WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal welfare

  1. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  2. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  5. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  6. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  7. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  8. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  9. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  10. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  11. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  12. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mitchell M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...

  13. Advancing animal welfare: state, society and economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers farm animal welfare as a public good and examines the role of legislators and public bodies in adopting animal welfare standards in accordance with the democratic process, with a focus on the European Union (EU) and its pioneer status in advancing animal welfare law. Private prima facie voluntary standards of animal welfare co-exist alongside public standards, or as substitutes in the absence of the latter. Vital questions arise, inter alia, as to the extent to which th...

  14. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  15. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM;

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  16. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  17. Economic Considerations of Animal Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bicknell, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare considerations are becoming increasingly important for producers of animal-derived agricultural products. Recent media attention on issues of housing conditions for intensively reared livestock and induced calving in dairy production make it clear that some members of the public feel strongly about the overall welfare of farm animals. In many cases, practices that are now perceived as welfare unfriendly are also associated with lower per-unit costs of production, creating a ‘cl...

  18. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  20. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  1. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Morgante; Giorgio Vallortigara

    2010-01-01

    Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess...

  2. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to or

  3. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  4. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in...... anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  5. Animal welfare education: development and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2005-01-01

    Animal welfare has developed rapidly as a scientific discipline since the 1980s. Concepts have been refined, methodologies for assessment developed, and links made to other areas of science. Changes in the subject and in its teaching are required. Since 1986, a series of senior academic teaching posts in the subject have been created, especially in the last 10 years. Veterinary and animal science students should receive a specific course on animal welfare, in addition to mention of the subject in other courses. In the future, more allusion to developments in understanding of welfare in relation to disease and brain measures of welfare is likely. The central role of animal welfare in veterinary and animal science teaching will become more firmly established.

  6. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  7. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wereldwijd overzicht van dierenwelzijnswetgeving, praktijken en percepties, met voorbeeldstudies over kippenvlees uit Brazilië en Thailand, eieren uit India en de Verenigde Staten, welzijnswetgeving voor kweekvis en welzijnsaspecten van (vermeende) overpopulatie van wilde dieren.Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects r...

  8. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  9. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  10. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  11. Animal Welfare: eine empirische Analyse landwirtschaftlicher Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Deimel, Ingke; Franz, Annabell; SPILLER, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Nach den aktuellen Erkenntnissen der nutztierwissenschaftlichen Forschung rekurriert das Verständnis von Animal Welfare auf vier Kriterien: Haltungssystem, Management, Tiergesundheit und Tierverhalten (KEELING und KJ™RNES, 2009). Es ist jedoch unklar, inwieweit sich dieses Verständnis auch in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis wiederfindet. In der vorliegenden empirischen Studie wird erstmals mit Hilfe einer Faktorenanalyse das Animal-Welfare-Verständnis konventioneller deutscher Schweinemäster ...

  12. Animal Welfare: A Dilemma for Japanese CSR?

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Wakako

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to analyse whether animal welfare issues can be one of concerns for Japanese companies to formulate CSR strategy. Today, the subject of animal welfare is becoming one of important global issues since European Union regulates the issues and its regulations are becoming stricter. Japanese companies would face on the issues in the EU and global market. However, since there is distinct public concern for the issues in Japan, it is questionable if and how Japanese com...

  13. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  14. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  15. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare. PMID:27120815

  16. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  17. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  18. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  19. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? S...

  20. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  1. After the DVM: specialization in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Bonnie V

    2010-01-01

    As the public comes to expect higher levels of expertise in various areas of veterinary medicine, organizations have been created to certify that certain individuals have, in fact, achieved that higher level. Animal welfare is an area in which veterinarians have always been looked to for leadership, and it has now escalated to the level of needing an organization to oversee specialization. The American College of Animal Welfare has applied to the American Board of Veterinary Specialties for recognition as a new veterinary specialty organization.

  2. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  3. Farm animal welfare in an economic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Ouden, den M.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers show a growing interest in the quality of agricultural products and the manner of production and distribution, including issues such as animal welfare, food safety and environmental pollution. Demands of this type refer to a large extent to the upstream farm stages of the so-called supply

  4. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than what has been claimed. In our view, it is overly guided by anthropocentric thinking about how animals ought to be handled and neglects the latest conc...

  5. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics. PMID:27344143

  6. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  7. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current sci

  8. Albanian consumer’s perception towards animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    KASTRIOT BELEGU; PЁLLUMB ZALLA; MAJLINDA BELEGU; DRITAN LAÇI; ENKELEDA OZUNI; EGON ANDONI

    2014-01-01

    This study is the result of subsequent of previous survey conducted by the author regarding animal welfare during transportation and destined for meat consumption or to be breed for milk. The strategy of European Union for Animal Protection and Welfare 2012-2015 focusing on animal’s breed for economic purposes aims to increase or guarantee animal welfare during breeding, transportation and to the butchery. Thus, its purpose is to guarantee the welfare of agricultural and domestic animals, who...

  9. Enhancing collaboration in the UK animal welfare research community

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T Mendl; Bennett, Richard; Collins, Lisa; Anna C Davies; Flecknell, Paul; Green, Laura E; Hurst, Jane; Lawrence, Alistair; Statham, Poppy T E; Turnbull, James

    2016-01-01

    THE UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) has funded a new Animal Welfare Research Network (AWRN) to bring together animal welfare researchers, those working in related fields and other professionals with an interest in animal welfare, including representatives from industry, charities and government. The core aims of the AWRN are to foster enhanced collaboration within the UK animal welfare research community and other relevant disciplines to: facilitate mentoring...

  10. The Development of Animal Welfare in Finland and How People Perceive Animal Welfare : Case Study: Animals in Tourism: Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Laatu, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study how Finnish people perceive animal welfare in general and how they feel about animals in tourism purposes, more specifically in zoos. The thesis also contains information about Finnish animal legislation and how animal welfare has developed over time. The target group for the research was people who have visited zoos recently. The interviewed people were from different age groups. The theoretical framework consists of the following topics: people’s relations...

  11. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  12. Animal health and welfare--pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeenoja, P

    2001-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  13. Development of a model animal welfare act curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeWoude, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Animal-welfare issues are often controversial and frequently have an emotional component. Veterinarians have extensive knowledge, experience, and scientific perspective and are arguably the professionals best suited to advise and develop recommendations on animal welfare. The development of an Animal Welfare Act (AWA) teaching module is a first step toward educating veterinary students about animal welfare. This article presents the current development status of this curriculum project, which is intended to be a valuable addition to the evolving veterinary education on animal welfare.

  14. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Welfare assessment based on needs and supported by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Welfare concerns that matter to animals is their state of need. Satisfaction and frustration of needs are associated with emotional states, the subjective experience of which directly determines the welfare status of an animal. Because emotional states are difficult to assess, overall welfare assess

  15. Farm Animal Welfare - Testing for Market Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Grykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Many consumers are concerned with animal welfare in the conventional production of farm livestock. This concern can be related both to their own and others’ consumption. In the latter case, there is a negative externality from consumption. We suggest a survey design that enables us to test for a market failure in farm livestock production. Applying this to the question of battery cages in egg production, we cannot show that a market failure exists. The policy can be extended to general disc...

  16. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. PMID:27118597

  17. Welfare Quality® project: from scientific research to on farm assessment of animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Keeling; Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Welfare Quality® is the acronym of the European research project “Integration of ani- mal welfare in the food quality chain: from public concern to improved welfare and transparent quality”. This European project is focused on the integration of animal welfare in the food quality chain. Italian researchers from University of Milan, Naples, Padua, Parma and Pisa are involved in different tasks of this project. The second sub-project of Welfare Quality® aims to develop asses...

  18. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  19. Are the Animal Welfare Acts achieving their full potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    A decade has passed since the Animal Welfare Act 2006 and the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006 became law. A session at this year's Animal Welfare Foundation Discussion Forum examined the successes and limitations of the Acts and whether they are working to their full potential. Further discussions centred on the keeping of non-traditional companion animals as pets and whether greater regulation of the pet trade is needed. Laura Honey reports.

  20. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    OpenAIRE

    C. Baldinelli; P. Sechi; V. Cambiotti; S. Parmegiani; B.T. Cenci Goga

    2012-01-01

    Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfar...

  1. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  2. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...... welfare at different levels. First, and most obviously, it matters a great deal how animal welfare is defined in the first place. Should we think of welfare in terms of animal function, or in terms of the avoidance of pain and other suffering? Or should we focus on the net balance of negative and positive...

  3. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  4. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  5. The Animal Welfare Act, USDA, & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, V Wensley

    2003-03-01

    In the above discussion, the concept and evolution of IACUC oversight of research facility animal care and use programs and common USDA citations concerning these programs was reviewed. The majority of USDA citations are program-related and involve both IACUC and veterinary care functions. Common IACUC-related citations concern inadequacies involving required information in protocols (such as rationales for the species and numbers used and descriptions of the procedures proposed), searches for alternatives to painful or distressful procedures, and minimization of pain and distress. Common veterinary care citations concern inadequacies involving veterinary care facilities, daily observation of the animals, and veterinary care itself (e.g., maintaining inadequate records or using expired medications). IACUC's are advised to ensure that their program records are comprehensive enough to demonstrate that their facility's animal care and use program complies with the AWA and USDA regulations. The overall ongoing success of self-regulation in the research industry is acknowledged, and APHIS's current concentration on the recognition and alleviation of distress, as well as pain, is noted. In the future, APHIS will continue in its oversight role as IACUC programs continue to evolve in their awareness and application of the advances in pain and distress recognition and management. Together, we will continue to work for the benefit of the animals used in research, whose welfare is so important to the quality of that very research.

  6. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point of the Bramb....... Finally, the role of economic considerations is considered, given that animal production takes place in a global market with free trade between countries with various standards of animal welfare.......This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...... of the Brambell Committee, which was to prevent avoidable suffering? Secondly, we turn to the tricky question of how welfare should be distributed between animals. Here, a tension within the concept of animal welfare, between a focus on the indivudual animal and on the herd, flock or shoal, is pointed out...

  7. Animal welfare standards in organic farming in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, Dr. M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, Dr. J.B

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a literature survey recently performed on the animal welfare status in organic farming in The Netherlands. It is shown that for several aspects of animal welfare, mostly related to behaviour, comfort and feeding level, Dutch organic livestock production performs well. However, several other (mainly health) aspects are still a major point of concern. The results are used for communication and for further improvement of animal welfare standards.

  8. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  9. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Citizens in many European countries urge that the welfare of farm animals should be improved. Policy-makers propose that this could, at least to some extent, be achieved through increased consumption of animal products produced under labeling schemes guaranteeing higher standards of animal welfar...

  10. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    for bad scores on others. In the opinion of most people, welfare scores do not compensate each other. This was taken into account in the Welfare Quality® scoring system by using a specific operator instead of mere weighted sums. Finally, a scoring system may either reflect societal demands for high levels...... of welfare or be based on what can be achieved in practice – in other words, an absolute assessment or a relative one may be proposed. Welfare Quality® adopted an intermediate strategy: absolute limits between welfare categories (Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced, or Excellent level of welfare) were set......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  11. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    , the results suggest that once the respondents/consumers are given information about the production method, the higher income people have the more do they care about animal welfare in terms of WTP. Thus, economic progress is likely to have a positive effect on animal welfare, if the consumers are given......The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor...

  12. Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because animal-b

  13. Animal welfare: what has changed in the past 50 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    The 3(rd) CABI symposium on animal welfare and behaviour was held on June 11, and featured a range of talks on 'animals as machines'. The symposium marked the 50(th) anniversary of the publication of the book 'Animal Machines' by Ruth Harrison. The book decried the conditions experienced at that time by many animals kept in intensive farming systems, and the speakers at the symposium discussed how far animal welfare had come since its publication. Georgina Mills reports.

  14. Animal welfare: review of the scientific concept and definition

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Verga; Corrado Carenzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of the current scientific viewpoints about the concept and definition of animal welfare. The need of interaction among different disciplines is stressed, as well as the need to scientifically assess welfare, using validated indicators. The role of applied ethology in animal welfare science is stressed. The paper provides a brief overview of the historical steps in the development of the concept and presents scientific viewpoints, briefly explaining...

  15. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  16. Animal Welfare Law Implementations in Zoos : Case: Korkeasaari Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research the phenomenon of animal welfare in tourism as a response to rising national concerns for animals under human domain. The objective of the research was to observe the organization of Korkeasaari Zoo and the aim was to assess if their operations and activities were in compliance with the existing animal welfare legislation of Finland. Furthermore the objective of the research was to assess the state of the animals and their enclosures in the zoo, and ...

  17. Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhuis, H J; Ekkel, E D; Korte, S M; Hopster, H; van Reenen, C G

    2000-10-01

    Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has gradually gained more impact in the total quality concept of the product. This will encourage scientists to continue to analyse the welfare status of animals and to come up with innovative solutions for the remaining problems. At ID-Lelystad much effort is put into farm animal welfare research. This research includes for example, the development of behavioural tests for quantifying and interpreting fear in cattle, investigations into the effects of dietary iron supply and a lack of roughage on behaviour, immunology, stress physiology, and pathology in veal calves, studies of the ontogeny of tail biting in finishing pigs and feather pecking in laying hens as well as evaluation of the welfare effects of automatic milking in dairy cows. The results of these projects contribute to concrete improvements in animal husbandry and expertise and support policy making and legislation. The animal industry as well as retailers should aim at the further implementation of this knowledge and to specify welfare standards to guarantee consumer acceptance of animal production. PMID:11087134

  18. 76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act and other Federal statutes and regulations relating ] to animal activities. The PHS... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural...

  19. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  20. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare. PMID:21216980

  1. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevanc

  2. Farm animal welfare across borders: A vision for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Zhao, Ruquian

    2012-01-01

    The concern for farm animal welfare is increasing. The people concerned are not only consumers and producers of animal products, but also politicians, retailers, and economists trying to determine the type and strength of motivation behind demands to ensure farm animal welfare standards (Olynk......, 2012; Matthews and Hemsworth, 2012). The cost of and willingness to pay for improved farm animal welfare infl uence not only international markets, but also i ncentives, education, guidelines, and legislation put in place to change the way we raise production species. These issues are highly pertinent...... for countries emerging on the global food market for several reasons. In rapidly developing countries, animal welfare standards are likely to be lower on the list of immediate concerns of the farmer, for whom availability and quality of animal feed, production yield and disease control may rank higher...

  3. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  4. Oral gavage in rats: animal welfare evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew toy for enrichment. Feces were collected biweekly at the end of the light and dark phases for fecal corticoid metabolite determinations. After 28 d of treatment, animals underwent conditioned place preference testing to evaluate sensitivity to motivational properties of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5.6 mg/kg SC). Brain and paired adrenal gland weights were collected at necropsy. Week 2 total fecal corticosterone levels were elevated in all groups and attributed to a fire alarm accidentally tripped during building renovations. No differences occurred in body weight or food consumption between any groups. All groups used a nylon chew toy given for enrichment and demonstrated mild preference for the drug-associated chamber. Fecal weights and corticoid metabolite levels were similar between all groups at week 4 and showed normal diurnal variation. No biologically significant variations were noted in brain or paired adrenal gland to body weight ratios. We conclude that orogastric gavage of aqueous solutions at 5 mL/kg does not negatively affect the welfare of laboratory rats acclimated to handling.

  5. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have a tendency to exhibit under natural conditions, because these behaviors are pleasurable and promote biological functioning. A...

  6. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  7. Albanian consumer’s perception towards animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASTRIOT BELEGU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of subsequent of previous survey conducted by the author regarding animal welfare during transportation and destined for meat consumption or to be breed for milk. The strategy of European Union for Animal Protection and Welfare 2012-2015 focusing on animal’s breed for economic purposes aims to increase or guarantee animal welfare during breeding, transportation and to the butchery. Thus, its purpose is to guarantee the welfare of agricultural and domestic animals, whose final destination is the consumption of their meat in all chains until they get to the ultimate consumer. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of knowledge that consumers have in relation to animal welfare as well as their perception on the current situation of animal welfare in Albania. At the same time, the results of this survey will also serve as indicators to give its contribution to the strategy for increasing consumer’s level of awareness on animal welfare and the impact of animal welfare on human life.The process of interviweing was realised with 166 occasional people belonging to different ages, different educational levels who are rezidents in different areas of Albania, so that the survey can be as representative as possible.Based on the analyses of the responses given by the interviewed results that the Albanian consumer is partially informed and the rest of them uninformed. What is worth mentioning here is the fact that mostly of the interviewed are really concerned about animal welfare during breeding, transportation and butchery’s conditions.

  8. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.

  9. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented. PMID:27096187

  10. Eu animal welfare legislation: current position and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horgan.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SummaryAnimal welfare is being accorded an increasingly important role in today’s civil society. Within the EU this has been enshrined within the specific “Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals” of theEC Treaty, obliging Member States and the EU Institutions to pay full regard to the welfare of animals when formulating and implementing Community policies. There is a growing body of EU legislation on thisissue, founded on clear scientific principles, taking account of public concerns, stakeholder input and possible socioeconomicimplications. Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms also testify to animal welfare’s growing stature in policy-making, with the introduction of the principle of cross-compliance regardingeligibility for direct payments and additional financial incentives for producers to achieve higher welfare standards. Animal welfare isbeing increasingly perceived as an integral element of overall food quality, having important implications for animal health andfood safety. On a worldwide level the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health has developed global animal welfare guidelinesagreed by its 167 member countries. Consumers demand higher standards of animal protection and it is incumbent upon policy-makers and legislators to respond accordingly.

  11. Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolut

  12. Introduction to the special issue on zoo animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V; Wielebnowski, Nadja

    2009-11-01

    In May 2008, the Chicago Zoological Society's Center for the Science of Animal Welfare (CSAW) held a two-day international workshop designed to establish and foster new connections between zoo animal welfare scientists and welfare scientists in other fields, and to take the first step toward the development of a research agenda for zoo animal welfare science. Such a research agenda by its very nature would need to be highly multi-disciplinary and collaborative. In support of this purpose this article serves as an introduction for a collection of invited papers presented at the workshop. Workshop themes included the investigation of welfare metrics currently used and in development, elucidating gaps and determining needs for zoo welfare research, and gaining a deeper understanding of the value that understanding animals in the wild can bring to zoo animal welfare. Here we discuss some of the most relevant points made at the workshop and describe the seven most salient research needs that were suggested in consensus.

  13. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  14. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  15. How can economists help to improve animal welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Lawrence, A.; Lund, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    in the right way. Where the benefits and costs of improving animal welfare are initially distributed unevenly across stakeholders so that a socially desirable situation will not develop automatically, or be implemented, suitable economic principles may help to create incentives which correct this situation......To-date, the dominant approach to improving farm animal welfare has consisted of a combination of voluntary improvements undertaken by farmers and the tightening of legal requirements. However, history suggests that there is a limit to the improvements capable of being secured by this approach....... In this paper, it is argued that economic principles can and should have an important role when new, market-driven and other approaches are set up to improve farm animal welfare. The paper focuses on two ways in which economic principles can improve analyses of animal welfare. The first is by helping to define...

  16. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  17. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  18. Meat liking, animal welfare and consumer willingness to pay

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Three products (beef, lamb and chicken) were used to assess the effect of information about animal welfare on meat liking. Each experiment was planned in three tests. In the first test the consumers were offered the product, and asked to taste it and rate their liking receiving no information (perceived liking). In the second test the subjects received the information concerning farming conditions and their effects on animal welfare. They were asked to read the information and give their liki...

  19. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  20. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering.

  1. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  2. The Animal Welfare Act: from enactment to enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-05-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the 'Age of Enforcement.' As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection.

  3. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Ilieski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  4. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  5. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  6. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Koene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry, recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  7. Animal welfare: the EU policy and consumers' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Peneva, Mariya

    2011-01-01

    The awareness of animal welfare and animal well-being is growing all over Europe and the world. The concerns are related to the applied policy regimes, economic sustainability of the production methods, food quality and safety, consumers’ health and behaviour and their willingness to pay for animal products obtained in animal-friendly conditions. The paper aims to analyse the consumers’ awareness and its effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Bulgaria. The data were collected under the ...

  8. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Garcés; Victoria Cussen; Hugh Wirth

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The ...

  9. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent...

  10. Activism and Trust: Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare in the Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Ortega, Adriana; Cook, Marquesa; Concepcion, Marian; Kimmons, Tina; Ralph, Kelly; Ponce, Joanna; Miller, Hannah; Lam, Michelle; Baldwin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Animals such as poultry and cattle have been used for production and human consumption throughout the history of agriculture. This work defines and analyzes the concepts of animal rights and animal welfare. It compares and contrasts the viewpoints of animal rights and animal welfare organizations in an effort to portray a comprehensive perspective of this ethical concept as it relates to agriculture and the supply chain for food. These organizations have had significant impacts by urging gove...

  11. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baldinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.

  12. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a ...

  13. Teaching animal welfare in the land grant universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, T H

    1990-10-01

    Colleges and universities have an obligation to teach the basis of animal husbandry and welfare and must prepare students so that they can respond effectively to challenges by proponents of the animal welfare and animal rights movements. Veterinary curricula must now contain formal instruction in professional ethics and humane stewardship of animals for accreditation by the American Veterinary Medical Association. It is helpful if students have an understanding of farm animal behavior, stress physiology and methods of assessing welfare prior to learning about the animal welfare/rights movement's philosophies and issues. A review of early judicial practices, "classical" Judeo-Christian philosophy, the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Jeremy Bentham, Albert Schweitzer, and current philosophers and the entertainment media places the movements in perspective. Students should be familiar with such concepts as the mind-body controversy, equality of suffering, self-awareness or intelligence, and speciesism. After acquiring an appreciation of the basics, a knowledge of the issues facing animal agriculture and the arguments for and against each issue are necessary. Graduates of colleges of agriculture need to realize the potential effects the movements can have and take the initiative to improve the image of animal agriculture.

  14. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  15. GAPs in the study of zoo and wild animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Vinícius D; Azevedo, Pedro G; van de Schepop, Joanna A; Teixeira, Camila P; Barçante, Luciana; Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the science of animal welfare for zoo and wild animals in the period from 1966 to 2007, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of abstracts downloaded from The Web of Science((c)) database using the keyword combination "Animal welfare, Zoo* and wild" in the topic field. In total we downloaded 1,125 abstracts, which were classified into the following categories: year of publication; environment of the study (e.g., zoo) or theoretical; area of knowledge (e.g., conservation in situ); number of experimental animals used; species; addresses of authors; taxonomic classification; publication language; journal name; number of citations received. Since 1990, there has been a rapid increase in the number of articles published in this area of animal welfare. One worrying result was that published articles were predominately of a theoretical nature (58.65%, N=563). Most of the articles were published by authors either in Europe (47.43%, N=480) or North America (37.65%, N=381) and written in English (87.71%, N=971). The majority of experimental studies were conducted with mammals (75.92%, N=391), and had small sample sizes (N=7 for zoo-based studies). In terms of impact factor (IF), the journals in this study had a median factor equivalent to that for the area of biological sciences (median IF=1.013). Little knowledge cross-over from farm animal welfare was found (only four articles) in this study. In conclusion, zoo and wild animal welfare as a science may benefit from a greater interaction with farm animal welfare.

