WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal use alternatives

  1. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  2. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  3. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  4. Computer-Based Alternatives to Using Animals in Teaching Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David

    1990-01-01

    Three interactive computer-assisted learning programs are described. The use of tissues from freshly killed frogs is simulated, including the isolated sciatic nerve, the sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle, and the in situ heart. (KR)

  5. An Alternative to the Use of Animals to Teach Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Paulo José; Tazinafo, Lucas Favaretto; Silva, Mauro Ferreira; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alternative approach to teach diabetes mellitus in our practical classes, replacing laboratory animals. We used custom rats made of cloth, which have a ventral zipper that allows stuffing with glass marbles to reach different weights. Three mock rats per group were placed into metabolic cages with real food and water and with test…

  6. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  8. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  9. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  10. Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

  11. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  12. An alternative for teaching and learning the simple diffusion process using Algodoo animations

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Samir L; da Silva, Rodrigo L; Viana, Emilson R; Leal, Fábio F

    2014-01-01

    In this work animations of the random walk movement using a freeware Algodoo were done in order to support teaching the concepts of Brownian Motion. The random walk movement were simulate considering elastic collision between the particles in suspension in a fluid, and the particles which constitute the fluid. The intensity of velocities where defined in an arbitrary range, and we have a random distribution of the velocity directions. Using two methods, the distribution histogram of displacements (DHD) and the mean-square-displacement ${\\langle{\\Delta r^{2}}\\rangle}$ (MSD), it was possible to measure the diffusion coefficient of the system, and determine the regions where the system presents ballistic regime or diffusive transport regime. The ballistic regime was observed graphically when the MSD has a parabolic dependence with time, which differing from the typical diffusive regime where MSD has a linear dependence. The didactical strategy for combining analytical approaches as graphic analysis, and animatio...

  13. Animals in Science Education--Ethics and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes the animal rights argument that objects to the use or killing of animals for educational purposes. Reviews and evaluates alternative approaches that include the nonanimal options of videotaped experiments, self-experimentation, and computer simulations. (MDH)

  14. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods. PMID:19393278

  15. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  16. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  17. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students' alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the "animal", "vertebrate" and "invertebrate", "fish", "amphibian", "reptile", "bird", and "mammal" concepts among elementary, junior high school and senior high school, and university students in a sample…

  18. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed. PMID:19393279

  19. The use of a decision tree based on the rabies diagnosis scenario, to assist the implementation of alternatives to laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Vanessa C; Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino

    2016-05-01

    Brazilian federal legislation makes the use of alternatives mandatory, when there are validated methods to replace the use of laboratory animals. The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel decision tree (DT)-based approach, which can be used to assist the replacement of laboratory animal procedures in Brazil. This project is based on a previous analysis of the rabies diagnosis scenario, in which we identified certain barriers that hinder replacement, such as: a) the perceived higher costs of alternative methods; b) the availability of staff qualified in these methods; c) resistance to change by laboratory staff; d) regulatory obstacles, including incompatibilities between the Federal Environmental Crimes Act and specific norms and working practices relating to the use of laboratory animals; and e) the lack of government incentives. The DT represents a highly promising means to overcome these reported barriers to the replacement of laboratory animal use in Brazil. It provides guidance to address the main obstacles, and, followed step-by-step, would lead to the implementation of validated alternative methods (VAMs), or their development when such alternatives do not exist. The DT appears suitable for application to laboratory animal use scenarios where alternative methods already exist, such as in the case of rabies diagnosis, and could contribute to increase compliance with the Three Rs principles in science and with the current legal requirements in Brazil. PMID:27256454

  20. Assessing inorganic contaminants in alternative phosphorus sources used in animal nutrition - A particular feature for the agricultural policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since feed and fodder are the major limiting factors in enhancing animal husbandry productivity, improvements in feeding and nutrition should aid in making animal production more profitable. Phosphorus is one of the most important elements in man and animal nutrition, especially in tropical conditions. There are many phosphorus-containing products to satisfy any P recommendation in animal diets. It is mandatory to predict the presence of any hazardous element before indicate phosphate as supplemental phosphorus in animal nutrition, as long their hazardous contents are quite variable and these elements may cause several problems in animal and man health and nutrition. The first goal of this study was to assess inorganic and radiological aspects of eight different phosphorus sources: calcinated bone meal (FAR), dicalcium phosphate (BIC), super triple phosphate (FST), super simple phosphate (FSS), monoammonium phosphate (FMA), sulphur ammonium phosphate (FSA), ammoniated calcium polyphosphate (POLI) and a bovine mineral supplement (SMB). The multielemental analysis of P sources and muscle tissues were carried out using the nuclear technique named Neutron Activation Analysis. Irradiations took place at the IPR-R1 Triga Reactor from the CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Some toxic elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Mg, Mn, Th and U) were identified in some products, especially in the sulphur ammonium phosphate. Natural radiation from the following radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K present in the products were assessed by the Gamma Spectrometry technique using a hyper pure germanium detector (HPGe). The results are examined in the light of standards for exposure adopted in some countries including from Brazil. Some products present radioactivity in high levels, especially super simple phosphate. The second aim of this project was to evaluate the zootecnic responses of using these products in feeding growing rabbits. To accomplish this goal, it was undertaken an

  1. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high ...

  2. Use of biodiesel co-products (Glycerol as alternative sources of energy in animal nutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VO Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in the use of biodiesel in Brazil and abroad, coupled with the availability of large amounts of glycerol, are generating interest in the use of this co-product in several ways, such as its use in animal feed. The use of glycerol in the formulation of diets caused immediate interest to obtain a highly efficient energy rich product to use in animal production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of glycerol resulting from biodiesel production as an energy supplement in animal feed, as well as establishing appropriate protocols for each species based on previous studies. Most of them using pigs, cows, bulls, sheep, laying hens and broilers. It was possible to infer from these studies that glycerol was a food ingredient suitable for replacement in diets of different animal species.

  3. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  4. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  5. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Alimon

    2009-01-01

    The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large ...

  6. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  7. Uses of animals and alternatives in pre-college education in the United States: Need for leadership on educational resources and guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Lynette A.; Wood, M W; Massey, A.; M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Throughout pre-college education in the United States, animals, animal specimens and animals as a topic are used as teaching resources. Residential or visiting pets play a role in humane education or cross-curricular instruction. Teachers acquire and utilise non-living specimens gathered from various sources. Field trips often are oriented around animals. Elementary school animal use is largely observational; in intermediate grades, animal dissection may be featured in general science instruc...

  8. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  9. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Sang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production.

  10. Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture: an ecoimmunological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yongming; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists' views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ecological and immunological interactions. Most previous reviews of antibiotic resistance focus on resisters but overlook persisters, although both are fundamental to bacteria survival through antibiosis. Here, we discuss resisters and persisters together to contrast the distinct ecological responses of persisters during antibiotic stress and propose different regimens to eradicate persisters. Our intention is not only to provide an ecoimmunological interpretation, but also to use an ecoimmunological system to categorize available alternatives and promote the discovery of prospective approaches to relieve ART problems within the general scope of improving animal health. Thus, we will categorize available alternatives to antibiotics and envision applications of ecoimmunological tenets to promote related studies in animal production. PMID:25551290

  11. Testing Alternative Hypotheses about Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Lang, Michael; Lawson, Anton E.

    Research indicates that the effectiveness of instruction in the elementary classroom is enhanced when it incorporates materials that actively engage students in the generation of scientific explanations. To this end, this document describes an exercise that allows Kindergarten students to explore the basic principles of animal behavior in an…

  12. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; Van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recomme...

  13. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NOx emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  14. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. PMID:25479353

  15. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper. PMID:21607681

  16. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research

    OpenAIRE

    M. PENZA; Jeremic, M.; Montani, C.; Unkila, M.; L. Caimi; G. Mazzoleni; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimati...

  17. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: genotoxicity. A COLIPA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, Stefan; Kirst, Annette; Aardema, Marilyn; Banduhn, Norbert; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Dufour, Eric; Fautz, Rolf; Harvey, James; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Carmichael, Paul; Macfarlane, Martin; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Scheel, Julia

    2010-01-01

    For the assessment of genotoxic effects of cosmetic ingredients, a number of well-established and regulatory accepted in vitro assays are in place. A caveat to the use of these assays is their relatively low specificity and high rate of false or misleading positive results. Due to the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive ban on in vivo genotoxicity testing for cosmetics that was enacted March 2009, it is no longer possible to conduct follow-up in vivo genotoxicity tests for cosmetic ingredients positive in in vitro genotoxicity tests to further assess the relevance of the in vitro findings. COLIPA, the European Cosmetics Association, has initiated a research programme to improve existing and develop new in vitro methods. A COLIPA workshop was held in Brussels in April 2008 to analyse the best possible use of available methods and approaches to enable a sound assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients. Common approaches of cosmetic companies are described, with recommendations for evaluating in vitro genotoxins using non-animal approaches. A weight of evidence approach was employed to set up a decision-tree for the integration of alternative methods into tiered testing strategies. PMID:20382194

  18. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. PMID:22558975

  19. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, 72060 Batman (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO{sub x} emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  20. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

  1. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and Drug…

  2. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  3. Assessment of the potential skin irritation of lysine-derivative anionic surfactants using mouse fibroblast and human keratinocytes as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Molina, Lourdes; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Infante Martínez-Pardo, Ma. Rosa; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to identify new surfactants with low skin irritant properties for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, employing cell culture as an alternative method to in vivo testing. In addition, we sought to establish whether potential cytotoxic properties were related to the size of the counterions bound to the surfactants. Methods. Cytotoxicity was assessed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T6, and the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544, using the MT...

  4. Alternative methods and strategies to reduce, refine, and replace animal use for veterinary vaccine post-licensing safety testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; Brown, Karen; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett; Stokes, William

    2011-01-01

    NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace animal use. Six topics were addressed in detail by speakers and workshop participants and are reported in a series of six reports. This workshop report, the last in the series, addresses methods and strategies for veterinary vacci...

  5. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Paula G

    2003-08-01

    Current experimental techniques used in snake venom research (with and without the use of animals) are reviewed. The emphasis is on the reduction of the use of animals in the development of antivenoms for the clinical treatment of snakebite. Diagnostic and research techniques for the major pathologies of envenoming are described and those using animals are contrasted with non-sentient methods where possible. In particular, LD50 and ED50 assays using animals (in vivo) and fertilised eggs (in vivo, non-sentient) are compared as well as in vitro procedures (ELISA and haemolytic test) for ED50 estimations. The social context of antivenom production, supply and demand is outlined together with the consequent tension between the benefits derived and the increase in opposition to experiments on animals. Stringent regulations governing the use of animals, limited research funds and public pressure all focus the need for progress towards non-animal, or non-sentient, research methods. Some achievements are noted but success is hampered by lack of detailed knowledge of the many constituents of venom which have to be assessed as a whole rather than individually. The only way to evaluate the net pathological effect of venom is to use a living system, usually a rodent, and similarly, the efficacy of antivenoms is also measured in vivo. The pre-clinical testing of antivenoms in animals is therefore a legal requirement in many countries and is strictly monitored by government authorities. New technologies applied to the characterisation of individual venom proteins should enable novel in vitro assays to be designed thus reducing the number of animals required. In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. PMID:12906883

  6. Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Zhang, Siqi; Khuu, Cindy; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-01

    Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment "at will" through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models. PMID:26116028

  7. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique” by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and...

  8. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    OpenAIRE

    Yongming Sang; Frank Blecha

    2014-01-01

    Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ...

  9. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. PMID:25555996

  10. Tool use by aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...

  11. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  12. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  13. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Leenaars, Marlies; Tra, Joppe; Huijbregtse, Robbertjan; Bongers, Erik; Jansen, John A; Gordijn, Bert; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2015-07-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiments. With the objective of promoting a joint effort of tissue engineers and alternative experts to fully realise this potential, this study provides the first comprehensive overview of the possibilities of using tissue-engineered constructs as a replacement of laboratory animals. Through searches in two large biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase) and several specialised 3R databases, 244 relevant primary scientific articles, published between 1991 and 2011, were identified. By far most articles reviewed related to the use of tissue-engineered skin/epidermis for toxicological applications such as testing for skin irritation. This review article demonstrates, however, that the potential for the development of alternatives also extends to other tissues such as other epithelia and the liver, as well as to other fields of application such as drug screening and basic physiology. This review discusses which impediments need to be overcome to maximise the contributions that the field of tissue engineering can make, through the development of alternative methods, to the reduction of the use and suffering of laboratory animals. PMID:23554402

  14. Go3R - semantic Internet search engine for alternative methods to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Grune, Barbara; Doms, Andreas; Alvers, Michael R; Spielmann, Horst; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consideration and incorporation of all available scientific information is an important part of the planning of any scientific project. As regards research with sentient animals, EU Directive 86/609/EEC for the protection of laboratory animals requires scientists to consider whether any planned animal experiment can be substituted by other scientifically satisfactory methods not entailing the use of animals or entailing less animals or less animal suffering, before performing the experiment. Thus, collection of relevant information is indispensable in order to meet this legal obligation. However, no standard procedures or services exist to provide convenient access to the information required to reliably determine whether it is possible to replace, reduce or refine a planned animal experiment in accordance with the 3Rs principle. The search engine Go3R, which is available free of charge under http://Go3R.org, runs up to become such a standard service. Go3R is the world-wide first search engine on alternative methods building on new semantic technologies that use an expert-knowledge based ontology to identify relevant documents. Due to Go3R's concept and design, the search engine can be used without lengthy instructions. It enables all those involved in the planning, authorisation and performance of animal experiments to determine the availability of non-animal methodologies in a fast, comprehensive and transparent manner. Thereby, Go3R strives to significantly contribute to the avoidance and replacement of animal experiments. PMID:19326030

  15. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  16. Attitudes towards animal use and belief in animal mind

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Sarah; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie; Nunkoosing, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Animals are used by humans in many ways, yet science has paid little attention to the study of human-animal relationships (Melson 2002). In the present study participants (n= 96) completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards animal use and individual differences were examined to determine which characteristics might underlie these attitudes (‘belief in animal mind’, age, gender, experience of animals, vegetarianism, political stance, and living area). It emerged that participants held differ...

  17. Animal microsurgery using microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Stirman, Jeffrey N.; Harker, Bethany; Lu, Hang; Crane, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Small multicellular genetic organisms form a central part of modern biological research. Using these small organisms provides significant advantages in genetic tractability, manipulation, lifespan and cost. Although the small size is generally advantageous, it can make procedures such as surgeries both time consuming and labor intensive. Over the past few years there have been dramatic improvements in microfluidic technologies that enable significant improvements in microsurgery and interroga...

  18. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; HENDRIKSEN Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders....

  19. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  20. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. PMID:24161465

  1. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart;

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on...... methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at...... least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between...

  2. Rural and urban Ugandan primary school children's alternative ideas about animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaala, Justine

    This study examined rural and urban Ugandan primary children's alternative ideas about animals through the use of qualitative research methods. Thirty-six children were selected from lower, middle, and upper primary grades in two primary schools (rural and urban). Data were collected using interview-about-instance technique. Children were shown 18 color photographs of instances and non-instances of familiar animals and asked to say if the photographed objects were animals or not. They were then asked to give reasons to justify their answers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The results indicate that children tended to apply the label "animal" to large mammals, usually found at home, on the farm, in the zoo, and in the wild. Humans were not categorized as animals, particularly by children in the lower grades. Although the children in upper grades correctly identified humans as animals, they used reasons that were irrelevant to animal attributes and improperly derived from the biological concept of evolution. Many attributes children used to categorize instances of animals were scientifically unacceptable and included superficial features, such as body outline, anatomical features (body parts), external features (visual cues), presence or absence and number of appendages. Movement and eating (nutrition) were the most popular attributes children used to identify instances of animals. The main differences in children's ideas emanated from the reasons used to identify animals. Older rural children drew upon their cultural and traditional practices more often than urban children. Anthropomorphic thinking was predominant among younger children in both settings, but diminished with progression in children's grade levels. Some of the implications of this study are: (1) teachers, teacher educators and curriculum developers should consider learners' ideas in planning and developing teaching materials and interventions. (2) Teachers should relate humans to other

  3. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  4. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  5. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing. PMID:11955681

  6. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed

  7. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  8. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g. colorants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, present...

  9. Evaluation of the in vivo antioxidative activity of redox nanoparticles by using a developing chicken egg as an alternative animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Chiaki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Ayaka; Noguchi, Chiho; Tanaka, Ryo; Yoshitomi, Toru; Nagasaki, Yukio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2014-05-28

    Antioxidants have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects as pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular diseases. The in vitro systems generally employed to evaluate antioxidants, however, are limited by having no appreciable in vivo redox status of the antioxidants. Therefore, we used our developing chicken egg model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidative activity of a redox nanoparticle possessing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (RNP(O)). The 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) elicited strong oxidative stress and its LD50 value for chick embryos was 3.5±0.9mg/egg. The low molecular weight nitroxide compound, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), which is known to have the highest level of antioxidant activity, showed no significant protective effect against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. On the contrary, RNP(O) had potent protective effects against AAPH-induced embryo lethality. Moreover, RNP(O) could significantly suppress the production of lipid peroxides in chick serum induced by hydrocortisone. Since RNP(O) has a longer retention time in blood than TEMPOL, RNP(O) may protect the embryo against lethal oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation. The validity of in vivo experiments using developing chicken eggs was supported by our data, where RNP(O) was determined to elicit strong antioxidative activity in vivo, irrespective of the lack of a significant difference in the in vitro activity between low-molecular weight TEMPOL and RNP(O). Our results support the use of the developing chicken egg model to evaluate the potential in vivo antioxidative activity of RNP(O). PMID:24637467

  10. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Rachel; FUCHS Horst; Wever, Bart De; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry...

  11. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future. PMID:24819539

  12. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives. PMID:25836968

  13. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  14. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Badyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day′s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.

  15. Studies using multiple vaccinated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serological responses in vaccinated and multiple vaccinated cattle against non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus were measured using four commercially available assays. Vaccines were concentrated using polyethylene glycol to contain higher antigenic payloads that those routinely used. Animals received up to five doses of polyvalent oil vaccines over six months, administered by the intra-muscular route on d 0, 90, 130, 160 and 200. Serum samples were taken 30-40 d after each vaccination. At 60 d post vaccination the antibody response to each of the vaccine strains showed high levels of antibodies against structural proteins that correlated with protection against challenge above 81%. The detection of antibodies against NSP was made with two ELISAs using expressed 3ABC as antigen; one ELISA using peptides from 3B and an enzyme-immunotransfer blot assay (EITB). Locally produced ELISA-3ABC reagents and agar gel immunodiffusion using VIAA, were also evaluated. After four doses of vaccine, animals were negative in all the assays. After the fifth immunization, two of seventeen animals were reactive in one ELISA kit, but these samples proved negative by confirmatory tests. Antibodies against NSP were not detected in primo-vaccinated cattle used for potency tests using three batches of standard vaccine. The principle of the NSP ELISA as screening test for large sero surveys in South America is established and this paper emphasises the importance using vaccines that have no demonstrated interference with NSP ELISAs and the advantages of reducing the number of false-positives that would require further confirmation by other assays. (author)

  16. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Fahey, Jr.; Kerr, Katherine R.; de Godoy, Maria R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More rec...

  17. Opportunities for animal alternatives implementation in the evolving OECD fish testing framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews opportunities for animal alternative approaches in the FTF. These will be placed in the context of in vivo tests required in many regulatory situations for the registration of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. The Framework inte...

  18. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  19. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  20. Use of Animation in Teaching Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stith, Bradley J.

