteem and appearance-contingent self-worth. Within-person increases in self-objectification predicted decreased well-being, but this association was moderated by trait self-esteem and trait appearance-contingent self-worth; high self-esteem, highly appearance-contingent participants reported increased well-being when they self-objectified. Furthermore, perceived unattractiveness partially mediated the main effect and the three-way interaction: high self-esteem, highly contingent participants experienced smaller drops in well-being when they self-objectified, in part because they felt less unattractive. These results suggest that in daily life, some women receive a boost from self-objectification, although most women experience decreases in well-being when self-objectifying. PMID:18281441
According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated
Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Sharajabad, Fariba Alizadeh; Sanaati, Favziye
This study aimed to determine the status of quality of life, spiritual well-being, and their relationship among Iranian adolescent girls. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 520 students using the cluster sampling method. The mean score of quality of life was 59.86 (SD: 12.7) from the possible range of 0-100. The mean score of spiritual well-being was 90.22 (SD: 16.25), ranging from 20 to 120. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between quality of life and the factors including existential well-being, religious well-being, parents' belief for their children's participation in religious ceremonies, father's education and occupation, father's illness, sufficiency of family income for expenses, and the number of children. Given that spiritual well-being dimensions are among the predictors of quality of life. Thus, it is necessary to find ways to promote spiritual well-being in adolescents and ultimately improve their quality of life. PMID:26787114
The relationship between architecture, housing and well-being of elderly and frail people is a topic of growing interest to consultants and political decision makers working on welfare solutions for elderly citizens. The objective of the research presented here is to highlight which well-being el......The relationship between architecture, housing and well-being of elderly and frail people is a topic of growing interest to consultants and political decision makers working on welfare solutions for elderly citizens. The objective of the research presented here is to highlight which well......-being elements in the nursing home environments that contribute to enhancing the well-being of the elderly and how these elements is ensured attention during a decision making process related to the design and the establishing of nursing homes. With basis in four Danish representative case studies, various case...... data from the decision making process are collected, covering the planning, the design and the realization of four newly built nursing homes in Denmark. The case studies clearly shows that the architectural well-being elements appear weak in the decision making process, when they are conflicting with...
Full Text Available Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees’ work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (maladjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in.
Victor, Karen; Barnard, Antoni
Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees’ work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (mal)adjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in. PMID:27104340
Full Text Available Public employee’s innovativeness, responsiveness, efficiency and friendliness in services are the core prescriptions to enhance the competitiveness of one’s country. Financial well-being and employees are two aspects that consequently related with each other that have received substantial deliberation from researchers, employers and financial advisor. Financial well-being can affect both direct and indirectly towards an individual, team and also organization. Changes in employee’s financial well-being level whether it becomes high or low will affect their job performance. The purpose of this study is to discuss the level of public employee’s financial well-being in Malaysia as well as to examine the determinants of financial well-being. A total of 73 questionnaires have been distributed through e-survey (email based using convenient sampling technique in order to conduct this pilot test (pre-test. Only 30 public employees have participated in this study. The results identified that majority of public employees is at the moderate level of financial well-being. Even so, appropriate action should be taken through financial education in order to prevent worst case scenario in the future.