  16. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews...... the relatively few scientific investigations into effects of transport duration on animal welfare in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. From the available literature, we attempt to distinguish between aspects, which will impair welfare on journeys of any duration, such as those associated with loading......, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding...

  17. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  18. Meat liking, animal welfare and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three products (beef, lamb and chicken were used to assess the effect of information about animal welfare on meat liking. Each experiment was planned in three tests. In the first test the consumers were offered the product, and asked to taste it and rate their liking receiving no information (perceived liking. In the second test the subjects received the information concerning farming conditions and their effects on animal welfare. They were asked to read the information and give their liking expectation for that product (expected liking. In the third test consumers were given the product along with the information sheet. They were instructed to read the information before tasting the sample and express their liking score (actual liking. Consumers rated the products on a nine-point hedonic scale. Only for beef, a second-price sealed-bid auction was used to assess consumer willingness to pay (WTP according to the level of welfare of the animals used in the production process. Results from the three experiments showed that expectations induced by the information on animal welfare affected quality perception. Thus, if expectations were negatively disconfirmed (the product was worse than expected, the assimilation model was generally applicable, which means that hedonic ratings moved towards the expectations when external information on animal welfare was given compared to tasting without information. In addition, consumers showed a WTP for beef paired with information higher than its actual commercial value (P<0.001. In conclusion, information about animal welfare can be a major determinant of animal-based food liking and consumer WTP.

  19. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Carbone; Jamie Austin

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scienti...

  20. [Status of law-making on animal welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polten, B

    2007-03-01

    Since the last report there have been major revisions of laws and ordinances. Deliberations on rules of Community law were also continued. On national level, the Act on the Shoeing of Horses amending the Animal Welfare Act and amendments of animal welfare provisions as well as the Deregulation Act were prepared, some of which have meanwhile entered into force. At legislative level, the work on the ratification laws for the Council of Europe conventions (Strasbourg) was concluded in order to enable Germany to adopt the revisions. They include (1) the European Convention for the protection of animals used for experimental purposes and (2) the European Convention for the protection of animals during international transport. At the level of ordinances, the amendment and extension of the Animal Welfare -Farm Animal Husbandry Ordinance are of vital importance for the sections on pig farming and laying hen husbandry. Another section refers to the husbandry of fur animals, on which an ordinance has been submitted to the Bundesrat (German upper house of Parliament). Deliberations on this issue have been adjourned. Drafts of a circus register were prepared to amend the Animal Welfare Act and to adopt a separate ordinance, and they are being discussed with the federal states and associations. Previously,the rules of Community law in the area of animal welfare were adopted as EC directives which the member states had to transfer in national law. This was done by incorporating them into national laws or ordinances, with non-compliance having to be sanctioned. It is the member states' responsibility to establish sanctions. Yet the Commission has introduced a directly operative animal welfare legislation by adopting EC Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport. This means that a national implementation is not required. Nevertheless, the establishment of sanctions continues to be the responsibility of the member states. A special authorisation by the

  1. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. PMID:27130540

  2. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  3. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  4. 77 FR 41716 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). We are also announcing the... regulations to bring more pet animals sold at retail under the protection of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AC36 Animal Welfare; Retail......

  5. Mainstreaming after Lisbon: advancing animal welfare in the EU internal market

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Diane; Nurse, Angus

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of EU animal welfare law and policy. It considers the scope that Member States have to protect the welfare of animals and asks: In the absence of an EU animal welfare policy underpinned by a legal basis on which to adopt animal welfare laws, to what extent have the EU institutions legislated in order to protect the welfare of animals.

  6. Animal welfare and society concerns finding the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2014-11-01

    Young adults in developed countries are distanced from agriculture and the meat industry needs to do a better job of communicating with them. A major welfare concern is slaughter without stunning. Other concerns, such as poor stunning or high levels of bruising, can be easily corrected by management who is committed to maintaining high standards. Another concern is biological system overload, occurring when animals are bred for more productivity. Researchers and industry need to determine optimum production levels instead of maximums. Retailers are major drivers of animal welfare standards enforcement and they respond to pressure from both activists and consumers. PMID:24928166

  7. The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Denver, Sigrid;

    2015-01-01

    ask whether special quality labels that involve medium levels of animal welfare, as compared with labels promoting premium levels of animal welfare, have a role to play in promoting improvements in animal welfare. The Danish pork market is our reference case, but we also widen the context by comparing...... the markets for pork in three other European countries. Our findings suggest that in order to improve animal welfare through demand for welfare-friendly products it is important to maintain separate the market for products with strong animal welfare profiles from markets for products with medium levels...... of animal welfare where, often, animal welfare is bundled together with other food quality attributes. We conclude that such quality labels may indeed play an important role in promoting higher animal welfare standards provided that they offer real improvements in animal welfare as compared with standard...

  8. European approaches to ensure good animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veissier, I.; Butterworth, A.; Bock, B.B.; Roe, E.

    2008-01-01

    Conventions to protect domestic animals during transport, farming and slaughter were established by the Council of Europe and approved by many European states. Conventions are followed by recommendations that specify how the general principles of conventions apply for the different species. The Euro

  9. Introducing breathlessness as a significant animal welfare issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Breathlessness is a negative affective experience relating to respiration, the animal welfare significance of which has largely been underestimated in the veterinary and animal welfare sciences. In this review, we draw attention to the negative impact that breathlessness can have on the welfare of individual animals and to the wide range of situations in which mammals may experience breathlessness. At least three qualitatively distinct sensations of breathlessness are recognised in human medicine--respiratory effort, air hunger and chest tightness--and each of these reflects comparison by cerebral cortical processing of some combination of heightened ventilatory drive and/or impaired respiratory function. Each one occurs in a variety of pathological conditions and other situations, and more than one may be experienced simultaneously or in succession. However, the three qualities vary in terms of their unpleasantness, with air hunger reported to be the most unpleasant. We emphasise the important interplay among various primary stimuli to breathlessness and other physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as animal management practices. For example, asphyxia/drowning of healthy mammals or killing those with respiratory disease using gases containing high carbon dioxide tensions is likely to lead to severe air hunger, while brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in modern dog and cat breeds increases respiratory effort at rest and likely leads to air hunger during exertion. Using this information as a guide, we encourage animal welfare scientists, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, regulatory bodies and others involved in evaluations of animal welfare to consider whether or not breathlessness contributes to any compromise they may observe or wish to avoid or mitigate.

  10. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  11. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  12. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may......

  13. Symposium: Animal welfare challenges for today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzier Thaxton, Yvonne; Christensen, Karen D; Mench, Joy A; Rumley, Elizabeth R; Daugherty, Christine; Feinberg, Bruce; Parker, Molly; Siegel, Paul; Scanes, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    The increasing separation of the public from production agriculture means there is often a lack of knowledge among consumers about current production practices and a perception that increased productivity and economic efficiency are necessarily associated with a decline in animal welfare. A symposium was organized to present information about animal welfare issues and the challenges they pose for both scientists and the poultry and allied industries. Companion papers provide information about understanding public attitudes and physiological/immunological approaches to welfare assessment, while this paper outlines current and future challenges to egg and meat production and industry responses to those challenges. For broiler chickens, increases in growth rate result in corollary increases in metabolic heat generation and water consumption, leading to the need for continuing improvements in housing, ventilation, and litter management. Stocking densities, lighting programs, muscle myopathies, and use of antibiotics are also areas that require research attention. In the layer industry, the key challenge is housing, with the industry undergoing a shift from conventional cage housing to alternatives like enriched colonies or cage-free. While these alternative systems have hen welfare advantages, there are also welfare disadvantages that require the development of mitigation strategies, and it is also essential to address associated issues including economic, environmental, egg safety, and worker health impacts. Concerns on the horizon include euthanasia of surplus male chicks and spent hens as well as beak-trimming. The humaneness of slaughter methods is an important welfare and consumer confidence issue, and the current regulations for poultry slaughter in the USA are discussed and compared to those for livestock. The poultry and allied industries, including retailers, are responding to these concerns by consulting with experts, developing science-based animal care

  14. Symposium: Animal welfare challenges for today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzier Thaxton, Yvonne; Christensen, Karen D; Mench, Joy A; Rumley, Elizabeth R; Daugherty, Christine; Feinberg, Bruce; Parker, Molly; Siegel, Paul; Scanes, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    The increasing separation of the public from production agriculture means there is often a lack of knowledge among consumers about current production practices and a perception that increased productivity and economic efficiency are necessarily associated with a decline in animal welfare. A symposium was organized to present information about animal welfare issues and the challenges they pose for both scientists and the poultry and allied industries. Companion papers provide information about understanding public attitudes and physiological/immunological approaches to welfare assessment, while this paper outlines current and future challenges to egg and meat production and industry responses to those challenges. For broiler chickens, increases in growth rate result in corollary increases in metabolic heat generation and water consumption, leading to the need for continuing improvements in housing, ventilation, and litter management. Stocking densities, lighting programs, muscle myopathies, and use of antibiotics are also areas that require research attention. In the layer industry, the key challenge is housing, with the industry undergoing a shift from conventional cage housing to alternatives like enriched colonies or cage-free. While these alternative systems have hen welfare advantages, there are also welfare disadvantages that require the development of mitigation strategies, and it is also essential to address associated issues including economic, environmental, egg safety, and worker health impacts. Concerns on the horizon include euthanasia of surplus male chicks and spent hens as well as beak-trimming. The humaneness of slaughter methods is an important welfare and consumer confidence issue, and the current regulations for poultry slaughter in the USA are discussed and compared to those for livestock. The poultry and allied industries, including retailers, are responding to these concerns by consulting with experts, developing science-based animal care

  15. Welfare benefits to farm animals from their use in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G

    2004-06-01

    Domestication is the purposeful selection and modification of livestock to suit the human-made production environments. While the application of modern breeding theory has accelerated genetic change, traditional practices also modify the genetic makeup of livestock. Threats to the welfare of farm animals can arise from husbandry practices, attributes of the production environment and failure to match the genotype to the production environment. The selection of sheep for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes, the yard weaning of calves and the selection of cattle with docile temperament (e.g. slow flight time) are described as methods for improving welfare outcomes for grazing sheep and feedlot cattle, respectively. Contemporary production breeds exist as global populations. The move to the life-long individual identification of animals improves the power of breeding and management programmes that satisfy the criteria of scientific experimentation in their manner of implementation. In contrast to the use of farm animals, prejudice exists against comparable uses of more-recent domesticates (e.g. laboratory rodents). The growing global demand for livestock products suggests that Russell & Burch's Three Rs no longer provide a valid framework for deliberation on ethics of domestic animal use. A welfare outcome metric, such as that adopted by Grandin, is proposed as more robust than input quantification (reduce, replace) for appraisal of the ethics of animal use. PMID:23577466

  16. Study on Romanian Consumers’ Opinion Regarding the Animal Welfare Labelling of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence some factors on the consumers’ opinion regarding the animal welfare labelling of animal products. The analysed question was: “When purchasing eggs, meat or milk can you easily identify from the label those products sourced from animal welfare friendly production systems?” Respondents chosen only one answer out of the five offered: yes, most of the time; yes, some of the time; no, very rarely; no, never; and don’t know. Thirty three percent of females considered they could find sometime information regarding the animal welfare on the labels, while males considered that this information could be found very rarely. Up to 55 years of age, 50% of the consumers consider that the labels do not contain the information about animal welfare, while after this age most of consumers consider they found this information on the labels. Over 50% of Orthodox and Roman Catholic responders considered that the information on animal welfare on the labels was found some of the time or very rarely. Respondents, irrespective of their living area or monthly income, considered that there is scarce information regarding animal welfare on the labels. Internet access significantly influenced the consumers regarding the availability of the information on the labels.

  17. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

  18. 78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Health Inspection Service has received a petition requesting that we amend the Animal Welfare Act..., Riverdale, MD 20737-1234; (301) 851-3751. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Animal Welfare Act...

  19. 77 FR 34934 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with its Animal Welfare Act... the Animal Welfare Act regulations, contact Dr. Barbara Kohn, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Animal Care... parts 1 through 3 were promulgated under the Animal Welfare Act (the Act) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.)...

  20. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures

    OpenAIRE

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika IA; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assura...

  1. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  2. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reenen, van, C.G.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biologically neutral and may compromise animal health and welfare. Factors posing a risk for the welfare of transgenic farm animals include integration of a transgene within an endogenous gene with possi...

  3. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Linhart†

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  4. Caring during crisis: animal welfare during pandemics and natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Suzanne T

    2008-01-01

    From April 29 to May 1, 2007, the University of Guelph hosted a symposium, Caring During Crisis: Animal Welfare During Pandemics and Natural Disasters, with the objectives (a) of raising awareness about how nonhuman animals and the people who care for them are affected during emergencies and (b) of sharing knowledge about how animal welfare may be addressed during these situations. The symposium attracted 150 participants, representing 71 organizations from across Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Chile, and the Cayman Islands. The audience also brought a range of perspectives to the issues - from individuals representing animal protection and commodity organizations to municipal government officials responsible for community safety and correctional services; many of these individuals had little or no animal experience. To take advantage of this diverse audience and range of interests, the symposium was structured with formal presentations by internationally recognized experts, followed by panel discussions at the end of each session to facilitate contributions by the audience. At the conclusion of the 3 days, it was clear that our emotional, economic, and ecological relationships with animals require thoughtful integration of animal care within formal policy and planning for emergency response. PMID:18444029

  5. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...

  6. The impact of vehicle motion during transport on animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtun, Eduardo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-06-01

    Motion sickness is a common response in humans and some species of farm livestock during transport, but research on the impact of motion has been primarily focused on the use of animal models for humans. During livestock transportation, animals seek to minimise uncontrolled movements to reduce energy consumption and maintain posture. Road and sea transport of livestock can produce motion sickness and stress responses. Clinical signs are the result of autonomous nervous system activation. Studies conducted on road transportation effects in domestic animals showed several motion sickness behaviours including vomiting and, in ruminants, a reduction in rumination. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of sea transport motion. Despite the paucity of data on livestock, there is sufficient evidence to believe that motion might affect animal welfare when animals are transported by road or sea. PMID:25847285

  7. Perceptions of animal welfare by children in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify children’s perceptions of the welfare of animals. The study sample consisted of 123 children aged 8 to 10, attending primary schools, who were interviewed. The questions were designed so as to generate both anthropocentric (centred on the interests of the human being and/or biocentric (centred on the interests of other beings arguments. Results showed a high incidence of biocentric arguments, associated with a contact with animals in places where nature is managed (zoos and other thematic places with animals, thus contradicting the idea that children have an exclusive utilitarian view of animals. Some of them even seem to understand the ecological role of animals, and produce reasons of an ecocentric character.

  8. Castration in male pigs: techniques and animal welfare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, R; Gajewski, Z; Janett, F

    2006-11-01

    Castration in male pigs is usually performed during the first weeks of life without prior anesthesia. This technique, however, is known to induce acute pain and stress and will therefore not be tolerated any longer by animal welfare organizations. Practical and animal-friendly alternatives to surgical castration are the production of entire male pigs, semen sexing or immunological castration. Fattening boars has the benefits of better feed efficiency, higher lean meat yield and increased animal welfare due to no pain and stress of castration. The most important disadvantage in raising entire male pigs is the incidence of boar taint ranging between 10 and 75%. To identify tainted carcasses an accurate and rapid on-line method for detection of odorous compounds is absolutely necessary. Sperm sexing through flow cytometry is the only commercially available method at the moment but speed of separation is too low for practical application. Active immunization of boars against gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) at the end of the fattening period results in a significant reduction of testicular weight and androstenone production while the benefits of daily growth gain, meat quality as well as welfare remain the same as in entire males. In the present review more detailed information is given about the various techniques, especially the practical application of immunocastration on a large scale base. PMID:17242482

  9. Defining the concept of animal welfare: integrating the opinion of citizens and other stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Van Poucke, Els; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Nijs, Griet; Braeckman, Johan; Verbeke, Wim; Tuyttens, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Animal welfare is a complex and multidimensional concept and there is little consensus about how it ought to be defined. This project aims to develop a definition of farm animal welfare based both on science and on consensus among citizens and stakeholders such that animal welfare becomes a more workable concept in politics and society. The study consisted of both qualitative and quantitative research. Firstly, a list of 73 aspects, considered to be important for animal welfare, was produced ...

  10. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Anneberg, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Action of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfareThe many requirements related to animal welfare - generated by a combination of national and EU animal welfare legislation - are a part of daily life when running a livestock farm in Denmark and in the EU. Since 2004, the number of unannounced inspections of farm animal welfare made by the authorities in Denmark has gone up. In cases of noncompliance with the legislation, farmers today face not...

  11. Enhancing animal welfare by creating opportunities for positive affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    In line with an increasing emphasis on promoting positive welfare states in animals, this review extends previous accounts of how recent affective neuroscience observations may be used to identify and then to encourage animals to engage in reward-motivated behaviours. The terms affective states or affects are used to mean the subjective experiences, feelings or emotions that may motivate animals to behave in goal-directed ways and which may accompany success or failure to achieve those goals. These motivational affects may be positive, experienced as rewarding or pleasurable, or negative, experienced as aversive or punishing. There are two overall types: homeostasis-related negative affects that reflect an animal's internal physiological state, and situation-related positive or negative affects that reflect an animal's perception of its external circumstances. The major emphasis is on positive situation-related affects, in particular those that are potentially associated with exploration, feeding and animal-to-animal affiliative behaviours. The review introduces the new concept of positive affective engagement which represents the experience animals may have when they actively respond to motivations to engage in rewarding behaviours, and it incorporates all associated affects that are positive. For example, it would represent a state of engaged aliveness that may attend an animal's goal-directed, energised exploration of and interactions with a stimulus-rich environment. It also represents some states of equally energised, highly focused predatory stalking by carnivores or the focused and engaged foraging by herbivores when they are grazing in natural environments where food sources are abundant. Positive affective engagement may also be anticipated to accompany some aspects of reciprocated affiliative interactions between animals, the dedicated maternal nurturing and care of young, the joyfulness of rough-and-tumble play, and the eroticism and orgasmic pleasures

  12. Animal welfare monitoring and livestock traceability during transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Di Pasquale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an experimental project that aims to establish an effective navigation system in accordance with European Council Regulation 1/2005 concerning animal welfare during transport. The prototype created during the project consists of both hardware and software components. An onboard unit is installed at truck level. It collects and transmits real-time information of the animal transport to a remote receiver database. A Web/geographic information system (GIS application is used to analyse and monitor the information received. The architecture of the hardware and software of the project is presented, focusing on the features of the Web-GIS application.

  13. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, politica

  14. 78 FR 57227 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... the definition of retail pet store in the regulations is consistent with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA... INFORMATION: I. Purpose of the Regulatory Action Need for the Regulatory Action The Animal Welfare Act (AWA or... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 1 and 2 RIN 0579-AD57 Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores...

  15. 76 FR 17423 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... edition of the Guide and comply, as applicable, with the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal statutes and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and...: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural Research, NIH, RKL1, Suite 360, 6705...

  16. 76 FR 27335 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... edition of the Guide and comply, as applicable, with the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal statutes and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and... Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health, RKL1, Suite 360,...

  17. Problem Animals : A Critical Genealogy of Animal Cruelty and Animal Welfare in Swedish Politics 1844–1944

    OpenAIRE

    Svärd, Per-Anders

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing academic interest in the human–animal relationship, little research has been directed toward the political regulation of animal treatment. Even less attention has been accorded to the emergence of the long dominant paradigm in this policy area, namely, the ideology of animal welfare. This book attempts to address this gap by chronicling the early history of animal politics in Sweden with the aim of producing a critical, deconstructive genealogy of animal cruelty and animal wel...

  18. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and "A Life Worth Living".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact. PMID:27231943

  19. Criteria and methods for the assessment of animal welfare - Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the issue of animal welfare is under consideration, two opposing views have recently been in contrast with each other: 1 The first can be expressed with a quote from Mahatma Gandhi (cited by Appleby and Hughes, 1997: The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated. Similar, but more direct, is the statement by Dawkins (1980 to define welfare: Absence of suffering. Suffering understood to be an unpleasant emotional state induced by fear, pain, frustration, exhaustion, loss of social companions; 2 The second is otherwise explained by Blosser (1987: as long as the animal is growing normally, performing well, is properly nourished and free from diseases, and suffers no physical mistreatment, there is no cause of concern. The first statement can be understood in an ethical approach that considers animals as part of nature, thus similar to a “goddess”. The second one can be also understood, but only if the animals are considered exclusively as a useful tool. Although they are quite far from each other, some area of compromise is possible. On the contrary, provocative suggestions like A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy; they’re all equal (PETA, cit. Kertz, 1996 or the assumption that animals possess objective rights and must be free to freely choose what they want, would render completely impossible any attempt to breed them (not only for profit, but also as pets. A promising approach can be seen in Appleby’s (1996 definition of welfare: The state of well-being brought about by meeting their physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the supervision or influence of people. Another positive contribution toward a possible agreement among the aforementioned attitudes is a more sound interpretation of “5 freedoms” as required by Webster (1994: Absolute attainment of all five freedoms is unrealistic, indeed they are to some

  20. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  1. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  2. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    of the welfare indicator protocol as basis for on-farm welfare assessment have been carried out; one study focused on the opinion of 21 AMS researchers; the other on that of 14 AMS production advisors and 15 veterinary practitioners. The researchers were asked to score the individual welfare relevance of the 38...... important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment......A welfare indicator protocol integrating a total of 38 measures from 4 information sources: housing system, management, animal behaviour and clinical health has been developed for decision support in Automatic Milking System (AMS) herds. Two expert opinion studies focusing on the relevance...

  3. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Garcés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade.

  4. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Leah; Cussen, Victoria; Wirth, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE) and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade. PMID:20405413

  5. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... to reduce the number of measurements needed in the welfare assessment system WelFur-Mink in the different production periods without compromising the validity of the assessment. There seems to be an effect of date of the assessment in the nursing period, which can be handled elegantly if the other two...