    2004-01-01

    To address the different learning styles of students, and because students can access animation from off-campus computers, the use of digital animation in teaching cell biology has become increasingly popular. Sample processes from cell biology that are more clearly presented in animation than in static illustrations are identified. The value of animation is evaluated on whether the process being taught involves motion, cellular location, or sequential order of numerous events. Computer progr...

  1. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  2. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. PMID:26188116

  3. New Alternative Protein Sources Used in Poultry Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the assessment of oilseed plants, biofuels and human food which is indispensable in the future is used widely in poultry feed, soybean inevitable negative effect on the use of mixed feeds. Therefore, as an alternative to soybean sources to reveal a new requirement arises. In recent years, alternative protein sources to leaves, stems, marine algae, bacteria and insects as well as proteins from sources and for use in animal feeding studies are conducted and their performance in poultr...

  4. Gone fishing: tool use in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R

    2002-02-01

    Chimpanzees impress and fascinate us with their use of tools, including twigs to 'fish' for termites and leaves to soak up liquids. But there are many intriguing examples of tool use described across the animal kingdom. Ants use grain to carry honey, and elephants can grip fly switches in their prehensile trunks. Even animals without limbs may use tools. PMID:11852280

  5. USE OF NON-MAMMALIAN ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR NEUROTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Randall T.; Nass, Richard; Boyd, Windy A; Jonathan H Freedman; Dong, Ke; Narahashi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The field of neurotoxicology needs to satisfy two opposing demands: the testing of a growing list of chemicals, and resource limitations and ethical concerns associated with testing using traditional mammalian species. National and international government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace mammalian species in toxicological testing with alternative testing methods and non-mammalian models. Toxicological assays using alternative animal models may relieve some of this pr...

  6. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed. PMID:21619857

  7. Sixty years of antimicrobial use in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This, the last in our series of feature articles celebrating 125 years of Veterinary Record, aims to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in animals. Starting with a journey through the history of antimicrobial use in animals, Luca Guardabassi gives his opinion on the current zoonotic risks...

  8. New Alternative Protein Sources Used in Poultry Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Özcan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the assessment of oilseed plants, biofuels and human food which is indispensable in the future is used widely in poultry feed, soybean inevitable negative effect on the use of mixed feeds. Therefore, as an alternative to soybean sources to reveal a new requirement arises. In recent years, alternative protein sources to leaves, stems, marine algae, bacteria and insects as well as proteins from sources and for use in animal feeding studies are conducted and their performance in poultry studied. In this review, alternative protein sources and their effects on the health status of poultry in different yield and literature will be presented.

  9. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  10. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  11. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... requirements in 5 U.S.C. 801-808. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0...

  12. Animal use for science in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Busquet, Francois; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate long-term trends of animal use, the EU animal use statistics from the 15 countries that have been in the EU since 1995 plus respective data from Switzerland were analyzed. The overall number of animals used for scientific purposes in these countries, i.e., about 11 million/year, remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2011, with net increases in Germany and the UK and net decreases in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The relatively low and con...

  13. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Position of Chinese Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) Based on Complete Mitochondrial Genome:Implication for Using Tree Shrew as an Alternative Experimental Animal to Primates in Biomedical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xu; Shi-Yi Chen; Wen-Hui Nie; Xue-Long Jiang; Yong-Gang Yao

    2012-01-01

    Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is currently placed in Order Scandentia and has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia and Southwest China.Due to its unique characteristics,such as small body size,high brain-to-body mass ratio,short reproductive cycle and life span,and low-cost of maintenance,tree shrew has been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research.However,there are some debates regarding the exact phylogenetic affinity of tree shrew to primates.In this study,we determined the mtDNA entire genomes of three Chinese tree shrews (T.belangeri chinensis) and one Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus).Combined with the published data for species in Euarchonta,we intended to discern the phylogenetic relationship among representative species of Dermoptera,Scandentia and Primates.The mtDNA genomes of Chinese tree shrews and Malayan flying lemur shared similar gene organization and structure with those of other mammals.Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 concatenated mitochondrial proteinencoding genes revealed a closer relationship between species of Scandentia and Glires,whereas species of Dermoptera were clustered with Primates.This pattern was consistent with previously reported phylogeny based on mtDNA data,but differed from the one reconstructed on the basis of nuclear genes.Our result suggested that the matrilineal affinity of tree shrew to primates may not be as close as we had thought.The ongoing project for sequencing the entire genome of Chinese tree shrew will provide more information to clarify this important issue.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  15. Development of osteoporosis animal model using micropigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Solis, Chester D.; Lee, Myeong-Seop; Hyun, Byung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a known major health problem and a serious disease of the bone, there has been a great need to develop more and newer animal models for this disease. Among animal models used for testing drug efficacy, the minipig model has become useful and effective due to its close similarity with humans (validity), particularly with the pharmacokinetics of compounds via subcutaneous administration, the structure and function of the organs, the morphology of bone and the overall metabolic n...

  16. 9 CFR 318.20 - Use of animal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of animal drugs. 318.20 Section 318.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... General § 318.20 Use of animal drugs. Animal drug residues are permitted in meat and meat food products...

  17. Characterization of experimental dental research using animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of experimental dental research using animals. Methods: The research comprised all the 4141 abstracts existent in the books of annals from the 22nd and 23rd Annual meetings of the Brazilian Society of Dentistry Research and the sample was composed of 377 studies (9.1%. The variables analyzed were: area of knowledge, type of institution, State of the country, type of animal and body part used, occurrence of animal sacrifice, mention of the Research Ethics Committee, receipt of funding and type of financing agency. Results: The largest number of studies concentrated on the areas of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery (27.3% and Basic Sciences (21.2%. The Public Universities were responsible for 74% of the researches, and the State Institutions were outstanding (82.4%. The State of São Paulo was responsible for 74.1% of the studies. Rats (67.1% and rabbits (11.1% were the most frequently used animals, and 68.2% of the animals were sacrificed. The oral cavity was used in 50.1% of the researches and the mandible in 59%. Only 1.9% of the studies mentioned the Research Ethics Committee and 26.3% reported that they received funding. Conclusion: In Dentistry, studies involving animals are predominant in the areas of buccomaxillofacial surgery and basic sciences, with rats andrabbits being most frequently used. A significant number of guinea pigs are sacrificed during or at the end of the experiments.

  18. Use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyt, J. G.; Buckwalter, J. A.; Carroll, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and common clinical disorders of bones, joints and soft tissues has been enhanced by the use of experimental animal models. Articles reporting on the results of these biomedical experiments frequently include conclusions that are based on the assumption that the biology of the animal model is similar to that of a human being for the disease process under investigation. The purpose of this investigation was to study the criteria and the conside...

  19. Use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine and animal production

    OpenAIRE

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto; Bonifácio Benício de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is in a period of innovation with respect to the diagnostic methods, mainly in the field of Diagnostic Imaging. This has considerably developed, leaning on techniques increasingly sophisticated, modern and secure, allowing the veterinarian aid and essential informations for a more complete, secure and efficient diagnostic. Already in animal production, the use of new technologies such as infrared thermography arise, among other applications, as an alternative to define the...

  20. The alternative NADH dehydrogenase is present in mitochondria of some animal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Salmerón-Santiago, Karina Gabriela; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Martínez, Federico; Rendón, Juan Luis; Pardo, Juan Pablo

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of the alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) in the living world was explored. The enzyme, although present in representatives of all living kingdoms, does not have a universal distribution. With the exception of ε-proteobacteria, the enzyme was found in all eubacterial groups. In contrast with the known presence of the NDH-2 in Archaea, the alternative oxidase (AOX) is absent in this group. With regard to the Eukarya domain, the NDH-2 was found in representatives of Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In the latter, however, the presence of the enzyme was restricted to some primitive Metazoa (Placozoa and Cnidaria), and two members of the Deuterostomate lineage of the Bilateria (Echinodermata and Urochordata). No evidence for the presence of the NDH-2 was found in any representative of the Protostomate branch of the Bilateria, contrasting with the existence of the AOX in this same group. It is worth mentioning that those animal species containing the NDH-2 also have an AOX. The actual distribution of the NDH-2 in the various living kingdoms is discussed within the framework of the endosymbiotic theory; in addition, a hypothesis is proposed to explain the disappearance of the alternative NDH-2 and AOX from the majority of the animals. PMID:21632289

  1. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co....

  2. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  3. 76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  4. 77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Novartis Animal Health US, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides...

  5. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The...

  6. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation. PMID:27410253

  7. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; MAGUIRE, TIM J.; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensiti...

  8. Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals defined without using heaps of pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Feretić, Svjetlan

    2011-01-01

    Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals are two lattice models defined by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer in 2002. The original definitions of those models involve heaps of pieces, i.e., some geometric representation of partially commutative monoids. The object of this writing is to define stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals in such a way that heaps of pieces are not involved. Our alternative definitions are equivalent to Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer's origi...

  9. Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals defined without using heaps of pieces

    CERN Document Server

    Feretić, Svjetlan

    2011-01-01

    Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals are two lattice models defined by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer in 2002. The original definitions of those models involve heaps of pieces, i.e., some geometric representation of partially commutative monoids. The object of this writing is to define stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals in such a way that heaps of pieces are not involved. Our alternative definitions are equivalent to Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer's original ones.

  10. Using Graphic Novels, Anime, and the Internet in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Alternative genres such as graphic novels, manga, and anime are employed to build on students' multiple literacies. It is observed that use of visual stories allowed students to discuss how the authors conveyed mood and tone through images.

  11. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to animal testing. However, the predictive value of in vitro test systems is often limited due to the unawareness about the mechanisms of toxicity and the complexity of organisms. As a consequence, a ...

  12. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  13. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  14. 77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of those parts of a new animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article that pertain to...

  15. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy...

  16. 78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove dairy replacement...-8108, email: amey.adams@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal...

  17. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove a... that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice Type C medicated feeds for...

  18. Genome-wide alternative polyadenylation in animals: insights from high-throughput technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Sun; Yonggui Fu; Yuxin Li; Anlong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role in gene expression by affecting mRNA stability,translation,and translocation in cells.However,genome-wide APA events have only recently been subjected to more systematic analysis with newly developed high-throughput methods.In this review,we focus on the recent technological development of APA analyses on a genome-wide scale,as well as the impact of APA switches on a number of critical biological processes in animals,including cell proliferation,differentiation,and oncogenic transformation.With the highly enlarged scope of genome-wide APA analyses,the APA regulations of various biological processes have increasingly become a new paradigm for the regulation of gene transcription and translation.

  19. Ethoxyquin: An Antioxidant Used in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Błaszczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethoxyquin (EQ, 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline is widely used in animal feed in order to protect it against lipid peroxidation. EQ cannot be used in any food for human consumption (except spices, e.g., chili, but it can pass from feed to farmed fish, poultry, and eggs, so human beings can be exposed to this antioxidant. The manufacturer Monsanto Company (USA performed a series of tests on ethoxyquin which showed its safety. Nevertheless, some harmful effects in animals and people occupationally exposed to it were observed in 1980’s which resulted in the new studies undertaken to reevaluate its toxicity. Here, we present the characteristics of the compound and results of the research, concerning, for example, products of its metabolism and oxidation or searching for new antioxidants on the EQ backbone.

  20. Pedagogical Merit Review of Animal Use for Education in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly

    2016-01-01

    There are two components to the review of animal based protocols in Canada: review for the merit of the study itself, and review of the ethical acceptability of the work. Despite the perceived importance for the quality assurance these reviews provide; there are few studies of the peer-based merit review system for animal-based protocols for research and education. Institutional animal care committees (ACC)s generally rely on the external peer review of scientific merit for animal-based research. In contrast, peer review for animal based teaching/training is dependent on the review of pedagogical merit carried out by the ACC itself or another committee within the institution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the views of ACC members about current practices and policies as well as alternate policies for the review of animal based teaching/training. We conducted a national web-based survey of ACC members with both quantitative and qualitative response options. Responses from 167 ACC members indicated broad concerns about administrative burden despite strong support for both the current and alternate policies. Participants’ comments focused mostly on the merit review process (54%) relative to the efficiency (21%), impact (13%), and other (12%) aspects of evaluation. Approximately half (49%) of the comments were classified into emergent themes that focused on some type of burden: burden from additional pedagogical merit review (16%), a limited need for the review (12%), and a lack of resources (expertise 11%; people/money 10%). Participants indicated that the current system for pedagogical merit review is effective (60%); but most also indicated that there was at least some challenge (86%) with the current peer review process. There was broad support for additional guidance on the justification, criteria, types of animal use, and objectives of pedagogical merit review. Participants also supported the ethical review and application of the Three Rs in the

  1. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  3. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  4. Against the Use of Knowledge Gained from Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Tuvel

    2015-01-01

    While there exists considerable protest against the use of animals in experimentation, less protest is voiced against the use of knowledge gained from animal experimentation. Pulling from arguments against the use of Nazi data, I suggest that using knowledge gained from animal experimentation both disrespects animal victims and sustains the practice. It is thus pro tanto morally wrong.

  5. Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandratavicius L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ludmyla Kandratavicius,1 Priscila Alves Balista,1 Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar,1 Rafael Naime Ruggiero,1 Eduardo Henrique Umeoka,2 Norberto Garcia-Cairasco,2 Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior,1 Joao Pereira Leite11Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilAbstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.Keywords: epilepsy, animal model, pilocarpine, kindling, neurodevelopment

  6. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  7. Understanding alternatives to forest use in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    SANREM CRSP

    2006-01-01

    Over-reliance on forest resources for household income negatively impacts forest ecosystems and the long-term economic stability of low-income households in Malawi. In order to develop economic and environmentally sustainable alternatives, policy makers need to understand what motivates forest resource use.

  8. Alternative, non-animal based nutrient sources, for organic plant raising OF0308

    OpenAIRE

    Unspecified,

    2003-01-01

    Organic plant raising has been investigated under two previous government funded projects (OF0109 & OF0144) (1, 2) and it was shown in this research that organic ‘transplants’ could be produced for a range of crop species (3, 4, 6, 7). However, some species were easier to produce than others and one of the limiting factors was the availability of suitable nutrient sources, especially for supplementary feeding. The use of animal based nutrient sources in organic plant raising has always bee...

  9. Brinzolamide-induced retinopathy in neonatal rats: an alternative animal model of retinal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    DYOMIN, Y. A.; BILETSKA, P.V.; GAPUNIN, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Neovascular retinal pathology is steel uncertain. Thus, there is great need to investigate new modeling, diagnostic and treatment technologies. Brinzolamide induces a metabolic acidosis via an alternative biochemical mechanism (bicarbonate loss). In the present study the influence of brinzolamide-induced acidosis on preretinal neovascularization in neonatal rat was investigated. Materials and Methods. In our study we used newborn Wistar rats raised in two litter...

  10. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... requirements. (For selenium see 21 CFR 573.920; for EDDI see 51 FR 11483 (April 3, 1986).) * * * * * Dated... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new...

  11. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  12. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types. PMID:19839229

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF ANIMAL ADHESIVES USING DNA AMPLIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Marie; Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Bøllingtoft, Peder;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether DNA was degraded in the manufacturing of animal glue. To test this, two different types of sturgeon glue (Acipenser sp.) were manufactured using historic recipes. One glue was boiled for a substantial amount of time and the other was kept under 75°C. DNA...... samples were collected from both glues in order to test whether the DNA was degraded in the heating process of making the glue. It was also tested whether two different kinds of flex canvas (for paintings), one coarse and one fine weaved would inhibit the PCR reaction. To do this the glue were applied...... the glue and in 18 out of 24 samples collected of the canvas. In four out of the five cases where it was not possible amplify DNA, the sample belongs to the smallest size of the canvas investigated. As shown in this study it is possible to get DNA out of boiled animal glue and glue applied onto canvas...

  16. Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh K Badyal; Chetna Desai

    2014-01-01

    The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day′s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being sub...

  17. Alternatives of seawater desalination using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cogeneration is economically assessed using two different size nuclear reactors. ► Mexican northwest region was the case for economical comparisons of cogeneration. ► Medium size nuclear reactors provide more flexibility to meet coupling demands. ► Although there is a higher overnight cost for medium size reactors, they are cost competitive. ► Cogeneration alternative using medium size reactors is less expensive. - Abstract: Nuclear power is a clean energy alternative that is already used to provide water and electricity and it helps to reduce concern of climate change. The new deployments of nuclear power are based on the Generation III reactors which come in sizes from 1100 to 1700 MWe, in addition there is a process in the very close future to provide a new generation of small and medium size reactors, less than 600 MWe. Thus, cogeneration of electricity and potable water from desalination can be based on big or small/medium reactors. This paper performs an economical comparison of nuclear desalination using two PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor type, a big one, AP1000, against a medium reactor, IRIS. It assesses the electricity and potable water needs for the northwest region of Mexico and presents alternatives of supply based on cogeneration, using the three different single potable water processes, reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), and two hybrid methods for different potable water quality based on the amount of dissolved solids in the potable water. Investment results for the specific need are presented for all the alternatives assessed along with advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  19. Second Life, a 3-D Animated Virtual World: An Alternative Platform for (Art) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsiao-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    3-D animated virtual worlds are no longer only for gaming. With the advance of technology, animated virtual worlds not only are found on every computer, but also connect users with the internet. Today, virtual worlds are created not only by companies, but also through the collaboration of users. Online 3-D animated virtual worlds provide a new…

  20. Report of the International Workshop on Animal Disposal Alternatives: from concept to catalyst for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    The principle of animal depopulation and animal disposal has been a fundamental approach of veterinary and regulatory interventions for the effective biological containment and eradication of contagious diseases since the science and art of veterinary medicine began. Today's world, however, is one of epidemiological globalisation, changing social values concerning the management of animal populations, and recognition of the environmental consequences associated with animal disposal, especially during animal disease emergencies. It has consequently become apparent that new approaches are required to minimise both the need for mass culling of animals in response to disease occurrences and the associated negative consequences. In addition, where a level of animal depopulation remains the only recourse, it is imperative that the undertaking be conducted in a manner which is socially and environmentally responsible. PMID:20411509

  1. Statement supporting European Directive 2010/63/EU (“Directive”) on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes

    OpenAIRE

    DIRECTIVE

    2014-01-01

    The use of animals in research has facilitated major breakthroughs in medicine which have transformed human and animal health. We support research using animals where alternative methods are not available, where the potential benefits to health are compelling, and where acceptable ethical and welfare standards can be met. The Directive has enhanced animal welfare standards and introduced the concepts of refinement, replacement and reduction (‘3Rs’) across the EU, while ensuring Europe remains...

  2. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora; Cristina Vargas-Irwin; Lady Andrea Polanco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  3. Predicting soil erosion for alternative land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Xin, Chang; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The APEX (Agricultural Policy-Environmental eXtender) model developed in the United States was calibrated for northwestern China's conditions. The model was then used to investigate soil erosion effects associated with alternative land uses at the ZFG (Zi-Fang-Gully) watershed in northwestern China. The results indicated that the APEX model could be calibrated reasonably well (+/-15% errors) to fit those areas with >50% slope within the watershed. Factors being considered during calibration include runoff, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) slope length and steepness factor, channel capacity flow rate, floodplain saturated hydraulic conductivity, and RUSLE C factor coefficient. No changes were made in the APEX computer code. Predictions suggest that reforestation is the best practice among the eight alternative land uses (the status quo, all grass, all grain, all grazing, all forest, half tree and half grass, 70% tree and 30% grain, and construction of a reservoir) for control of water runoff and soil erosion. Construction of a reservoir is the most effective strategy for controlling sediment yield although it does nothing to control upland erosion. For every 1 Mg of crop yield, 11 Mg of soil were lost during the 30-yr simulation period, suggesting that expanding land use for food production should not be encouraged on the ZFG watershed. Grass species are less effective than trees in controlling runoff and erosion on steep slopes because trees generally have deeper and more stable root systems. PMID:16455846

  4. Use of draft and working animals in agriculture of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Thanh Nga

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains analyzes the use of animals for agricultural development. Vietnam has been moving towards a market economy and modernization of agriculture. The rate of use of mechanization in agriculture is increasing; however, animals are used primarily on small farms. More than 50% of the total agriculture areas in Vietnam are still cultivated by draft animals, while only about 30% are cultivated by mechanization. The soil preparation by draft animals positively effects on yi...