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber
In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived discrimination and psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Using a random-effects model, the mean weighted effect size was significantly negative, indicating harm (r = -.23). Effect sizes were larger for disadvantaged groups (r = -.24) compared to advantaged groups (r = -.10), larger for children compared to adults, larger for perceptions of personal discrimination compared to group discrimination, and weaker for racism and sexism compared to other stigmas. The negative relationship was significant across different operationalizations of well-being but was somewhat weaker for positive outcomes (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) than for negative outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, negative affect). Importantly, the effect size was significantly negative even in longitudinal studies that controlled for prior levels of well-being (r = -.15). In Meta-Analysis 2 (54 independent effect sizes, N = 2,640), we examined experimental data from studies manipulating perceptions of discrimination and measuring well-being. We found that the effect of discrimination on well-being was significantly negative for studies that manipulated general perceptions of discrimination (d = -.25), but effects did not differ from 0 when attributions to discrimination for a specific negative event were compared to personal attributions (d = .06). Overall, results support the idea that the pervasiveness of perceived discrimination is fundamental to its harmful effects on psychological well-being. PMID:24547896
Russell-Jones David L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD: the General Well-being Index, (GWBI – British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12. Methods Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 adults with treated or untreated GHD, and sensitivity to change in a randomised placebo-controlled study of three months' growth hormone (GH withdrawal from 12 of 21 GH-treated adults. Results Very high completion rates were evidence that both questionnaires were acceptable to respondents. Factor analyses did not indicate the existence of useful GWBI subscales, but confirmed the validity of calculating a GWBI Total score. However, very high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96, N = 152, probably indicated some item redundancy in the 22-item GWBI. On the other hand, factor analyses confirmed the validity of the three W-BQ12 subscales of Negative Well-being, Energy, and Positive Well-being, each having excellent internal reliability (alphas of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.88, respectively, N from 152 to 154. There was no sign of item redundancy in the highly acceptable Cronbach's alpha of 0.93 (N = 148 for the whole W-BQ12 scale. Whilst neither questionnaire found significant differences between GH-treated and non-GH-treated patients, there were correlations (for GH-treated patients with duration of GH treatment for GWBI Total (r = -0.36, p = 0.001, N = 85, W-BQ12 Total (r = 0.35, p = 0.001, N = 88 and for all W-BQ12 subscales: thus the longer the duration of GH treatment (ranging from 0.5 to 10 years, the better the well-being. Both questionnaires found that men had significantly better overall well-being than women. The W-BQ12 was more sensitive to change than the GWBI in the GH-Withdrawal study. A significant between
Martin P Davoren
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. METHODS: Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly female (62.66%, in first year (46.9% and living in their parents' house (42.4% or in a rented house or flat (40.8%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04. Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001 were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp
Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9) during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010). The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs. PMID:26499314
Kaufmann, Elke G; Engel, Sabine A
The topic of well-being is becoming increasingly significant as a key outcome measure in dementia care. Previous work on personhood of individuals with dementia suggests that their subjective well-being can be described in terms of comfort, inclusion, identity, occupation and attachment The study aimed to examine Tom Kitwood's model of psychological needs and well-being in dementia based on the self-report of individuals with moderate or severe dementia and to differentiate and elaborate this model in the light of the empirical qualitative data. Nineteen inhabitants of a special long-term care unit were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using content analysis. Thirty components within Kitwood's model have been identified. A conceptual framework of subjective well-being in dementia was developed based on a theoretical background. The study was able to find indications that Kitwood's model has empirical relevance. Nevertheless, it requires to be extended by the domain agency. Furthermore, the study suggests that individuals with dementia are important informants of their subjective well-being. PMID:24948470
Hai-Ying Qu; Chun-Mei Wang
Objective: To study factors influencing nurses' job burnout and their subjective well-being and to explore the relationships between these two phenomena. Methods: A total of 250 nurses from three hospitals in Shandong were evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a subjective well-being scale. Results: Nursing staff showed significantly different levels of job burnout ( P<0. 05) according to the following characteristics: age, marital status, educational background, technical title, years of nursing experience, monthly income, manning quotas and parental status. Level of burnout is higher for nursing staff who are under the age of 30 years, are unmarried, had secondary educa-tion, had unofficial manning quota status, are childless, hold a primary title and whose years of nursing experience are less than five years. Statistical significance was found for life satisfaction ( P<0. 05) with differences in age; marital status; technical title; years of nursing experience;monthly income; manning quota status; and parental status in positive emotion, negative emotion and degree. There is a significant negative correlation between every dimension of job burnout and life satisfaction and positive emotions for subjective well-being. Every component of job burnout was significantly positively correlated with negative emotions. ( P<0. 05) Conclusions: Age, marital status, educational background, technical title, years of nursing ex-perience, monthly income, manning quotas and parental status have different influences on occu-pation burnout and subjective well-being. Dimensions of occupation burnout have functions of pre-dicting subjective well-being.
Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; Faloia, Emanuela; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Roberta
Being obese or overweight is often associated with impaired quality of life and psychological well-being (PWB) in comparison with normal-weight people (Giuli et al., 2014), both in developed and developing countries. PWB is considered a very important correlate of subjective well-being in people with excess weight. The concept of PWB is based on Ryff's multidimensional model (Ryff, 2014), which considers well-being as eudaemonic concept, and includes six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Few studies have analyzed the role of specific correlates of perceived well-being in the obese and overweight Italian older population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of perceived well-being in obese and overweight older adults. Our study included 124 overweight and obese older participants, aged 60 years or more, selected from patients attending the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences of Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy). As previously described (Giuli et al., 2014), the participants were recruited on the basis of specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, in a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012). PMID:26299362
D'Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Somayaji, Ganesha; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh
This paper is a qualitative study of women's well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women's experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women's reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women's well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community. PMID:23602071
Haase, Claudia M; Heckhausen, Jutta; Silbereisen, Rainer K
A successful entry into work is one of the key developmental tasks in young adulthood. The present 4-wave longitudinal study examined the interplay between occupational motivation (i.e., goal engagement and goal disengagement) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, satisfaction with work, satisfaction with partnership, positive affect, depressive symptoms, autonomy, purpose in life, positive relations with others) during the transition from university to work. The sample consisted of 498 university graduates from 4 majors with favorable or unfavorable employment opportunities. Data were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. The results showed that increases in goal engagement were associated with increases in numerous aspects of well-being. Increases in goal disengagement were associated with decreases in numerous aspects of well-being. However, this dynamic was not without exception. Goal engagement at graduation was associated with a decrease in autonomy and, for individuals with unfavorable employment opportunities, an increase in depressive symptoms. Goal disengagement at graduation was associated with an increase in satisfaction with work. These findings elucidate why some individuals may opt for overall maladaptive motivational strategies during the transition into the workforce: They provide selective well-being benefits. In sum, how young adults deal with their occupational goals is closely linked to changes in their well-being. PMID:22182299
Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint; Bates, Timothy C
Eudaimonic well-being reflects traits concerned with personal growth, self-acceptance, purpose in life and autonomy (among others) and is a substantial predictor of life events, including health. Although interest in the aetiology of eudaimonic well-being has blossomed in recent years, little is known of the underlying neural substrates of this construct. To address this gap in our knowledge, here we examined whether regional gray matter (GM) volume was associated with eudaimonic well-being. Structural magnetic resonance images from 70 young, healthy adults who also completed Ryff's 42-item measure of the six core facets of eudaimonia, were analysed with voxel-based morphometry techniques. We found that eudaimonic well-being was positively associated with right insular cortex GM volume. This association was also reflected in three of the sub-scales of eudaimonia: personal growth, positive relations and purpose in life. Positive relations also showed a significant association with left insula volume. No other significant associations were observed, although personal growth was marginally associated with left insula, and purpose in life exhibited a marginally significant negative association with middle temporal gyrus GM volume. These findings are the first to our knowledge linking eudaimonic well-being with regional brain structure. PMID:23512932
Paloma, Virginia; García-Ramírez, Manuel; Camacho, Carlos