  6. [The attitude of German veterinarians towards farm animal welfare: results of a cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Heinke; Kemper, Nicole; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the issue of animal welfare in intensive livestock production systems has been subjected to increasing criticism from the broad public. Some groups in society ask for higher animal welfare standards and there is an increas- ing number of consumers who prefer meat from more animal friendly husbandry systems. An intense social debate on animal welfare has flared up in the recent past. Veterinarians are considered as experts for the assessment of animal welfare. Nevertheless they are rarely consulted in the current debate. Therefore, only little is known about their attitude towards animal welfare in livestock farming. Even for Germany, there is so far no comprehensive analysis about their atti- tudes towards animal welfare and animal welfare programs. In the present study, 433 veterinarians were questioned via an online survey. The results show that veterinarians have a very differentiated perception of the issue animal welfare. Four groups (clusters) which have different attitudes towards livestock farming, voluntary animal welfare programs, farm size and the effects of national animal welfare standards were identified.

  7. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    , farmers and employees at the farms and authorities. By using an ethnographic approach and anthropological perspectives I have studied how animal welfare is constituted and communicated and how it shapes the lives of humans and animals. As its starting point, the thesis provides a description...... understand animal welfare in daily practice and I explore if animal welfare, from an anthropological perspective, can be understood as a social technology. The methods used in the following four papers have been: 1.Ethnographic fieldwork, following inspectors on unannounced inspections of animal welfare. 2...... of the conflicts in the area of animal welfare and a description of the development of industrialised livestock farming. I also explore how agriculture and animals are seen in anthropology, and how the science of animal welfare – and with this the legislation – has developed. Furthermore, I describe how farmers...

  8. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government, scien

  9. Opinion of the scientific panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Michael; Allen, Paul; Bonneau, Michel;

    2004-01-01

    Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets......Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets...

  10. Laboratory Animal Welfare -- European Prospective%欧洲实验动物福利前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒂姆·Nevalainen

    2003-01-01

    @@ The use and welfare of laboratory animals in research are major issues in modern society. Both widespread public concern on welfare of animals and continuously increasing demands on quality of both animals and of biomedical research make the issues urgent and complex. As a result the use of laboratory animals is experiencing turmoil of rapidly changing regulations both at European and at international level.

  11. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the wel...

  12. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Linhart†; Adams, David B.; Thomas Voracek

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world’s zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides ‘leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability’. The authors describe why it is necessary to transp...

  13. A case for integrity: gains from including more than animal welfare in animal ethics committee deliberations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M

    2014-01-01

    From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs. PMID:24367033

  14. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

    2012-01-01

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

  15. [Exotic animals in the animal business and husbandry: poultry in view of welfare and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinke, C M; Spruijt, B M

    1999-09-01

    The market for exotic animals is very diverse. Because it is often not known what happens to the animals during their capture, transport, and storage, in 1997 we carried out a study on the health and welfare of these animals. During the course of this study we controlled the transport of exotic animals and visited several dealers and owners. Many of the health problems of these animals can be related to the accumulation of stressors that the animals experience during the trade process. Examples of these stressors are physical injury, overcrowding, dehydration, and long journeys. Transport in itself is an important emotional stressor. Health problems caused by stress, which can lead to premature death, often become apparent only after the animal has been sold as pet.

  16. Consumers’ perception of farm animal welfare: an Italian and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of some recent European and Italian surveys on consumer perception of farm animal welfare are shown and discussed. Special attention is paid to consumers’ opinions about animal welfare attributes, differences among species (and across countries in terms of animal welfare perception, “animal-friendly” labels and willingness of purchasers to pay more for food (eggs deriving from animals raised under higher welfare conditions. From a general standpoint, consumers’ perception and knowledge of animal welfare varies among European countries and it is mainly affected by their economic and educational level. Among animal welfare attributes, a strong preference is given to the availability of spaces, and, in the case of Italian respondents, also to the absence of movement restrictions (chains or tethers. Laying hens (44%, followed by broilers (42% and pigs (28% are the categories/species for which rearing conditions in the EU are judged to need the highest improvement in terms of welfare. Italian consumers appear less concerned about swine welfare (17% than other Europeans. It is noteworthy that 12% of EU respondents states that all farmed animals need more welfare and/or protection. With respect to labels on food packaging, claims for animal welfare often fall within wider schemes for quality assurance and, with the exception of eggs and organic goods, in many countries the possibility of identifying animal friendly products and the knowledge of the specific legislation on farm animal protection are still limited. According to the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010, the establishment of an EU label for animal welfare, based on standardised scientific indicators, is an option to be explored which could promote the consumption of products elaborated under high welfare standards thus facilitating the choice of consumers. The readiness of consumers to pay more for a higher animal welfare level has

  17. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H.; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biolog

  18. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Larry; Austin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference) included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC), which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU) which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia). 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE publishing guidelines

  19. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA. PMID:27478731

  20. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    OpenAIRE

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is esse...

  1. The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K

    2014-04-01

    Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues.

  2. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  3. Animal welfare in organic egg production - Emphasis on Mortality and Helminth Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2015-01-01

    The consumers’ motivation to buy organic products includes animal welfare aspects, and even though the retail market share for organic eggs in Denmark is relative high, there are a number of welfare issues in the organic egg production compared to other production systems, like higher mortality and prevalence of helminth infections, that are not in agreement with the consumers’ expectation. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate animal welfare in organic egg production in Denmark, wi...

  4. Synthesis of semantic modelling and risk analysis methodology applied to animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Edwards, S.A.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Algers, B.

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making on animal welfare issues requires a synthesis of information. For the assessment of farm animal welfare based on scientific information collected in a database, a methodology called `semantic modelling¿ has been developed. To date, however, this methodology has not been generally app

  5. Measuring and monitoring animal welfare: Transparency in the food product quality chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Jones, R.B.; Geers, R.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.

    2003-01-01

    Animal welfare is of increasing significance for European consumers and citizens. Previously, agricultural production focused mainly on supply, price and competition but consumers now expect their food to be produced and processed with greater respect for the welfare of the animals. Food quality is

  6. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-09-28

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors' assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors' reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83%) were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9%) as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24%) were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  7. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005–2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors’ assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors’ reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83% were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9% as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24% were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  8. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  9. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  10. Survey of animal welfare, animal behavior, and animal ethics courses in the curricula of AVMA Council on Education-accredited veterinary colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Chelsey B; Garry, Franklyn B; Kogan, Lori R; Grandin, Temple

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics. DESIGN Survey and curriculum review. SAMPLE All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions). PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare. RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.

  11. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Stocchi; Nicholas Aconiti Mandolini; Maria Marinsalti; Natalina Cammertoni; Anna Rita Loschi; Stefano Rea

    2014-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalisin...

  12. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    named as belonging to the domain of production) which is supposed to be known by the farmers, but the farmers in this investigation (with their language about animal welfare belonging to the private domain) express their experience as uncertainty, never knowing if they are able to get things right. We......Action of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare The many requirements related to animal welfare - generated by a combination of national and EU animal welfare legislation - are a part of daily life when running a livestock farm in Denmark...... and in the EU. Since 2004, the number of unannounced inspections of farm animal welfare made by the authorities in Denmark has gone up. In cases of noncompliance with the legislation, farmers today face not only the risk of being fined but also having their EU-subsidies reduced. With this growing concern...

  13. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn;

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  14. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  15. Does the Animal Welfare Act apply to free-ranging animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Despite the long-standing role that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) have played in reviewing and approving studies at academic institutions, compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is not always complete for government natural resource agencies that use free-ranging animals in research and management studies. Even at universities, IACUCs face uncertainties about what activities are covered and about how to judge proposed research on free-ranging animals. One reason for much of the confusion is the AWA vaguely worded exemption for "field studies." In particular, fish are problematic because of the AWA exclusion of poikilothermic animals. However, most university IACUCs review studies on all animals, and the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) has published the "IRAC Principles," which extend coverage to all vertebrates used by federal researchers. Despite this extended coverage, many scientists working on wild animals continue to view compliance with the AWA with little enthusiasm. IACUCs, IACUC veterinarians, wildlife veterinarians, and fish and wildlife biologists must learn to work together to comply with the law and to protect the privilege of using free-ranging animals in research.

  16. Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Michael Appleby.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in people’s diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future...

  17. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them

  18. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. BROOM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage animals in such a way that the welfare of the animals is good and the people involved in animal care are well-respected in society. This is especially important also for those who design and manufacture housing and equipment and those who breed animals for they can have substantial effects on animal welfare. It is important for animal welfare scientists to provide objective information about the welfare of animals, so that decisions can be taken about how animals should be bred, housed and treated. Animals use a wide range of coping mechanisms and these involve high-level brain function, with associated good and bad feelings. Where welfare is poor, the best overall assessment of welfare is a function of how bad is the effect on the individual and the duration of that effect. Conventional breeding, cloning and transgenesis can all have effects on the welfare of the animals produced. Selection for fast growth and high feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens and other meat producing animals leads to too high an incidence of leg and other disorders. Selection for high milk yield in dairy cows leads to poor welfare associated with leg disorders, mastitis and reproductive disorders. These effects should be evaluated using a range of animal welfare measures and if there are adverse effects of genetic engineering, the usage of the animals should not be permitted except for research. In the case of genetically modified or cloned animals, any effects on function

  19. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper; William Browne

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...

  20. CONSUMER WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR FARM ANIMAL WELFARE IN GERMANY - THE CASE OF BROILER

    OpenAIRE

    Makdisi, Fadi; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the value consumers place on farm animal welfare (FAW) can predict the extent to which consumers are ready to support policy changes aimed at improving the welfare of farm animals and developing animal-friendly production systems that can also compete on markets. This study aimed at exploring consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for broiler meat in Germany which is certified as having been produced under a system that caters for FAW. In addition, logistic and linear re...

  1. A Structural Equation Model of the Factors Influencing British Consumers’ Behaviour towards Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; McVittie, Alistair; Hubbard, Carmen; Stott, Alistair W.

    2009-01-01

    Results of national and pan-European consumer surveys and the growth in the demand for so-called “animal friendly” food products suggest that consumers within the European Union show a high level of concern for the welfare of farm animals. This paper analyses the determinants of British consumers’ behaviour towards animal welfare using structural equation models (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating relationships amongst variables,...

  2. An approach to teaching animal welfare issues at The Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Linda K; Walker, Jennifer B

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of animal welfare and the critical role of the veterinary profession, animal welfare is not formally taught in many veterinary curricula. In addition, veterinary students are often not exposed to current contentious animal welfare issues, which are subject to much debate and often proposed regulation. To address this deficiency in our curriculum at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, we have developed a course titled "Contemporary Issues in Animal Welfare." Our specific objectives for the course are: 1) to provide students with the opportunity to objectively evaluate and discuss current issues in the welfare of animals as companions, and in the industries of agriculture, science, education, conservation, and entertainment; 2) to increase students' awareness of current important animal welfare issues; and 3) to develop students' skills in the critical evaluation of written and visual material used in the scientific literature and lay press. We hope that, over time, this teaching model will be considered a means to educate veterinary students about animal welfare issues in other veterinary curricula. PMID:19861714

  3. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and the remaining 39 were non-consumers. A large proportion of respondents were aware of the modern veal calves rearing system but their knowledge as such did not affect veal meat consumption. Non-consumers declared they didn’t like veal meat organoleptic characteristics, opposed the production system or considered it too expensive. Most citizens sustained animal welfare but no correlations were found between concerns for animal welfare and veal meat consumption/purchase (rs 0.05. Citizens conceptualized animal welfare through the aspects of care animals received by the farmer and veterinarian and of healthy feed for animals. It could be concluded that consumers don’t really think of animal welfare while buying or having meat, and they still have idealised notions of naturality, traditional farming, free-range and small scale production linked to farm animal production.

  4. Animal welfare and eggs - cheap talk or money on the counter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2011-01-01

    Our estimate revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model. We utilise a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We estimate willingness to pay for organic...... eggs controlling for trust in a positive connection between the public good animal welfare and the organic label and the private good food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that in the real world, animal welfare plays a minor role in the demand for agricultural products....

  5. 78 FR 47215 - Petition to Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 Petition to Amend Animal Welfare Act.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Animal Welfare Act (AWA, 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) authorizes the... Welfare Act regulations and standards, including to prohibit licensees from allowing individuals,...

  6. Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" by Updating the "Five Provisions" and Introducing Aligned "Animal Welfare Aims".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2016-01-01

    Although the Five Freedoms paradigm has been very influential in shaping animal welfare thinking for the last two decades, it has two key disadvantages. First, the focus on "freedom" from a range of negative experiences and states has been misunderstood in a number of quarters to mean that complete freedom from these experiences and states is possible, when in fact the best that can be achieved is for them to be minimised. Second, the major focus of the Freedoms on negative experiences and states is now seen to be a disadvantage in view of current understanding that animal welfare management should also include the promotion of positive experiences and states. The challenge therefore was to formulate a paradigm that overcame these two main problems and yet was straightforward enough to be accessible to non-specialists, including members of the lay public who are interested in animal welfare. This was achieved by highlighting the Five Provisions, originally aligned with the Five Freedoms, but now updated to direct welfare management towards activities that both minimise negative experiences or states and promote positive experiences or states as specified by particular Animal Welfare Aims assigned to each Provision. Aspects of the four welfare principles from the European Welfare Quality assessment system (WQ (®) ) and elements of all domains of the Five Domains Model for animal welfare assessment have been incorporated into the new Five Provisions/Welfare Aims paradigm. Thus, the paradigm is easily understood and provides clear guidance on beneficial objectives for animal welfare management. It is anticipated that the paradigm will have application to many species found in a wide range of circumstances. PMID:27669313

  7. Scientist' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare in

  8. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

    2005-08-01

    In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities.

  9. Problems on the Enforcement Judicature and Legal Supervision of Animal Welfare Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstratAlong with the economic development and social progress, the idea of animal protection has gone deep into people’s hearts all over the world. Animal protection includes not only reserving species resources and nursing the diversification of creatures, but also animal health care and welfare. Compared with some other countries, there exists severe imperfection on legislation for animal protection,and the related legal system is nearly left blank. In view of such unfavorable state and the rising appeal for animal protection, it is an inevitable trend to enact China Animal Welfare Laws. Since the final purpose of legislation has to be reached through the enforcement and realization of the law, there involve the problems onthe enforcement, judicature and legal supervision of China Animal Welfare Laws.

  10. OUTLINE OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPROPRIATE DOMESTIC RABBIT MANAGEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANIMAL PROTECTION AND WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Löliger, H.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract not available. Löliger, H. (1996). OUTLINE OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPROPRIATE DOMESTIC RABBIT MANAGEMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANIMAL PROTECTION AND WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10473.

  11. Awareness and implementation of the regional animal welfare strategy for the Americas: a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, E; Kahn, S; Arroyo Kuribreha, M

    2015-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is the global standard-setting organisation for animal health and these standards are references for the World Trade Organization legal framework. In 2002, noting the relationship between animal health and welfare, the OIE accepted the mandate to develop animal welfare standards. These standards were subsequently adopted by Member Countries and have been included in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code. The implementation of the OIE standards by Member Countries is continually promoted. National OIE Delegates are encouraged to nominate National Focal Points for key topics, including animal welfare. In 2012, the OIE Regional Commission of the Americas adopted a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy (Regional Strategy) to promote a coordinated approach to the implementation of the OIE animal welfare standards by the 29 Member Countries in the region. In February 2015, the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas distributed a questionnaire to determine the level of awareness and implementation of the Regional Strategy. This paper presents the results of the questionnaire. With a few exceptions, veterinary officials and stakeholders are only just becoming aware of the strategy and implementation is at an early stage. To promote the implementation of the Regional Strategy, it will be.necessary to continue building the capacity of the national Veterinary Services, strengthening public-private partnerships, modernising legislation and promoting veterinary involvement in animal welfare. Through the implementation of the Regional Strategy, the OIE will provide support to countries in establishing animal welfare standards, in line with government priorities and consumer concerns. PMID:27044144

  12. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  13. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...

  14. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo; Giulio Cozzi

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and ...

  15. Valuing Animal Welfare with Choice Experiments: An Application to Swedish Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Liljenstolpe, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the demand for animal welfare attributes when buying pork fillet is investigated among Swedish respondents. More specifically, the coefficients of an indirect utility function and willingness to pay for animal welfare attributes are estimated. The utility function is estimated using a multinomial logit and a random parameter logit model. A realistic scenario when modeling consumer choices is to allow for heterogeneity in preferences. The random parameter logit model departs fro...

  16. Definition of criteria for overall assessment of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botreau, R.; Veissier, I.; Butterworth, A.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Keeling, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Welfare is multidimensional, comprising good health, comfort, expression of behaviour, and so on. Its overall assessment therefore requires a multicriteria evaluation. The set of criteria shall be exhaustive (no missing item), minimal (only necessary items), agreed by stakeholders, and legible (a li

  17. Ethical concerns beyond the border: how European animal welfare policies reach Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel, C.; Bock, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    To accommodate the growing ethical concern regarding the way farm animals are treated, a comprehensive body of legislation has been developed to ensure the welfare of animals from birth to slaughter. Alongside governmental measures, the last decades have witnessed a proliferation of voluntary animal

  18. Genetics and Genomics of Animal Behaviour and Welfare - Challanges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per; Buitenhuis, Bart; Kjaer, Joergen;

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day domesticated...

  19. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of various non-invasive parameters for the prediction of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model in male C.B-17 SCID (C.B-Igh-1(b)/IcrTac-Prkdc(scid)) mice. The study showed that body weight, food and water...

  20. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators” with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, there has so far been a lack of more precise provisions regarding the content and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, around 50 experts have selected indicators for assessing animal welfare with regard to reliability, validity and practicability. In on-farm self-assessment, the sets of largely animal-based indicators selected for cattle, pigs and poultry (hens and turkeys should be surveyed and evaluated as completely as possible. Integration into farm management systems is recommended. This paper exemplarily presents the set of indicators proposed for dairy cattle.

  1. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions. PMID:25052465

  2. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.

  3. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  4. Scientific Opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Animal-based measures (ABM can be used effectively in the on-farm evaluation of broiler welfare in relation to laws, codes of practice, quality assurance schemes, management and also partly for ante-mortem inspection. Some ABM can also be taken post-mortem at the slaughterhouse. Non-animal-based measures can be used when the association between them and the welfare outcome is strong and when they are more efficient than ABM as a means to safeguard welfare. They can also be useful predictors of welfare in broilers. The choice of animal-based measures will depend upon the specific objectives of the assessment. The full list is comparable to a ‘toolbox’, from which the appropriate set of measures can be selected. The Welfare Quality® protocol provides information on the majority of the welfare outcomes for the main factors identified in the EFSA Scientific Opinions but not those where time limitation prevents it. There is a lack of research on the use of ABM on-farm and in the slaughterhouse to assess pain, frustration, boredom and other negative or positive emotional states in the standard broiler. There are limited management options to prevent poor welfare when the flock is still in the house e.g. to improve the ventilation system. The same applies to negative consequences arising from genetic selection. There is a need for more systematic flock monitoring and surveillance programmes in the broiler industry. Visual inspection has a very high potential to improve animal welfare in broiler production when a range of appropriate ABM is used in the slaughterhouse. Benchmarking can be used to document welfare changes over time, including automatic monitoring and assessment systems. Attention should also be paid to initial and ongoing training of assessors in the field and in the abattoir to ensure valid and robust measurements.

  5. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reenen, C G; Meuwissen, T H; Hopster, H; Oldenbroek, K; Kruip, T H; Blokhuis, H J

    2001-07-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biologically neutral and may compromise animal health and welfare. Factors posing a risk for the welfare of transgenic farm animals include integration of a transgene within an endogenous gene with possible loss of host gene function (insertional mutations), inappropriate transgene expression and exposure of the host to biologically active transgene-derived proteins, and in vitro reproductive technologies employed in the process of generating transgenic farm animals that may result in an increased incidence of difficult parturition and fetal and neonatal losses and the development of unusually large or otherwise abnormal offspring (large offspring syndrome). Critical components of a scheme for evaluating welfare of transgenic farm animals are identified, related to specific characteristics of transgenic animals and to factors that may interact with the effects of transgenesis. The feasibility of an evaluation of welfare of transgenic farm animals in practice is addressed against the background of the objectives and conditions of three successive stages in a long-term transgenic program. Concrete steps with regard to breeding and testing of transgenic farm animals are presented, considering three technologies to generate transgenic founders: microinjection, electroporation and nuclear transfer, and gene targeting including gene knockout. The proposed steps allow for unbiased estimations of the essential treatment effects, including hemi- and homozygous transgene effects as well as effects of in vitro reproductive technologies. It is suggested that the implementation of appropriate breeding and testing procedures should be accompanied by the use of a comprehensive welfare

  6. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.; Ipema, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal speci

  7. Performance analysis of draught animal-implement system to improve productivity and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bobobee, Emmanuel Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    Draught animal technology is a reliable and popular farm power resource in most developing countries. However, despite its growing popularity, animal traction farmers face several constraints such as rapid ploughshare wear, high draught forces and poor design of harnesses and other implements. Also, farmers and researchers have placed little emphasis on the importance of draught animal welfare issues. The main objective of the thesis was to study the performance of draught animal-implement sy...

  8. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Probhakar Biswas; Triveni Dutt; Patel, M.; Reena Kamal; P. K. Bharti; Subhasish Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was ke...

  9. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  10. From "Animal Machines" to "Happy Meat"? Foucault's Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to 'Animal-Centred' Welfare Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2011-01-11

    Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.

  11. The presence of animal-welfare friendly bodies: an organised or disorganised achievement in the food supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, E.J.; Higgin, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the market for food products derived from cattle, chickens and pigs that are considered to have had a welfare-friendlier life. Welfare-friendly claims hold considerable ambiguity in meaning since there is no precise definition of what better ‘animal welfare’ means in practice. However, despite this ambiguity there are numbers of animals that are being made into food products which carry labelling that suggests higher animal welfare, and in addition many animals or parts of...

  12. How should the welfare of fetal and neurologically immature postnatal animals be protected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Mellor, D.J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing...... such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress...

  13. Animal welfare beyond the cage...and beyond the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents in the laboratory. Remarkably, many of the studies cited as supporting these assertions fail to provide data bearing on the issues involved or may even report findings opposite to those described by Balcombe, whereas many studies that are highly relevant to these issues are not cited or described. Moreover, although the "evolved needs" of rats and mice are presented as the basis for an analysis of rodent welfare, the important and well-documented changes in needs- or motivation-related behaviors of a rodent in the laboratory (due to human selection over hundreds of generations) is ignored. This pattern of disconnections between data and conclusions is so pervasive as to demolish the scientific value of the exposition. PMID:20017049

  14. Encouraging newly elected parliamentarians to take action on animal health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    BVA and its branches developed three manifestos ahead of the May elections in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, aiming to raise awareness of the importance of safeguarding animal health and promoting animal welfare. Public affairs manager, Helena Cotton, encourages members to use the manifestos when speaking to newly elected representatives and stakeholders. PMID:27154947

  15. A simple value-distinction approach aids transparency in farm animal welfare debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Stafleu, F.; Lauwere, de C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Public debate on acceptable farm animal husbandry suffers from a confusion of tongues. To clarify positions of various stakeholder groups in their joint search for acceptable solutions, the concept of animal welfare was split up into three notions: no suffering, respect for intrinsic value, and non-

  16. Consumer Impact of Animal Welfare Regulation in the California Poultry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Allender, William J.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consumer welfare impact of animal welfare legislation mandating cage-free egg production in California. We estimate California egg consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for cage-free eggs using household-level purchase data and compare the implied premium to higher production costs when calculating the potential change in consumer surplus. Our findings suggest that larger households and/or households with limited means are most likely to be affected. Furthermore, the i...