  5. Animals in Education: Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes and Science Fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGiffin, Heather, Ed.; Brownley, Nancie, Ed.

    Proceedings of the conference, "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes and Science Fairs," held in September of 1979 are presented. Sixteen articles reflect the views of educators, psychologists, and veterinarians on various perspectives of the controversial topic of using animals in elementary and secondary school science classrooms.…

  6. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  7. Using Powerpoint Animations to Teach Operations Management Techniques and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the value of using complex animated PowerPoint presentations to teach operations management techniques and concepts. To provide context, literature covering the use of PowerPoint animations in business education is briefly reviewed. The specific animations employed in this study are identified and their expected benefits to…

  8. Induction MHD generator using alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction MHD generator using an alternating magnetic field is proposed. The characteristics of the machine are analyzed theoretically and also compared with those of the induction MHD generator using a traveling magnetic field. Following conclusions are obtained for the fundamental characteristics of the present machine: (1) This type of the machine is possibly operated not only as the generator but also as the pump or as the damper. (2) The optimum condition for the maximum generator efficiency exists among the relations of the frequency, the fluid velocity and the inner core radius because of the eddy current loss due to an alternating magnetic field. (3) The power ratio of the reactive power of the machine to the gross output power can be reduced to a much smaller value than that of the traveling wave MHD generator. Therefore, even in the case of the working fluid with a relative low electrical conductivity such as two-phase liquid metal flow with high void fraction, the acceptable power ratio can be expected. (4) For the working fluid with higher electrical conductivity the skin effect is also able to be reduced to the acceptable level in the present machine, while it is a serious problem in the traveling wave MHD generator. (author)

  9. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  10. 75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed... NADAs provide for administering a Type C medicated feed containing ractopamine hydrochloride as a top dress on Type C medicated feeds containing monensin, USP, or monensin, USP, and tylosin phosphate...

  11. 77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  12. 76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal...

  13. 75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2009,...

  14. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Food-Producing Animals § 530.20 Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food... prescribing or dispensing an approved new animal or human drug for an extralabel use in food animals,...

  15. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  16. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Olsson, I. Anna S.;

    2014-01-01

    Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for...... the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that...... the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic....

  17. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  18. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  19. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Vanparys, Philippe; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Roggen, Erwin; Oué draogo, Gladys; Basketter, David A.; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Rossi, Annamaria; Skinner, Nigel; Blaauboer, Bas; Pelkonen, Olavi; Maxwell, Gavin; Yager, James

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  20. Compensating Companion Animal Owners for Veterinary Malpractice Through an Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J. Centner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many people own pets for companionship and become attached to their animals. Given this attachment, some owners contract for veterinary services to extend the lives of their pets and may spend more money for veterinary care than their animals are worth. If their pet dies due to veterinary malpractice, they only receive a nominal sum for damages. Approach: The research seeks a regulatory solution to compensate companion-pet owners in instances where veterinary malpractice causes injury to or the death of a pet. Under current law, remedies for veterinary malpractice do not recognize the pets’ actual value. Results: As values change, legislatures can address inequities. A proposed "Companion Animal Compensation Program" sets forth a solution for paying modest amounts for veterinary malpractice that would avoid excessive litigation and large jury awards. Conclusion: To give greater value to companion animals, states can take action to establish an administrative procedure to compensate companion animal owners who lose animals due to veterinary malpractice.

  1. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-12-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features when they watch only animations, mainly due to the cognitive load involved. Moreover, students seem to attribute a great deal of authority to the computer and may develop misconceptions by taking animations of abstract concepts too literally. In this study, we attempted to explore teachers' perceptions concerning the use of animations in the classroom while studying biotechnological methods, as well as the teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class. Thirty high-school biotechnology teachers participated in a professional development workshop, aimed at investigating how teachers plan for and support learning with animation while studying biotechnological methods in class. From that sample, two teachers agreed to participate in two case studies aimed at characterizing teachers' contribution to the enactment of animations in class while studying biotechnological methods. Our findings reveal marked teacher contribution in the following three aspects: establishing the "hands-on" point of view, helping students deal with the cognitive load that accompanies the use of animation, and implementing constructivist aspects of knowledge construction while studying using animations.

  2. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M;

    2015-01-01

    project ( www.nanotest-fp7.eu ) was a better understanding of mechanisms of interactions of NPs employed in nanomedicine with cells, tissues and organs and to address critical issues relating to toxicity testing especially with respect to alternatives to tests on animals. Here we describe an approach...... types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied to...... scientists, politicians and the public about potential health hazards associated with NPs need to be answered. With the variety of exposure routes available, there is potential for NPs to reach every organ in the body but we know little about the impact this might have. The main objective of the FP7 NanoTEST...

  3. 21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacture of animal feed. 510.7 Section 510.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS General Provisions § 510.7 Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new...

  4. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  5. Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: The need for alternative plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics has continued to increase, placing future animal and human disease management in real danger. The developing countries characterised by widespread indiscriminate antibiotic use and in which ‘third-generation’ antibiotics are not readily available or affordable are the worst affected. A 3-year (2010–2012 retrospective survey of antibiotic usage in livestock production in three selected states of south-western Nigeria was conducted. Data obtained from eight purposively selected licensed veterinary pharmaceutical sales establishments in the area, based on keeping detailed sales records for the study period, were analysed using Stata Version 12. Results showed that tetracyclines (33.6%, fluoroquinolones (26.5% and beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (20.4% constituted the majority of the antibiotics used over the 3 years. The differences in the quantities of antibiotic types used within each antimicrobial class were statistically significant for tetracyclines (F = 59.87; p < 0.0001 and fluoroquinolones (F = 43.97; p < 0.0001 but not for beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (F = 3.21; p = 0.148. Furthermore, antibiotic consumption increased by 40.4% between 2010 and 2012. Although statistically insignificant (F = 0.277; p = 0.762, the increasing trend across the years was at rates of 23.5% between 2010 and 2011 and 13.8% between 2011 and 2012. In addition, the findings show a significantly higher consumption rate (t = 15.21; df = 5; p < 0.0001 during the rainy (52.5% than the dry (47.5% seasons. The current increasing trend in antibiotic usage holds a serious danger for the future and therefore calls for alternative plans to safeguard future livestock production, food security and human health. This becomes more imperative considering emerging resistance against tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, the foremost remedies for livestock diseases in most developing countries.

  6. Study on the Current Status of Medical Alternative Animal Researches%医学动物替代研究发展现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫茂玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解我国动物替代研究发展现状,发现问题,提出对策。方法文献检索与定性描述法。以主题、篇名或关键词“动物替代”或“动物减少”或“动物优化”精确检索中文医学常用数据库中国知网、维普数据和万方数据库,补充查找相关研究参考文献。纳入分析组织建设、立法、医学教育和替代研究方法文献,并进行定性描述概括,检索时间截止2015年7月20日。结果初检引文219条,文献发表于1999-2014年,以描述性研究为主。动物替代研究领域包括皮肤刺激、眼刺激毒理学检测、热敏试验和动物模型替代等。替代研究信息交流平台已建立,部分教师已经在实践运用替代原则,相关专著已出版,但法规建设和验证体系滞后,替代研究认识还不乐观,验证方法研究不多。结论国内动物替代研究不多,缺乏系统化建设。未来应加强动物替代研究体系研究,重点在立法、政策引导、医学教育、人才培养和研究方法等。%Objective:To investigate the current status of alternative animal researches in China and thus find the problems and put forward countermeasures. Method: This study was carried out by the methods of literature search and qualitative description. The authors precisely searched the medicine databases commonly used in China ( CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data) using the MeSH word, title, or keyword namely"animal alternative","animal decrease" or"animal optimization", and added to find the related researches′references. Then the author included the literature regarding to the organization construction, legislation, medical education, and alternative research methods, and conducted a qualitative description. The deadline was July 20, 2015. Results:There were 219 ini-tial quotations published from 1999 to 2014, and mainly were descriptive researches. The fields of alternative ani-mal researches included skin

  7. 14 CFR 17.31 - Use of alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternative dispute resolution. 17... PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.31 Use of alternative dispute resolution. (a) The Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition shall encourage......

  8. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians. PMID:21560543

  9. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  10. Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry slightl

  11. The Therapeutic Use of Animals with the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samuel B., Jr.

    Green Chimneys, a residential center for emotionally disturbed and learning disabled children in New York, uses farm animals in the treatment program. Children learn horseback riding, animal husbandry, gardening, and farming on a working farm. The program seeks to involve the community and provide training to volunteers, interns, and learning…

  12. [Using alternative therapies in treating sleep disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common health problem among adults, and enhancing sleep quality is an issue of significant importance to healthcare providers. As sleep quality worsens into insomnia, individuals may seek assistance from medication. However, sedative hypnotic drugs pose potentially adverse effects. Also, most medical treatments (e.g., positive pressure assistant ventilators) represent invasive interventions that must be prescribed by physicians. Non-pharmacological alternative therapies are commonly recommended and adopted by community nurses. Alternative therapies for sleep disturbance included exercise, cognitive behavior therapy, multiple strategies, music, and acupressure. In general, moderately intensive walking exercise is the intervention most recommended by professionals to help patients deal with sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers devise sleep quality promotion strategies that are suitable for home practice in order to apply the findings and spirit of research already done in this area. PMID:21328208

  13. Development of an alternative plutonium canister assay system (APCA) using He-3 alternative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deal with the global shortage of He-3 gas, He-3 alternative neutron detectors using ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillators for nuclear security and the safeguards, and a demonstrator of Alternative Plutonium Canister Assay System (APCA) for the safeguards NDA in which the alternative detectors are employed, have been developed with the support of Japanese government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The results of the optical guide property of scintillation lights in the alternative detector tubes derived from the simulations using a ray-tracing code are presented in comparison with the test results of the developed alternative detectors. Furthermore, the fundamental performance of APCA estimated from the neutron Monte-Carlo code MVP and the comparison with the performance of the current PCAS are also described, respectively, together with the future plan of the APCA demonstration test. (author)

  14. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  15. 21 CFR 530.30 - Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Extralabel Use of Human and Animal Drugs in Animals Not Intended for Human Consumption § 530.30 Extralabel drug use in nonfood animals. (a) Because extralabel use of animal and human drugs in nonfood-producing animals does...

  16. Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Draheim, Megan M.; Patterson, Katheryn W.; Rockwood, Larry L.; Gregory A. Guagnano; E. Christien M. Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Understanding the public’s attitudes towards urban wildlife is an important step towards creating management plans, increasing knowledge and awareness about wildlife, and fostering coexistence between people and wildlife. Using undergraduate college students in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area (where coyotes are a recent arrival), this study examined attitudes towards coyotes and coyote management methods. Amongst other findings, we found differences in opinion between ke...

  17. Gradient-Based Algorithm for Determining Tumor Volumes in Small Animals Using Planar Fluorescence Imaging Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jessica P.; Egbulefu, Christopher; Prior, Julie L.; Zhou, Mingzhou; Achilefu, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Planar fluorescence imaging is widely used in biological research because of its simplicity, use of non-ionizing radiation, and high-throughput data acquisition. In cancer research, where small animal models are used to study the in vivo effects of cancer therapeutics, the output of interest is often the tumor volume. Unfortunately, inaccuracies in determining tumor volume from surface-weighted projection fluorescence images undermine the data, and alternative physical or conventional tomogra...

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR VALIDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IN VITRO TOXICITY TESTS: REPORT OF THE VALIDATION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER COMMITTEE OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    In toxicology the development and application of in vitro alternatives to reduce or replace animal testing, or to lessen the distress and discomfort of laboratory animals, is a rapidly developing trend. owever, at present there is no formal administrative process to organize, coo...

  19. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  20. Studying extinct animals using three-dimensional visualization, scanning, animation, and prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph E.; Andersen, Arthur; Wilcox, Brian

    2003-05-01

    Technology provides an important means for studying the biology of extinct animals. Skeletons of these species must be constructed virtually by scanning in data for individual bones and building virtual models for each. These then are used to produce prototypes of each of the bones at varying scales, allowing the construction of a starter skeleton configuration and the analysis of movement along each joint. The individual virtual bones are then assembled into a starter virtual skeleton using digitized landmark points on the starter physical skeleton to help place them in three-dimensional space. This virtual skeleton is then modified and improved by analyzing the movement at each joint, using the prototype bones. Once this is done, the movement is constrained further by doing animations of the whole skeleton and noting areas of impossible overlap between bones and unreasonable movement. The problems are corrected and new animations attempted until the movement is perfected. This provides a means for understanding locomotion and mastication in these extinct animals.

  1. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard;

    2006-01-01

    The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The experimen...... the curtains and prevents its spread from the cages into the aisle. The present study shows that the use of curtains in front of the cage racks is an efficient way to prevent spread of allergens from rodent cages to the entire animal room.......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The...... experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks, and a...

  2. Using Diffraction Tomography to Estimate Marine Animal Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. S.; Roberts, P.

    In this article we consider the development of acoustic methods which have the potential to size marine animals. The proposed technique uses scattered sound in order to invert for both animal size and shape. The technique uses the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) in order to model sound scattered from these organisms. The use of the DWBA also provides a valuable context for formulating data analysis techniques in order to invert for parameters of the animal. Although 3-dimensional observations can be obtained from a complete set of views, due to the difficulty of collecting full 3-dimensional scatter, it is useful to simplify the inversion by approximating the animal by a few parameters. Here, the animals are modeled as 3-dimensional ellipsoids. This reduces the complexity of the problem to a determination of the 3 semi axes for the x, y and z dimensions from just a few radial spokes through the 3-dimensional Fourier Transform. In order to test the idea, simulated scatter data is taken from a 3-dimensional model of a marine animal and the resultant data are inverted in order to estimate animal shape

  3. [Use of animal models of clinical pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, G

    1990-11-01

    For a better understanding of clinical pain, several groups involved in the study of basic pain mechanisms have proposed the use of various experimental models close to clinical situations. They are based either on neurogenic or inflammatory processes. Data obtained with three of these models will be developed in the paper: rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant injection into the tail, rats with an intraplantar injection of carrageenin in one hind-paw, rats with a moderate ligature of one common sciatic nerve. The various pharmacological approaches revealed dramatic changes of the analgesic effects of morphine and other opioid substances, and a spectacular modification of the endogenous opioid reactivity. A further enhancement of the initial hyperalgesia was observed with high doses (1-3 mg/kg iv) of naloxone (known as an antagonist of morphine), contrasting with the paradoxical analgesia induced with the low dose (peaking up for 3 micrograms/kg iv). Electrophysiological studies emphasized dramatic changes of neuronal responsiveness in structures involved in the transmission of the nociceptive messages. In each of these models, electrophysiological data provide new insights on the physiopathological mechanisms of the related clinical pain. PMID:2092200

  4. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology.

  5. USE OF PLANTS TINCTURES FOR YOUNG ANIMALS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov V. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presented experimental data of alcoholic mixtures of medicinal plants in combination with antimicrobial agents in dyspepsia of calves. Use tinctures with antibiotics improved the general condition of the animals and prevented their death

  6. What Dolphins Want: Animal Intentionality and Tool-Use

    OpenAIRE

    Heflin, Ashley Shew

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, I argue that at least some animals have the sort of intentionality philosophers traditionally have only ascribed to humans. I argue for this through the examination of tool-use among New Caledonian crows and Bottlenose dolphins. New Caledonian crows demonstrate advanced tool-manufacture and standardization, while Bottlenose dolphins use social learning to a much greater degree than other animals. These two case studies fit nicely with many of the non-linguistic accounts of int...

  7. The Use of Animal Models for Cancer Chemoprevention Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Vernon E.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models currently are used to assess the efficacy of potential chemopreventive agents, including synthetic chemicals, chemical agents obtained from natural products and natural product mixtures. The observations made in these models as well as other data are then used to prioritize agents to determine which are qualified to progress to clinical chemoprevention trials. Organ specific animal models are employed to determine which agents or classes of agents are likely to be the most effec...

  8. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals.

  9. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Natalia A; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals. PMID:26823664

  10. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  11. Conflict or convergence ? Perceptions of teachers and students about ethics in the use of animals in Zoology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênio E. C. Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in practical classes in university courses requires a bioethical approach so that zoological concepts are constructed along humanistic criteria. This is particularly relevant in Science teaching courses, since the approach will reflect in the graduates will teach in elementary levels. This work aimed to investigate the conceptions of teachers and undergraduate students from courses of Biological Sciences about the use of animals in didactic situations. Questionnaires were applied to students and teachers, regarding topics such as collection and killing of animals, alternative resources and guidelines for bioethical procedure. We noticed convergence and conflict among the perceptions and attitudes from teachers and students. Some of them agree with the replacement of animals for alternative resources, although orientations about the legal framework related to the topic are neglected. We propose an in-depth discussion about a multidisciplinary insertion of animal bioethics in the education of Biology teachers

  12. Physical-based non-Newtonian fluid animation using SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hai

    Fluids are commonly seen in our daily lives. They exhibit a wide range of motions, which depend on their physical properties, and often result in amazing visual phenomena. Hence, fluid animation is a popular topic in computer graphics. The animation results not only enrich a computer-generated virtual world but have found applications in generating special effects in motion pictures and in computer games. The three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equation is a comprehensive mechanical description of the fluid motions. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a popular particle-based fluid modeling formulation. In physical-based fluid animation, the fluid models are based on the 3D NS equation, which can be solved using SPH based methods. Non-Newtonian fluids form a rich class of fluids. Their physical behavior exhibits a strong and complex stress-strain relationship which falls outside the modeling range of Newtonian fluid mechanics. In physical-based fluid animation, most of the fluid models are based on Newtonian fluids, and hence they cannot realistically animate non-Newtonian fluid motions such as stretching, bending, and bouncing. Based on the 3D NS equation and SPH, three original contributions are presented in this dissertation, which address the following three aspects of fluid animation: (1) particle-based non-Newtonian fluids, (2) immiscible fluid-fluid collision, and (3) heating non-Newtonian fluids. Consequently, more varieties of non-Newtonian fluid motions can be animated, which include stretching, bending, and bouncing.

  13. An attempt to assess animal pain using brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    van Oostrom, H.

    2008-01-01

    Pain is an emotionally unpleasant sensory experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. Due to its complexity it is difficult to objectively assess pain and absence thereof (i.e. analgesia). This is especially true in animals, since animals lack the ability to verbally report pain. This thesis describes several studies using a specific approach, the recording of somatosensory evoked potentials from vertex (Vx-SEPs), to study pain, pain perc...

  14. Analysis of animal accelerometer data using hidden Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Leos-Barajas, Vianey; Photopoulou, Theoni; Langrock, Roland; Patterson, Toby A; Watanabe, Yuuki; Murgatroyd, Megan; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2016-01-01

    Use of accelerometers is now widespread within animal biotelemetry as they provide a means of measuring an animal's activity in a meaningful and quantitative way where direct observation is not possible. In sequential acceleration data there is a natural dependence between observations of movement or behaviour, a fact that has been largely ignored in most analyses. Analyses of acceleration data where serial dependence has been explicitly modelled have largely relied on hidden Markov models (H...