The decision to migrate is normally based on expectations of improving one's actual living conditions and therefore, one's well-being. However, these expectations are not usually met in receiving contexts that relegate newcomers to lower power positions. From a liberating community psychology approach, this study aims to develop a predictive model of the well-being of Moroccan migrants living in southern Spain. Data were collected from a survey sample of 633 migrants (the average age was 31.9 years and 51.8 % were women) from 20 territorial units of Andalusia. Through a process of multilevel regression analysis, this study reveals that the well-being of the Moroccan community is closely determined by the following: (a) the level of social justice in the receiving context (openness to diversity of receiving communities, cultural sensitivity of community services, and residential integration); and (b) the individual strengths of the population (use of active coping strategies, satisfaction with the receiving context, and temporal stability in the new environment). These results empirically support the impact that different ecological levels of analysis have on well-being. Major theoretical contributions of the model and useful suggestions for improving migrant well-being are discussed. PMID:24912873
Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia
Mindfulness can be viewed as an important dispositional characteristic that reflects the tendency to be mindful in daily life, which is beneficial for improving individuals' both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. However, no study to date has examined the brain regions involved in individual differences in dispositional mindfulness during the resting state and its relation with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. To investigate this issue, the present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) that measures the local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in a large sample. We found that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with the ReHo in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and right insula implicated in emotion processing, body awareness, and self-referential processing, and negatively associated with the ReHo in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) implicated in response inhibition and attentional control. Furthermore, we found different neural associations with hedonic (i.e., positive and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (i.e., the meaningful and purposeful life). Specifically, the ReHo in the IFG predicted eudaimonic well-being whereas the OFC predicted positive affect, both of which were mediated by dispositional mindfulness. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for linking individual differences in dispositional mindfulness to spontaneous brain activity and demonstrates that dispositional mindfulness engages multiple brain mechanisms that differentially influence hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. PMID:26360907
Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena
The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258
Asano, Ryosuke; Igarashi, Tasuku; Tsukamoto, Saori
Hedonia (seeking pleasure and relaxation) and eudaimonia (seeking to improve oneself in congruence with one's values) uniquely contribute to well-being. The authors developed and tested the construct validity of a Japanese version of the Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale that had been originally developed in North America. Drawing on the theoretical and empirical evidence from research on emotion, we proposed that people would pursue well-being in three different directions: pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. In Study 1, we used the original HEMA scale to examine the Japanese attainment of well-being. The results supported the hypothesized three-factor model. Study 2 revealed that the Japanese version of the HEMA scale measured pleasure, relaxation, and eudaimonia. Each of these subscales showed statistically sufficient internal consistency. There was no gender difference in any of these measures. Scores on the scale systematically corresponded with external criterion variables, such as life satisfaction, affect, Ryff's psychological well-being, social support, and lifestyle. Implications for psychological research and public policies that cover the topic of the pursuit of well-being are discussed. PMID:24804432
Full Text Available Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9 during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010. The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.
Full Text Available We examined predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and three dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI regarding psychological well-being on the sample of primary and highschool teachers. Notwithstanding relatively high correlations between personality and EI scales, reported by other studies, we predicted that EI still accounts for a significant amount of variability in psychological well-being. This prediction originates in idea that different abilities concerning emotions should help individuals to be more effective in various aspects of positive functioning. One hundred fifty two teachers filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI, Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ, and the short version of Riff's Psychological Well-Being Scales (RPWB. Results showed good predictive validity of personality traits, for they accounted for 22 to 43% of variability in different psychological well-being scales. Predictive validity of EI is also excellent, but when controlling for personality traits is far worse, since it accounts for only 1 to 3% of variance in well-being scales. Discriminant validity of EI scales measured by ESCQ is therefore unsatisfactory.