  17. Incorporation of conventional animal welfare assessment techniques into organic certification and farming

    OpenAIRE

    Leeb, Christine; Whay, Becky; MAIN, David

    2004-01-01

    Providing assurances to consumers on the adherence to certain animal welfare-related standards is an important element of organic and farm assurance schemes. This project has ensured that preliminary welfare assessment protocols developed in a conventional farm assurance system (RSPCA Freedom Food scheme) are available for incorporation into organic (& conventional) certification schemes. The final system (available at www.vetschool.bris.ac.uk/animalwelfare) is an assessment tool that can pr...

  18. Infrared thermal image for assessing animal health and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Rodrigo Garófallo Garcia; Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a non-destructive testing technology that can be used to determine the superficial temperature of objects. This technology has an increasing use in detecting diseases and distress in animal husbandry within the poultry, pig and dairy production. The process can identify changes in peripheral blood flow from the resulting changes in heat loss and; therefore, have been a useful tool for evaluating the presence of disease, edema, and stress in animals. This paper revi...

  19. Scope for animal welfare education in open and distance learning: findings from a needs assessment study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P V K; Jayasimha, N G

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the demand for animal welfare education by open and distance learning (ODL) and to identify content to be covered in an ODL animal welfare programme. Through email, personal interviews and online surveys, data were collected from 161 respondents. The key survey questions were on: the need and reasons for providing animal welfare education through ODL; entry-level qualifications; job/career prospects; duration of the programme, and suggestions on course content. The majority of respondents felt that there was a need for a one-year ODL academic programme on animal welfare. In the light of the findings of this study and related discussions, the authors recommend that online and ODL programmes in animal welfare be developed to meet the continuing educational needs of veterinary students, working veterinarians, para-veterinarians and other stakeholders closely related to animal welfare.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broom, D.; Doherr, M.G.; Edwards, S.;

    2013-01-01

    but not those where time limitation prevents it. There are currently insufficient animal-based measures to use as welfare outcome indicators on-farm or in the slaughterhouse to assess the issues of pain, frustration and other positive and negative emotional states. The extent to which short-term management can...... prevent the negative effects of hazards arising from genetic selection, and of most housing-related problems, is extremely limited. Herd monitoring and surveillance programmes should be implemented within the pig industry using a range of appropriate animal-based measures to document welfare changes over......Animal-based measures, identified on the basis of scientific evidence, can be used effectively in the evaluation of the welfare of on-farm pigs in relation to laws, codes of practice, quality assurance schemes and management. Some of these measures are also appropriate for ante-mortem inspection...

  1. Executive overview: welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Adams; Peter M. Thornber; Gardner Murray

    2008-01-01

    A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of ani...

  2. Planning for better animal health and welfare, Report from the 1st ANIPLAN project workshop, Hellevad, October 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette; Leeb, Christine; Nicholas, Phillipa; Roderick, Stephen; Smolders, Gidi; Walkenhorst, Michael; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Stöger, Elisabeth; Winkler, Christoph; Gratzer, Elisabeth; Lund, Vonne; Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Hansen, Inger; Neale, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    ’Minimising medicine use in organic dairy herds through animal health and welfare planning’, ANIPLAN, is a CORE-Organic project which was initiated in June 2007. The main aim of the project is to investigate active and well planned animal health and welfare promotion and disease prevention as a means of minimising medicine use in organic dairy herds. This aim will be met through the development of animal health and welfare planning principles for organic dairy farms under diverse conditions b...

  3. Understanding farmers' decisions with regard to animal welfare: The case of changing to group housing for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Riet, van 't J.P.; Hoop, de J.G.; Pierick, ten E.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare in livestock farming requires changing the behaviour of many stakeholders. Farmers have to take proper actions on their farm to improve animal welfare, retailers have to market animal-friendly products and consumers have to purchase these products. The theory of planned beha

  4. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates... Animal Welfare Act regulations and standards, including to prohibit licensees from allowing individuals.... SUMMARY: We are reopening the comment period for a petition requesting amendments to the Animal...

  5. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise.

  6. Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gavinelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.

  7. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.;

    2007-01-01

    multidimensional nature of welfare and the relative importance of various welfare measures. It is concluded that different methods may be used at different stages of the construction of an overall assessment of animal welfare, depending on the constraints imposed on the aggregation process....

  8. The anxious mouse: implications for preclinical research and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying neurobiol

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  10. Improving animal welfare and reducing animal use for veterinary vaccine potency testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, William; Brown, Karen; KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; GIFFORD Glen; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved human and animal health and welfare by preventing diseases and deaths caused by a wide range of infectious agents. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance ...

  11. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, emotional, and cognitive improvements in human patients. However, the close bond between companion animals and man is not always the herald of beneficial effects. Sometimes the welfare of pets may be compromised by distress due to many factors, mostly related to the environment and to management by humans. Both behavioural and physiological variables may be analysed in order to evaluate welfare level in pets. Reduced welfare may be indicated by the onset of some behavioural problems, which have usually a multifactorial aetiology, related both to the genetic individual basis and environmental factors. Physiological variables which may be analysed in order to evaluate pet welfare include hormone levels, mainly related to the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal- axis and to the immune systems activations. Behavioural problems may also lead to the relinquishment of pets to shelters. Animals housed in rescue shelters cannot display their ethogram and show behavioural and physiological signs of distress. Thus it is very important to improve the human-pet relationship both by educating owners and reducing the number of stray animals, in accordance with the indications of the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals stated at Strasbourg in 1987, mainly as regards pet breeding and welfare. Humans have to realise that adopting pets implies the responsibility to care for their health and welfare, avoiding undue stress in the living environment and improving the

  12. Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidster, Katie; Jefferys, John G; Blümcke, Ingmar; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Flecknell, Paul; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Gray, William P; Kaminski, Rafal; Pitkänen, Asla; Ragan, Ian; Shah, Mala; Simonato, Michele; Trevelyan, Andrew; Volk, Holger; Walker, Matthew; Yates, Neil; Prescott, Mark J

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of epilepsy and seizures, mostly involving mice and rats, are used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of epilepsy and their comorbidities, to identify biomarkers, and to discover new antiepileptic drugs and treatments for comorbidities. Such models represent an important area for application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use). This report provides background information and recommendations aimed at minimising pain, suffering and distress in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures in order to improve animal welfare and optimise the quality of studies in this area. The report includes practical guidance on principles of choosing a model, induction procedures, in vivo recordings, perioperative care, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, social housing, environmental enrichment, reporting of studies and data sharing. In addition, some model-specific welfare considerations are discussed, and data gaps and areas for further research are identified. The guidance is based upon a systematic review of the scientific literature, survey of the international epilepsy research community, consultation with veterinarians and animal care and welfare officers, and the expert opinion and practical experience of the members of a Working Group convened by the United Kingdom's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

  13. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  14. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  15. Foreword—welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long distance transport of animals within countries, between countries, across regions and across continents is increasing significantly and is also changing in nature. Statistics from the International Trade Centre of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization show that the value of world trade in live animals soared from US$8.7 billion in 2000 to US$12.1 billion in 2005. This enormous figure would be even greater if zoo animals, wildlife and illicit traffic were included.The history of animal transportation goes back thousands of years. It remains a legitimate practice to this day provided proper measures are taken to protect animal well-being and health. What has made circumstances different in the 21st century is the nature of transport (land, sea and air, the volume of traffic and a public awareness of welfare issues with demands that animals be treated humanely and in accordance with best contemporary practices. This increased volume of transport creates an unprecedented risk for disseminating infectious diseases, including those that may affect people.Key public concerns about animal welfare relate to factors such as a lack of infrastructure and investment in training, research and standards development, as well as indifference and neglect. The live animal transportation industries are threatened when these deficiencies are not corrected.Fortunately, a number of countries foresaw these problems and introduced a series of activities to support good animal welfare practices. Many recognised the clear connection between animal welfare, health and husbandry practice, and established policy settings to include these activities under a veterinary public and animal health umbrella. Recognising its critical importance, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE in its IVth Strategic plan (points a to b, identified animal welfare as a key issue and launched a

  16. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  17. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with t

  18. Zoelen van varkens en implicaties voor dierenwelzijn = Wallowing in pigs and its implications for animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Overzicht van zoelgedrag van varkens en aanverwante diersoorten, biologische functies, criteria voor een ideaal modderbad en het belang voor dierenwelzijn.Review of wallowing behaviour in pigs and related species, its biological functions, criteria for an ideal mud pool and the importance of wallowing for animal welfare.

  19. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  20. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...=APHIS-2011-0050 to submit or view comments and to view supporting and related materials available...: Title: Animal Welfare. OMB Number: 0579-0036. Type of Request: Extension of approval of an information... Act that are used for teaching, testing, and experimentation. This information is used by...

  1. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of t

  2. A conceptual approach for a quantitative economic analysis of farmers’ decision-making regarding animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions related to animal welfare (AW) standards depend on farmer’s multiple goals and values and are constrained by a wide range of external and internal forces. The aim of this paper is twofold, i.e., (1) to develop a theoretical framework for farmers’ AW decisions that incorporates farmers’ goa

  3. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities.

  4. The Advantage of Rumen Fluid Collection Technique Using Trocar in Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafly Comilo Tiven

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trocar, a tool to remove the gas in livestock that have bloated stomach, has been modified for rumen fluid collection, as an alternative methods in animal welfare aspects. Rumen fluid collection with trocar modification can be made very easy, cheap and fast at the local sheep, both in vitro and in vivo. After the collection, the trocar does not leave permanent scars because scars on the rumen wall and skin will heal and return to normal. The animal relatively does not suffer from pain and stress; feed intake and body weight do not decrease drastically and animal can live normal. The rumen fluid sampling technique with trocar is better than fistulation in animal welfare aspect.

  5. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  6. The injustice of excluding laboratory rats, mice, and birds from the Animal Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F Barbara

    2000-09-01

    A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation -- rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.

  7. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Stocchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other preslaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study.

  8. Welfare and housing in animal production: airquality evaluation and new experimental device in different species

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The research has been divided into two step: the first one concerning the evaluation of ventilation in cattle and broilers houses, the second one concerning the study of a new experimental device for pigs breeding. Ventilation flow in livestock buildings can determine the indoor climate and air quality and so it affects directly the welfare of the reared animals. The realization of the animal houses in many cases, has not allowed the correct activation of the plants caused by the objective...

  9. 加拿大的动物福利制度%The Animal Welfare System of Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the animal wefare system and takes emphasis on the anmal welfare system of Canda and the resaon Canda takes this system Also.the paper evaluates the resaonableness of this system and wants to give the examples of the tegislation of animal welfare system in our country.

  10. The experience of animal welfare inspections as perceived by Danish livestock farmers:A qualitative research approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare control carriedout by the authorities by using unannounced on-farm nspection has been expanding in Denmark during the past 10 years.In the EU among others,third-party audit and inspection of animal welfare connected to private labels or as a requirement from the food industry is a ...

  11. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  12. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  13. German animal welfare act in breach with Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Maisack, Christoph; Wagner, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Administrative Court recently announced an order (finalized on January 20, 2014) on the neurobiological experiments on primate brains of Prof. Kreiter at the University of Bremen. With this order, a preceding court decision by the Higher Administrative Court of Bremen was established as final and absolute and the last glimmer of hope to end the suffering of the primates in Bremen was extinguished. The court decision had claimed the experiments to be ethically justified. The Federal Administrative Court upheld the court decision and issued the order on the grounds that due to the phrasing of both the former and the current German Animal Welfare Act, authorities had no entitlement to assess the ethical justification of an experiment, but were obliged to approve an application if all formalities were complied with. The impact the order will have on the authorization of animal experiments and testing in Germany caused an outrage in the animal welfare community.

  14. German animal welfare act in breach with Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Maisack, Christoph; Wagner, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Administrative Court recently announced an order (finalized on January 20, 2014) on the neurobiological experiments on primate brains of Prof. Kreiter at the University of Bremen. With this order, a preceding court decision by the Higher Administrative Court of Bremen was established as final and absolute and the last glimmer of hope to end the suffering of the primates in Bremen was extinguished. The court decision had claimed the experiments to be ethically justified. The Federal Administrative Court upheld the court decision and issued the order on the grounds that due to the phrasing of both the former and the current German Animal Welfare Act, authorities had no entitlement to assess the ethical justification of an experiment, but were obliged to approve an application if all formalities were complied with. The impact the order will have on the authorization of animal experiments and testing in Germany caused an outrage in the animal welfare community. PMID:24794005

  15. ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.

  16. Efficient halal bleeding, animal handling, and welfare: A holistic approach for meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghwan, Z A; Bello, A U; Abubakar, A A; Imlan, J C; Sazili, A Q

    2016-11-01

    Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety. PMID:27468102

  17. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissier Isabelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI. Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000. Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators; social interactions (between animals (7, flooring (5, environment (7 and Stockpersonship (9. Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI, (ii to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time, the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. Results The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05 in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01 "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03 and weaning (P Conclusion The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation more specifically, the interest of the farmer. Part and full-time farming did not differ (P > 0.05 in AWI scores. This method could, with further development, be used in countries with both intensive and/or extensive production systems and would require substantially less resources

  18. Sensitivity to reward loss as an indicator of animal emotion and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Oliver H P; Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Mendl, Michael

    2008-08-23

    The scientific study of animal emotion is an important emerging discipline in subjects ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare research. In the absence of direct measures of conscious emotion, indirect behavioural and physiological measures are used. However, these may have significant limitations (e.g. indicating emotional arousal but not valence (positivity versus negativity)). A new approach, taking its impetus from human studies, proposes that biases in information processing, and underlying mechanisms relating to the evaluation of reward gains and losses, may reliably reflect emotional valence in animals. In general, people are more sensitive to reward losses than gains, but people in a negative affective state (e.g. depression) are particularly sensitive to losses. This may underlie broader findings such as an enhanced attention to, and memory of, negative events in depressed individuals. Here we show that rats in unenriched housing, who typically exhibit indicators of poorer welfare and a more negative affective state than those in enriched housing, display a prolonged response to a decrease in anticipated food reward, indicating enhanced sensitivity to reward loss. Sensitivity to reward reduction may thus be a valuable new indicator of animal emotion and welfare. PMID:18492648

  19. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.

  20. The ICLAS/CCAC International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Stokes, William S; Pakes, Steven P; Gauthier, Célement

    2004-06-01

    The first International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare (ISRTAW), held 21-23 June 2001, in Quebec City, Canada, brought together 160 experts from 22 countries from North and South America, Europe and Asia. The experts included representatives from national research and regulatory agencies, universities, and industry involved in chemicals, pesticides and drug safety testing. Representatives from European, Canadian and US animal welfare groups also participated in the discussions. The Symposium was organised by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), with the support and assistance of many sponsors and advisors. ICLAS is a worldwide organisation whose purpose is to foster the international harmonisation of animal care and use practices. CCAC is the national agency responsible for overseeing the ethical use of animals in Canadian science. Both organisations are committed to fostering an environment in which global efforts to harmonise testing procedures using animals in a more-humane manner can be realised.

  1. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk.

  2. Modelling severe Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in conscious pigs: are implications for animal welfare justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Helle G; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    , according to humane endpoints. A usable balance between scientific purpose and animal welfare could not be achieved, and we therefore find it hard to justify further use of this conscious porcine sepsis model. In order to make a model of translational relevance for human sepsis, we suggest that future model......A porcine model of haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus sepsis has previously been established in our research group. In these studies, pigs developed severe sepsis including liver dysfunction during a 48 h study period. As pigs were awake during the study, animal welfare was challenged by the...... severity of induced disease, which in some cases necessitated humane euthanasia. A pilot study was therefore performed in order to establish the sufficient inoculum concentration and application protocol needed to produce signs of liver dysfunction within limits of our pre-defined humane endpoints. Four...

  3. Animals and ambivalence, governing farm animal welfare in the European food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Mara; Murdoch, Jonathan; Roe, Emma

    2005-01-01

    That humans exploit animals, often in cruel ways, is not open to doubt. Reponsibility for exploitation and cruelty lies unambiguously on the human side of any human-animal divide. For this reason, relations between humans and animals might be described as profoundly asymmetrical (Schiktanz 2004: 2). Asymmetry emerges whenever animals are confined for human purposes, for instance in farms, zoos and homes. As Schiktanz (2004: 2) puts it, “the animal itself has usually no opportunity to force it...

  4. Natural living – a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Dr. Vonne

    2006-01-01

    Results from a four year interdisciplinary project are presented. Animal welfare is discussed in relation to values and aims in organic farming. Based on analyzes of organic standards and other publications from the organic movement, basic “organic values” were defined. In addition, two studies of Swedish organic livestock farmers (one quantitative and one qualitative) were made. Ecocentric ethics was then identified as an ethical position for organic farming. The overall concern in organic f...

  5. The use of animal-based health and welfare parameters – what is it all about?

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming is characterized by several goals that are expressed in daily practices and in standards. Some of the important goals for organic production systems are naturalness, harmony on all levels of production, local recycling of resources, and the principle of precaution (Anonymous, 2002). For organic herds, good animal welfare is an explicit goal, and this includes that the overall goal for the organic farming systems regarding naturalness and harmony in the herd are met by giving t...

  6. There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, V A

    2009-11-01

    There are gaps in knowledge that hinder our ability within zoos to provide good animal welfare. This does not mean that zoos cannot or do not provide good welfare, only that currently this goal is hindered. Three reasons for these gaps are identified as: (1) there is an emphasis on the identification and monitoring of indicators that represent poor welfare and it is assumed that an absence of poor welfare equates to good welfare. This assumption is overly simplistic and potentially erroneous; (2) our understanding of how housing and husbandry (H&H) affects animals is limited to a small set of variables determined mostly by our anthropogenic sensitivities. Thus, we place more value on captive environmental variables like space and companionship, ignoring other factors that may have a greater impact on welfare, like climate; (3) finally, whether intentional or not, our knowledge and efforts to improve zoo animal welfare are biased to very few taxa. Most attention has been focused on mammals, notably primates, large cats, bears, and elephants, to the exclusion of the other numerous species about which very little is known. Unfortunately, the extent to which these gaps limit our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare is exacerbated by our over reliance on using myth and tradition to determine zoo animal management. I suggest that we can fill these gaps in our knowledge and improve our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare through the adoption of an evidence-based zoo animal management framework. This approach uses evidence gathered from different sources as a basis for making any management decisions, as good quality evidence increases the likelihood that these decisions result in good zoo animal welfare.

  7. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed two consecutive inspection reports for each of 136 British zoos made by government-appointed inspectors between 2005 and 2011 to assess how well British zoos were complying with minimum animal welfare standards; median interval between inspections was 1,107 days. There was no conclusive evidence for overall improvements in the levels of compliance by British zoos. Having the same zoo inspector at both inspections affected the outcome of an inspection; animal welfare criteria were more likely to be assessed as unchanged if the same inspector was present on both inspections. This, and erratic decisions as to whether a criterion applied to a particular zoo, suggest inconsistency in assessments between inspectors. Zoos that were members of a professional association (BIAZA did not differ significantly from non-members in the overall number of criteria assessed as substandard at the second inspection but were more likely to meet the standards on both inspections and less likely to have criteria remaining substandard. Lack of consistency between inspectors, and the high proportion of zoos failing to meet minimum animal welfare standards nearly thirty years after the Zoo Licensing Act came into force, suggest that the current system of licensing and inspection is not meeting key objectives and requires revision.

  8. Massive Open Online Courses as a Tool for Global Animal Welfare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jill R D; Langford, Fritha; Waran, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Animal Behaviour and Welfare was a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) hosted on Coursera as a free introductory animal welfare course. Through interrogating Coursera data and pre-/post-course student experience surveys, we investigated student retention, student experience, changes in attitudes, and changes in knowledge. The course ran for 5 weeks, and 33,501 students signed up, of which 16.4% (n=5,501) received a Certificate of Achievement, indicating they had completed all assessments within the course. This retention rate is above the industry standard of 10%; however, the value of retention rate as a metric to judge MOOC success is questionable. Instead, we focus on demographics, with Coursera data estimating that 41% of learners came from Europe, 35% from North America, 11% from Asia, 6% from Oceania, 5% from South America, and 2% from Africa. Most learners had completed an undergraduate degree. Despite this wide range of backgrounds, 57.2% of post-course respondents (n=2,399) strongly agreed that the information presented was at the right level and 64.9% strongly agreed that the course was interesting. After completion, more students (χ(2)[4]=132.40, pMOOCs are an appropriate vehicle for providing animal welfare learning to a wide audience, but require a significant level of investment. PMID:26751911

  9. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  10. The Advantage of Rumen Fluid Collection Technique Using Trocar in Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nafly Comilo Tiven

    2014-01-01

    Trocar, a tool to remove the gas in livestock that have bloated stomach, has been modified for rumen fluid collection, as an alternative methods in animal welfare aspects. Rumen fluid collection with trocar modification can be made very easy, cheap and fast at the local sheep, both in vitro and in vivo. After the collection, the trocar does not leave permanent scars because scars on the rumen wall and skin will heal and return to normal. The animal relatively does not suffer from pain and str...

  11. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  12. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  13. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marins Pettres

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  14. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. A "How-To" Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    Robust methods to assess nonhuman animal emotion are essential for ensuring good welfare in captivity. Cognitive bias measures such as the judgment bias task have recently emerged as promising tools to assess animal emotion. The simple design and objective response measures make judgment bias tasks suitable for use across species and contexts. In reviewing 64 studies published to date, it emerged that (a) judgment biases have been measured in a number of mammals and birds and an invertebrate; (b) no study has tested judgment bias in any species of fish, amphibian, or reptile; and (c) no study has yet investigated judgment bias in a zoo or aquarium. This article proposes that judgment bias measures are highly suitable for use with these understudied taxa and can provide new insight into welfare in endangered species housed in zoos and aquariums, where poor welfare impacts breeding success and, ultimately, species survival. The article includes a "how-to" guide to designing judgment bias tests with recommendations for working with currently neglected "exotics" including fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. PMID:26440495

  16. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  17. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primate...