  15. Using Animation to Convey Natural Hazards and Anthropogenic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    Moving images are a powerful medium for analyzing, exploring and visually communicating complex concepts, and they are also the premiere medium for contemporary storytelling. Animation is particularly adept for explaining complex concepts and also for creating emotional messages. On a practical level animation can be free from the production constraints and the expense of live action filming. This presentation shows and explains a variety of Earth-inspired animated sequences produced by the Art+Media Research Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore. These animations have been used in a variety of interdisciplinary projects with multiple roles: sometimes to clearly explain a concept, others to elicit a feeling, or to present an emotion that facilitates learning. The projects reviewed range from scientific documentaries, to narrative shorts and interactive games. http://art-science-media.com/

  16. Use of the information from experiment by animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the radiation dose to various parts of human body tissue from internally deposited radionuclides, we need to know their pattern of uptake and retention within the human body. In the case that appropriate data for man are not available it is commonly necessary to use data collected from experimental animals. Since animal experiment can offer analytical approaches to the subject, the information from the experiment is considered to be rather essential for biologically logical description of the metabolism of the radionuclides. The animal experiment can be divided into three categories by the purpose; i.e., construction of a quantitative metabolic model, evaluation of the factors affecting the parameters used in the model and understanding the mechanisms of the metabolism. Extrapolation of animal data to man are subject to considerable criticism, and probably justifiably so because of the variations among species. An example of species variability is the difference of the whole-body retention rate of radiocesium between newborn of rat and human. Until adequate experimental data are collected from human subjects, we have no choice to rely mainly on information from experimental animals. As our knowledge is insufficient to provide a strong theoretical basis for the extraporation from animal to human, we should be very careful at the practice of the extrapolation, moreover, we should promote the study to establish a good interspecies correlation which will provide a better basis for the extrapolation. (auth.)

  17. Plastination of tissues and organs: interdisciplinary approach to replace laboratory animals that are in use for education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieski Vlatko; Pendovski Lazo; Petkov Vladimir; Popovska-Percinic Florina; Mizrahi Rasela

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply the plastination as an alternative method for protection on animals that are used in education, experiments and research according the European Directive 86/609/EEC. A two years old female guinea pig is used as material. The dissection of muscles as well subcutaneous structures and organs from abdominal cavity is preformed immediately after the death of animal. The guinea pig is plastinated using the protocol for S10 plastination. The plastinated guinea pig ha...

  18. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified. PMID:23891496

  19. Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Thomas; Gerner, Ingrid; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Liebsch, Manfred; Schulte, Agnes; Spielmann, Horst; Vogel, Richard; Wettig, Klaus [Bundesinstitut fuer Risikobewertung (BfR), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised ''tailor-made'' testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity. (orig.)

  20. Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Thomas; Gerner, Ingrid; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Liebsch, Manfred; Schulte, Agnes; Spielmann, Horst; Vogel, Richard; Wettig, Klaus

    2004-10-01

    During the past 20 years the EU legislation for the notification of chemicals has focussed on new chemicals and at the same time failed to cover the evaluation of existing chemicals in Europe. Therefore, in a new EU chemicals policy (REACH, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) the European Commission proposes to evaluate 30,000 chemicals within a period of 15 years. We are providing estimates of the testing requirements based on our personal experiences during the past 20 years. A realistic scenario based on an in-depth discussion of potential toxicological developments and an optimised "tailor-made" testing strategy shows that to meet the goals of the REACH policy, animal numbers may be significantly reduced below 10 million if industry would use in-house data from toxicity testing, which are confidential, if non-animal tests would be used, and if information from quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) would be applied in substance-tailored testing schemes. The procedures for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of chemicals have the strongest impact on the total number of animals bred for testing under REACH. We are assuming both an active collaboration with our colleagues in industry and substantial funding of the development and validation of advanced non-animal methods by the EU Commission, specifically in reproductive and developmental toxicity. PMID:15170526

  1. Technical Note: How to use Winbugs to infer animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm

    . Second, we show how this approach can be used to draw inferences from a wide range of animal models using the computer package Winbugs. Finally, we illustrate the approach in a simulation study, in which the data are generated and analyzed using Winbugs according to a linear model with i.i.d errors......This paper deals with Bayesian inferences of animal models using Gibbs sampling. First, we suggest a general and efficient method for updating additive genetic effects, in which the computational cost is independent of the pedigree depth and increases linearly only with the size of the pedigree...

  2. Inferring animal densities from tracking data using Markov chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Whitehead

    Full Text Available The distributions and relative densities of species are keys to ecology. Large amounts of tracking data are being collected on a wide variety of animal species using several methods, especially electronic tags that record location. These tracking data are effectively used for many purposes, but generally provide biased measures of distribution, because the starts of the tracks are not randomly distributed among the locations used by the animals. We introduce a simple Markov-chain method that produces unbiased measures of relative density from tracking data. The density estimates can be over a geographical grid, and/or relative to environmental measures. The method assumes that the tracked animals are a random subset of the population in respect to how they move through the habitat cells, and that the movements of the animals among the habitat cells form a time-homogenous Markov chain. We illustrate the method using simulated data as well as real data on the movements of sperm whales. The simulations illustrate the bias introduced when the initial tracking locations are not randomly distributed, as well as the lack of bias when the Markov method is used. We believe that this method will be important in giving unbiased estimates of density from the growing corpus of animal tracking data.

  3. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect. PMID:23861076

  4. Prediction of survival with alternative modeling techniques using pseudo values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Ploeg (Tjeerd); F.R. Datema (Frank); R.J. Baatenburg de Jong (Robert Jan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The use of alternative modeling techniques for predicting patient survival is complicated by the fact that some alternative techniques cannot readily deal with censoring, which is essential for analyzing survival data. In the current study, we aimed to demonstrate that pseudo

  5. Examining Pedestrian Injury Severity Using Alternative Disaggregate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the injury severity of pedestrians considering detailed road user characteristics and alternative model specification using a high-quality Danish road accident data. Such detailed and alternative modeling approach helps to assess the sensitivity of empirical inferences to ...

  6. Using Alternative Assessments in Business and Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah; Lucas, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The present study will be divided in three parts: (1) a discussion of authentic alternative assessments vs. traditional assessments in language and business classes; (2) an explanation on how to create authentic alternative assessments using technology-based and non-technology-based materials; and (3) tools to evaluate these authentic assessments.…

  7. Modification of radioresistance in laboratory animals using the lickens extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of two experiments using half-year-old albino rat mice-males radioprotective properties of alcohol and aqueous extracts from lichen (Clodina stellaris) have been investigated. In the first experience as probable antiradiation agent for curing irradiated animals Clodina stellaris alcohol extract has been applied; in the second experiment - as possible radioprotector aqueous extract of lichen of the same type has been used. The animals have been irradiated using RUM-17. The exposure dose for the first experiment constituted 0.15 Kl/kg (600 R), for the second one - 0.13 Kl/kg (500 R). The antiradiation effect of inwestigated extracts has been evaluated by the survival index of controlled and experimental animals. During the first experiment on the 10-th day after irradiation the process of complete dying out of animals received a usual laboratory ration and mice of the 1-st and 2-nd control group received with milk 70%-alcohol. The addition to the ration of ethyl alcohol somewhat decreased the intensity of mice dying out only on the 5-th day after radiation factor effect (1-st day of beginning of animals dying out in all groups). Death from radiation sickness of animals of the experimental group which received Clodina stellaris extract ceased by the 12-th day of the experiment. 27% of mice survived. The intensity of the dying out process of experimental animals has been lower for certain than in the 1-st and 2-nd control groups. During the second experiment on the 23-rd day after irradiation in the control group 66% of mice survived and in the course of the next week death of animals has not been observed. The mice of this group began to die in three days after irradiation. In the experimental group where the mice received Clodina stellaris aqueous extract the death of animals began only on the 11-th day and ceased 10 days earlier than in the control group. Up to the 30-th day of the experiment 83% of mice survived. The statistical evaluation of

  8. Welfare benefits to farm animals from their use in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G

    2004-06-01

    Domestication is the purposeful selection and modification of livestock to suit the human-made production environments. While the application of modern breeding theory has accelerated genetic change, traditional practices also modify the genetic makeup of livestock. Threats to the welfare of farm animals can arise from husbandry practices, attributes of the production environment and failure to match the genotype to the production environment. The selection of sheep for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes, the yard weaning of calves and the selection of cattle with docile temperament (e.g. slow flight time) are described as methods for improving welfare outcomes for grazing sheep and feedlot cattle, respectively. Contemporary production breeds exist as global populations. The move to the life-long individual identification of animals improves the power of breeding and management programmes that satisfy the criteria of scientific experimentation in their manner of implementation. In contrast to the use of farm animals, prejudice exists against comparable uses of more-recent domesticates (e.g. laboratory rodents). The growing global demand for livestock products suggests that Russell & Burch's Three Rs no longer provide a valid framework for deliberation on ethics of domestic animal use. A welfare outcome metric, such as that adopted by Grandin, is proposed as more robust than input quantification (reduce, replace) for appraisal of the ethics of animal use. PMID:23577466

  9. Electrochemistry of Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 with gold nanoparticles: An alternative to animal testing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    This work reports for the first time the direct electron transfer of the Canis familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on glassy carbon electrodes to provide an analytical tool as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process. Cytochrome P450 2D15, that corresponds to the human homologue P450 2D6, was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and entrapped on glassy carbon electrodes (GC) either with the cationic polymer polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) or in the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Reversible electrochemical signals of P450 2D15 were observed with calculated midpoint potentials (E1/2) of −191 ± 5 and −233 ± 4 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for GC/PDDA/2D15 and GC/AuNPs/2D15, respectively. These experiments were then followed by the electro-catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the presence of metoprolol. The latter drug is a beta-blocker used for the treatment of hypertension and is a specific marker of the human P450 2D6 activity. Electrocatalysis data showed that only in the presence of AuNps the expected α-hydroxy-metoprolol product was present as shown by HPLC. The successful immobilization of the electroactive C. familiaris cytochrome P450 2D15 on electrode surfaces addresses the ever increasing demand of developing alternative in vitromethods for amore detailed study of animal P450 enzymes' metabolism, reducing the number of animals sacrificed in preclinical tests. PMID:26092534

  10. Reclaimed wastewater use alternatives and quality standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Baresel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater use is crucial for increasing water availability, improving water resources management, minimising environmental pollution and permitting sustainable nutrient recycling. However, wastewater also contains microbiological and chemical pollutants posing risks to human health and the environment, and these risks have to be handled. Successful use of reclaimed wastewater requires stringent standards for its treatment, disposal and distribution. This report summarises global an...

  11. Uses of radioactive and stable isotopes in animal production research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the fifties, the widespread use of radioactive isotopes and radiation in the metabolic and clinical studies began. Fully coverage of uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation in research on animal health and animal production is a tedious process. This requires a classification of the manifold applications of radioisotopes which is a quantitative classification provides the necessary information about the quantities of the labelled compound or element or corresponding stable compound during metabolic processes. The second classification of applications is a qualitative classification that identifies the location of the labelling or compound. These qualitative and quantitative applications are divided into two types: fixed applications, which include measurements at a specific time, and changing applications, which include the rate of change over time. The aim of this study is to cover the applications of radioactive isotopes in animal studies, and indicate how to benefit from the results of studies of radioactive isotope quantity and its corresponding stable isotope using methods of comparison or mitigation.

  12. Using Animal-assisted Therapy to Enrich Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Jeanne Louise; Hubbard, Grace B

    2016-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of many psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AAT can be used as an adjunct to other forms of psychotherapy. With AAT, the animal becomes a part of the treatment plan. Outcomes for clients that are associated with the use of AAT include (1) increased sense of comfort and safety, (2) increased motivation, (3) enhanced self-esteem, (4) increased prosocial behaviors, and (5) decreased behavioral problems. AAT provides a bridge for the therapist to develop a therapeutic relationship with a client, and the animal can provide supportive reassurance for the therapist. The amount of data that supports the benefits of AAT for the treatment of those with mental illnesses is growing, but evidence-based research that supports its use is lacking. Further research is needed. PMID:27541053

  13. Prospect of creating transgenic animals by using spermatogonial transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yingji; LUO Fenhua; BOU Shorgan

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic animal technology is a powerful tool for researching bioscience, biomedicine, bioreactor, and agriculture. There are various ways to produce transgenic animals. The most common ways currently available are pronuclear microinjection and nuclear transfer techniques. However, these methods usually result in low efficiency, causing mosaic (in pronuclear microinjection), or developmental abnormalities (in nuclear transfer). In 1994, Brinster and his colleagues reported an original method to transfer spermatogonial stem cells from donor to recipient mice. The donor spermatogonia were able to form spermatozoa in recipient testes, and to produce progeny carrying the donor's genetic characters. Since then, a series of novel methods were invented by using spermatogonia transplantation. These new methods facilitate the research and application of spermatogonia. Some of these methods, when combining with genetic modification methods, will form a novel methodology for creating transgenic animals. The present paper reviews the achievements of research on spermatogonia transplantation related to creating transgenic animal. Such as, transplantation techniques, cryopreservation of spermatogonia, preparation of recipients, long-term proliferation of spermatogonia in culture, genetic modification of spermatogonia, and characterization of germ line transmission of the modified gene, etc. Furthermore the methodologies for creating transgenic animals by using spermatogonia transplantation were described. Based on the difference between donors and recipients used, the methodology is categorized into two groups: allogeneic transplantation, and autologous transplantation. Although progress in this research area has been swift, potential difficulties remain to be overcome in each approach. The advantages and existing problems in the methodology are discussed.

  14. Multi-criteria evaluation of the alternative fodder crops use in the Lower Savinja Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Alenka Jelen; Blaž Repe

    2015-01-01

    From the 19th century onwards, with the intensification of livestock production the demand for meat products is increasing. For animal feed are primarily used plants that allow maximum yield per hectare. Among them, the dominant crop is silage maize but, it is very vulnerable crop due to water shortages and heat waves during the peak growing season. In this article, we are looking for opportunities to use other fodder crops as alternative to silage maize, especially cereals and fodder legumes.

  15. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  16. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU): a transatlantic bridge for the paradigm shift in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU) was founded based collaboration between the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Konstanz. CAAT-EU, housed at the University of Konstanz, will coordinate transatlantic activities to promote humane science in research and education, and participate, as partner or coordinator, in publicly and privately funded European projects. Thomas Hartung will serve as program liaison representing Johns Hopkins University and Marcel Leist as the University of Konstanz liaison. CAAT-EU aims to: 1) Set up transatlantic consortia for international research projects on alternative methods. 2) Establish a CAAT Europe faculty and advisory board composed of sponsor representatives and prominent academics from Europe . 3) Participate in the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t4) devoted to conceptual work for the paradigm shift in toxicology. 4) Coordinate a series of information days in Europe on relevant developments in the US, similar to the 2009 series CAAT held in the US on EU issues (one on the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and one on EU and US chemical regulation). 5) Support ALTEX as the official journal of CAAT and CAAT-EU. 6) Develop strategic projects with sponsors to promote humane science and new toxicology, especially with CAAT faculty members. 7) Develop a joint education program between Johns Hopkins and the University of Konstanz, such as e-courses and the existing Humane Science Certificate program developed by CAAT, a student exchange program, and collaboration with the International Graduate School "Cell-based Characterization of De- and Regeneration" in Konstanz. PMID:20390240

  17. Discarded tires: energy conservation through alternative uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Scrap tires that are not recycled through retreading constitute a serious solid-waste problem, but also offer energy-conservation opportunities through their use as: (1) solid fuel (displaced energy = 15,000 Btu/lb or 35 kJ/g); (2) derived fuel and chemical feedstock (11,000 to 23,000 Btu/lb or 25 to 53.5 kJ/g); (3) virgin rubber compound substitute in traditional rubber products (34,000 to 40,000 Btu/lb or 79 to 93 kJ/g); and (4) asphalt additive for paving applications (90,000 Btu/lb or 210 kJ/g). Both the energy of the displaced fuel and material and the energy consumed preparing the tires for the above uses have been included, where possible, in these estimates. Also provided is a summary of the available data on the cost and requisite scale of operation for the various end use processes.

  18. Validation of an Animal Isolation Imaging Chamber for Use in Animal Biosafety Level-3 Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, T. Scott; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Live imaging of animals infected with pathogenic microbes poses a contamination risk to equipment, personnel and other animals. A Caliper animal isolation chamber designed for the IVIS® Spectrum imaging system was tested as a containment device for mice infected with microbes assigned to animal biosafety level-3 (ABSL-3). A testing protocol was developed by adapting two published standards to test other equipment in high containment environments. The protocol included quantitative leak-testin...

  19. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  20. Using Animated Textures to Visualize Electromagnetic Fields and Energy Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Belcher, John

    2008-01-01

    Animated textures can be used to visualize the spatial structure and temporal evolution of vector fields at high spatial resolution. The animation requires two time-dependent vector fields. The first of these vector fields determines the spatial structure to be displayed. The second is a velocity field that determines the time evolution of the field lines of the first vector field. We illustrate this method with an example in magneto-quasi-statics, where the second velocity field is taken to be the ExB drift velocity of electric monopoles. This technique for displaying time-dependent electromagnetic fields has three pedagogical advantages: (1) the continuous nature of the representation underscores the action-by-contact nature of forces transmitted by fields; (2) the animated texture motion shows the direction of electromagnetic energy flow; and (3) the time-evolving field configuration enables insights into Maxwell stresses.

  1. Man in space: The use of animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    Animals have traditionally preceded man into space. During animal and human travels in space over the past almost 30 years, numerous anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes have been observed. In order to safely qualify humans for extended duration space missions, scientific research needs to be performed. It may be possible to achieve many of these research goals with flight crews serving as experimental subjects; however, to do this with human subjects alone is impractical. Therefore, the use of animal surrogates as experimental subjects is essential to provide the missing information on the effects of spaceflights, to validate countermeasures, and to test medical treatment techniques which will be necessary for long duration missions. This research to assure human health, safety, and productivity in future extended duration space flights will include flights on NASA's Space Shuttle, unmanned biosatellites, and the Space Station Freedom.

  2. The environment and the use of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) to the ANWB symposium on alternative fuels and techniques concerns the necessity to use alternatives to reduce CO2 emissions, the importance of system integration, and a discussion of the strong and weak points with regard to the introduction of the fuel alternatives in the Netherlands. First attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (CO2 emissions) of the use of fuels. Options to reduce CO2 emission from automobiles are mentioned. Than several alternative fuels and accompanying techniques, and their impact on the CO2 emission, are discussed: diesel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), methanol, ethanol, rapeseed, electricity, and hydrogen. The possibilities to reduce CO2 emission in the Netherlands can be calculated by means of the Energy and Materials Scenarios (EMS). For several aspects assessments are given for the above-mentioned alternatives: availability of technology, ease of fuel storage, risk of use, impact on the city climate, full fuel cycle CO2 emission, costs, and reserves. These aspects can be considered as valid for most of the industrialized countries. For the Netherlands two other aspects have been assessed: the interest of the oil industry in the introduction of alternative fuels, the availability of the alternatives in the Netherlands. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  3. Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienblum, W. [Dr. Lilienblum Consulting Toxicology LiCoTox, Hemmingen/Han (Germany); Dekant, W. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Toxicology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Foth, H. [University of Halle, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Gebel, T. [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Dortmund (Germany); Hengstler, J.G. [University of Dortmund, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany); Kahl, R. [Heinrich-Heine-University, Institute of Toxicology, PO Box 101007, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kramer, P.J. [Merck KGaA, Institute of Toxicology, Darmstadt (Germany); Schweinfurth, H. [Nonclinical Drug Safety, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Wollin, K.M. [Lower Saxony Governmental Institute of Public Health, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. In continuation of this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favours alternative methods to conventional in vivo testing, if validated and appropriate. Even alternative methods in the status of prevalidation or validation, but without scientific or regulatory acceptance may be used under certain conditions. Considerable progress in the establishment of alternative methods has been made in some fields, in particular with respect to methods predicting local toxic effects and genotoxicity. In more complex important fields of safety and risk assessment such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of in silico methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. The main reasons are the complexity and limited knowledge of the biological processes involved on one hand and the long time frame until validation and regulatory acceptance of an alternative method on the other. New approaches in safety testing and evaluation using 'Integrated Testing Strategies' (ITS) (including combinations of existing data, the use of chemical categories/grouping, in vitro tests and QSAR) that have not been validated or not gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and by regulatory authorities will need a thorough justification of their appropriateness for a given purpose. This requires

  4. Using and Selection Criterias of Laboratory Animals with Experimental Purpose in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    ertuğrul, ihsan furkan; MADEN, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur

    2013-01-01

    Animal experimentation is the use of animals in scientific research. Animal experimants help scientists understand diseases that exist animals and humans, for example new medicines oe new surgical techniques. Animal models have an significiant place in endodontics. Planning the animal experiments, choosing the animal models and the applying ethical principles, in researchs have been included in this review. We concluded that the animal experimants could be conducted on rats, mices and ferrets...