Woodhouse, Emily; Homewood, Katherine M; Beauchamp, Emilie; Clements, Tom; McCabe, J Terrence; Wilkie, David; Milner-Gulland, E J
Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention. PMID:26460137
Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo
Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors. PMID:26020732
Rahman, Rachel Jane; Hudson, Joanne; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Doust, Jonathan H
This research examined the processes underpinning changes in psychological well-being and behavioural regulation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients using self-determination theory (SDT). A repeated measures design was used to identify the longitudinal relationships between SDT variables, psychological well-being and exercise behaviour during and following a structured CR programme. Participants were 389 cardiac patients (aged 36-84 years; M(age) = 64 ± 9 years; 34.3% female) referred to a 12-week-supervised CR programme. Psychological need satisfaction, behavioural regulation, health-related quality of life, physical self-worth, anxiety and depression were measured at programme entry, exit and six month post-programme. During the programme, increases in autonomy satisfaction predicted positive changes in behavioural regulation, and improvements in competence and relatedness satisfaction predicted improvements in behavioural regulation and well-being. Competence satisfaction also positively predicted habitual physical activity. Decreases in external regulation and increases in intrinsic motivation predicted improvements in physical self-worth and physical well-being, respectively. Significant longitudinal relationships were identified whereby changes during the programme predicted changes in habitual physical activity and the mental quality of life from exit to six month follow-up. Findings provide insight into the factors explaining psychological changes seen during CR. They highlight the importance of increasing patients' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction and self-determined motivation to improve well-being during the structured component of a CR programme and longer term physical activity. PMID:25753948
Orsila, Reetta; Luukkaala, Tiina; Manka, Marja-Liisa; Nygard, Clas-Hakan
The main aim of this study was to develop a short questionnaire to assess work-related well-being from the organizational behaviour perspective. The short well-being questionnaire enables measuring longitudinal work-related well-being. Work-related well-being was assessed with a 147-item questionnaire covering both organizational and intrinsic factors of work-related well-being. The questionnaire consisted of 27 categories. The respondents were 114 women (65%) and 62 men (35%), mean age 39.2 years, in various occupations. From the extensive questionnaire a shorter questionnaire with 33 items was developed by principal component analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure to test the sampling adequacy of 27 factor solutions varied from .62 to .91 and Cronbach?s α was .74-.94. Most κ values of the shorter questionnaire were .50-.94 (p < .001). The reliability of the short version was comparable to that of the original questionnaire. The short one could also be suitable for Internet and mobile questionnaire applications. PMID:22152501
Edmunds, S; Roche, D; Stratton, G; Wallymahmed, K; Glenn, S M
Physical activity and psychological well-being contribute to positive lifestyle and well-being in youngsters who have Type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to objectively assess the physical activity levels of children with Type 1 diabetes, and investigate associations between physical activity levels, psychological well-being and HbA(1c). Thirty-six children, mean age 12.8 years, participated in the investigation. Physical activity was assessed using heart rate monitoring over four days. Children further completed the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youths Questionnaire, the Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children and the Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale. Routine outpatient HbA(1c) measurements were recorded. There were no significant associations between psychological well-being and physical activity, or HbA(1c) and physical activity, thus suggesting physical activity does not directly relate to psychological well-being in children with Type 1 diabetes. It may be that the effect of physical activity differs from that in children without Type 1 diabetes because of the place of physical activity within diabetes management and the need to balance this with insulin dosage and dietary intake to maintain blood glucose levels. PMID:17510906
Kraatz, Miriam; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
Well-being is linked to important societal factors such as health care costs and productivity and has experienced a surge in development activity of both theories and measurement. This study builds on validation of the Well-Being 5 survey and for the first time applies Item Response Theory, a modern and flexible measurement paradigm, to form the basis of adaptive population well-being measurement. Adaptive testing allows survey questions to be administered selectively, thereby reducing the number of questions required of the participant. After the graded response model was fit to a sample of size N = 12,035, theta scores were estimated based on both the full-item bank and a simulation of Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). Comparisons of these 2 sets of score estimates with each other and of their correlations with external outcomes of job performance, absenteeism, and hospital admissions demonstrate that the CAT well-being scores maintain accuracy and validity. The simulation indicates that the average survey taker can expect a reduction in number of items administered during the CAT process of almost 50%. An increase in efficiency of this extent is of considerable value because of the time savings during the administration of the survey and the potential improvement of user experience, which in turn can help secure the success of a total population-based well-being improvement program. (Population Health Management 2016;19:284-290). PMID:26674396
Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P; Cimarolli, Verena R; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta
The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being, in a sample of 364 older adults diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration. Using longitudinal data from 5 occasions at 6-month intervals, we examined intraindividual change in control strategies, and how it was related to change in affective well-being, in terms of self-rated happiness and depressive symptoms. Mixed model analyses confirmed our hypotheses that (a) intraindividual change, particularly in selective primary control and in compensatory secondary control (CSC), predict change toward higher happiness ratings and lower depression; and (b) as functional abilities (instrumental activities of daily living) declined, CSC became increasingly predictive of better affective well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that CSC strategies are essential for maintaining affective well-being when physical functioning declines. Intensified selective primary control striving may be effective to achieve goals that have become difficult to reach but are not associated with affective well-being, possibly because struggling with difficulties undermines the experience of enjoyable mastery. In contrast, goal adjustments and self-protective thinking may help to find pleasure even from restricted daily activities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845507
Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
Nearly 9 million Americans live in extreme-poverty neighborhoods, places that also tend to be racially segregated and dangerous. Yet, the effects on the well-being of residents of moving out of such communities into less distressed areas remain uncertain. Using data from Moving to Opportunity, a unique randomized housing mobility experiment, we found that moving from a high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhood leads to long-term (10- to 15-year) improvements in adult physical and mental health and subjective well-being, despite not affecting economic self-sufficiency. A 1-standard deviation decline in neighborhood poverty (13 percentage points) increases subjective well-being by an amount equal to the gap in subjective well-being between people whose annual incomes differ by $13,000--a large amount given that the average control group income is $20,000. Subjective well-being is more strongly affected by changes in neighborhood economic disadvantage than racial segregation, which is important because racial segregation has been declining since 1970, but income segregation has been increasing. PMID:22997331
Parker, S K; Chmiel, N; Wall, T D
Findings from this 4-year longitudinal study of strategic downsizing suggest that introducing deliberate work organization and change management strategies can combat the negative effects of reduced head count. Results showed that there was no overall decrease in well-being from before to after downsizing for the 139 employees remaining in an organization, despite an increase in work demands. The potential detrimental effect of demands appears to have been offset by improvement in work characteristics arising from initiatives introduced as part of the downsizing strategy. This interpretation is consistent with analyses at the individual level, which showed that high demands were associated with poorer well-being but that increases in control, clarity, and participation were associated with improved well-being. PMID:9552298
Rusu, Petruta P; Hilpert, Peter; Beach, Steven R H; Turliuc, Maria N; Bodenmann, Guy
Some studies suggest that the sanctification of marriage, or considering marriage sacred, is related to positive marital outcomes (e.g., marital satisfaction, conflict resolution). However, the mechanisms explaining this association have not been sufficiently investigated. In the current study, we analyzed supportive dyadic coping as a potential mediator of the relation between marriage sanctity and marital satisfaction, as well as between marriage sanctity and well-being. Self-reported data were collected from 215 Romanian couples (N = 430) belonging to the Christian Orthodox religion. Analyses using the common fate model indicate that supportive dyadic coping mediates both the relation between sanctification and marital satisfaction, as well as the relation between sanctification and well-being. These findings suggest that sanctification increases support provided to the partner, which in turn is positively related to marital satisfaction and well-being at the dyadic level. PMID:26147936
Hansen, Karsten Bruun
of hedonic well-being have grown continuously. Apparently economic prosperity is not a key factor providing meaning and personal flourishing. Based on social constructivist theory, this paper reveals leisure time as a important sources providing EWB in terms of shaping frames for existential meaning......, personal flourishing and social interaction. However, the topic is complex; social norms and intrinsic contra extrinsic oriented values are discussed in relation to what people see as the good life and a sustainable everyday living (In terms of lowering present personal CO2 emission levels with 60...... to be in place: subjective well-being (Subjective well-being comprises in this paper; (1) “hedonic well-being”, characterized by materialistic oriented values, such as; material possessions, -pleasure, -comfort and positive emotions, and (2) “eudaimonic well-being”, such as; meaning in life, feelings of vitality...