  18. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and “A Life Worth Living”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact. PMID:27231943

  19. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  20. Welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals — the Animal Transportation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Harris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and long distance movement of animals is a far larger business than most people imagine. Some reasons are outlined in this paper, along with the history of the AATA (Animal [Air] Transportation Association. This trade association has been involved for over 30 years in developing standards and procedures for the movement of all types of animals. The competence of animal handlers is of paramount importance. Competence of flying grooms is assessed by the AATA. This paper is written from the viewpoint of someone who has been a member since the Association's inception. The subject will be of interest to airlines, transporters, veterinarians, farmers, animal relocators, zoological establishments and legislators.

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  2. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  3. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  4. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni;

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  5. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Wendy J.; Nicholson, Katherine L.; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...

  6. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  7. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Patricia C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS. Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs, resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

  8. Control of canine rabies in developing countries: key features and animal welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, N; Karunaratna, D; Aguilar Setién, A

    2014-04-01

    Over 90% of human deaths from rabies worldwide are caused by dog bites. Mass vaccination, along with the effective control of dog populations, has been used successfully in industrialised countries to control this disease. A lower success rate in developing countries is due to a number of factors, including vaccination campaigns that do not cover a sufficient number of animals or reach all communities, and a wide biodiversity that increases the number of reservoirs of the rabies virus. Educational programmes are needed, which focus on the commitment involved when acquiring a domestic animal, stating clearly what is required to provide it with a good quality of life. New technologies developed in the industrialised world will not always be successful in less developed countries. Approaches must be adapted to the particular conditions in each country, taking cultural and socio-economic issues into account. Authorities must promote research on dog population dynamics, the development of non-invasive methods to control dog populations and the most efficient, stable and low-cost options for vaccination. Under the One Health model, it is hoped that dog-transmitted human rabies will be accorded high priority as a zoonosis by human health authorities, international authorities and donor agencies to support ambitious eradication goals, particularly those being set in South-East Asia. Well-designed and adequately resourced vaccination programmes, based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines, will have significant animal welfare benefits, due to the availability of improved vaccines (in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity, ease of administration and lower cost), advances in dog population management and the more widespread implementation of the OIE Guidelines on Stray Dog Control. Animal welfare benefits include not only the elimination of pain and suffering caused by the clinical disease itself, but also the avoidance of the indirect impact of

  9. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  10. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  11. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  12. Smart technologies for detecting animal welfare status and delivering health remedies for rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, S M

    2014-04-01

    Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing. As well as reducing hunger, this could be integrated with weather forecasting to help ensure that animals are automatically directed to areas with appropriate shelter when adverse weather is forecast. The system could also direct animals towards handling facilities when required, reducing the fear and distress associated with being mustered. The integration of the various data collected by such a 'virtual shepherd' system should be able to rapidly detect disease and injury, and sick animals could then be automatically shepherded to an enclosure for treatment. In general, rangeland livestock already have the freedom to express normal behaviour, but PLF technologies could facilitate this. By bringing levels of monitoring and control normally associated with intensive production to rangeland systems, PLF has the potential, with appropriate adoption, to enhance the capacity of rangeland livestock production systems to meet key areas of welfare concern highlighted by the Five Freedoms.

  13. Treating animal behaviour problems with sex hormones: an animal welfare issue

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.E.; McBride, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    In England and Germany, the methods used to modify unwanted animal behaviour in veterinary practices were investigated by questionnaire. The samples were created by a systematic section. Of the 216 questionnaires posted in each country, 66 replies from Germany (30.5%) and 76 from the UK (35.2%) were obtained and evaluated. The majority of veterinarians in both countries considered hormones effective in treating behaviour problems, but English veterinarians do so significantly more for cat...

  14. Human direct actions may alter animal welfare, a study on horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Lesimple

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Back pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders' postures were observed during a riding lesson. The results show that 74% of horses were severely affected by vertebral problems, while only 26% were mildly or not affected. The degree of vertebral problems identified at rest was statistically correlated with horses' attitudes at work (neck height and curve, and horses' attitudes at work were clearly correlated with riders' positions. Clear differences appeared between schools concerning both riders' and horses' postures, and the analysis of the teachers' speech content and duration highlighted differences in the attention devoted to the riders' position. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are to our knowledge the first to underline the impact of riding on horses' back problems and the importance of teaching proper balance to beginner riders in order to increase animals' welfare.

  15. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue serotype 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Oura, Chris; Saegerman, Claude;

    established by the Animal Health and Welfare Panel. Currently, three special features can be assigned to BTV-8, which are the ability to cause serious disease in cattle and goats, the ability to be transmitted transplacentally, and the ability to contaminate semen. The transplacental transmission...... and the contamination of semen are also observed for several serotypes of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines and for some cell culture/egg passaged strains. These two features may have an impact on the epidemiology of the disease, since they may increase the ability of BTV-8 to survive the winter period, for example...... of seropositive but virus negative pregnant animals, which may give birth to viraemic calves, or through natural mating or AI using BTV-8 contaminated semen by transmission from semen to receiving dam. The current legislation provides effective measures to ensure that all dams are immune to BTV before...

  16. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In any federation of states, societal oversight of farm animal welfare (agriculture policy arena, prevention) is more difficult to achieve than providing punishment of individuals abusing of companion animals (post injury). The constitutional division of powers and historical policy related to animal agriculture and non-government organization policing cruelty of companion animals may be entrenched. With changing societal expectations of agriculture production, each level of go...

  17. Assessing animal welfare impacts in the management of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European moles (Talpa europaea) and carrion crows (Corvus corone)

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Sandra E.; Trudy M Sharp; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish ...

  18. Animal welfare strengthens the quality of research. 3 million euros for a ultramodern animal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN has been studying the long-term effects of low radiation doses on health for over 40 years.This uses mice because more than 90 per cent of their genome is identical with that of human beings. In order to work better and more ethically, SCK-CEN has invested 3 million euros in a brand-new animal facility. This makes it possible to carry out research under the best possible conditions for both humans and mice.

  19. Improving animal welfare and economic sustainability in bull-fattening systems in France: A comparison of three different feeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Marie Madeleine; Lherm, Michel; Micol, Didier; Doreau, Michel; Martin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Feeding late maturing young bulls on high concentrate diets needs adjustment of both animal feeding behaviour and rumen adaptation which can be done by feeding maize silage according to researchers at the National Institute of Agronomic Research, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France who state good economic results are achievable alongside animal welfare.

  20. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    respiratory problems, skin lesions (including abscesses and hernias) and tail wounds compared to conventional pigs. On the other hand, remarks because of joint lesions and white spot livers were more common among organic pigs. The risk of parasitic infections in organic fattening pigs has been confirmed...... and conventional production. Conventional Danish herds consumed three times as much antibiotics (anthelmintics not included) as the organic herds, whilst there was no difference in mortality rate nor more pigs in need of treatment in the organic herds. Slaughter data indicated that organic pigs had fewer...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production...

  1. Economic impact of cross compliance in the field of animal welfare (Acts C18 and C16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of assessment of animal welfare at farm level on two dairy cattle farms, identification of structural and management actions to improve the animal welfare and estimate of the costs of such actions; furthermore the economic impact of the potential support under measure 215 of the Rural Development Plan was also simulated. At the time of assessment, no severe break of compliance was detected at the two farms; however some weaknesses were identified and improvement were proposed in order to maintain the current animal welfare status and avoid future failures. The two use cases showed that investments to improve animal welfare were partly self funded in the mid and long term due to the higher milk yield and the better animal health that were expected as consequence; however, in the short term, a large part of expenses was fully borne by farmers if not supported by a public grant or higher market prices. The support provided by the measure 215 is effective in rewarding farmers who undertake to adopt standards of animal husbandry which go beyond the relevant mandatory standards.

  2. Does animal welfare influence dairy farm efficiency? A two-stage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, J J; Wettemann, P J C

    2015-11-01

    This article investigated how process-based animal welfare indicators (PAI) affected the technical efficiency of German dairy farms. A sample of 115 North-Rhine Westphalian dairy farms was used to estimate their technical efficiency with data envelopment analysis. A censored regression model was then applied to quantify the effects of PAI on technical efficiency. The results indicated that in particular a higher percentage of cow losses, a higher replacement rate, and a longer calving interval had, at their respective mean, a negative marginal effect on the technical efficiency of the sample farms. In contrast, a lower age of first calving, a higher in-milk performance, and a higher somatic cell count were positively correlated with technical efficiency. Some of the PAI followed a polynomial trend (i.e., their influence on technical efficiency did not have a constant sign, and levels for minimum/maximum technical efficiency were present). The minimum efficiency score at constant returns to scale was obtained when farmers had cow losses of 0.4%, a calving interval of 430d, and a cell count of 146,000 per milliliter. However, maximum technical efficiency was obtained at a milk yield of 9,796 kg per cow and year. The corresponding amounts in case of technical efficiency under variable returns to scale were at a similar level, except that milk yield showed a positive linear influence on technical efficiency. Moreover, technical efficiency under variable returns to scale was positively correlated with the fat content of milk. The lowest level of technical efficiency was reached at a fat content of 4.1%. Subsequently, we found that efficient dairy farms did not always correspond with recommended values concerning animal welfare criteria. Finally, the results showed that the assumption of a monotone effect direction of PAI on farm efficiency was inappropriate, and that this issue would need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26364105

  3. Does animal welfare influence dairy farm efficiency? A two-stage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, J J; Wettemann, P J C

    2015-11-01

    This article investigated how process-based animal welfare indicators (PAI) affected the technical efficiency of German dairy farms. A sample of 115 North-Rhine Westphalian dairy farms was used to estimate their technical efficiency with data envelopment analysis. A censored regression model was then applied to quantify the effects of PAI on technical efficiency. The results indicated that in particular a higher percentage of cow losses, a higher replacement rate, and a longer calving interval had, at their respective mean, a negative marginal effect on the technical efficiency of the sample farms. In contrast, a lower age of first calving, a higher in-milk performance, and a higher somatic cell count were positively correlated with technical efficiency. Some of the PAI followed a polynomial trend (i.e., their influence on technical efficiency did not have a constant sign, and levels for minimum/maximum technical efficiency were present). The minimum efficiency score at constant returns to scale was obtained when farmers had cow losses of 0.4%, a calving interval of 430d, and a cell count of 146,000 per milliliter. However, maximum technical efficiency was obtained at a milk yield of 9,796 kg per cow and year. The corresponding amounts in case of technical efficiency under variable returns to scale were at a similar level, except that milk yield showed a positive linear influence on technical efficiency. Moreover, technical efficiency under variable returns to scale was positively correlated with the fat content of milk. The lowest level of technical efficiency was reached at a fat content of 4.1%. Subsequently, we found that efficient dairy farms did not always correspond with recommended values concerning animal welfare criteria. Finally, the results showed that the assumption of a monotone effect direction of PAI on farm efficiency was inappropriate, and that this issue would need to be addressed in future research.

  4. Cultivating a Value for Non-Human Interests through the Convergence of Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Kopnina; Brett Cherniak

    2015-01-01

    While the original objective of environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD) acquired an awareness of the natural world and its current plight, animal welfare (AW), animal rights (AR), and deep ecology (DE) have often been absent within EE and ESD. AW and AR focus their attention on individual animals, while the DE perspective recognizes the intrinsic value of the environment. In this article, we shall discuss how the integration of these three approaches withi...

  5. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  6. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  7. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  8. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J;

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others......Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  9. Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

    2012-11-01

    Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs.

  10. State of the Animal: monitoring animal welfare and health in The Netherlands (0-measurement) : summary, full report is available in Dutch (report 323)

    OpenAIRE

    Leenstra, F.R.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hanekamp, W.J.A.; Vermeij, I.; Ipema, A.H.; Jong, A.R.; Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document over het effect van het dierenwelzijns- en diergezondheidsbeleid van LNV is. Deze eerste rapportage betreft een nulmeting. Bij herhaalde metingen geeft de rapportage inzicht in de ontwikkeling. In 25 meetpunten zijn de resultaten voor beleidsdoelen op het gebied van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid in beeld gebracht25 measuring points summarise the results of policy measures for animal welfare and health in The Netherlands

  11. Five plus three: legislating for the Five Freedoms and the Three Rs--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Neil; Nicholson, Judith

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand) commenced on 1 January 2000. Rather than focusing on punishing cruelty, the Act establishes a positive duty of care that every owner or person in charge of an animal must provide for its physical, health and behavioural needs. The Five Freedoms, which were initiated by the Farm Animal Welfare Council (UK), were modified as the five basic needs of animals, relating to proper and sufficient food and water, adequate shelter, the ability to display normal patterns of behaviour, physical handling that minimises distress and protection from and rapid diagnosis of injury or disease. Minimum standards are provided in a series of codes of welfare, which is tertiary legislation under the Act. Promotion of the Three Rs--reduction, refinement and replacement--first championed by Russell & Burch, have been incorporated as a purpose of Part 6 of the Act, which restricts projects that use animals, and establishes codes of ethical conduct and animal ethics committees. The legislative process that enabled this to be realised is examined and analysed, and the process by which other Commonwealth countries have emulated this legislation is considered.

  12. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( animal welfare audit protocols are important sources of variation in the behavioral response of pigs to preslaughter handling and may affect pork quality variation. However, the different live weight between CON and AWIRS pigs may have biased the meat quality results in this study.

  13. On-farm assessment of laying hen welfare: a comparison of one environment-based and two animal-based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Methods available to assess animal welfare at farm level are based on a range of welfare parameters, which can be divided into two categories, environment-based and animal-based parameters. The first category describes features of the environment and management, which can be considered prerequisites

  14. Producing consumer acceptable wool - A challenge for Australian sheep farmers facing animal welfare boycotts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is a complex and demanding business and now is further complicated by consumers expecting greater care for the welfare of livestock and the environment. Meeting the expectations of customers while at the same time trying to make a living on a family farm is becoming far more difficult. Gone is the time when farmers, wherever they are, could rely on the image of idyllic rural scenes as a way of fulfilling the 'promise' of clean, green and ethically produced product. Australia, for many, still conjures up the image of a wide brown land with stockman droving contented sheep to shady riverbanks. However, this is changing as consumers become aware of current sheep management practices such as mulesing, which is portrayed as a barbaric act by animal welfare lobby groups. Since the early 1850's Australia has produced high quality apparel wool from Merino sheep, but early in the 20th century problems with sheep dying from 'flystrike' (infestations of maggots from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina), reached epidemic proportions, which threatened the industry with collapse. A history of selecting sheep with heavy fleeces and many skin wrinkles to produce more wool made them easy targets for the blowfly. This is because with extra wool around the tail area, then soiled with faecal material, the chances of infestation increase substantially. Sheep in Australia are run in big flocks on large properties (500 - 100,000ha) at low stocking rates (1-10 ewes/ha) and are usually managed by a single family. This means that it is very difficult to monitor sheep individually, on a daily basis, and also means that any control technique requires minimal intervention, and cannot be recurrent. To deal with these problems, research and development organisations began investigating methods of control and by the early 1950s, a surgical procedure called 'mulesing was developed. Mulesing involves stripping the skin away from the area around the anus and tail at three

  15. [Problems in the energy and nutritional requirements of feeding and welfare of food producing animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    1998-03-01

    science of animal nutrition gets more and more involved in questions on the species depending requirements that guarantee a physiological development of the animal, health and normal behaviour. There is an increased need to create and evaluate parameters that can be used for characterization animals' well-being related to different feeding strategies. Without any doubts it is a special task to veterinary nutritionists to point out risks, problems, conflicting aims when the feeding intensity is forced continuously. The slogan "back to nature" is too simple and does not correspond to the complexity of efforts which are suitable and necessary to meet animals' energy and nutrient requirements as well as demands of animals' welfare. Eventually it is helpful to remember sometimes the limits set up by the biology and physiology when feeding intensity or techniques are on debate. PMID:9581384

  16. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “A Life Worth Living”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Mellor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words ‘freedom from’ should indicate ‘as free as possible from’, the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals’ perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide

  17. Nonprofit financial assessment and research service learning: Evaluating the performance of an animal welfare nonprofit organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Maguire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.

  18. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Colditz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  19. The Customer Isn't Always Right—Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P.; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Baker, Sandra E.; D'Cruze, Neil C.; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20–40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6–6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists’ feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500–13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000–340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000–550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide. PMID:26489092

  20. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A L; Baker, Sandra E; D'Cruze, Neil C; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide. PMID:26489092

  1. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P Moorhouse

    Full Text Available Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  2. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers).

  3. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers). PMID:26206166

  4. 动物实验机构与动物福利关系研究%Research on relationship between animal experiment institution and animal welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    增振山; 王瑜; 刘福英

    2013-01-01

    阐述在动物实验机构中落实动物福利原则与做好动物实验工作之间的关系.说明什么是“动物福利”和动物实验的伦理原则及其与提高动物实验质量之间的关系,提出若干措施,例如通过人员培训、制定合理的实验操作规程以及积极参加国内、国际认证等措施,以促进与国际接轨、提高动物实验质量及研究成果的权威性.%To elaborate the relationship between implementation of animal welfare principles and do animal experiments well in animal experiment agencies. Explain what animal welfare is and ethical principles of animal experiments and their relationship with the quality of animal experiments, and then put forward several measures , such as personnel training, formulating reasonable operating procedures and actively participating in domestic and international certification, so as to promote its integration with internation, and improve the quality of animal experiments and authority of research achievement.

  5. The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning, Workshop report FIBL. In: CORE Organic project no. 1903 - ANIPLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Alfoeldi, Thomas; Gantner, Urs; Vaarst, Mette; Algers, Bo; Nicholas, Phillipa; Gratzer, Elisabeth; Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Mejdell, Cecilie; Hansen, Berit; Whay, Becky; Walkenhorst, Michael; Smolders, Gidi; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Hassing, M.; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning. Livestock are important in many organic farming systems, and it is an explicit goal to ensure high levels of animal health and welfare (AHW) through good management. In two previous EU network projects, NAHWOA & SAFO, it was concluded that this is not guaranteed merely by following organic standards. Both networks recommended implementation of individual animal health plans to stimulate organ...

  6. The impact of organic livestock standards on animal welfare – a questionnaire survey of advisors, inspectors and veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Hovi, Malla; Kossaibati, Mohamad; Bennett, Richard; Edwards, Sandra A; Robertson, Jamie; Roderick, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. A questionnaire survey of organic sector body inspectors, organic advisors and farm animal veterinarians was conducted to examine the respondents’ perceptions of the ability of the organic standards to deliver positive impacts on welfare of organic livestock. A total of 44 separate standards concerning livestock production were extracted from the United Kingdom Register of Organic Food Production livestock production standa...

  7. Transatlantic Trade Disputes on Health, Environmental and Animal Welfare Standards: Background to Regulatory Divergence and Possible Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Perišin, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the pattern and background of transatlantic trade disputes where the US and Canada have challenged EU health, environmental or animal welfare. It shows that, in principle, the EU maintains stricter (or arguably higher) standards in these areas, partly due to some historic events or societal characteristics which make Europeans more risk averse, and partly due to the nature of the EU supranational regulatory process. The paper examines whether and how th...

  8. Knowledge synthesis: Animal health and welfare in organic pig production - Final Report COREPIG

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Bochicchio, David; Edwards, Sandra; Hegelund, Lene; Leeb, Christine; Heinonen, Mari; Maupertuis, F.; Werne, Steffen; Wiberg, Sophia; Mejer, Helena; PRUNIER, Armelle; Roepstorff, Allan; Lubac, Stanislas; Bonde, Marianne; Rousing, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews the available information on the welfare of pigs when maintained according to organic standards in Europe. It begins by overviewing the populations of organic pigs in different countries at the time of writing (2007), the organic standards which govern their management and the systems in which they are typically kept. It then reviews for each stage in the production cycle (sows, suckling piglets, weaned pigs and fattening pigs) the available literature on health and welfar...

  9. Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” by Updating the “Five Provisions” and Introducing Aligned “Animal Welfare Aims”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Mellor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Five Freedoms paradigm has been very influential in shaping animal welfare thinking for the last two decades, it has two key disadvantages. First, the focus on “freedom” from a range of negative experiences and states has been misunderstood in a number of quarters to mean that complete freedom from these experiences and states is possible, when in fact the best that can be achieved is for them to be minimised. Second, the major focus of the Freedoms on negative experiences and states is now seen to be a disadvantage in view of current understanding that animal welfare management should also include the promotion of positive experiences and states. The challenge therefore was to formulate a paradigm that overcame these two main problems and yet was straightforward enough to be accessible to non-specialists, including members of the lay public who are interested in animal welfare. This was achieved by highlighting the Five Provisions, originally aligned with the Five Freedoms, but now updated to direct welfare management towards activities that both minimise negative experiences or states and promote positive experiences or states as specified by particular Animal Welfare Aims assigned to each Provision. Aspects of the four welfare principles from the European Welfare Quality assessment system (WQ ® and elements of all domains of the Five Domains Model for animal welfare assessment have been incorporated into the new Five Provisions/Welfare Aims paradigm. Thus, the paradigm is easily understood and provides clear guidance on beneficial objectives for animal welfare management. It is anticipated that the paradigm will have application to many species found in a wide range of circumstances.

  10. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare. PMID:27130220

  11. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan; Ferdowsian, Hope; Durham, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than pre-AWA rates. However, when we attempted to determine those rates from published studies, data were too sparse to allow a rigorous statistical analysis; of 139 studies reporting primate self-harming behavior, only 9 contained data allowing estimation of self-harming behavior rates. We conclude that the current system of laboratory animal care and record keeping is inadequate to properly assess AWA impacts on primate psychological well being and that more is required to ensure the psychological well being of primates.

  12. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.; Blok, V.; Tulder, van R.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the proces

  13. El bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos - The animal welfare in the reproduction and production of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2007-12-01

    animals to live under the best possible conditions, without suffering unnecessary physical or psychological sufferings. For all the animal ones and especially for those whose destination will be to serve from source of foods to the man, the ethical commitment is intensified of offering them along its productive life the best conditions possible of habitat, sanity, handling, feeding and cares in general. At the present time,concepts of animal well-being, are question of complex and multifaceted public interest that includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions. To be a topic ofgrowing importance in the society, the animal welfare must approach nowadays on true scientific bases. The causes of the problems of animal welfare, are due to the erroneous perception about the animals, as beings that don't feel and that therefore, they are not able to suffer. It is easy that negative attitudes are developed toward the animals, that which isreflected in behaviors of negligence, cruelty or disrespectful treatment. The producers, veterinary doctors, as well as the society in general, concientes of the care of the animals,knows the importance about knowing the aspects of the comfort of the animals since the physiology, the development and the behavior of the animal they are affected by the bad environmental conditions, of production and of handling in general. In this review, aspects related with the animal welfares are presented in the reproduction and production of pigs.