  5. [Animals used in therapy for the wellbeing of elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Visits by dogs to elderly people in nursing homes have shown that animals can produce unexpected and positive reactions. This led to the idea of using a retrained guide dog for the blind in therapy workshops, with patients suffering from dementia. Setting up such a project is possible and produces interesting results. PMID:23409670

  6. Juvenile animal testing in drug development--is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In pharmaceutical drug development, there has been increased interest in the need to perform juvenile animal studies to support the safety of use of new medicines in the pediatric population. Although such studies are not new, the increased interest has been "formalized" in recent regulatory guidelines. As a result, companies are now performing many more studies in juvenile animals, even when there is a lack of robust knowledge of cross-species functional and kinetic differences among juveniles that means extrapolation of any toxicology study finding to an immature human may not be easy or even relevant, especially if performed in the wrong species at the wrong time. It will be shown by presentation of some basic considerations needed in order to perform such testing, that juvenile animal studies are indeed feasible. However, it will also be highlighted that (based on available knowledge) there are currently not enough clear-cut examples to answer the question of whether juvenile animal toxicology studies to support pediatric development (by affecting the performance or design of a pediatric clinical trial or identifying a potential different-from-adult safety risk in clinical use) are truly useful or necessary. PMID:20350578

  7. Features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongjun Zhang; Guangrun Xu; Shengnian Zhou; Meijuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation kindling model, having epilepsy-inducing and spontaneous seizure and other advantages, is a very ideal experimental animal model. But the kindling effect might be different at different sites.OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of animal models of complex partial epilepsy established through unilateral, bilateral and alternate-side kindling at hippocampus and successful rate of modeling among these 3 different ways.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University.MATERIALS: Totally 60 healthy adult Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 300 g, of either gender, were used in this experiment. BL-410 biological functional experimental system (Taimeng Science and Technology Co.Ltd, Chengdu) and SE-7102 type electronic stimulator (Guangdian Company, Japan) were used in the experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University from April to June 2004. After rats were anesthetized, electrode was implanted into the hippocampus. From the first day of measurement of afterdischarge threshold value, rats were given two-square-wave suprathreshold stimulation once per day with 400 μA intensity, 1ms wave length, 60 Hz frequency for 1 s duration. Left hippocampus was stimulated in unilateral kindling group, bilateral hippocampi were stimulated in bilateral kindling group, and left and right hippocampi were stimulated alternately every day in the alternate-side kindling group. Seizure intensity was scored: grade 0: normal, 1: wet dog-like shivering, facial spasm, such as, winking, touching the beard, rhythmic chewing and so on; 2: rhythmic nodding; 3: forelimb spasm;4:standing accompanied by bilateral forelimb spasm;5: tumbling, losing balance, four limbs spasm. Modeling was successful when seizure intensity reached grade 5. T test was used for the comparison of mean value between two samples.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of

  8. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T; Levin, Simon A; Robinson, Timothy P; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-05-01

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg(-1), 148 mg⋅kg(-1), and 172 mg⋅kg(-1) for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457

  9. On the Alternative Use of Verse and Prose in Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷

    2008-01-01

    As a master in language,William Shakespeare is proficient in using verse and prose alternatively in his tragedies and comedies,which is regarded as the key to his success in literature by some critics.In this thesis,I would like to analyze the three criteria for the altemafion of verse and prose in Hamlet,in which a discussion of functions of the alternation will be included

  10. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  11. The Use of Animal Models for Stroke Research: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana B Casals; Pieri, Naira CG; Feitosa, Matheus LT; Ercolin, Anna CM; Roballo, Kelly CS; Barreto, Rodrigo SN; Bressan, Fabiana F; Daniele S. Martins; Maria A. Miglino; Carlos E. Ambrósio

    2011-01-01

    Stroke has been identified as the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke is a focal neurologic deficit caused by a change in cerebral circulation. The use of animal models in recent years has improved our understanding of the physiopathology of this disease. Rats and mice are the most commonly used stroke models, but the demand for larger models, such as rabbits and even nonhuman primates, is increasing so as to better understand the disease and its treatment. Although the basic mech...

  12. The use of operant technology to measure behavioral priorities in captive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J J; Mason, G J

    2001-08-01

    Addressing the behavioral priorities of captive animals and the development of practical, objective measures of the value of environmental resources is a principal objective of animal welfare science. In theory, consumer demand approaches derived from human microeconomics should provide valid measures of the value of environmental resources. In practice, however, a number of empirical and theoretical problems have rendered these measures difficult to interpret in studies with animals. A common approach has been to impose a cost on access to resources and to use time with each resource as a measure of consumption to construct demand curves. This can be recorded easily by automatic means, but in a number of studies, it has been found that animals compensate for increased cost of access with longer visit time. Furthermore, direct observation of the test animals' behavior has shown that resource interaction is more intense once the animals have overcome higher costs. As a consequence, measures based on time with the resource may underestimate resource consumption at higher access costs, and demand curves derived from these measures may not be a true reflection of the value of different resources. An alternative approach to demand curves is reservation price, which is the maximum price individual animals are prepared to pay to gain access to resources. In studies using this approach, farmed mink (Mustela vison) paid higher prices for food and swimming water than for resources such as tunnels, water bowls, pet toys, and empty compartments. This indicates that the mink placed a higher value on food and swimming water than on other resources. PMID:11591075

  13. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, R.; Wever, B. de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Hill, E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of th

  14. Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja [Polish Academy of Sciences, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Inst., Krakow (Poland); Sarna, Mieczyslaw [Lafarge Cement Polska S.A., Malogoszcz (Poland)

    2003-02-01

    Alternative fuels are made up of mixtures of different wastes, such as industrial, municipal and hazardous wastes. These fuels need to have an appropriate chemical energy content which depends on the type of components and their organic content. An industry that is particularly well suited to the employment of alternative fuels is the cement industry. There are a number of factors that promote the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns. Of these factors, the most notable are: the high temperatures developed, the appropriate kiln length, the long period of time the fuel stays inside the kiln and the alkaline environment inside the kiln. There are a number of countries that use their own alternative fuels in cement plants. These fuels have different trade names and they differ in the amounts and the quality of the selected municipal and industrial waste fractions used. The fuels used should fall within the extreme values of parameters such as: minimum heating value, maximum humidity content, and maximum content of heavy and toxic metals. Cement plants in Poland also use alternative fuels. Within the Lafarge Group, the cement plants owned by Lafarge Poland Ltd. have initiated activities directed at promoting the wider use of alternative fuels. There are a number of wastes that can be incinerated as fuel in cement plants. Some that can be mentioned are: selected combustible fractions of municipal wastes, liquid crude-oil derived wastes, car tyres, waste products derived from paint and varnish production, expired medicines from the pharmaceutical industry and others. The experience gained by the cement plants of Lafarge Cement Poland Ltd confirms that such activities are economically and ecologically beneficial. The incineration of alternative fuels in cement plants is a safe method for the utilisation of waste that is ecologically friendly and profitable for the industrial plants and society alike. (Author)

  15. Creative or created: using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lucy A; Byrne, Richard W

    2007-05-01

    In non-human animals, creative behaviour occurs spontaneously only at low frequencies, so is typically missed by standardised observational methods. Experimental approaches have tended to rely overly on paradigms from child development or adult human cognition, which may be inappropriate for species that inhabit very different perceptual worlds and possess quite different motor capacities than humans. The analysis of anecdotes offers a solution to this impasse, provided certain conditions are met. To be reliable, anecdotes must be recorded immediately after observation, and only the records of scientists experienced with the species and the individuals concerned should be used. Even then, interpretation of a single record is always ambiguous, and analysis is feasible only when collation of multiple records shows that a behaviour pattern occurs repeatedly under similar circumstances. This approach has been used successfully to study a number of creative capacities of animals: the distribution, nature and neural correlates of deception across the primate order; the occurrence of teaching in animals; and the neural correlates of several aptitudes--in birds, foraging innovation, and in primates, innovation, social learning and tool-use. Drawing on these approaches, we describe the use of this method to investigate a new problem, the cognition of the African elephant, a species whose sheer size and evolutionary distance from humans renders the conventional methods of comparative psychology of little use. The aim is both to chart the creative cognitive capacities of this species, and to devise appropriate experimental methods to confirm and extend previous findings. PMID:17434411

  16. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. PMID:27066769

  17. Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed.

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis E

    2000-01-01

    Most feeds for broilers, pigs and veal calves, but 1/3 of feeds for beef cattle, are supplemented with an antimicrobial growth promoter. A European regulation list allows antimicrobial growth promoter, concentrations, animal species, and withdrawal periods (often null). Presently, avilamycin, flavomycin, lasalocid, monensin, and salinomycin are allowed. Avoparcin, bacitracin, carbadox, olaquindox, spiramycin, tylosin, and virginiamycin use was suspended by EU in 1997 and 98. Permitted doses a...

  18. Integrated Photovoltaic System Used as an Alternative Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Laurentiu Alboteanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to use solar energy as an alternative source of electricity to conventional sources. The solution is to use a compact photovoltaic system integrated into a micro smart grid. The studied photovoltaic system is used into concrete application for the power supply lighting in a didactic laboratory.

  19. The use of animal models in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libouban, H

    2015-06-01

    In myeloma, the understanding of the tissular, cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interactions between tumor plasma cells and bone cells have progressed from in vitro and in vivo studies. However none of the known animal models of myeloma reproduce exactly the human form of the disease. There are currently three types of animal models: (1) injection of pristane oil in BALB/c mice leads to intraperitoneal plasmacytomas but without bone marrow colonization and osteolysis; (2) injection of malignant plasma cell lines in immunodeficient mice SCID or NOD/SCID; the use of the SCID-hu or SCID-rab model allows the use of fresh plasma cells obtained from MM patients; (3) injection of allogeneic malignant plasma cells (5T2MM, 5T33) in the C57BL/KalwRij mouse induces bone marrow proliferation and osteolytic lesions. These cells did not grow in vitro and can be propagated by injection of plasma cells isolated from bone marrow of a mouse at end stage of the disease into young recipient mice. The 5TGM1 is a subclone of 5T33MM cells and can grow in vitro. Among the different models, the 5TMM models and SCID-hu/SCID-rab models were extensively used to test pathophysiological hypotheses and to assess anti-osteoclastic, anti-osteoblastic or anti-tumor therapies in myeloma. In the present review, we report the different types of animal models of MM and describe their interests and limitations. PMID:25898798

  20. Drug Discovery of Antimicrobial Photosensitizers Using Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sulbha K.; Dai, Tianhong; Gitika B Kharkwal; Huang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Liyi; Bil De Arce, Vida J.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an emerging alternative to antibiotics motivated by growing problems with multi-drug resistant pathogens. aPDT uses non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) in combination with harmless visible of the correct wavelength to be absorbed by the PS. The excited state PS can form a long-lived triplet state that can interact with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical that kill the microbial cells. ...

  1. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  2. Progress in alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity testing on animals%神经发育毒性动物实验替代方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 梁锦锋; 宋淑亮; 吉爱国

    2012-01-01

    Industrial chemical exposure during early embryonic development can cause fetal brain damage, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and sub-clinical brain dysfunction. Although the safety evaluation of chemicals based on animal toxicity tests is relatively reliable, many of these tests are expensive in terms of scientific resources and time and do not fit in with the current trend of reduced use of laboratory animals. As a result, alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity(DNT) testing attract more attention. The paper reviews establishment and improvement of alternatives, including sensitivity, low consumption and adaptability to high throughput screening, advantages, and current applications of cell-based models and non-mammalian models and finally the challenges existing. The alternatives will not completely replace a paradigm that involves in vivo testing in mammals, but they will be of great value in prioritizing chemicals and in identifying mechanisms of DNT.%胚胎早期暴露于某些工业化学物中,即使是很小剂量,也可导致胚胎脑损伤,引起神经发育性疾病和亚临床脑功能不良.虽然化学物基于动物毒性实验的安全性评价是较可靠的,但这种方法耗时长、成本高,而且不符合目前减少实验动物使用的趋势,因此神经发育毒性(DNT)实验的替代模型逐步引起重视.为建立和完善快速、经济又可高通量筛选受试物的替代方法,本文分别介绍了体外细胞模型和非哺乳动物模型的优势、现阶段应用以及所面临的挑战.这些替代法虽不能完全取代包括哺乳动物在内的体内实验,但它们在区分化合物和识别DNT机制方面将发挥巨大的作用.

  3. Brave new birds. The use of 'animal integrity' in animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Brom, Frans W A; van den Bergh, Babs J

    2002-01-01

    Suppose "chicken" eggs could be produced by quasi-chickens--genetically engineered humps of living chicken-flesh that do nothing but lay eggs. Would there be anything amiss with that? Animal ethicists invoke the notion of animal integrity in order to give intellectual content to the intuition that there would be. On inspection, 'integrity' isn't everything its proponents want it to be. Yet there's enough in it to make reasoned argument possible. PMID:11917704

  4. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  5. Using grounded theory to examine people's attitudes toward how animals are used

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Sarah; Nunkoosing, Karl; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This study uses qualitative methodology to examine why people have different attitudes toward different types of nonhuman animal use. Seventeen participants took part in a semi-structured interview. The study used Grounded Theory to analyze the interviews and developed a model that consists of 4 major themes: (a) attitudes toward animals, (b) knowledge of animal use procedures,(c) perceptions of choice,and (d) cost-benefit analysis.The findings illustrate that cognitive processing, characteri...

  6. Application of Alternatives to Animal Experiments in the Evaluation of Veterinary Vaccine%动物试验替代方法在兽用疫苗检验中的应用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓卉; 李翠; 蒋卉; 张秀英; 温芳; 陆连寿; 王在时

    2015-01-01

    介绍了动物试验替代方法的含义及其在国内外的发展情况,并从实验动物替代法、血清学替代法和疫苗抗原定量法三方面重点介绍了动物试验替代方法在兽用疫苗检验中的应用情况、优势和意义,以期为兽用疫苗检验替代方法研究提供参考。%This review has introduced the alternatives to animal experiments and its development situation at home and abroad. Besides, this paper has provided an overview about the application, advantages and significance of alternatives to animal experiments from three aspects, including the improvement of animal use, the serological assay and the quantification of antigens in the vaccine, so as to offer benefit to the research of the alternatives to animal experiments in the evaluation of veterinary vaccine.

  7. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  8. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms—particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals’ knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or “conservation consciousness” was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species

  9. Alternate MIMO relaying with three AF relays using interference alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop half-duplex relaying network with one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays equipped with M antennas each. We consider alternate transmission to compensate for the inherent loss of capacity pre-log factor 1/2 in half duplex mode, where source transmit message to two relays and the other relay alternately. The inter-relay interference caused by alternate transmission is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom (DOFs). It is shown that the proposed scheme enables us to exploit 3M/4 DOFs compared with the M/2 DOFs of conventional AF relaying. More specifically, suboptimal linear filter designs for a source and three relays are proposed to maximize the achievable sum-rate. We verify using some selected numerical results that the proposed filter designs give significant improvement of the sum-rate over a naive filter and conventional relaying schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Irradiated homologous tarsal plate banking: A new alternative in eyelid reconstruction. Part I. Technique and animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defects requires the correction of both posterior lamella (tarsus, conjunctiva) and anterior lamella (skin, muscle). Tarsal substitutes including banked sclera, nasal cartilage, ear cartilage, and periosteum can be beneficial for posterior lamellar repair, while anterior lamellar replacement, including skin grafts, pedicle flaps, advancement flaps, etc., is important to cover the posterior reconstructed portion. At times, due to extensive tissue loss, the eyelid reconstruction can be particularly challenging. We have found an alternative posterior lamellar reconstructive technique utilizing irradiated homologous tarsal plate that can be particularly useful in selected cases of severe tissue loss. The experimental surgical procedure in monkeys and the histological fate of the implanted tarsus is described in Part I, and followed in Part II by our experience with this tissue in six human patients

  11. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power ...

  12. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  13. Analysis of longitudinal data from animals with missing values using SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Soleman, Sara; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-06-01

    Testing of therapies for disease or injury often involves the analysis of longitudinal data from animals. Modern analytical methods have advantages over conventional methods (particularly when some data are missing), yet they are not used widely by preclinical researchers. Here we provide an easy-to-use protocol for the analysis of longitudinal data from animals, and we present a click-by-click guide for performing suitable analyses using the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics software (SPSS). We guide readers through the analysis of a real-life data set obtained when testing a therapy for brain injury (stroke) in elderly rats. If a few data points are missing, as in this example data set (for example, because of animal dropout), repeated-measures analysis of covariance may fail to detect a treatment effect. An alternative analysis method, such as the use of linear models (with various covariance structures), and analysis using restricted maximum likelihood estimation (to include all available data) can be used to better detect treatment effects. This protocol takes 2 h to carry out. PMID:27196723

  14. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  15. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kenis, M.; Koné, N.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; E. Devic; G.K.D. Koko; V.A. Clottey; S. Nacambo; G.A. Mensah

    2014-01-01

    In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practi...

  16. A novel dissolution method for evaluation of polysaccharide based colon specific delivery systems: A suitable alternative to animal sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Prudhviraj, G; Gulati, Monica; Kaur, Puneet; Vaidya, Yogyata

    2015-06-20

    The most extensively used test for predicting in-vivo release kinetics of a drug from its orally administered dosage forms is dissolution testing. For polysaccharide based, colon targeted oral delivery systems, the entire path of the gut traversed by the dosage form needs to be simulated for assessing its in-vivo dissolution pattern. This includes the dissolution testing sequentially in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). For SGF and SIF, simple and standardized composition is well-known. However, preparation of SCF requires addition of either the colonic contents of rodents or human faecal slurry. A method is proposed, wherein a mixture of five probiotics cultured in the presence of a prebiotic under anaerobic conditions is able to surrogate the colonic fluid. Release profiles of drug from colon targeted delivery systems in this medium were studied and compared to those generated in the conventionally used media containing rodent caecal contents and human faecal slurry. The results from the three studies were found to be quite similar. These findings suggest that the proposed medium may prove to be useful not only as a biorelevant and discriminatory method but may also help in achieving the 3Rs objective regarding the ethical use of animals. PMID:25829049

  17. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider Erich; Hofmann-Amtenbrinck Margarethe; von Rechenberg Brigitte; Claes Lutz; Price Jill; Pearce Simon; Arnoczky Steven; Goodship Allen; Auer Jorg A; Müller-Terpitz R; Thiele F; Rippe Klaus-Peter; Grainger David W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musc...

  18. 78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059). The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy..., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the FR Doc. 2013-29810, appearing on page 76059 in the Federal Register of Monday, December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059), the...

  19. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity obtained in mammals exposed... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated...

  20. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems

  1. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvikis, D.; Lefevre, T.; Lamare, F.; Kontaxakis, G.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  2. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Lefevre, T. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Kontaxakis, G. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Santos, A. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Darambara, D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-20

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  3. Multi-criteria evaluation of the alternative fodder crops use in the Lower Savinja Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Jelen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the 19th century onwards, with the intensification of livestock production the demand for meat products is increasing. For animal feed are primarily used plants that allow maximum yield per hectare. Among them, the dominant crop is silage maize but, it is very vulnerable crop due to water shortages and heat waves during the peak growing season. In this article, we are looking for opportunities to use other fodder crops as alternative to silage maize, especially cereals and fodder legumes.

  4. Determination of Small Animal Long Bone Properties Using Densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Goldberg, BethAnn K.; Whalen, Robert T.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of bone structural property changes due to loading regimens or pharmacological treatment typically requires destructive mechanical testing and sectioning. Our group has accurately and non-destructively estimated three dimensional cross-sectional areal properties (principal moments of inertia, Imax and Imin, and principal angle, Theta) of human cadaver long bones from pixel-by-pixel analysis of three non-coplanar densitometry scans. Because the scanner beam width is on the order of typical small animal diapbyseal diameters, applying this technique to high-resolution scans of rat long bones necessitates additional processing to minimize errors induced by beam smearing, such as dependence on sample orientation and overestimation of Imax and Imin. We hypothesized that these errors are correctable by digital image processing of the raw scan data. In all cases, four scans, using only the low energy data (Hologic QDR-1000W, small animal mode), are averaged to increase image signal-to-noise ratio. Raw scans are additionally processed by interpolation, deconvolution by a filter derived from scanner beam characteristics, and masking using a variable threshold based on image dynamic range. To assess accuracy, we scanned an aluminum step phantom at 12 orientations over a range of 180 deg about the longitudinal axis, in 15 deg increments. The phantom dimensions (2.5, 3.1, 3.8 mm x 4.4 mm; Imin/Imax: 0.33-0.74) were comparable to the dimensions of a rat femur which was also scanned. Cross-sectional properties were determined at 0.25 mm increments along the length of the phantom and femur. The table shows average error (+/- SD) from theory of Imax, Imin, and Theta) over the 12 orientations, calculated from raw and fully processed phantom images, as well as standard deviations about the mean for the femur scans. Processing of phantom scans increased agreement with theory, indicating improved accuracy. Smaller standard deviations with processing indicate increased

  5. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  6. Concept and use of reference animals and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to manage the exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation, a device was needed that enabled exposures to be related to dose received, and hence for relating doses to effects. The result was an entity called Reference Man. It has therefore been argued that a similar approach could prove useful in attempting to manage radionuclides in the environment by having a framework with which to relate exposures to dose, and doses to effects, for other types of living things, by way of a set of entities called reference animals and plants. This set would necessarily be limited in scope, because it is clearly not possible even to try to encompass the vast array of living things that might need to be considered in various forms of environmental management practices. Nevertheless, a relatively small set could still be useful in drawing out many of the basic questions, and to serve as a reference against which other forms of animals and plants could be compared. This paper outlines some of the issues involved and makes some suggestions as to how they might be addressed. (author)

  7. Development of motion capture system using alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Masaaki; Akamatsu, Kazuyoshi

    2005-12-01

    Motion capture systems are widely used for virtual reality, motion acquisition for medical researches, for humanoid robots, for video games, etc. Several types of them have been developed and used for applications considering their advantages and restrictions. Another type of motion capture system that uses alternating magnetic field is proposed in this paper. The system uses a field exciting coil that covers measuring area and a pickup coil attached to target. First, six alternating fields are generated simultaneously in measuring area, and signals are induced on pickup coils according to attitude and position of it. These signals are processed to extract amplitude of exciting components, and state of the pickup coil is calculated from those components. It can detect attitude and displacement of target with high resolution and fast response speed. The principles of detection and brief experimental results are described.

  8. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Leandro M; Chacana, Pablo A; Dominguez, Johana E; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been rising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the associated increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy, and concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for animal nutrition, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in poultry feed to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additives must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantity to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolysable) and Quebracho (condensed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use. PMID:24723916

  9. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarianoEnriqueFernandez Miyakawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable to select antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been arising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves a tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the related increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy and, concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and also avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for food animal production, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in feed poultry to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additive must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantities to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolizable and Quebracho (condennsed tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.

  10. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI. A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L. has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making the plant extract a potential candidate for preserving liquid animal semen during in vitro storage. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of Drosera extract on the motility, viability and superoxide production of bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6, 12 and 24h of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the SpermVisionTM CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. The CASA analysis revealed that Drosera extract supplementation was able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 mg/mL (P<0.001 with respect to Times 6h, 12h and 24h. At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 mg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability throughout short-term (P<0.05 in case of Time 6h as well as long-term periods of the experiment (P<0.01 with respect to Time 12h, and P<0.001 in case of Time 24h. 10 and 5 mg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the intracellular superoxide production, particularly notable at Times 12h (P<0.01 and 24h (P<0.001. The results indicate that the Drosera extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the

  11. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; M.Daneshian; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  12. The evolving profile of alternative tobacco use in California

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joshua Robert

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control programs, smoking bans, and taxes have been utilized to reduce cigarette smoking in the United States. Found in all tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive, and many anti-smoking laws can be subverted with other tobacco products. Additionally, many researchers are promoting the use of potentially reduced- exposure products (PREPs) for harm reduction to cigarette smokers. The purpose of this dissertation was to study the use of alternative tobacco products in California,...

  13. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  14. Asthma: a comparison of animal models using stereological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Hyde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a worldwide health problem that affects 300 million people, as estimated by the World Health Organization. A key question in light of this statistic is: "what is the most appropriate laboratory animal model for human asthma?" The present authors used stereological methods to assess airways in adults and during post-natal development, and their response to inhaled allergens to compare rodents and nonhuman primates to responses in humans. An epithelial–mesenchymal trophic unit was defined in which all of the compartments interact with each other. Asthma manifests itself by altering not only the epithelial compartment but also other compartments (e.g. interstitial, vascular, immunological and nervous. All of these compartments show significant alteration in an airway generation-specific manner in rhesus monkeys but are limited to the proximal airways in mice. The rhesus monkey model shares many of the key features of human allergic asthma including the following: 1 allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE and skin-test positivity; 2 eosinophils and IgE+ cells in airways; 3 a T-helper type 2 cytokine profile in airways; 4 mucus cell hyperplasia; 5 subepithelial fibrosis; 6 basement membrane thickening; and 7 persistent baseline hyperreactivity to histamine or methacholine. In conclusion, the unique responses to inhaled allergens shown in rhesus monkeys make it the most appropriate animal model of human asthma.

  15. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks. PMID:26904893

  16. Dosimetry in small-animal CT using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.-L.; Park, S.-J.; Jeon, P.-H.; Jo, B.-D.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-animal computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging devices are increasingly being used in biological research. While investigators are mainly interested in high-contrast, low-noise, and high-resolution anatomical images, relatively large radiation doses are required, and there is also growing concern over the radiological risk from preclinical experiments. This study was conducted to determine the radiation dose in a mouse model for dosimetric estimates using the GEANT4 application for tomographic emission simulations (GATE) and to extend its techniques to various small-animal CT applications. Radiation dose simulations were performed with the same parameters as those for the measured micro-CT data, using the MOBY phantom, a pencil ion chamber and an electrometer with a CT detector. For physical validation of radiation dose, absorbed dose of brain and liver in mouse were evaluated to compare simulated results with physically measured data using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The mean difference between simulated and measured data was less than 2.9% at 50 kVp X-ray source. The absorbed doses of 37 brain tissues and major organs of the mouse were evaluated according to kVp changes. The absorbed dose over all of the measurements in the brain (37 types of tissues) consistently increased and ranged from 42.4 to 104.0 mGy. Among the brain tissues, the absorbed dose of the hypothalamus (157.8-414.30 mGy) was the highest for the beams at 50-80 kVp, and that of the corpus callosum (11.2-26.6 mGy) was the lowest. These results can be used as a dosimetric database to control mouse doses and preclinical targeted radiotherapy experiments. In addition, to accurately calculate the mouse-absorbed dose, the X-ray spectrum, detector alignment, and uncertainty in the elemental composition of the simulated materials must be accurately modeled.

  17. Dosimetry in small-animal CT using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-animal computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging devices are increasingly being used in biological research. While investigators are mainly interested in high-contrast, low-noise, and high-resolution anatomical images, relatively large radiation doses are required, and there is also growing concern over the radiological risk from preclinical experiments. This study was conducted to determine the radiation dose in a mouse model for dosimetric estimates using the GEANT4 application for tomographic emission simulations (GATE) and to extend its techniques to various small-animal CT applications. Radiation dose simulations were performed with the same parameters as those for the measured micro-CT data, using the MOBY phantom, a pencil ion chamber and an electrometer with a CT detector. For physical validation of radiation dose, absorbed dose of brain and liver in mouse were evaluated to compare simulated results with physically measured data using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The mean difference between simulated and measured data was less than 2.9% at 50 kVp X-ray source. The absorbed doses of 37 brain tissues and major organs of the mouse were evaluated according to kVp changes. The absorbed dose over all of the measurements in the brain (37 types of tissues) consistently increased and ranged from 42.4 to 104.0 mGy. Among the brain tissues, the absorbed dose of the hypothalamus (157.8–414.30 mGy) was the highest for the beams at 50–80 kVp, and that of the corpus callosum (11.2–26.6 mGy) was the lowest. These results can be used as a dosimetric database to control mouse doses and preclinical targeted radiotherapy experiments. In addition, to accurately calculate the mouse-absorbed dose, the X-ray spectrum, detector alignment, and uncertainty in the elemental composition of the simulated materials must be accurately modeled

  18. Endoluminal US: experiments with nonvascular uses in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, B B; Liu, J B; Merton, D A; Kurtz, A B

    1990-04-01

    Catheters containing miniature ultrasound (US) transducers, originally developed for intravascular evaluation of plaque, were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro animal experiments to image a variety of nonvascular lumina. Measurements of the wall thickness and echotexture of the urethra, urinary bladder, ureter, renal pelvis, bile ducts, small bowel, fallopian tubes, and uterus were carried out. Close correlation between the US images and actual anatomic specimens was obtained. Structures outside of the lumen were identified and confirmed with both direct visualization and radiographic localization. Two small stones artificially inserted into the renal pelvis and a polyp-like projection artificially created within the fallopian tube were clearly identified by using the US probe. These initial US studies demonstrate the potential feasibility of these miniature transducers contained within catheters for intraluminal analysis in humans. PMID:2179992

  19. An alternative to nerve repair using an antioxidant compound: a histological study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Marcos B; Gehrke, Sergio A; Koo, Samuel; Allegrini, Sergio; Rogero, Sizue O; Ikeda, Tamiko I; Cruz, Áurea S; Shinohara, Elio H; Yoshimoto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The fascicular composition and organisation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were determined to confirm the microarchitecture of the IAN bundles into each of the mandibular teeth, including the composition of the mental nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral nerve repair after the application of an antioxidant compound to the damaged nerve tissue to elevate the concentration and bioavailability of elements capable of favouring tissue repair. Twenty-five Wistar rats were divided into groups: The Control 1 (Ctl 1) (n = 5) animals had the ischiatic nerve exposed with no suture injury and were sacrificed at 30 days post-operatively. The Control 2 (Ctl 2) (n = 10) animals had the ischiatic nerve exposed, and the nerve was injured using suture in three distinct regions. In the experimental (Exp) animals (n = 10), an antioxidant organic compound was applied to the nerve injury site. The animals with nerve injury (Ctl2 and Exp group) were sacrificed at 15 and 30 days post-operatively. The histological analysis showed less degeneration in the Exp group at 15 and 30 days post-operatively. Nerve neoformation forming a connection between the distal and proximal suture sites was observed in the experimental group. This study presented an alternative to nerve repair using an antioxidant compound. PMID:25578694

  20. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of thorium as an alternative or supplementary nuclear fuel is examined and compared with uranium. A description of various reactor types and their suitability to thorium fuel, and a description of various aspects of the fuel cycle from mining to waste disposal, are included. Comments are made on the safety and economics of each aspect of the fuel cycle and the extension of the lifetime of nuclear fuel

  1. Alternatives to control microbiological cheese defects: use of aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    LIBRÁN CUERVAS-MONS, CELIA MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO CONTROL MICROBIOLOGICAL CHEESE DEFECTS: USE OF AROMATIC PLANTS 1. Introduction Cheeses are traditionally affected by microbiological spoilage that leads to great economic loss. On the one hand, bacteria such as coliforms or butyric acid are some of the responsible for early and late cheese blowing, respectively (COGAN, 2011; GARDE et al., 2011). These are two cheese paste defects characterised by the internal presence of numerous and odorous holes (MCSWEENEY, 2007; MULLA...

  2. Alternative air-conditioning with the use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the investigation of the alternative air condition systems on the basis of the open absorbtion cycle with the use of solar energy as a heat source. Schematic solution of systems has been carried. The design analysis of working characteristics was performed for a wide rang of initial parameters (teperature and humidity of ambient air, the type and concentration of liquid sorbents, etc.) and construction features of heat and mass transfer.(Author)

  3. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems

  4. Forecasting Stock Prices by Using Alternative Time Series Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kivilcim Metin; Gulnur Muradoglu

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the forecast performance of alternative time series models, namely VAR in levels, stochastic seasonal models (SSM) and error correction models (ECM) at the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). Considering the emerging market characteristic of the ISE, stock prices are estimated by using, money supply, inflation rate, interest rates, exchange rates and budget deficits. Then, in an out-of-sample forecasting exercise from January 1995 through December 1995, comp...

  5. A chaos-based image encryption algorithm using alternate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YiWei; WANG YuMin; SHEN XuBang

    2007-01-01

    Combined with two chaotic maps, a novel alternate structure is applied to image cryptosystem. In proposed algorithm, a general cat-map is used for permutation and diffusion, as well as the OCML (one-way coupled map lattice), which is applied for substitution. These two methods are operated alternately in every round of encryption process, where two subkeys employed in different chaotic maps are generated through the masterkey spreading. Decryption has the same structure with the encryption algorithm, but the masterkey in each round should be reversely ordered in decryption. The cryptanalysis shows that the proposed algorithm bears good immunities to many forms of attacks. Moreover, the algorithm features high execution speed and compact program, which is suitable for various software and hardware applications.

  6. An attempt to assess animal pain using brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, H.

    2008-01-01

    Pain is an emotionally unpleasant sensory experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. Due to its complexity it is difficult to objectively assess pain and absence thereof (i.e. analgesia). This is especially true in animals, since animals lack t

  7. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  8. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanopa

  9. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  10. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. PMID:26091614

  11. Constraining alternative gravity theories using the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutrino flavor oscillation is studied in some classes of alternative gravity theories in a plane specified by θ = π/2, exploiting the spherical symmetry and general equations for oscillation phases are given. We first calculate the phase in a general static spherically symmetric model and then we discuss some spherically symmetric solutions in alternative gravity theories. Among them we discuss the effect of a cosmological term in the Schwarzschild–(anti)de Sitter solution, which is the vacuum solution in F(R) theory and the effect of charge and the Gauss–Bonnet coupling parameter on the oscillation phase is presented. Finally, we discuss a charged solution with a spherical symmetry in F(R) theory and also its implication to the oscillation phase. We calculate the oscillation length and transition probability in these spherically symmetric spacetimes and have presented a graphical representation for the transition probability with various choices for parameters in our theory. From this, we have constrained parameters appearing in these alternative theories using standard solar neutrino results. (paper)

  12. A technical learning on the Pressurized Water Nuclear Power Plants using animation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressurized water nuclear power generation plants tends to reduce construction of its new plant from viewpoints of recent stabilization in power demand/supply balance, development of new siting points, and so on. And, together with reducing any opportunity to experience at site, generation alternation to younger engineers without such experiences is progressing. In order to carry out technical tradition with high quality , as it is important to understand experiences of troubles and so on as valuable inheritance to apply them to actual use, it can be thought, in doubt, to be one of solving measures to prepare some learning tools applying the newest technology. The Kansai Electric Co., Ltd. Developed a CAD software using animation and 3D pictures using a personal computer which is edited some processes of technical transition on nuclear energy as a reference on a shape of CD ROM as an object from initial period of nuclear power station to present APWR. (G.K.)

  13. Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing. PMID:24468774

  14. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobetičová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud and a biosorbent (Lemna minor were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L−1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 % was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  15. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  16. An alternative method for simulating particle suspensions using lattice Boltzmann

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Luís Orlando Emerich dos

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we propose an alternative way to simulate particle suspensions using the lattice Boltzmann method. The main idea is to impose the non-slip boundary condition in the lattice sites located on the particle boundaries. The focus on the lattice sites, instead of the links between them, as done in the more used methods, represents a great simplification in the algorithm. A fully description of the method will be presented, in addition to simulations comparing the proposed method with other methods and, also, with experimental results.

  17. Studying the Probability of Using Groundwater in Baghdad City for Human, Animal, and Irrigation Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem J. Channo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is an important source of fresh water especially in countries having a decrease in or no surface water; therefore itis essential to assess the quality of groundwater and find the possibility of its use in different purposes (domestic; agricultural; animal; and other purposes. In this paper samples from 66 wells lying in different places in Baghdad city were used to determine 13 water parameters, to find the quality of groundwater and evaluate the possibility of using it for human, animal and irrigation by calculating WQI, SAR, RSC and Na% and TDS indicators. WQI results showed that the groundwater in all wells are not qualified for human use, while SAR and RSC indicated that most samples are suitable for irrigation use, and TDS showed that 74% of samples are suitable for animal use especially for sheep and meat-livestock animals.

  18. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. PMID:25058855

  19. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  20. The Drosera Extract as an Alternative In Vitro Supplement to Animal Semen: Effects on Bovine Spermatozoa Activity and Oxidative Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tvrdá

    2015-01-01

    In vitro storage and processing of animal semen is considered to be a risk factor to spermatozoa activity, possibly leading to reduced fertility and litter sizes following artificial insemination (AI). A variety of substances isolated from natural resources have the potential to exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus they may extend the lifespan of stored semen. Drosera (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and ant...

  1. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Mess

    2014-01-01

    Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there i...