  14. Does accreditation by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) ensure greater compliance with animal welfare laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Justin R; Chandna, Alka; Borch, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Accreditation of nonhuman animal research facilities by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC) is widely considered the "gold standard" of commitment to the well being of nonhuman animals used in research. AAALAC-accredited facilities receive preferential treatment from funding agencies and are viewed favorably by the general public. Thus, it bears investigating how well these facilities comply with U.S. animal research regulations. In this study, the incidences of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) at AAALAC-accredited facilities were evaluated and compared to those at nonaccredited institutions during a period of 2 years. The analysis revealed that AAALAC-accredited facilities were frequently cited for AWA noncompliance items (NCIs). Controlling for the number of animals at each facility, AAALAC-accredited sites had significantly more AWA NCIs on average compared with nonaccredited sites. AAALAC-accredited sites also had more NCIs related to improper veterinary care, personnel qualifications, and animal husbandry. These results demonstrate that AAALAC accreditation does not improve compliance with regulations governing the treatment of animals in laboratories.

  15. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on foot-and-mouth disease in Thrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Salman, Mo;

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  16. To inspect, to motivate - or to do both? A dilemma for on-farm inspection of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    inspector. This paper presents the results of an interview-study into how Danish animal welfare inspectors view their own role and tasks. In the main results, a theme of disagreement presented itself and revealed different attitudes in terms of the possibility of engaging in a dialogue with the farmers....... The first theme focused on the preventive aspect. The second had its focus on compliance and on the avoidance of engaging in dialogue with the farmer regarding the reasons for the regulations. Moreover, a theme of agreement showed interpretation as unavoidable. We discuss how the points of view...

  17. Scientific Opinion concerning a Multifactorial approach on the use of animal and non-animal-based measures to assess the welfare of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pigs have a need for manipulable materials to satisfy a range of behavioural needs, which can be different in different classes of pig. When these needs are not met, a range of adverse welfare consequences result, one of these being an increased risk for tail-biting in weaners and rearing pigs. The ability to control the risk of tail-biting is essential when aiming to avoid tail-docking. Based on available scientific information this Opinion identifies the multiple interactions between risk factors, welfare consequences and animal and non-animal-based measures on the two subjects requested (i the absence of functional manipulable materials, for pigs at different stages in life and (ii tail-biting, for weaners and rearing pigs only. An attempt is made to quantify the relationships between the identified interactions by carrying out a statistical analysis of information from available databases, those being an international dataset collected using the Welfare Quality® protocol, which   was not designed to evaluate risk factors for tail-biting and therefore, it had limitations in fitness for this analysis, and a large Finnish dataset with undocked pigs. Based on the current state of knowledge, the AHAW Panel proposes two simple tool-boxes for on farm use to assess (i the functionality of the supplied manipulable material and (ii the presence and strength of risk factors for tail biting. Both proposed tool-boxes include a combination of the most important resource-based and animal-based measures. Further development and validation of decision–support tools for customised farm assessment is strongly recommended and a proposal for harmonised data collection across the range of European farming circumstances is presented. A series of further recommendations are made by the AHAW Panel.

  18. Atribuições da carne de frango relevantes ao consumidor: foco no bem-estar animal Broiler meat characteristics relevant to the consumer: focus on animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Bonamigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o comportamento dos consumidores de carne de frango em relação ao bem-estar animal e à disposição em pagar mais por produtos com certificação para esse atributo de qualidade. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa de mercado com consumidores de carne de frango da cidade de Curitiba, Paraná. Uma análise prévia foi realizada com peritos da cadeia avícola para estruturação do questionário. Após esta fase, 481 consumidores foram entrevistados. Perguntas objetivas resultaram em informações gerais e imagens de produtos hipotéticos geraram informações sobre a atitude de compra utilizando análise conjunta e posterior simulação de mercado. Os atributos mais observados na hora da compra foram validade, preço, cor e odor. O bem-estar animal inicialmente foi considerado pela minoria (3,7%. Dos entrevistados, 68,5% não conhecem o sistema de produção, porém, depois de observar fotos dos sistemas, acreditam que o modelo semiintensivo proporciona melhor bem-estar e resulte em produtos de melhor qualidade. Na análise conjunta, preço baixo, produção com melhores condições de bem-estar animal, carne firme e rosada e produção sem antibióticos são, respectivamente, as características com maiores valores de utilidade. O atributo de maior importância foi o preço (34,1%, seguido do tipo de carne (24,6%, bem-estar animal (24,1% e utilização de antibióticos (17,0%. Na simulação de mercado, 70,9% dos consumidores pagariam mais por produtos que com certificação de bem-estar animal e carne firme e rosada. A baixa importância inicial do bem-estar animal para o consumidor pode estar relacionada à falta de conhecimento acerca dos sistemas produtivos, portanto o acesso a informações a respeito pode incentivar o pagamento por esse atributo.The objective of this experiment was to study the behavior of chicken consumer, with emphasis on animal welfare and on the willingness to pay a higher value

  19. Dairy farmers' use and non-use values in animal welfare: Determining the empirical content and structure with anchored best-worst scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior.

  20. Current strategies for animal welfare in the food service sector in Norway, UK and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Higgin, Marc; Roe, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Food service is a vast and diverse market within Europe, and the world, as such it is notoriously hard to define. The definition used here has been the commercial provision of prepared food and/or drink to people who are away from their homes, for consumption shortly after purchase. The structure of the food service markets for Norway, Italy and Sweden is outlined in Chapter 26. This includes in-depth account of the current and potential market for welfare-friendlier foodstuffs in these count...

  1. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( < 0.001) during unloading and a greater ( = 0.02) frequency of falls in the stunning chute. A greater ( = 0.02) reluctance to move at loading was found in CON pigs loaded by driver A compared with driver B, whereas a greater ( < 0.001) reluctance to move was found in these pigs at unloading when they were unloaded by driver B. Drip loss was higher ( = 0.003) and pale, soft, and exudative pork percentage was greater ( < 0.001) in the LL muscle of the heavier AWIRS pigs. The GHO principle was best correlated with pHu ( = -0.75, = 0.01) and Minolta L* value ( = 0.87, < 0.001) of the LL muscle. Overall, drip

  2. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  3. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  4. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  5. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  6. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider Erich; Hofmann-Amtenbrinck Margarethe; von Rechenberg Brigitte; Claes Lutz; Price Jill; Pearce Simon; Arnoczky Steven; Goodship Allen; Auer Jorg A; Müller-Terpitz R; Thiele F; Rippe Klaus-Peter; Grainger David W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musc...

  7. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    " in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based......European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... in herd prevalence of the mentioned parameters. Statistical analyses showed that a sample size of 125 adult mink was a robus estimate of the herd level of animal based measures....

  8. [Treatment of vertebrates according to Section 4 of the Animal Welfare Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormuth, H J

    1992-01-01

    Relating to Section 4 of the Animal Protection Act "Operations on animals", general principles and arguments of the animal protection law are demonstrated; questions about painfulness and necessity of operations on vertebrates are discussed considering the recent states of knowledge and practice. Problems mainly relate to the sensation of pain in juvenile animals during operations without anaesthesia, and to castration and amputation (tails, horns, beaks, combs/wattles, teeth) as well as to destruction or removal of tissues (notching or perforation of ears) in various animal species. Finally, it is recommended to question the indispensability of operations both continuously and more frequently, and to anaesthetize young animals for specified operations despite the legal possibility to dispense from anaesthesia.

  9. [The logical basis in the sense of section 17 number 1 of the Animal Welfare Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabenbauer, K

    1992-01-01

    Since 1972 in Germany it is not allowed to kill vertebrates without a "reasonable reason". This is laid down in article 17 (1) of the Animal Protection Act. This theme--killing of animals--is one of the taboos in our society. The legislative background of killing vertebrates in regard to the "reasonable reason" is reported. Examples are given to illustrate the range of "reasonable reasons" for which animals are killed today.

  10. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    D.M. BROOM

    2013-01-01

    Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage ani...

  11. The Use of Feeding Behaviour in the Assessment of Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Birte; Jong, Ingrid; Devries, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is an important aspect of animal production, as it constitutes the link between the feed provided and that which is consumed. Measures of feeding behaviour can be used as a tool with which to gauge how an animal perceives the diet offered, as well as its motivation to feed, i.e. its level of hunger. The feed intake of an animal may also depend on the presentation of the food, the previous experience of the animal with a given food, and to what extent other competing motivati...

  12. 黑龙江东北虎林园的东北虎福利现状%Animal Welfare Situation in Heilongjiang Siberian Tiger Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英杰; 臧文晶; 邹丽梅

    2014-01-01

    By making animal welfare issues questionnaire , we took 74 animal keepers as samples to investigates the current situ-ation and problems of animal welfare in Heilongjiang Siberian Tiger Park .Now, animal welfare in Siberian Tiger Park is more perfect as a whole and animal welfare levels are relatively high , but the specific welfare issues are still flawed , and need to be improved constantly .%以黑龙江东北虎林园的74名饲养员为样本,以调查问卷的方式,调查分析了黑龙江东北虎林园的东北虎福利的现状及存在的问题。结果表明:目前黑龙江东北虎林园的东北虎福利,整体上趋于完善,福利水平相对较高;但在具体福利问题上,仍存在瑕疵,需要不断进行完善。

  13. De-Domestication: Ethics at the Intersection of Landscape Restoration and Animal Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamborg, C.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Christiansen, S.B.; Sandoe, P.

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme, aimed

  14. Register-based predictors of violations of animal welfare legislation in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Nina; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Thomsen, Peter T.;

    2014-01-01

    AWL) defined as occurrence of at least one of the two most frequently violated measures found at recent inspections in Denmark, namely (a) presence of injured animals not separated from the rest of the group and/or (b) animals in a condition warranting euthanasia still being present in the herd. A total of 25...

  15. Hazard identification and characterization of welfare aspects during transport of farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Leenstra, F.R.; Lambooij, E.

    2008-01-01

    Within the EU, free movement of animals from one Member State to another and more uniformity among production animals and production systems has resulted in more long distance transport from farm to farm or from farm to slaughterhouse. Since there is a lot of discussion about transport of farm anima

  16. Every silver lining has a cloud: the scientific and animal welfare issues surrounding a new approach to the production of transgenic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The scientific basis and advantages of using recently developed CRISPR/Cas-9 technology for transgenesis have been assessed with respect to other production methods, laboratory animal welfare, and the scientific relevance of transgenic models of human diseases in general. As the new technology is straightforward, causes targeted DNA double strand breaks and can result in homozygous changes in a single step, it is more accurate and more efficient than other production methods and speeds up transgenesis. CRISPR/Cas-9 also obviates the use of embryonic stem cells, and is being used to generate transgenic non-human primates (NHPs). While the use of this method reduces the level of animal wastage resulting from the production of each new strain, any long-term contribution to reduction will be offset by the overall increase in the numbers of transgenic animals likely to result from its widespread usage. Likewise, the contribution to refinement of using a more-precise technique, thereby minimising the occurrence of unwanted genetic effects, will be countered by a probable substantial increase in the production of transgenic strains of increasingly sentient species. For ethical and welfare reasons, we believe that the generation of transgenic NHPs should be allowed only in extremely exceptional circumstances. In addition, we present information, which, on both welfare and scientific grounds, leads us to question the current policy of generating ever-more new transgenic models in light of the general failure of many of them, after over two decades of ubiquitous use, to result in significant advances in the understanding and treatment of many key human diseases. Because this unsatisfactory situation is likely to be due to inherent, as well as possibly avoidable, limitations in the transgenic approach to studying disease, which are briefly reviewed, it is concluded that a thorough reappraisal of the rationale for using genetically-altered animals in fundamental research and

  17. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  18. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Whiting

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  19. Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Lidster, K.; Jefferys, JG; I. Blümcke; Crunelli, V.; Flecknell, P; Frenguelli, BG; Gray, WP; Kaminski, R.; Pitkänen, A.; Ragan, I; Shah, M.; Simonato, M; Trevelyan, A; Volk, H; Walker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of epilepsy and seizures, mostly involving mice and rats, are used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of epilepsy and their comorbidities, to identify biomarkers, and to discover new antiepileptic drugs and treatments for comorbidities. Such models represent an important area for application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use). This report provides background information and recommendations aimed at minimising pain, suffering an...

  20. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Bos; Blok, V.; Tulder, van, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the process, from opposition to alignment, are analyzed and general implications are derived. The process follows four stages: (1) adopting a strategy to cooperate in order to overcome a legitimacy crisis, (...

  1. [Animal welfare-conforming fallow deer farming in Germany--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, D; von Borell, E

    2002-09-01

    Fallow deer farming for venison production on pasture and fallow land has gained importance in Germany during recent years. As fallow deer farming constitutes a relatively young farming practice, many questions concerning a welfare-conforming and ecologically sound keeping of fallow deer are still open. Based on the recommendations on the keeping of fallow deer in enclosures for the purpose of venison meat production including by-products from 2 November 1979, a critical comparative review considering the current knowledge from research and practical deer farming experience was conducted. Recommendations on measures for breeding management and administration (statistics on farms and stocks, security and control of enclosures, training and experience of stockperson, practical skills for immobilisation and killing) are proposed. The cultivation goals for the care of landscape by fallow deer farming in protected areas need to be defined precisely. Due to infection risk, mixed herds with domesticated ruminants are not recommended. Potential progress can be foreseen in preventive health measures (control of endoparasites) and by appropriate feeding and water supply, considering feeding and drinking place design, feeding behaviour and water needs. The knowledge on handling and immobilisation methods should also be applied to small herd sizes. More research is needed on transportation of fallow deer.

  2. [Implementation of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act on the basis of the so-called "Quality Breeding" Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J

    2004-03-01

    Enforcement of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act is a responsibility of breeders and their organisations as well as executive local authorities. The Report on Defective Breeds of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture describes numerous breeding traits which are in conflict with animal welfare and gives valuable information for fancy or pet breeding. Yet a selection has to be made for taking legal actions, following specific criteria. With four examples different cases are presented, each requiring a different approach by the veterinarian authorities. Court decisions in Hessen concerning bans on breeding white cats and crested ducks show that the paragraph 11b is executable.

  3. The Animal Welfare Requirements When Slaughtering Poultry%活禽屠宰中的动物福利要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade Spence

    2015-01-01

    许多国家的法律已经明确规定食用动物的屠宰应使用人道主义方式。一些消费者提出,先击昏动物再进行宰杀,是一种更人道、先进、符合消费者需求的屠宰方式。屠宰动物是残忍的,所以应当充分考虑如何改进宰杀手段及宰杀程序,最大限度地减少对屠宰动物的不良影响。本文综述了人道屠宰的科学原理,并详尽阐述了不同规模屠宰系统(例如:屠宰厂、农场),以及在疫病控制或出现自然灾害等需要大量屠宰活禽时如何改善动物福利的问题。%Humane slaughter of animals that are farmed for food is a legal requirement in many countries. Many retail customers require animals to be stunned prior to killing,using the most humane,state-of-the-art methods available, which many consumers find appealing. The killing of animals is never pleasant but it is important to constructively consider how the killing is performed and how the procedure might be continuously improved,in order to minimize adverse effects on the animals. This review discusses the scientific principles of humane slaughter and describes how to protect animal welfare when slaughtering poultry in a slaughterhouse and on-farm,and when mass-killing poultry for disease control or during natural disasters.

  4. Animal welfare: What are the relationships between physiological and behavioural measures of adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, S.; Auperin, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Geverink, N.A.; Jones, B.C.; Lepage, O.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Mormede, P.; Prunet, P.; Beaumont, C.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the behavioural adaptation of an animal to its environment is complex, notably because numerous criteria can be taken into consideration. A better understanding of the relationships between criteria, particularly between behavioural and physiological respon-ses, might help reduce the numbe

  5. [Legal consideration of permit issuance under Article 11 par. 1 no. 3 letter(d) of the German Animal Welfare Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekler, Marc

    2008-03-01

    The article looks at the legal situation concerning the permission for commercial activities with animals due to Article 11 par. 1 no.3 (d) of the German Animal Welfare Act, in particular in combination with activities at changing places. Regardingly the German legislator has recently (especially since 1998) started to approach the problems of animal welfare by adopting specific regulations, e. g. by enacting an obligation to inform the authority of the planned change of place of activity. Currently the legislator discusses an extension of the enabling act for an ordinance by the Federal Government on the central register for circusses. Standardized data collection and transmission shall contribute to an effective control of the companies' compliance with animal welfare law. Article 11 par. 2a of the German Animal Welfare Act is an important regulation concerning activities at changing places. It allows to combine the permission with time limits, conditions and impositions of duties. Such collateral clauses can be set down to keep an animal stock book or--in a wider sense--a documentation of the company's activities to guarantee an effective control by the authority. In the case of American rodeo shows it is to mention that collateral clauses to introduce more animal welfare are imposed by the local authorities responsible for the area where the shows will take place rather than by the authority which actually has given the permission. The authorities have to distinguish subsequent collateral clauses or directives on one hand and the revocation of the permission on the other hand, since in this case the requirements are more strict. The recent preliminary judicial decisions of the administrative courts concerning this legal problem are contradictory so that they cannot serve as a guideline for the authorities.

  6. Emotions and social movements: The case of the animal rights and welfare movement in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelisaveta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons behind the differences between the organizations dealing with the animal protection and the other environmental organizations. In that sense, the focus of our analysis is the grassroots character of these organizations/associations as well as the emotional basis of the member participation/mobilization. We draw upon the data gathered through the interviews with the organizations' representatives as well as through the analysis of other sources of information such as websites, internet presentations and annual reports of animal protection organizations. For the comparative purposes, we use a part of the material gathered in the semi-structured interviews with the representatives of the fifty Serbian environmental organizations.

  7. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the

  8. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Verga; Manuela Michelazzi

    2010-01-01

    The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular) in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, e...

  9. Options for managing animal welfare on intensive pig farms confined by movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Roche, S E; Wicks, R M; de Witte, K; Garner, M G

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include restriction of movement of live animals within defined disease control zones. Experiences from outbreaks in other countries show that restrictions that limit the ability to turn off stock can lead to animal welfare compromise on intensively managed farms that are not infected with the disease. Intensive pig farms are considered to be at high risk of developing welfare problems during a control program due to the imposed movement restrictions and limited space available to house growing pigs. This study was designed to investigate strategies that could be used to mitigate animal welfare problems on intensive pig farms during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in a livestock dense region of Australia. Three strategies for managing farms affected by animal welfare problems were assessed, including on-farm culling of grower and finisher pigs, on-farm culling of finisher pigs only, and permit-based movement of finisher pigs to slaughter at abattoir. Under traditional approaches of giving infected premises (IP) priority over culling of farms with welfare problems (WP), delays of up to 25 days were experienced prior to culling of WPs. Deployment of vaccination did little to reduce the delay to culling of WPs. These delays were sensitive to resources available for control, with reduced resources increasing the time until welfare problems were addressed. Assigning equal priority to all farms requiring culling regardless of status as IP or WP and culling each as they arose reduced the delay to culling of WPs to no more than 4 days without large increases in either the duration or the size of the outbreaks observed.

  10. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  11. On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame-  ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con-  cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat-  tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed  that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52  to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for  cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo  farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W  = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In  all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor  (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P  stepping (P  nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance  (P  that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P  criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms

  12. Local knowledge held by farmers in Eastern Tyrol (Austria) about the use of plants to maintain and improve animal health and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Christian R; Vogl-Lukasser, Brigitte; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background The sustainable management of animal health and welfare is of increasing importance to consumers and a key topic in the organic farming movement. Few systematic studies have been undertaken investigating farmers’ local knowledge related to this issue. Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) is a discipline focusing on local knowledge and folk methods in veterinary medicine, however most ethnoveterinarian studies primarily address the treatment of animal diseases. Very few studies have explo...

  13. Captive housing during water vole (Arvicola terrestris reintroduction: does short-term social stress impact on animal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals captive bred for reintroduction are often housed under conditions which are not representative of their preferred social structure for at least part of the reintroduction process. Specifically, this is most likely to occur during the final stages of the release programme, whilst being housed during transportation to the release site. The degree of social stress experienced by individuals during this time may negatively impact upon their immunocompetence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined two measure of stress--body weight and Leukocyte Coping Capacity (LCC--to investigate the effects of group size upon captive-bred water voles destined for release within a reintroduction program. Water voles were housed in laboratory cages containing between one and eight individuals. LCC scores were negatively correlated with group size, suggesting that individuals in larger groups experienced a larger degree of immuno-suppression than did individuals housed in smaller groups or individually. During the course of the study mean body weights increased, in contrast to expectations from a previous study. This was attributed to the individuals sampled being sub-adults and thus growing in length and weight during the course of the investigation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reintroduction process will inevitably cause some stress to the release cohort. However, for water voles we conclude that the stress experienced may be reduced by decreasing group size within captive colony and/or transportation housing practises. These findings are of significance to other species' reintroductions, in highlighting the need to consider life-history strategies when choosing housing systems for animals being maintained in captivity prior to release to the wild. A reduction in stress experienced at the pre-release stage may improve immunocompetence and thus animal welfare and initial survival post-release.

  14. Discussion on the Problem of Animal Welfare in the Course of Animal Experimental Teaching of Basic Medicine%基础医学动物实验教学过程中动物福利问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明昊; 李亚萍; 李玉洁; 孙曙光; 潘晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Animal is commonly used as the test object in the experimental teaching of basic medicine.For a long time, the teachers have being faced with the fact that how to seek the pathways to solve the matter of animal welfare in the experimental teaching.It is important for us to help medical students to build the concept of protecting the experimental animal’ s welfare in classroom teaching.The author discussed how to carry out the education of animal welfare from four aspects of the concept of animal welfare, the status of animal experiment, the implementation of 3R principle and ecological philosophy.The aim is to provide reference for the animal welfare education in the animal experimental teaching.%在基础医学实验教学中,动物常被用作实验对象,而实验教学中动物福利问题一直受到人们的关注。在课堂教学中,培养医药专业学生树立保护动物福利的观念具有重要意义。笔者从动物福利含义、动物实验教学现状、3R原则的实施及生态哲学理论等几个方面出发,对如何开展动物福利教育进行了论述,旨在为高校动物实验教学中开展动物福利教育提供参考。

  15. 基础医学动物实验教学过程中动物福利问题的探讨%Discussion on the Problem of Animal Welfare in the Course of Animal Experimental Teaching of Basic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明昊; 李亚萍; 李玉洁; 孙曙光; 潘晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Animal is commonly used as the test object in the experimental teaching of basic medicine.For a long time, the teachers have being faced with the fact that how to seek the pathways to solve the matter of animal welfare in the experimental teaching.It is important for us to help medical students to build the concept of protecting the experimental animal’ s welfare in classroom teaching.The author discussed how to carry out the education of animal welfare from four aspects of the concept of animal welfare, the status of animal experiment, the implementation of 3R principle and ecological philosophy.The aim is to provide reference for the animal welfare education in the animal experimental teaching.%在基础医学实验教学中,动物常被用作实验对象,而实验教学中动物福利问题一直受到人们的关注。在课堂教学中,培养医药专业学生树立保护动物福利的观念具有重要意义。笔者从动物福利含义、动物实验教学现状、3R原则的实施及生态哲学理论等几个方面出发,对如何开展动物福利教育进行了论述,旨在为高校动物实验教学中开展动物福利教育提供参考。

  16. Environment Enrichment and Animal Welfare Management at Zoos%动物园环境丰容与动物福利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢绪昌; 范志强

    2012-01-01

    环境丰容是我国动物园近十几年来新接触的概念。近年来,环境丰容逐渐地被引入到我国动物园的建设和管理中,我国动物园相继开展丰容的相关工作,并取得了一定的成效,是动物园工作中的一个热门话题。动物福利是动物的一种康乐状态。开展动物福利,对于人类、自然及社会的和谐发展有着重要的作用。要强化和完善我国的动物福利保护,必须明确动物福利的管理,确定有关的强制性法律规范,提高民众的动物福利意识。本文简要介绍了丰容原则、内容和动物福利的管理,为动物园今后更好地开展环境丰容的相关工作和如何提高动物福利的问题提供借鉴。%Environment enrichment is a new concept for zoos in China in recent decades. In recent years, environment enrich- ment is increasingly used in the construction and management of zoos. Related work has been done in many zoos with some suc- cess~ and environment enrichment is a popular topic in zoo management. Animal welfare is the well - being of animals and it plays an important role in the harmonious development of people, nature and society. We should strengthen and complete animal welfare in China, ensure animal welfare management, develop laws, and enhance the consciousness of animal welfare. In this paper, we introduce the principles and content of environment enrichment and animal welfare management, and provide a refer- ence for environment enrichment and animal welfare management in zoos.