  2. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of Bonelike (registered) graft with a resorbable matrix using an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic bone grafts have been developed to provide an alternative to autografts and allografts. Bonelike (registered) is a patented synthetic osteoconductive bone graft that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. In the present preliminary animal studies a user-friendly version of synthetic bone graft Bonelike (registered) have been developed by using a resorbable matrix, Floseal (registered) , as a vehicle and raloxifene hydrochloride as a therapeutic molecule, that is known to decrease osteoclast activity and therefore enhanced bone formation. From histological and scanning electron microscopy evaluations, the use of Bonelike (registered) associated with Floseal (registered) and raloxifene hydrochloride showed that new bone was rapidly apposed on implanted granules and also that the presence of the matrix and therapeutic molecule does not alter the proven highly osteoconductivity properties of Bonelike (registered) . Therefore, this association may be one step-forward for the clinical applications of Bonelike (registered) scaffolds since it is much more easy-to-handle when compared to granular materials

  4. Assessment of Bonelike (registered) graft with a resorbable matrix using an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, J.V. [CHVNG-Servico de Estomatologia, Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Largo Professor Abel Salazar, 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); CECA/ICETA-Centro de Estudos de Ciencia Animal, Instituto de Ciencias e Tecnologias Agrarias e Agro-Alimentares, Campus Agrario de Vairao, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, 4485-661 Vairao (Portugal); Hussain, N. Sooraj [INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Laboratorio de Biomateriais, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal); FEUP-Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, DEMM, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Botelho, C.M. [INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Laboratorio de Biomateriais, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal); FEUP-Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, DEMM, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Mauricio, A.C. [ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Largo Professor Abel Salazar, 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); CECA/ICETA-Centro de Estudos de Ciencia Animal, Instituto de Ciencias e Tecnologias Agrarias e Agro-Alimentares, Campus Agrario de Vairao, Rua Padre Armando Quintas, 4485-661 Vairao (Portugal); Afonso, A. [FMDUP-Faculdade de Medicina Dentaria da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-393 Porto (Portugal); Ali, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Santos, J.D. [INEB-Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Laboratorio de Biomateriais, Rua Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180, Porto (Portugal) and FEUP-Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, DEMM, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jdsantos@fe.up.pt

    2006-09-25

    Synthetic bone grafts have been developed to provide an alternative to autografts and allografts. Bonelike (registered) is a patented synthetic osteoconductive bone graft that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. In the present preliminary animal studies a user-friendly version of synthetic bone graft Bonelike (registered) have been developed by using a resorbable matrix, Floseal (registered) , as a vehicle and raloxifene hydrochloride as a therapeutic molecule, that is known to decrease osteoclast activity and therefore enhanced bone formation. From histological and scanning electron microscopy evaluations, the use of Bonelike (registered) associated with Floseal (registered) and raloxifene hydrochloride showed that new bone was rapidly apposed on implanted granules and also that the presence of the matrix and therapeutic molecule does not alter the proven highly osteoconductivity properties of Bonelike (registered) . Therefore, this association may be one step-forward for the clinical applications of Bonelike (registered) scaffolds since it is much more easy-to-handle when compared to granular materials.

  5. Ecological aspects of the use of fuels and lubricants from plant and animal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In attacking the problems involved in preventing or mitigating the growing ecological crisis and its consequences, the leading place is occupied by the search for an alternative ecologically clean raw material for the production of various types of energy and the manufacture of chemical products. Fuels and lubricants, whether of petroleum or synthetic origin, pose a significant threat to the environment. Here, the authors are generally speaking of ecologically dangerous products, but in many cases even toxic products. They pollute the air, soil, and water with automotive exhaust, spills of used oils, and the incineration and burial of wastes. Vegetable and animal fats do not have any of the shortcomings that are enumerated above. They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and do not form xenobiotics. The use of fats and oils as base stocks or components of fuels and lubricants may well facilitate and accelerate the solution of certain ecological problems. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Evaluation of Aloevera Gel for its Anti Inflammatory activity in Diabetes Mellitus using Animal Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vanitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory potential of Aloe vera in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rats with alloxan. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rats, Group III: Diabetic rats supplemented with AV gel extract for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the overnight fasted rats. Oral administration of Aloe barbadensis gel significantly decreased the level of homocysteine and the level of folic acid was significantly elevated when compared to diabetic control. The results suggest potent anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe barbadensis gel in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  7. Vitamin D and its use in veterinary and animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Savinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effect of vitamin D on the body of agricultural animals. Analyzed the clinical, pathologic changes, methods of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hypo- and hyper beriberi.

  8. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted three coordinated experiments to test whether DRA has persistence-strengthening effects on clinically significant target behavior and then tested the ...

  9. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  10. ECOS: values of parameters to be used for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes the database description for the domestic animals section of the biosphere code ECOS. Two categories of data are supplied, element-independent and element-dependent. The element-independent data comprise rates of food, water and soil consumption, inhalation rates and masses of animal tissues. The element-dependent data consist of f1 (fractional gastrointestinal absorption), fsub(D) (fractional systematic deposition after inhalation) and NRF (weighted integrated retention function) values. All parameter values given are justified. (author)

  11. Hunting, herding, feasting: animal use at Neolithic Catalhoyuk, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Martin

    2000-01-01

    The Neolithic site of Catalhoyuk became world famous in the 1960s when it was excavated by James Mellaart, who was then on the staff of the Institute of Archaeology. He obtained detailed evidence of the daily and ritual lives of the people who lived there, including wall paintings and other elaborate decoration of buildings, with frequent representations of animals. Since 1993, Catalhoyuk has Become the focus of a major new research project, which is leading to new interpretations of how anim...

  12. Understanding attitudes towards the use of animals in research using an online public engagement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Molento, Carla F M; Weary, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    Using an online public engagement experiment, we probed the views of 617 participants on the use of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without genetic modification and using different numbers of pigs. In both scenarios and across demographics, level of opposition increased when the research required the use of GM corn or GM pigs. Animal numbers had little effect. A total of 1037 comments were analyzed to understand decisions. Participants were most concerned about the impact of the research on animal welfare. Genetic modification was viewed as an intervention in nature and there was worry about unpredictable consequences. Both opponents and supporters sought assurances that concerns were addressed. Governing bodies for animal research should make efforts to document and mitigate consequences of GM and other procedures, and increase efforts to maintain a dialogue with the public around acceptability of these procedures. PMID:23825296

  13. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the „Biomation‟ application for an alternative method for the treatment of animal-by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    identification provided by the applicant was not adequately addressed, since the most resistant organisms (including TSE agents) were not properly identified, and an experimental validation with representative test-organisms under practical conditions was not performed. A laboratory experiment was performed but......A method alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation, called ‘Biomation’ process, for the treatment of Category (Cat.) 2 and 3 Animal By-Products (ABP) was assessed. The process consists of an alkaline treatment. The target parameters are: particle size ≤ 5mm, temperature 70...

  14. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the „Biomation‟ application for an alternative method for the treatment of animal-by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    A method alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation, called ‘Biomation’ process, for the treatment of Category (Cat.) 2 and 3 Animal By-Products (ABP) was assessed. The process consists of an alkaline treatment. The target parameters are: particle size ≤ 5mm, temperature 70 °C, pH 12.5, exposure time 20 minutes. According to the application received also Cat. 1 ABP can enter the processing plant and it has then to be removed from the rest of the ABP material and treat...

  15. Verbal rating of alternative research reactors using fuzzy decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach is introduced here for making decisions about alternative research reactor types based on their compatibility with the environment of Saudi Arabia and is applied to the choice between pool, light water tank, heavy water tank, and TRIGA reactors. The method is based on the fuzzy decision theory, and it allows for consideration of the availability of required local resources as well as ease of acquisition of imported resources, community acceptance, and future expandability. The use of fuzzy decision theory can overcome the numerical precision of a decision maker's judgment by allowing verbal rating and weighting for each attribute and subattribute

  16. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  17. Act on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific or Educational Purposes - legal regulation review

    OpenAIRE

    Rakoczy, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    On 15 January 2015 the Act on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific or Educational Purposes [1] was adopted in Poland. This act implements Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes [2]. The Act on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific or Educational Purposes is not the first legislative act governing the presumption of acceptability of using animals for scientific and education...

  18. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  19. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects. PMID:6715092

  20. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. H.; Flowers, D. L.; Buchholz, B. A.; Dibble, R. W.

    2007-06-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling.

  1. The Suitability of BV2 Cells as Alternative Model System for Primary Microglia Cultures or for Animal Experiments Examining Brain Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Henn, Anja; Lund, Søren; Hedtjärn, Maj; Schrattenholz, André; Pörzgen, Peter; Leist, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The role of microglia in neurodegeneration, toxicology and immunity is an expanding area of biomedical research requiring large numbers of animals. Use of a microglia-like cell line would accelerate many research programmes and reduce the necessity of continuous cell preparations and animal experimentation, provided that the cell line reproduces the in vivo situation or primary microglia (PM) with high fidelity. The immortalised murine microglial cell line BV-2 has been used frequently as a s...

  2. Imaging modalities used to confirm diaphragmatic hernia in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a patient is presented for treatment following a traumatic accident such as being hit by a car, thoracic radiographs are usually an integral part of the overall diagnostic evaluation. Diagnosis at diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is often challenging in small animals. The thorax may contain substantial fluid, thereby masking the presence of cranially displaced abdominal soft tissues (e.g., liver or spleen). The most common cause of decreased radiographic visualization of the diaphragm on survey radiographs is pleural fluid; however, the second most common cause is DH. Obviously, if a gas-filledviscus is identified within the thoracic cavity on survey radiographs, the diagnosis of DH is straightforward and relatively routine. If, however, there is substantial pleural effusion and the herniated structure is a soft tissue parenchymal organ (e.g., liver or spleen), the diagnosis is less clearly defined on survey radiographs. This review discusses the various imaging modalities (survey, positional, and contrast-enhanced radiographs and ultrasonography) that can be used in the diagnosis or confirmation of DH

  3. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  4. Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment Using an Alternate Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, K.S.; Pereira, J.M.; Revilock, D.M.; Matheny, P.

    2008-01-01

    With a goal of reducing jet engine weight, simulations of a fan blade containment system with an alternate geometry were tested and analyzed. A projectile simulating a fan blade was shot at two alternate geometry containment case configurations using a gas gun. The first configuration was a flat plate representing a standard case configuration. The second configuration was a flat plate with a radially convex curve section at the impact point. The curved surface was designed to force the blade to deform plastically, dissipating energy before the full impact of the blade is received by the plate. The curved case was able to tolerate a higher impact velocity before failure. The computational model was developed and correlated with the tests and a weight savings assessment was performed. For the particular test configuration used in this study the ballistic impact velocity of the curved plate was approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s) greater than that of the flat plate. For the computational model to successfully duplicate the test, the very high strain rate behavior of the materials had to be incorporated.

  5. Using Process Observation to Teach Alternative Dispute Resolution: Alternatives to Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Robert A. Barush

    1987-01-01

    A method of teaching alternative dispute resolution (ADR) involves sending students to observe actual ADR sessions, by agreement with the agencies conducting them, and then analyzing the students' observations in focused discussions to improve student insight and understanding of the processes involved. (MSE)

  6. Scope for using plant viruses to present epitopes from animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta; Lomonossoff

    1998-01-01

    Epitope presentation to the immune system for vaccination purposes can be achieved either via an inactivated or attenuated form of a pathogen or via its isolated antigenic sequences. When free, these peptides can adopt a variety of conformations, most of which will not exist in their native environment. Conjugation to carrier proteins restricts mobility of the peptides and increases their immunogenicity. A high local concentration of epitopes boosts the immune response further and can be generated by the use of self-aggregating carriers, such as the capsid proteins of viruses. In this regard plant viruses have in recent years started to make an impact as safer alternatives to the use of bacterial and attenuated animal viruses: the latter both require propagation in costly cell-culture systems where they can undergo reversion towards a virulent form and/or become contaminated by other pathogens. Plant virus-based vectors can be multiplied cheaply and to high yields (exceeding 1 mg/g plant tissue) in host plants. Both helical (tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X, alfalfa mosaic virus) and icosahedral (cowpea mosaic virus, tomato bushy stunt virus) particles have been used to express a number of animal B-cell epitopes, whose immunogenic properties have been explored to varying degrees. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10398492

  7. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael;

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal an...... digital models of animal soft and hard tissue anatomy in quality similar or superior to time consuming dissection, and we propose MRI and CT as valuable tools in future studies of animal anatomy in research and education.......Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal and...... imaging (MRI) and CT. Various species (tarantula, horseshoe crab, carp, haddock, lungfish, axolotl) were subjected to multi-slice MRI and CT protocols to produce 2D images of body slices, followed by volume rendering producing 3D digital models of animal anatomy with applications for visualising specific...

  8. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  9. Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, M F

    1994-07-01

    incorrectly used the t-test to analyse the data, and concluded that there was no dose effect, when a correct analysis showed this to be highly significant. In all case studies the scientists presented means +/- standard deviations or standard errors involving only the animals contributing to that mean, rather than the much better estimates that would be obtained with a pooled estimate of error. This is virtually a universal practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7967459

  10. Understanding arsenic carcinogenicity by the use of animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that human arsenic exposure is associated with increased incidences of bladder, liver, skin, and lung cancers, limited attempts have been made to understand mechanisms of carcinogenicity using animal models. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), an organic arsenic compound, is a major metabolite of ingested inorganic arsenics in mammals. Recent in vitro studies have proven DMA to be a potent clastogenic agent, capable of inducing DNA damage including double strand breaks and cross-link formation. In our attempts to clarify DMA carcinogenicity, we have recently shown carcinogenic effects of DMA and its related metabolites using various experimental protocols in rats and mice: (1) a multi-organ promotion bioassay in rats; (2) a two-stage promotion bioassay by DMA of rat urinary bladder and liver carcinogenesis; (3) a 2-year carcinogenicity test of DMA in rats; (4) studies on the effects of DMA on lung carcinogenesis in rats; (5) promotion of skin carcinogenesis by DMA in keratin (K6)/ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) transgenic mice; (6) carcinogenicity of DMA in p53(+/-) knockout and Mmh/8-OXOG-DNA glycolase (OGG1) mutant mice; (7) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in rat liver; (8) promoting effects of DMA and related organic arsenicals in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis test; and (9) 2-year carcinogenicity tests of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) in rats. The results revealed that the adverse effects of arsenic occurred either by promoting and initiating carcinogenesis. These data, as covered in the present review, suggest that several mechanisms may be involved in arsenic carcinogenesis

  11. COMPARISON OF COMMON CLINICALLY USED LOCAL ANESTHETICS ON ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthireddy Srinivas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The animal models used in this study were Plexus anesthesia in frogs, Infiltration anesthesia in guinea pigs, Surface anesthesia in rabbits. The drugs were diluted with normal saline. Lignocaine2%: xylocaine hydrochloride injection IP, Bupivacaine 0.5%: Bupivacaine hydrochloride injections IP were prepared. Plexus anesthesia: Frog was pithed and spinal cord was destroyed up to the 3 vertebra. The abdominal pouch was filled with local anesthetic solution. Reflex activity was tested by immersing both feet of the frog every two minutes for not longer than 10 seconds into N/10 Hydrochloric acid. The time was noted. Surface anesthesia: Albino rabbits of either sex weighing 2.5 – 3.0kg ware selected. The conjunctival sac of one eye was held open, thus formed a pouch. 0.5ml of solution of the anesthetic was applied into the conjunctival sac for 30 sec. Infiltration anesthesia: Preparation of guinea pig: Guinea pigs (either sex weighing 250-300grams were used. Lignocaine produced rapid onset of plexus anesthesia in Frogs in comparison to the bupivacaine at concentration of 0.1% & 0.2% which is statistically significant. Bupivacaine is more potent than the lignocaine as a surface anesthetic agent in the Rabbit, where as lignocaine could produce surface anesthesia at concentration of 0.5% or 0.1% or both. Both bupivacaine and lignocaine produced infiltration anesthesia on intradermal injection in guinea pigs but the duration of infiltration anesthesia produced by bupivacaine is more prolonged which is statistically significant in comparison to the lignocaine at all the three concentrations tested i.e. 0.05%, 0.1% & 0.2%.

  12. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

  13. The use of animals in agriculture and science: historical context, international considerations and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, A C D

    2005-08-01

    As the final contribution to this important World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) publication, this paper provides some relevant background and contextual information and identifies a number of strategically significant international activities that will influence the future direction of animal welfare internationally. The assumption of an animal welfare leadership role by the OIE, with the full support of its 167 Member Countries, is an international development of major strategic significance. As an inter-governmental organisation, the OIE is committed to a science-based approach to the development of animal welfare guidelines and standards and to working closely with all stakeholders. This paper covers the use of animals in both agriculture and science, reflecting the OIE's dual remit for both animal health and animal welfare and the importance of animal-based research and testing to the OIE's animal health and reference laboratory roles. PMID:16358528

  14. 21 CFR 589.1 - Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... feed. 589.1 Section 589.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED General Provisions § 589.1 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined...

  16. 21 CFR 530.25 - Orders prohibiting extralabel uses for drugs in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-producing animals. 530.25 Section 530.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... may issue an order prohibiting extralabel use of an approved new animal or human drug in food... an extralabel use of a drug in food-producing animals. Such order shall state that an...

  17. Some alternatives for the use of Arctic natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of remote Arctic gas fields, a major part of the investment is required for the transportation system. Two alternatives to pipeline transport are assessed: sea transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from gas liquefaction plants, and conversion of natural gas into synthetic gasoline using existing storage, tanker transport, and receiving facilities. The technology and economics of these two alternatives are evaluated. The costs of Arctic LNG plants are viewed as comparable to those in temperate zones. However, the transport costs in LNG tankers will be greater from Arctic locations due to longer distances, ice-strengthened vessel capital costs, and delays in transit due to ice conditions. This suggests that delivery of Arctic LNG, even from tidewater locations, will be delayed until the year 2000 or beyond. The capital costs of a gas-to-gasoline conversion plant, estimated on the basis of an existing plant in New Zealand, are ca US$18/bbl of gasoline produced. For very inexpensive large Arctic gas reservoirs near tidewater, and considering labor costs in Eurasia, there is a possibility that such a plant would provide a reasonable operating profit, depending on the tax incentives offered, and upon the world market for gasoline in the next 30 y. Further analysis of specific Arctic projects in these terms is suggested. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. On the use of a simple physical system analogy to study robustness features in animal sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Sadoul, Bastien; Martin, Olivier; Prunet, Patrick; Friggens, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Environmental perturbations can affect the health, welfare, and fitness of animals. Being able to characterize and phenotype adaptive capacity is therefore of growing scientific concern in animal ecology and in animal production sciences. Terms borrowed from physics are commonly used to describe adaptive responses of animals facing an environmental perturbation, but no quantitative characterization of these responses has been made. Modeling the dynamic responses to an acute challenge was used...

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep Jurbe G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10 out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs, spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47% acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53% do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18% were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21% and Combretaceae (14.04% having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86% followed by the stem bark (29.82%. The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to

  20. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  1. Veterinary school uses acupuncture as treatment for many animal ailments

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Needles are often equated with pain and discomfort; however, for a horse named Gypsy the tiny sharp objects brought about much needed relief as Dr. Mark Crisman, a professor in the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, administered acupuncture therapy.

  2. Farm animals's cognition and the tests used on its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Priscila Bueno Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization , attention, reasoning and language.  This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliographic study, It was discussed issues related to cognition , sentience and animal consciousness, through preference tests, learning, recognition and memorization applied to domestic animals. In general they show a cognitive ability to evaluate the environment for themselves, based on their preferences and motivations. Cognitive tests have shown the high ability of some species to memorize their handlers's faces, and recognize who is aversively dealing with. Furthermore, it was possible to prove that some producing species are sentient and their choices able to imply physical sensations that can affect your mental state. Thus, it is important to point out measures to help improve the well-being of the animals.

  3. The Three Rs of Animal Research: What they Mean for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J; Perry, Gad; Wallace, Mark C; Perry, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is entrusted with assessing the ethics of proposed projects prior to approval of animal research. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. However, these principles are poorly defined. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Our goal is to provide procedural and philosophical clarity to the IACUC without mandating a particular outcome. To do this, we analyze the underlying logic of the Three Rs and conclude that the Three Rs accord animals moral standing, though not necessarily "rights" in the philosophical sense. We suggest that the Rs are hierarchical, such that Replacement, which can totally eliminate harm, should be considered prior to Reduction, which decreases the number of animals harmed, with Refinement being considered last. We also identify the need for a hitherto implicit fourth R: Reject, which allows the IACUC to refuse permission for a project which does not promise sufficient benefit to offset the pain and distress likely to be caused by the proposed research. PMID:26026966

  4. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, J H; Flowers, D L; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2006-02-14

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and combustion regimes is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO{sub 2} emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher noise. Noise and PM have traditionally been the obstacles toward consumer acceptance of Diesel passenger cars in North America, while NOx (a key component in photochemical smog) has been more of an engineering challenge. Diesels are lean burning (combustion with excess oxygen) and reducing NOx to N2 in an oxygen rich environment is difficult. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions, but relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K prevents NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to validate combustion modeling.