  17. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  18. Overall welfare assessment of laying hens: Comparing science-based, environmental-based and animal-based assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimmura, T.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Mol, de R.M.; Hirahara, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes measurem

  19. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  20. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  1. El Bienestar Animal aplicado al transporte y la faena para consumo humano. (The animal welfare applied to the transport and the slaughter for consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Restano, Alvaro.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenNumerosos trabajos de investigación han demostrado la incidencia sobre la calidad final de la carne del inadecuado manejo de los animales tanto en el transporte omo en la etapa previa a la faena. Personalmente consideramos que es necesario considerar también el trato dado al ganado durante toda su vida y en especial dentro de los 15 a 30 días antes del embarque. Los perjuicios económicos han sidocuantificados ascendiendo a varios millones de dólares en donde interviene el nivel de machucamiento y las pérdidas por carnes con pHu elevado generalmente puestas en evidencia por el color oscuro de las mismas. Los problemas citados son el reflejo de una irresponsable falta de atención al bienestar de los animales. En el presente trabajo se brindan recomendaciones para optimizar la presente situación concretamente en las etapas del transporte y el manejo antemortem en el establecimiento de faena.AbstractVarious research works have demonstrated the effect on the final quality of the meat of the inadequate management of the animals both during the transport and previous to the slaughter. Personally we think that it is necessary to also consider the treatment given to the cattle during all its life and especially during the 15 to 30 days before the shipment. The economic prejudices have been quantified to be several million dollars, where the main causes are the level of bruising and the meats with high pHu generally put in evidence by their dark color. The mentioned problems are the evidence of an irresponsible lack of attention to animal welfare. In the present work recommendations are made in order to optimize the presentsituation particularly in the stages of transportation and antemortem management at the slaughterhouse.

  2. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  3. 医学生实验动物福利认知状况调查%Survey on the cognition of laboratory animals welfare of college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李印龙; 梁亚军; 刘永春; 宋爱芹; 邵凯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognition of laboratory animals welfare of college students for for spreading the knowledge of laboratory animals welfare .Methods 1187 medical students were selected as partici‐pants by stratified cluster sampling .The self‐made questionnaire was used to collect the cognition of laboratory ani ‐mals welfare of college students ,and the responding rate was 99 .83% .Results Only 24 .22% of the college students heard about the conception of laboratory animals welfare ,and 9 .79% of them knew the relevant laws of laboratory animals welfare .Students from different majors and classes had significantly different cognition of the conception of laboratory animals welfare and the agreement about reducing the numbers of animals in a single ex ‐periment (P< 0 .05) .The cognition of the details of animals experiment was also different among students from different majors and classes (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The college students knew very little about the laboratory animals welfare ,and some special teaching courses should be strengthened for spreading the knowledge of the labo ‐ratory animals welfare .%目的:了解医学生对实验动物福利的认知情况,为医学生实验动物福利知识的教育及普及提供依据。方法自制调查表,采用分层整群抽样的方法对某医学院校的1187名在校医学生进行问卷调查,问卷有效回收率为99.83%。结果仅有24.22%的医学生知道动物福利的概念,9.79%的医学生了解国内外有关动物福利的法律。不同年级、专业的医学生对动物福利的概念认知情况及赞成减少单次活体实验动物数量方面有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不同年级、专业医学生对最重要实验内容的认知差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论大学生对于实验动物福利的认知水平较低,需要在医学教育实践过程中有针对性地加大宣教力度。

  4. Evaluación del bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba alojados en sistema de cama profunda (Assessment of the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs housed in deep bedding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Martínez, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba al utilizar la tecnología de crianza en cama profunda comparado con el sistema tradicional sobre piso de concreto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas de Cuba.SummaryIt was evaluated the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs using the deep bedding technology compared with the traditional system on the concrete floor in the Swine Research Institute of Cuba.

  5. Understanding Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Awareness increases in China over the issue of protecting pets HAO Xiaomao is a truck driver,shipping whatever his employers ask him to from his hometown of Jiaozuo City in central China’s Henan Province to northeast China.But one of his recent hauls put him in the center of a nationwide controversy.

  6. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare as crucial and maintains a strong focus on further improvement. Dutch scientists are working to advance the health and welfare of organically kept animals. Additionally, they focus on innovations a...

  7. Analysis on the Dilemma of China’s Animal Welfare Legislation%中国动物福利立法困境探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张式军; 胡维潇

    2016-01-01

    The serious phenomenon of animal-abuse prompts Chinese society to concern and think more of animal protection,and al-so promotes the process of animal welfare legislative process.While the release of the two expert proposals,i.e.The animal protec-tion law of the People’s Republic of China in 2009 and The law of the People’s Republic of China against cruelty to animals in 20 1 0,caused great repercussions,discussion and debate in society,animal welfare legislation in China has not got a breakthrough.In the newly revised Wild Animal Protection Law,the circles highly hope to add the “animal welfare”clause,and ultimately unsatisfy-ing.Its roots lies in the fact that the concept of animal welfare in China is not popular.The public fear that will cause a conflict be-tween promoting animal welfare legislation and “human welfare”,“social welfare”in China,and that animal welfare legislation in China does not have the condition,and “animal welfare”is “luxury”etc.Clarifying the above problems is the key to further promo-ting China’s animal welfare legislation.%虐待动物的严峻现状,促使中国社会开始关注和思考动物保护问题,也推动了动物福利立法进程。2009年《中华人民共和国动物保护法》和2010年《中华人民共和国反虐待动物法》两个“专家建议稿”的出台曾在中国社会上引起很大的反响,此后中国的动物福利立法却并没有取得突破性进展。在新修订的《野生动物保护法》中,各界寄予厚望能写入“动物福利”条款,最终也未能如愿。其根源在于,动物福利的理念在中国并没有深入人心,公众担心推动动物福利立法会与“人的福利”“社会福利”冲突,认为在中国搞动物福利立法尚不具备条件,“动物福利”是“奢侈品”等。厘清以上问题,是进一步推动中国动物福利立法的关键所在。

  8. Participatory methods for the assessment of the ownership status of free-roaming dogs in Bali, Indonesia, for disease control and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Morters, M. K.; S. BHARADWAJ; Whay, H.R.; Cleaveland, S.; Damriyasa, I.Md.; Wood, J. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of unowned, free-roaming dogs capable of maintaining adequate body condition without direct human oversight has serious implications for disease control and animal welfare, including reducing effective vaccination coverage against rabies through limiting access for vaccination, and absolving humans from the responsibility of providing adequate care for a domesticated species. Mark-recapture methods previously used to estimate the fraction of unowned dogs in free-roaming populati...

  9. Exploration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis to Improve Animal Welfare by Means of Genetic Selection: Lessons from the South African Merino

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk Cloete; Denise Hough; Pieter Swart

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Breeding sheep that are robust and easily managed may be beneficial for both animal welfare and production. Sheep that are more readily able to adapt to stressful situations and a wide variety of environmental conditions are likely to have more resources available for a higher expression of their production potential. This review explores the utilization of one of the stress response pathways, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to locate potential sites where genet...

  10. Laboratory Animal Welfare Issues in Biomedical Research%生物医学研究中的实验动物福利问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建红; 刘田福; 武冬梅; 王锐利; 王海龙; 陈朝阳

    2001-01-01

    Animal welfare issues are facing each scientist i n biomedicalresearch.These problems are complex,involve a diversity of views ,and will not disa ppear in the future.Biomedical scientists need to be knowledgeable about the i ssues,develop sensitivity to the diversity of thought about these issues,and take an active stance toward animal welfare.Scientists must go beyond compliance and use skills to maximize well-being of experimental animals.It is essential that scientists should advocate animal well-being and adhere to appropriate guidelines for animal care and use when conducting research with laboratory animals .%动物福利问题形式多样,涉及科学进步和社会发展的多个层次。在生物医学研究过程中,每位科学家都应正确看待这些问题,增进对问题多样性的了解,倡导人道的使用和管理实验动物,并采取积极有效措施,遵循有关的规章制度和操作要求扩大动物福利,推进我国实验动物标准化进程和生物医学事业的发展。

  11. Ethical review of animal experiments to protect animal welfare%开展动物试验福利伦理审查促进医院科研伦理管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苑; 朱雪琼; 连庆泉; 陈寿权; 郑晓群; 金盈盈

    2012-01-01

    动物试验是生命科学研究中必须采用的研究手段,对于生物医学、生物技术的发展起着非常重要的作用.随着社会的发展和人类文明的进步,实验动物的福利及动物试验的伦理问题越来越引起人们的关注.本文就实验动物在医院科研工作中的应用、动物试验与动物福利伦理的关系、实验动物福利伦理现状等进行了分析,特别是对如何加强动物试验福利伦理审查,促进医院科研伦理管理做了初步探讨.%Animal experiment is indispensable for biomedicine research,and contributes much to the development of biomedicine.With the development of society and advance of human civilization,the welfare of experimental animals and ethical issues of animal researches are drawing extensive attention.The current study investigated the application of experimental animals in the hospital researches,explored the relationship between animal experiment and ethics of animal welfare,and analysed the status of ethics of animal welfare.Further it discussed how to strengthen ethical review of animal experiment so as to promote the ethics management of hospital researches.

  12. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined.

  13. Dialogue between farmers and experts regarding farm animal welfare. Farmers' juries in Norway, the Netherlands and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Swagemakers, P.; Jacobsen, E.; Ferrari, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to evaluate farmers' responses to and acceptance of the Welfare Quality assessment and monitoring system, its grading system and use for product information. It is important to determine how farmers perceive the tool because they will be among main users, and the

  14. Ethics and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Breeding and Transportation%实验动物饲养和运输的伦理与福利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科; 唐小江

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the conceptions; Laboratory animal welfare is that human should give good treatments to laboratory animals (positive factors) , which is mainly performed in animal breeding and transportation with "5F" as the basic theory, while ethics is of human should follow the principles in animal experiments (negative factors) , which is mainly carried out in the animal experiment with "3R" as basic theory. We also summarized the specific practices to keep welfare of laboratory animals breeding and transportation, such as environment, cages, bedding, density, feed, water, social and behavioral need, euthanasia, transportation, etc.%本文提出实验动物福利是人类应当给予实验动物的良好条件(正面因素),主要体现在动物的饲养和运输等过程,以“5F”为基本理论;伦理则是人类给予动物实验处理(负面因素)时应遵循的原则,主要体现在动物实验过程中,以“3R”为基本理论.同时总结了实验动物饲养和运输过程的实际经验,从环境、笼具、垫料、密度、饲料和饮水、社会和行为需要、安乐死、运输等方面,介绍了保障实验动物福利的具体做法.

  15. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.

  16. Modifying the Victor® easy Set® rat trap to improve the animal welfare of stoats and ship rats trapped in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Morriss

    Full Text Available Stoats (Mustela erminea and ship rats (Rattus rattus in New Zealand are targeted by trapping to mitigate their predation on native wildlife. Internationally recognized guidelines for assessing the effectiveness and welfare performance of kill traps are supported by New Zealand legislation under the Animal Welfare Act 1999. The Victor® Easy Set® rat trap was tested and passed a similar standard for killing short-tailed weasels in Canada but failed for stoats when tested in New Zealand in 2002 (short-tailed weasels and stoats are the same species. We tested a modified version of the trap in 2011-12, modified by changing the treadle trigger to a pull trigger and adding a plastic shroud to direct and align approach by animals to the front of the trap. These traps, in vertical and horizontal sets, were tested with both stoats and ship rats. During each test the trap had to render 10 of 10 animals irreversibly unconscious within 3 minutes to meet approval requirements. The modified trap passed with both species in both trap sets. All stoats were struck across the cranium whereas rats were struck either on the cranium or neck. We recommend this trap design for use by community conservation groups for targeting stoats and ship rats in New Zealand.

  17. Transgenesis and animal welfare : implications of transgenic procedures for the well-being of the laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Miriam van der

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic animals play an important role in biomedical research. Their use as animal model is still increasing. Although the process of transgenesis may contribute to refinement of animal use, the application of the biotechnological procedures that are involved in the production of transgenic animals may also cause unexpected, uncontrolled, and even undetected animal suffering. Therefore, the aim of the present thesis was to study the effects of the biotechnological procedures involved in ge...

  18. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...

  19. The impact of swine welfare on some qualitative traits of meat and long cured animal derived products

    OpenAIRE

    Nannoni, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    The present dissertation collects the results of three different research trials which have the common aim to understand the effects of swine welfare (both at farm level and during transport) on the main fresh and dry-cured meat characteristics. The first trial was carried out in order to compare the effects of illumination regimes differing in light duration or light intensity on meat and ham quality of Italian heavy pigs. The results of this trial support the conclusion that, within a m...

  20. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress. PMID:26598787

  1. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress.

  2. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  3. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  4. Transgenesis and animal welfare : implications of transgenic procedures for the well-being of the laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Miriam van der

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic animals play an important role in biomedical research. Their use as animal model is still increasing. Although the process of transgenesis may contribute to refinement of animal use, the application of the biotechnological procedures that are involved in the production of transgenic anima

  5. Ensino de bem-estar e dor animal em cursos de medicina veterinária no Brasil Teaching pain and animal welfare in Veterinary Medicine courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currículos de medicina veterinária devem disponibilizar ferramentas para que os futuros profissionais atendam a demanda da sociedade, que inclui preocupações diretas com os animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi traçar um perfil do panorama geral do ensino da medicina veterinária em relação a questões de bem-estar e dor animal. O método utilizado foi análise de documentos disponíveis online e coleta de dados via aplicação de questionários para coordenadores de curso de medicina veterinária. A descrição do curso, sua grade curricular e ementário foram estudados. Observou-se que 46% das 94 instituições estudadas apresentavam a disciplina de bem-estar animal e 26% ofereciam a disciplina de etologia. Houve evidência de que há uma pronta relação com a esfera física do bem-estar animal, sendo que as outras duas esferas, comportamental e psicológica, não recebem atenção similar ao longo dos cursos. Na avaliação do ementário, o termo "bem-estar animal" é empregado com caráter difuso e o termo "dor" encontra-se presente em 54% dos cursos estudados, relacionado principalmente a disciplinas de patologia, fisiologia, farmacologia e anestesiologia. Conclui-se que o ensino brasileiro de medicina veterinária enfatiza a esfera física do bem-estar animal, sendo importante o enriquecimento em relação às esferas comportamental e psicológica e ao ensino da dor.The curricula of veterinary medicine should provide tools for future professionals to meet society demands, which include direct concerns for the animals. The overall scenario of education in veterinary medicine on issues of animal welfare and pain was studied. This study was conducted through the analysis of documents available online and via questionnaires to coordinators of veterinary medicine programs. The program description, its curriculum and course content descriptions were considered. Results show that 46% of the 94 institutions studied offer an animal welfare

  6. Animal Welfares of Laboratory Non-Human Primates%非人灵长类动物实验中的动物福利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乾生

    2003-01-01

    While comparing non-human primates with human beings, it is not hard to conclude certain similarities between these two based on aspects such as morphological anatomy, biochemistry functioning and so on. As a result, nonhuman primates often play an important role in life scientific researches. These primates are always used as "Stand-Ins"for human beings. In the processes of toxicological testing of new drugs, some drugs, especially drugs of genic projects or biological medicines are requiring uses of primates as part of the new drug testing. Therefore, the morality and ethics of using non-human primates have to be emphasised by people. After all, this is one of the issues that concerns with the expectations of meeting the international scientific research standards by our national laboratory animal sciences.In fact, the moral and ethical problems of non-human primates experiments is related to the matters of animal welfares.

  7. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rousing, Tine; Kudahl, Anne Braad;

    2016-01-01

    interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets...... thin or having shoulder lesions were found. Foster litters had significantly higher risk of being dirty (P=0.026) and getting carpal abrasions (P=0.024) than non-foster litters. There was a tendency for higher lameness in foster litters than in non-foster litters (P=0.052). The results show that nurse...

  8. ["In the Third Reich there must be no cruelty to animals anymore"--the development of the Reich's Animal Welfare Law from 1933].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanski, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In the German Reich cruelty to animals was punishable over decades only under anthropozentrical points of view, animal experiments and slaughter without stunning were also settled insufficient. Then at the end of the republic of Weimar initiated by the national socialists slaughter without stunning was forbidden. After the takeover by the national socialists the ban was immediately extended to the hole country, the criminal punishment of cruelty to animals was increased and finally the Reichstierschutzgesetz was enacted--influenced by an ethical way of protection of animals. The societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals were aligned and offences against the law were punished with hard sentences. Protection of animals was particularly promoted by the national socialists on propagandistic purposes and served for the compensation of an increasing degeneration of social values. PMID:19425314

  9. ["In the Third Reich there must be no cruelty to animals anymore"--the development of the Reich's Animal Welfare Law from 1933].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanski, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In the German Reich cruelty to animals was punishable over decades only under anthropozentrical points of view, animal experiments and slaughter without stunning were also settled insufficient. Then at the end of the republic of Weimar initiated by the national socialists slaughter without stunning was forbidden. After the takeover by the national socialists the ban was immediately extended to the hole country, the criminal punishment of cruelty to animals was increased and finally the Reichstierschutzgesetz was enacted--influenced by an ethical way of protection of animals. The societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals were aligned and offences against the law were punished with hard sentences. Protection of animals was particularly promoted by the national socialists on propagandistic purposes and served for the compensation of an increasing degeneration of social values.

  10. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Rousing, T; Kudahl, A B; Hansted, H J; Pedersen, L J

    2016-04-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition scorevulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. Herd identity was included as a random factor in all models. The nurse sows had a significantly higher risk of swollen bursae on legs (P=0.038) and udder wounds (P=0.001). No differences in risk of being thin or having shoulder lesions were found. Foster litters had significantly higher risk of being dirty (P=0.026) and getting carpal abrasions (P=0.024) than non-foster litters. There was a tendency for higher lameness in foster litters than in non-foster litters (P=0.052). The results show that nurse sows and their piglets to some extent experience more welfare problems than non-nurse sows with piglets at a similar age. PMID:26490696

  11. Ectoparasites of free-roaming and captive animals in South Carolina zoos and an assessment of their threat to animals welfare and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectoparasites were collected from free-roaming and captive animals in zoos to document the species present and to determine if they were associated with vertebrate pathogens. We examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites. Fifty-five species of ectoparasi...

  12. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Kerton, Angela; Gsell, Willy

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain t...

  13. Architecture optimization at IPEN animal facility in order to improve the welfare and the quality of the animals employed at radiopharmaceutical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and the issue of high quality laboratory animals are essentials for the accomplishment of vanguard scientific research, with reproducibility and universality. The quality of those animals depends, largely, of the available facilities for their production and lodging, to assure the demanded sanitary control and animals' well being, in agreement with the ethical principles that control the activity. The facilities also have to fill out other requirements, such as: the functionality of the environments to make possible the suitable and efficient handling of the animals, facilitating the execution of the routine activities; the respect to ergonomic principles to provide a safe environment and the operators' well being. The facilities design is of vital importance so that the mentioned requirements can be reached. The project of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) Animal House Facilities was accomplished in the year of 1964. However, by that time there were not the current recommendations with respect to the sanitary, genetic and environmental controls. The facility was planned with the objective of being a production unit and a local for keeping of defined animals from sanitary, genetic and environmental point of view. Nevertheless, the original unit drawing presents an unsuitable distribution of the area where animals are stockpiled and different activities are performed. The Animal House Facilities occupies an area of 840 m2, with one pavement, where the production areas and the stock of original animal models of the own institution are distributed, as well as the maintenance of animals from other national or foreigner institutions. It supplies rats and mice for biological tests of radiopharmaceutical lots, produced in IPEN, before they be sent to hospitals and clinics spread out in Brazil, for use in Nuclear Medicine. It also supplies rats and mice for tests of odontologic materials, for tests with growth hormones and for researches of

  14. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.

  15. Indicadores de bienestar animal para detectar problemas en el cajón de insensibilización de bovinos Animal welfare indicators to detect problems in the cattle stunning box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue identificar problemas de bienestar animal durante el proceso de insensibilización en una planta de sacrificio de bovinos. Se evaluaron indicadores de bienestar animal, como conductas de los bovinos y manejos por parte del personal en el cajón de noqueo, en 1.025 bovinos de las tres principales categorías sacrificadas (vacas, vaquillas y novillos durante cinco días de faena comercial; los animales fueron insensibilizados con pistola de proyectil retenido sin penetración. Se describieron frecuencias de los indicadores y se usó una prueba de Chi cuadrado para determinar asociación entre algunos de ellos. Las conductas más frecuentes fueron forcejeo (38,3%, vocalización (17,2% y caída (9,5%. Un 75,1% de los bovinos fue golpeado por la puerta tipo guillotina al entrar al cajón y el 49,2% fue picaneado. El picaneo se asoció significativamente a la vocalización (P The aim of this study was to identify animal welfare problems during the stunning process in a beef slaughtering plant. Animal welfare indicators such as behaviour and handling by the personnel, were evaluated on 1,025 cattle (cows, heifers and steers during five days of commercial slaughter; cattle were stunned with a non-penetrating captive bolt pistol. A descriptive analysis was used to show the frequencies of the indicators and a Chi-square test to determine the association between some of them. The most frequent behaviours in cattle were struggling (38.3%, vocalization (17.2% and falling (9.5%. The guillotine door hit 75.1% of cattle on entering the stunning box. On 49.2% of cattle an electric prod was used. Prodding was significantly associated with vocalization (P < 0.001, falling (P = 0.02 and escape attempts (P < 0.001. Most cattle were effectively restrained at the first attempt (92.3%; however in 6.1% of the cases the effective restraint was incorrect, which was significantly associated with vocalization (P < 0.001 and falling (P = 0

  16. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  17. Diferenciação por qualidade da carne bovina: a ótica do bem-estar animal Differentiation for beef cattle quality: the view of the animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Balbé de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca enfatizar como o bem-estar animal pode influenciar nos sistemas produtivos pecuários e no produto final - a carne bovina. Surge da preocupação com as condições que os bovinos são manejados e chegam para abate nos frigoríficos, ocasionando prejuízos a todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva e da necessidade de obtenção de produtos seguros, com qualidade, e produzidos de forma sustentável e ambientalmente correta. Um bom manejo durante todo o sistema de criação se reflete na qualidade da carne. Ao se agregar qualidade, mesmo que por meio de características pouco identificáveis, promove-se a diferenciação do produto. Com certeza, assim como os prejuízos ocasionados pelo manejo inadequado, os ganhos da diferenciação, por meio de práticas de bem-estar animal, poderão ser compartilhados por todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva.This paper aims to emphasize how the animal welfare can influence the cattle productive systems and in the final beef product. The study emerges from the preoccupation with the conditions that the cattle is handled and arrive for slaughter in the cold storage room. Impairing all the productive chain agentes, and the necessity to obtain safe products, with quality and produced in a sustainable and environmentally correct way. A good handling during all the breeding systems reflects in the meat quality. Aggregating quality, though by means of not very identifiable characteristics, the product diferenciation is promoted. For sure, as well as the impairment caused by the inadequate handling, the profits of diferenciation, by means of animal welfare practices, could be shared by all the agents of the productive chain.

  18. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...

  19. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  20. Preliminary study of animal welfare in medical university teaching%高等医学院校教学过程中动物福利问题初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 刘春晓; 王玉珏

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote the concept of animal welfare teaching in medical university,this paper introduces animal welfare,3R education and our current status of animal experiments ; taking the practice of animal welfare teaching in southern medical university,focusing on the teaching content,teaching methods,teaching resources development and other aspects of the animal welfare teaching reform.%为了促进动物福利观念在高等医学院校教学中的贯彻,介绍了动物福利、3R教育与我国目前医学院校动物实验的现状;并结合南方医科大学动物福利教学实践,围绕教学内容、教学方法、教学资源的开发等方面提出了动物福利教学改革的建议.

  1. Immunodetection of fungal and oomycete pathogens: established and emerging threats to human health, animal welfare and global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Christopher R; Wills, Odette E

    2015-02-01

    Filamentous fungi (moulds), yeast-like fungi, and oomycetes cause life-threatening infections of humans and animals and are a major constraint to global food security, constituting a significant economic burden to both agriculture and medicine. As well as causing localized or systemic infections, certain species are potent producers of allergens and toxins that exacerbate respiratory diseases or cause cancer and organ damage. We review the pathogenic and toxigenic organisms that are etiologic agents of both animal and plant diseases or that have recently emerged as serious pathogens of immunocompromised individuals. The use of hybridoma and phage display technologies and their success in generating monoclonal antibodies for the detection and control of fungal and oomycete pathogens are explored. Monoclonal antibodies hold enormous potential for the development of rapid and specific tests for the diagnosis of human mycoses, however, unlike plant pathology, their use in medical mycology remains to be fully exploited.

  2. Bienestar de los animales acuáticos, con fines de control sanitario (Welfare of the aquatic animals, with ends of sanitary control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Limonta, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara introducir las prácticas y el concepto de bienestar de losanimales acuáticos, la OIE, (2006 ha propuesto trabajar los temasreferidos al transporte por las vías vía terrestre y marítima, y delsacrificio para el consumo humano y el control sanitario. En eltrabajo se refieren las prácticas que pueden ser empleadas en laindustria acuícola, para el sacrificio humanitario de animalesacuáticos describiendo métodos de eutanasia mecánicos, eléctricos,químicos y físicos con fines de control sanitario teniendo en cuenta su bienestar.SummaryTo introduce the practices and the concept of well-being of theaquatic animals, the OIE, (2006 has intended the topics referred tothe transport to work (via terrestrial and marine, and of the sacrifice (I consummate human and for the sanitary control. In the work we refer the common practices that can be employees in the aquaculture industry, for the sacrifice of aquatic animals describing the methods of slaughter mechanic, electric, chemical, physical with ends of sanitary control keeping in mind its welfare.

  3. Welfare zvířat v zájmových chovech

    OpenAIRE

    Čermáková, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the concept of welfare, and more specifically its specific category called welfare of pet animals. The aim of this work was to define the concept of welfare and define animal welfare with emphasis on pet food. It focuses on the description of the characteristics of welfare, categorizing animals according to how they are utilized by man, the history of welfare and respect of the human population to animals, also outlines the methodology for determining the level of welfar...

  4. Atribuições da carne de frango relevantes ao consumidor: foco no bem-estar animal Broiler meat characteristics relevant to the consumer: focus on animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Bonamigo; Clarisse Barreto dos Santos Silva Bonamigo; Carla Forte Maiolino Molento

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o comportamento dos consumidores de carne de frango em relação ao bem-estar animal e à disposição em pagar mais por produtos com certificação para esse atributo de qualidade. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa de mercado com consumidores de carne de frango da cidade de Curitiba, Paraná. Uma análise prévia foi realizada com peritos da cadeia avícola para estruturação do questionário. Após esta fase, 481 consumidores foram entrevistados. Perguntas objetivas...

  5. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on monitoring for the emergence of possible new pandemic strains of influenza in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Capua, Ilaria; Gatherer, Derek;

    the importance of individual virus proteins but virulence and transmissibility are polygenic effects and no single genetic marker can be reliably associated with increased pathogenicity or transmissibility. It was concluded that current monitoring of the influenza gene pool in humans has been able to provide....... Maximum benefit can only be obtained by applying an integrated approach involving the medical and veterinary networks including development of harmonised tools and approaches, exchange of virus strains and sequence data and enhancing the coordination and dissemination of the findings from the human, swine......Following the emergence in 2009 of the new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, which contained gene segments from pig, bird and human influenza viruses, it was apparent that a better scientific understanding is required of influenza viruses to protect public and animal health. The latest scientific data...

  6. EFSA Panel Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and its potential implications for animal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Brown, Ian; Capua, Ilaria;

    . Such vaccines efficiently prevent disease by reducing virus replication in the lungs. However, voluntary vaccination of swine with these vaccines has not halted the circulation of SIV in swine. There is no urgency for vaccination of pigs against pH1N1 virus. Currently, no vaccines against H1 viruses for poultry...... of wild birds with pH1N1 virus has been reported. From an animal health perspective, no specific disease control measures are considered necessary. Vaccines based on the pH1N1 virus appear to induce protection in swine similar to that induced by the existing swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines...... are available but at present, there is no need to vaccinate poultry against pH1N1 virus. Monitoring of circulating influenza viruses in swine and poultry populations should be instigated to monitor the evolution of the pH1N1 virus including changes in virulence....

  7. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  8. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values. PMID:27344916

  9. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs from Two Centers of Animal Welfare from Medellín and eastern Antioquia (Colombia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sierra-Cifuentes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are very few studies about intestinal parasitosis in dogs, and street dogs constitute a high-risk group for the acquisition of parasitic zoonotic diseases. Through a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 2014, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and its associated factors were determined in 68 dogs of both sexes from two animal welfare centers in Medellin and eastern Antioquia (Colombia. The parasitological diagnosis was made by direct examination with saline solution at 0.8% and iodine, and the Sheather flotation method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72.1% (49, helminths 58.8% (40, protozoa 33.8% (23 and parasitism in 45.6% (31. 11 parasitic agents, of which the most prevalent were Uncinaria stenocephala with 39.7% (27, were identified; Ancylostoma caninum, with 20.6% (14; Trichuris vulpis, with 16.2% (11 and Toxocara spp., with 11.8% (8. These were statistically higher in eastern Antioquia (p value chi2 0.05. A high prevalence of intestinal parasitism in dogs from Medellin and eastern Antioquia was evidenced, as well as a great diversity in the prevalence of the subgroups studied. This information highlights the need to promote research in order to determine the magnitude and associated factors in specific populations as the foundation for targeting actions on veterinary health and public health, given the zoonotic potential of some parasitosis of dogs.

  11. Rethinking and Reconstruction on Animal Welfare in Experiments of Bioscience%生命科学实验中动物福利问题的反思与重构——基于生态哲学视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉芳

    2011-01-01

    针对目前生命科学实验中学生排斥使用实验动物的现象,反思并分析了过度关注动物福利的原因,并在解读生态哲学思想的基础上重构了实验中动物福利问题,旨在为高校的生命科学实验的顺利进行提供启示和借鉴.%At present,according to the phenomenon that students reject experimenting on animal in experiments of bioscience.the article reflects on and analyses the reasons for paying excessive attention to animal welfare,and on the basis of interpreting ecological philosophy,it rebuild the view of animal welfare in experiment,aiming at providing enlightenment and experience for carrying on biological science experiment successfully in college.

  12. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  13. Estudio preliminar del uso de un protocolo para evaluar el bienestar de vacas lecheras usando observaciones basadas en el animal Preliminary study of the use of a protocol to assess the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arraño

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el bienestar de vacas de lechería usando un protocolo simplificado de observaciones basadas en el animal. Las 22 lecherías se visitaron por una sola vez entre marzo y junio del 2005. Las lecherías fueron seleccionadas por conveniencia, tomando en cuenta la disposición del propietario para participar, su facilidad de acceso y el tamaño del rebaño (291 ± 71,6. De las 22 lecherías, 5 de ellas mantenían a sus vacas a pradera; de las 17 restantes, 4 tenían estabulación permanente y 13 las mantenían estabuladas durante la noche. La visita comenzó dos horas antes de la ordeña de la tarde; durante la visita los animales fueron observados sistemáticamente al momento de la ordeña, para evaluar la condición física y el comportamiento. Las observaciones recopiladas fueron ingresadas a una planilla electrónica Microsoft® Excel XP. Los resultados encontrados para las indicadores de bienestar basados en observaciones de los animales se agruparon en cinco categorías (A: lo mejor/ E: lo peor, luego las granjas fueron ordenadas de acuerdo al porcentaje de indicadores en cada categoría. Las 22 lecherías tuvieron al menos un indicador en la categoría A. Una sola lechería logró tener cinco indicadores de los siete observados, en la categoría A. El indicador mejor evaluado fue la condición corporal, y el peor evaluado fue la "zona de fuga" de las vacas. Se concluye que ninguna lechería tuvo resultados consistentemente buenos o malos en relación a las demás, al evaluar el bienestar de las vacas mediante observaciones basadas en el animalThe aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare of dairy cows using a simplified protocol of animal-based observations. Twenty-two commercial dairy farms in the province of Valdivia, Chile, were visited once between March and July 2005. The farms were selected considering the willingness of the owners to participate, distance from the university and size of

  14. The welfare of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  16. The impact of management on dairy calf welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    No universal definition of animal welfare exists. However, an animal allowed expression of natural, innate behaviours, showing good biological functioning and having a positive affective state is generally viewed as having a high level of welfare. Animal welfare challenges exist across all countries and species. This thesis is focused on dairy calves and the impact that management has on their level of welfare. Organic production has several prerequisites which should allow for...

  17. Particularidades relevantes da interação humano-animal para o bem-estar e produtividade de vacas leiteiras Particularities of the human-animal interactions relevant to the welfare and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Honorato

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças na qualidade da relação entre os animais e as pessoas podem influenciar substancialmente na produtividade e no bem-estar dos animais e, potencialmente, dos humanos envolvidos na atividade leiteira. Importantes alterações no sentido da melhoria dessas relações podem ser obtidas através de programas de treinamento, ou outras formas de extensão. Para que isso tenha efetividade, é necessário conhecer como interagem os aspectos dessa relação, que incluem além dos animais e os homens, o ambiente em que eles se inserem. A maioria dos estudos publicados confirma o modelo de retroalimentação positiva de atitudes e comportamentos humanos e comportamento dos animais. Porém, esses estudos têm sido desenvolvidos em países da Europa ou na Austrália, na maioria das vezes, sob condições de criação intensiva confinada e, geralmente, com o intuito de indicar um perfil ideal de empregado para trabalhar com os animais. Nesta revisão, mostra-se que o sistema de criação pode exercer uma forte interferência nesse processo e conclui-se sugerindo o desenvolvimento de estudos voltados a compreender as relações entre humanos e animais em diferentes sistemas de criação, enfocando as diversas realidades do nosso país. Esses estudos devem procurar entender de que modo características como o manejo alimentar e sanitário empregado, a qualidade das instalações, a genética, o tamanho e a composição dos rebanhos, e as peculiaridades culturais regionais influenciam na qualidade dessas relações.Changes in the quality of interactions between animals and humans have a profound influence on the productivity and welfare of animals and, potentially, of humans involved in the dairy activity. Important alterations in these interactions can be obtained through training programs, or other forms of extension. To do so effectively, it is necessary to understand how interact the several aspects of this relationship, which includes besides the

  18. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  19. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  20. Update on the state of play of Animal Health and Welfare and Environmental Impact of Animals derived from SCNT Cloning and their Offspring, and Food Safety of Products Obtained from those Animals

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) received in December 2011, a request from the European Commission for an update on the possible scientific developments for cloning of farmed animals for food production purposes. The present Statement follows the EFSA 2009 and 2010 Statements and the EFSA 2008 Scientific Opinion, and is based on peer reviewed scientific literature published since the EFSA 2010 Statement, information made available to EFSA following a call for data, and discu...

  1. Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elson, H.A.; Jong, de I.C.; Kjaer, J.B.; Sossidou, E.; Tauson, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. El binomio adaptación-estrés y el bienestar animal como ejes en la educación veterinaria - The binomial stress-adaptation and animal welfare as axes in veterinary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    focused on teacher activity and promoting a passive student. The approach above is the proposal to consider the binomial-stress adaptation and animal welfare as axes in the education of veterinarians. In this proposal the autonomic nervous system (ANS isconsidered as a key to explain the reactions of animals to environmental stimuli. The term autonomic nervous system was coined by Langley (early twentieth century, to distinguish the portion of the nervous system, which is not under voluntary control and that functions as an efferent (motor system, to transmit control signals to the whole organism with the exception of striated muscle.

  4. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  5. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  6. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  7. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    OpenAIRE

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de, T.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses with respect to Dutch animal welfare policy making.

  8. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  9. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing. PMID:27010291

  10. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  11. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Horvath; Dario Angeletti; Giuseppe Nascetti; Claudio Carere

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as...

  12. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  13. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  14. Reducing Stress to Improve Welfare of Captive Animals at Guangzhou Zoo%动物园动物的应激行为与动物福利管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小青; 吴其锐; 王静; 彭建宗

    2012-01-01

    Stress of animals in captivity at Guangzhou Zoo was increased by zookeepers, visitors, and environments in cages. We analyzed animal stress behaviors and made recommendations for improving animal welfare at Guangzhou Zoo. We recommend to establish set times for visits by zookeepers and to standardize feeding. Animals should be housed in separate cages during breeding season and special rooms should be designated for birthing and rearing of neonates. By using animal behavior enrichment programs and improving the environments in animal cages we can improve animal health, reduce disease, increase longevity and ensure proper breeding.%动物园动物是人工驯养的动物,动物的应激行为表现是动物与饲养管理人员、游人之间和与笼舍环境的应激,是人为造成的。分析广州动物园动物应激行为表现,与广州动物园动物的福利水平,提出动物园动物福利管理思路和方法。减少动物园动物的应激行为,在饲养管理中定人、定点、定时、定量。在动物繁殖期分笼,设立专门的产房和育幼室。应用动物行为丰容技术和动物园笼舍建设生态化。让动物康乐生活,防疫好,疾病少,寿命长,合理繁殖。

  15. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  16. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.;

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than....... A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well...

  17. The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production.

  18. Ethic and welfare problems of laboratory animals science in China%我国实验动物科学带来的动物伦理及福利问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玫蕾

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory animal is the animal with artificial feeding in the certain conditions, having the particular biological characteristics for scientific research. They are indispensable props of life science and have made great contributions and sacrifices for human health and development. Laboratory animal science is an important branch of life science, including laboratory animal and animal experiment. Along with development of mankind society, economy and civilization, now the realm of laboratory animal science is confronted with the problems of animal welfare and animal ethics. In our country, the main problems of animal welfare and animal ethics in laboratory animal science lie below: relative rules and laws are absent, while no established restriction or punishment could be found to restrict those actions such as maltreating laboratory animals. Several technical operations going against laboratory animal ethics still exist. The emotional conflicts also exist between zoophilists and animal experimenters. The appearance of animal ethic in China is mainly due to the rapid progress of the national economy and that of the international relationship at the same time, and the education in these years, which promoted communications between cultures from East and West, by the way changed social opinions greatly. Since recent more than ten years, animal ethic research has achieved great development at the laboratory animal science field in our country. The appearance of the laboratory animal monuments and import of the "3R" theory serve as the main indication of the great development that achieved. Such things are our goals: improving living conditions of laboratory animals, forbidding the phenomenon of maltreating laboratory animals to death, standardizing the rules of operation on animal experiments, establishing correlate laws and polices, founding the committee of animal ethics and group of specialists, consolidating international communion, promoting the development of

  19. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Botreau, R.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to de

  20. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped.......Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...

  1. Invited review: Associations between variables of routine herd data and dairy cattle welfare indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Dijkstra, T.; Schaik, van G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As farm animal welfare is high on the political and societal agendas of many countries, considerable pressure exists to establish audit programs in which farm animal welfare is routinely monitored. On-farm assessment of animal welfare, however, is time-consuming and costly. A promising strategy to m

  2. Tools to measure and improve welfare of laboratory rats : reward-related behaviour end environmental enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanna Egberdina van der

    2003-01-01

    Animals are exploited by man for several different purposes. According to many, society should be concerned about the welfare of these animals. Currently, an increasing need exists to be able to assess and improve animal welfare. In this thesis a concept of welfare is applied that states that 'welfa

  3. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  4. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  5. Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Protocol on Animal Welfare annexed to the EC Treaty in 1999 obliges the European Institutions to fully consider animal welfare in the drafting and implementation of Community legislation. The reform of the common agricultural policies (CAP) foreseen by Agenda 2000 follows the trend of more marke

  6. Reduced cortisol and metabolic responses of thin ewes to an acute cold challenge in mid-pregnancy: implications for animal physiology and welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Verbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. METHODS: Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1, medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2 or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2. Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. RESULTS: During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively. During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05 and HBC ewes (P<0.05, and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01. Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (T(core increased in all treatments, although peak T(core tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1. During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though all ewes were able to increase T(core and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced.

  7. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. Battini; G Stilwell; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S.; E. Canali; Mattiello, S.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. ...

  8. Associations between and development of welfare indicators in organic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Riber, Anja Brinch; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The retail market share of organic eggs in Denmark is high, and the consumers expect high animal welfare standards in the organic production. Documentation of animal welfare is important, however, knowledge about the associations between animal-based welfare indicators is limited. The aims...... of the study were to investigate the associations between selected welfare indicators at two ages (peak and end of lay), and to examine the development with age of the chosen welfare indicators. The chosen welfare indicators were Ascaridia galli (roundworm) infection, Heterakis sp. (caecal worm) infection......, keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained...

  9. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have......The paper studies the debate about the Scandinavian welfare states from a feminist persepctive, forcusing on the differences between a feminist perspective and the dominant liberal and critical marxist understanding of the welfare state. In particular it focuses on the argument...

  10. Post-surgical analgesia in rainbow trout: is reduced cardioventilatory activity a sign of improved animal welfare or the adverse effects of an opioid drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Gräns

    Full Text Available The use of fish models in biomedical research is increasing. Since behavioural and physiological consequences of surgical procedures may affect experimental results, these effects should be defined and, if possible, ameliorated. Thus, the use of post-surgical analgesia should be considered after invasive procedures also in fish, but presently, little information exists on the effects of analgesics in fish. This study assessed the effects of an opioid drug, buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg IM, on resting ventilation and heart rates during 7 days of postsurgical recovery in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss at 10°C by non-invasively recording bioelectric potentials from the fish via electrodes in the water. Baseline ventilation and heart rates were considerably lower compared to previously reported values for rainbow trout at 10°C, possibly due to the non-invasive recording technique. Buprenorphine significantly decreased both ventilation and heart rates further, and the effects were most pronounced at 4-7 days after anaesthesia, surgical procedures and administration of the drug. Somewhat surprisingly, the same effects of buprenorphine were seen in the two control groups that had not been subject to surgery. These results indicate that the reductions in ventilation and heart rates are not caused by an analgesic effect of the drug, but may instead reflect a general sedative effect acting on both behaviour as well as e.g. central control of ventilation in fishes. This resembles what has previously been demonstrated in mammals, although the duration of the drug effect is considerably longer in this ectothermic animal. Thus, before using buprenorphine for postoperative analgesic treatment in fish, these potentially adverse effects need further characterisation.

  11. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  12. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Natasha A.; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N.; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved. PMID:27096380

  13. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicola; Karp, Natasha A; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-07-01

    Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved.

  14. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  15. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  16. Immigration and native welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and nati...

  17. Shanghai Welfare Lottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    THE Shanghai Welfare Lottery was set up in July 1987. Annual ticket sales have shot up from a few million yuan in the first year to billions. Its total and per capita sales were the highest of all China welfare lotteries for five consecutive years.During the past 17 years, a welfare fund of 1.5 million has been gathered from the total 5 billion yuan proceeds and used to help the elderly, disabled,orphans and poor.

  18. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  20. Housing conditions in calves welfare risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relić Renata R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows results of calf welfare risk assessment at intensive breeding farms. Assessment has been conducted on the basis of housing conditions which can have negative influence on welfare of cattle, especially in calf category considering their needs. According to analysis results very good housing conditions were confirmed in open shed rearing stall (C and closed type rearing stall without feeding yard (A, whilst in closed rearing stall with feeding yard (B housing conditions were estimated as acceptable. Based on collected data about housing conditions, we have estimated that the least risk for calf welfare is at C farm, slightly higher at A farm and the highest at B farm. Data about housing conditions and analysis of potential welfare risk factors show possible causes for already present health and other problems with animals, which also can reappear in future. However for that reason, applying described methods can increase rearing conditions and increase production at cattle farms.