  5. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed. PMID:26200223

  6. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  7. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D., III; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. 75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... ZILMAX and MGA 500 (melengestrol acetate), approved under NADA 141-284. Ivy Laboratories also filed ANADA... a generic copy of Intervet, Inc.'s combination medicated feed use of ZILMAX, MGA 500, and RUMENSIN... combination medicated feed use of ZILMAX, MGA 500, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN, approved under NADA 141-280....

  9. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  10. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-09-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies. PMID:26525515

  11. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  12. Integrated alternative energy systems for use in small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the principles and conceptual design of an integrated alternative energy system for use in typical farming communities in developing countries. A system is described that, utilizing the Sun and methane produced from crop waste, would supply sufficient electric and thermal energy to meet the basic needs of villagers for water pumping, lighting, and cooking. The system is sized to supply enough pumping capacity to irrigate 101 ha (249 acres) sufficiently to optimize annual crop yields for the community. Three economic scenarios were developed, showing net benefits to the community of $3,578 to $15,547 anually, payback periods of 9.5 to 20 years, and benefit-to-cost ratios of 1.1 to 1.9.

  13. Exploring adolescent complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Caldwell, Patricia; Vohra, Julie; Francoeur, Chera; Swinton, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach investigated adolescents' perceptions about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use. Adolescents, attending a clinic at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, were interviewed after receiving ethics approval. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The decision of adolescents to use CAM was based within the context of their world and how it shaped influencing factors. Factors that influenced adolescents' decision to use CAM were identified as certain personality traits, culture, media, social contacts and the ability of CAM providers to develop therapeutic relationships. The barriers and benefits of CAM use influenced evaluation of choices. The importance of barriers in limiting freedom of choice in health care decisions should be investigated by practitioners as they provide care to adolescents. Health care planning for integrative models of care requires determining the "right" blend of expertise by knowing interprofessional boundaries, determining mixed skill sets to provide the essential services and ensuring appropriate regulation that allows practitioners to use their full scope of practice. PMID:18202985

  14. Feasibility study of small animal imaging using clinical PET/CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Chen, Chia-Lin; Wang, Ze-Jing; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Dai-Wei; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2007-02-01

    The feasibility of small animal imaging using a clinical positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner with [F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose (FDG) was evaluated. Two protocols in PET/CT system, single-mouse high-resolution mode (SHR) and multi-mouse high throughput mode (MHT) protocol were employed to investigate the ability of the scanner and also explored the performance differences between microPET and clinical PET/CT. In this study, we have found that even the clinical PET/CT scanner could not compete with the microPET scanner, especially in spatial resolution; the high-resolution CT image could advance the anatomical information to sub-millimeter level. Besides, CT-based attenuation correction can improve the image uniformity characteristics and quantification accuracy, and the large bore of a human whole-body scanner broadens the possibility of high throughput studies. Considering all the benefits, clinical PET/CT imaging might be a potential alternative for small animal study.

  15. Principles and methods of using wild animals in bioindication of global radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild animals (mammals), birds, reptiles, amphibians, land and soil invertebrates) in natural ecosystems accumulate the easily detected radionuclide quantities. The technique for estimation of radionuclide content in the organism of animals are considered. It is suggested to use wild animals for studying biogenic migration of radionuclides by food chains in ecosystems in global monitoring of medium contamination, particularly on biosphers preserves

  16. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...-animal tests that would provide eye hazard classification equivalent to testing conducted in accordance... Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. In light of this policy and regulations, most in vivo ocular safety testing is expected to adhere to the 3-animal procedure described in OECD Test Guideline 405 (OECD,...

  17. Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, P; Aboagye, E O; Balkwill, F; Balmain, A; Bruder, G; Chaplin, D. J.; Double, J A; Everitt, J; Farningham, D A H; Glennie, M. J.; Kelland, L R; Robinson, V.; Stratford, I J; Tozer, G. M.; Watson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Animal experiments remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms underpinning malignancy and to discover improved methods to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. Excellent standards of animal care are fully consistent with the conduct of high quality cancer research. Here we provide updated guidelines on the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. All experiments should incorporate the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Focusing on animal welfare, we present recomme...

  18. Interactive Character Animation Using Simulated Physics: A State-of-the-Art Review

    OpenAIRE

    Geijtenbeek, T.; Pronost, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    Physics simulation offers the possibility of truly responsive and realistic animation. Despite wide adoption of physics simulation for the animation of passive phenomena, such as fluids, cloths and rag-doll characters, commercial applications still resort to kinematics-based approaches for the animation of actively controlled characters. However, following a renewed interest in the use of physics simulation for interactive character animation, many recent publications demonstrate tremendous i...

  19. Why animal studies are still being used in drug development. An innovation system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, M.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe alone, 3.6 million animals per year are used for drug development. Animal studies are worldwide the gold standard to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of drugs before these drugs are tested in humans. Nevertheless the value of animal studies to predict risks for humans has never been extensively established. Nowadays, several studies indicate that the value of animal studies is often limited. Pharmaceutical companies and regulatory authorities as well as the public and gover...

  20. Benefits and Risks of Antimicrobial Use in Food-Producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-HuiYuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. This review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. The positive and negative impact, due to ban issue of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals, is also included in discussion. As a double-edged sword, use of these drugs in food-animals persists as a great challenge.

  1. Usefulness of animal models for tuberculosis research-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isamu Sugawara

    2012-01-01

    When Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects humans, about 20% of those infected actually develop tuberculosis. In Japan, the incidence of tuberculosis in 2008 was 19.4/100 000 persons (24 760 cases) and the rate has been decreasing gradually, but is still higher than that in the USA, Holland, and Belgium, for example. Histologically, experimental tuberculosis displays exudative inflammation, proliferative inflammation and productive inflammation depending on the time course. In productive inflammation, granulomatous lesions with necrotic centers are formed. The typical granulomas consist of epithelioid macrophages, Langhans' multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts, and the process of their formation involves many cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors. These findings have been derived primarily from animal experiments utilizing an airborne infection apparatus. This review focuses on the basic research aspect of tuberculosis-what has been found through animal experiments by our research group-and furthermore, indicates what we should do in tuberculosis research in the near future.

  2. ALTERNATIVES OF PROVIDING IPTV USING IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kočkovič; Ivan Baroňák

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we specify the realization of IPTV platform based on IMS. We provide an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives of providing IPTV over IMS. On the example, which is contained in the case study are on the hypothetical area shown differences between given alternatives.

  3. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  4. Animal motion tracking using advanced image segmentation methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomori, Z.; Jeleň, V.; Janáček, Jiří

    Košice : Institute of Experimental Physics, 2009 - (Gažová, Z.), s. 69-70 ISBN 978-80-968060-6-5. [International Conference Structure and Stability of Biomacromolecules /6./. Košice (SK), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB080831 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mobility of animals * segmentation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ANIMAL WELFARE USING BEHAVIORAL INDICATORS DURING CATTLE SLAUGHTER

    OpenAIRE

    MARLYN H. ROMERO P.; LINA M. GONZÁLES G; CLAUDIA G. COBO A.

    2012-01-01

    Colombian laws establish the guidelines for slaughtering of cattle which have to f guarantee a humane procedure, besides complying with some quality parameters for the final product. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficiency of the stunning process in two slaughterhouses as an indicator of animal welfare. Stunning was evaluated in 1343 bovines. Signs of loss of consciousness (corneal reflex, attempts to head up, vocalizations and rhythmic breathing) as well as behavioral indicato...

  6. Farm animals's cognition and the tests used on its evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Priscila Bueno Fernandes; Iran José Oliveira da Silva; Aérica Cirqueira Nazareno; Ana Carolina Donofre

    2015-01-01

    Cognition is a set of activities and processes whereby an animal acquires information and develops knowledge. The most common cognitive processes are: memory, categorization , attention, reasoning and language.  This present research was aimed to study the cognitive ability of livestock based on results of cognitive tests described in the literature, as well to expose the various types of tests applied to make such an assessment, in the periods from 1969 until nowadays. Through this bibliogra...

  7. Exclusive Use of Alternative Medicine as a Positive Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Verhoef, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: A survey of members of the Danish MS Society revealed that a minority of MS patients choose to forgo all types of conventional treatment and use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exclusively. A qualitative follow-up study was performed to elucidate the choice of exclusive CAM use by exploring treatment assumptions among a group of exclusive CAM users. Methods: The study was based on a phenomenological approach. Semistructured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 participants, using program theory as an analytical tool, and emerging themes were extracted from the data through meaning condensation. Results: Four themes characterized the participants' treatment assumptions: 1) conventional medicine contains chemical substances that affect the body in negative ways; 2) CAM treatments can strengthen the organism and make it more capable of resisting the impact of MS; 3) the patient's active participation is an important component of the healing process; 4) bodily sensations can be used to guide treatment selection. Conclusions: Exclusive use of CAM by MS patients may reflect embracing CAM rather than a rejection of conventional medicine. Health-care practitioners, patient organizations, and health authorities within the MS field should be aware of possible changes in patients' attitudes toward both CAM and conventional treatment interventions. PMID:25337054

  8. Toxoplasma gondii in animals used for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Tenter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera or meat-derived products of many different animals, or the ingestion of sporulated oocysts that are contained in the environment and may contaminate food and water. Although the potential for transmission of the parasite to humans via food has been known for several decades, it is not known which routes are most important from a public health point of view. It is likely that transmission of the parasite to humans is influenced not only by the potential contamination of various food sources, but also by the individual behaviour of consumers in different ethnic groups and geographical regions. Most current methods for detection of T. gondii in meat-producing animals, in products of animal origin, or in the environment are insufficient because they do not allow quantification of infectious stages. Hence, most studies report only qualitative data from which it is difficult to assess the true risk of infection in individual cases. There is a need for quantitative data so that efficient strategies to reduce food-borne transmission of T. gondii to humans can be developed.

  9. In silico generation of alternative hypotheses using causal mapping (CMAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Weinreb

    Full Text Available Previously, we introduced causal mapping (CMAP as an easy to use systems biology tool for studying the behavior of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level. CMAP is a coarse-grained graphical modeling approach in which the system of interest is modeled as an interaction map between functional elements of the system, in a manner similar to portrayals of signaling pathways commonly used by molecular cell biologists. CMAP describes details of the interactions while maintaining the simplicity of other qualitative methods (e.g., Boolean networks.In this paper, we use the CMAP methodology as a tool for generating hypotheses about the mechanisms that regulate molecular and cellular systems. Furthermore, our approach allows competing hypotheses to be ranked according to a fitness index and suggests experimental tests to distinguish competing high fitness hypotheses. To motivate the CMAP as a hypotheses generating tool and demonstrate the methodology, we first apply this protocol to a simple test-case of a three-element signaling module. Our methods are next applied to the more complex phenomenon of cortical oscillations observed in spreading cells. This analysis produces two high fitness hypotheses for the mechanism that underlies this dynamic behavior and suggests experiments to distinguish the hypotheses. The method can be widely applied to other cellular systems to generate and compare alternative hypotheses based on experimentally observed data and using computer simulations.

  10. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Jaarsma, Debbie A C; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-10-01

    veterinary antibiotic use; ruminant specialists and generalists preferred improving housing and climate conditions and benchmarking. The by veterinarians perceived main reasons for farmers not to comply to veterinary advices to improve animal health were related to financial and time restrictions, although intensive specialists stressed the importance of conflicting advices from other advisors as a cause for non-compliance. The results showed that younger veterinarians might require additional support to act independently from farmers' and significant others'. Additionally, experienced veterinarians could be educated about possible risks related to veterinary overuse of antibiotics. Alternative approaches should be identified for veterinarians to preserve a decent income without pharmacy incomes. Especially in intensive farming, ways should be found to prevent contradictory advices as a barrier not to implement veterinary advices to improve animal health. PMID:26341466

  11. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  12. The perception of students on the use of animals in higher education at the Federal University of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Bernardo G F; Molento, Carla F M; de Souza, Carlos E P

    2012-05-01

    The use of animals in education and research is a controversial issue that involves ethical considerations. In Brazil, Act 11,794, which was approved in 2008, established the National Council on the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and a database of institutions that use animals for research and education (CIUCA). This legislation also set out the regulations for the use of animals. In this study, we have evaluated the ethical issues involved in the use of animals for educational purposes at the Federal University of Paraná, through a qualitative-quantitative analysis that relied on written questionnaires. Our objective was to find out the opinions of students and staff from different academic fields, and at different stages in their professional development, on the use of animals for educational purposes. The study involved 101 students and 20 lecturers (i.e. tenure-track professors and all those who teach the students) in Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Approximately half of the students (45.5%) did not know the legislation that regulates the use of animals in education, and most of the lecturers believed that learning goals could not be achieved with alternative methods. Only 38.9% of the lecturers and 31.9% of the students trusted the usefulness of alternative methods. Furthermore, recent graduates were as unaware of the legislation, as were students in the first two years of their university courses. These results suggest that it is necessary to considerably expand the discussion on alternatives to animal use in the academic environment. PMID:22762192

  13. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    OpenAIRE

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning ...

  14. Plastination of tissues and organs: interdisciplinary approach to replace laboratory animals that are in use for education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieski Vlatko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to apply the plastination as an alternative method for protection on animals that are used in education, experiments and research according the European Directive 86/609/EEC. A two years old female guinea pig is used as material. The dissection of muscles as well subcutaneous structures and organs from abdominal cavity is preformed immediately after the death of animal. The guinea pig is plastinated using the protocol for S10 plastination. The plastinated guinea pig has firm consistention, it is dry on hand touch, oddorless and free of any chemical substances. The dissected skeletal muscle enable to learn their topography and easy to understand their function. Because of permanent preservation, the organs from abdominal cavity retain their topographical position enabling complete view of anatomical relationship of organs like stomach, spleen, pancreas and left kidney are, the mesenteries with apart of thin and large intestines, the relationship between the ovary and the horns of the uterus. According the results, the S10 plastination technique can be use for developing an anatomical model from one laboratory animal witch can be used for education process in anatomy. The method of plastination is an important tool allowing 3.R concept to be aplied and widely accepted since plastinated models can reduce using the laboratory animals for education and research purposes.

  15. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  16. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Nuno H.; Olsson, I Anna S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher’s responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (L...

  17. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Investigations Using Animal Models of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kevin; Serban, Karina A; Batra, Chanan; Petrache, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Animal models of disease help accelerate the translation of basic science discoveries to the bedside, because they permit experimental interrogation of mechanisms at relatively high throughput, while accounting for the complexity of an intact organism. From the groundbreaking observation of emphysema-like alveolar destruction after direct instillation of elastase in the lungs to the more clinically relevant model of airspace enlargement induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, animal models have advanced our understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) function. Experimental in vivo models that, at least in part, replicate clinical human phenotypes facilitate the translation of mechanistic findings into individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with AAT deficiency. In addition, unexpected findings of alveolar enlargement in various transgenic mice have led to novel hypotheses of emphysema development. Previous challenges in manipulating the AAT genes in mice can now be overcome with new transgenic approaches that will likely advance our understanding of functions of this essential, lung-protective serine protease inhibitor (serpin). PMID:27564666

  18. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. PMID:27345022

  19. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  20. Compassionate Teaching in the Animal Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert S.; Simmonds, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that an ethical approach to animal research must start early, pointing out that teachers have the opportunity and responsibility to represent the research community and to communicate the benefits of animal research to students. A list of alternatives to using animals for medical research/experiments is included. (JN)

  1. Numerical Analysis of Emissions from Marine Engines Using Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Lamas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current restrictions on emissions from marine engines, particularly sulphur oxides (SOx , nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon dioxide (CO2 , are compelling the shipping industry to a change of tendency. In the recent years, many primary and secondary reduction techniques have been proposed and employed in marine engines. Nevertheless, the increasingly restrictive legislation makes it very difficult to continue developing efficient reduction procedures at competitive prices. According to this, the paper presents the possibility to employ alternative fuels. A numerical model was developed to analyze the combustion process and emissions using oil fuel, natural gas and hydrogen. A commercial marine engine was studied, the Wärtsilä 6L 46. It was found, that hydrogen is the cleanest fuel regarding CO2 , hydrocarbons (HC and carbon monoxide (CO. Nevertheless, it is very expensive for marine applications. Natural gas is cheaper and cleaner than fuel oil regarding CO2 and CO emissions. Still, natural gas emits more NOx and HC than oil fuel. SOx depends basically on the sulphur content of each particular fuel.

  2. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning around and selling them for food , or more importantly , for rat-baiting . Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all.

  3. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Liu; Zhigang Jiang; Hongxia Fang; Chunwang Li; Aizi Mi; Jing Chen; Xiaowei Zhang; Shaopeng Cui; Daiqiang Chen; Xiaoge Ping; Feng Li; Chunlin Li; Songhua Tang; Zhenhua Luo; Yan Zeng

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior ar...

  4. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    OpenAIRE

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.; Đurašević S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its ...

  5. A systematic review of animal models used to study nerve regeneration in tissue-engineered scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Angius, Diana; Wang, Huan; Spinner, Robert J.; Gutierrez-Cotto, Yearim; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Research on biomaterial nerve scaffolds has been carried out for 50 years. Only three materials (collagen, polycaprolactone and polyglycollic acid) have progressed to clinical use. Pre-clinical animal models are critical for testing nerve scaffolds prior to implementation in clinical practice. We have conducted a systematic review of 416 reports in which animal models were used for evaluation of nerve regeneration into synthetic conduits. A valid animal model of nerve regeneration requires it...

  6. The EU’s dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser Cornelis Leonardus Maria; Schreuder Remco; Stoddard Frederick

    2014-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described and underline the need for change. The EIP Agri process resulted in the assessment of the present-day yield gap of protein crops using an approach ...

  7. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  8. Nitrogen in global animal production and management options for improving nitrogen use efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oene; Oenema; Seerp; Tamminga

    2005-01-01

    Animal production systems convert plant protein into animal protein. Depending on animal species, ration and management, between 5% and 45 % of the nitrogen (N) in plant protein is converted to and deposited in animal protein. The other 55%-95% is excreted via urine and feces, and can be used as nutrient source for plant (= often animal feed) production. The estimated global amount of N voided by animals ranges between 80 and 130 Tg N per year, and is as large as or larger than the global annual N fertilizer consumption. Cattle (60%), sheep (12%) and pigs (6%) have the largest share in animal manure N production.The conversion of plant N into animal N is on average more efficient in poultry and pork production than in dairy production, which is higher than in beef and sheep production. However, differences within a type of animal production system can be as large as differences between types of animal production systems, due to large effects of the genetic potential of animals, animal feed and management. The management of animals and animal feed, together with the genetic potential of the animals, are key factors to a high efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein.The efficiency of the conversion of N from animal manure, following application to land, into plant protein ranges between 0 and 60%, while the estimated global mean is about 15%. The other 40%- 100% is lost to the wider environment via NH3 volatilization, denitrification, leaching and run-off in pastures or during storage and/or following application of the animal manure to land. On a global scale, only 40%-50% of the amount of N voided is collected in barns, stables and paddocks, and only half of this amount is recycled to crop land. The N losses from animal manure collected in barns, stables and paddocks depend on the animal manure management system. Relative large losses occur in confined animal feeding operations, as these often lack the land base to utilize the N from animal

  9. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... replace animal use for vaccine potency testing (Stokes et al., 2011). The USDA has developed and validated... Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods, the... Potency Testing of Leptospira interrogans Serovar pomona Bacterins. Washington, DC:USDA Animal and...

  10. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  11. Teaching Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology, and Experimental Design Using Animal Models of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, Maarten C.; Dukers, Danny F.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to…

  12. Military ‘live tissue trauma training’ using animals in the US – its purpose, importance and commentary on military medcal research and the debate on use of animals in military training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Martinic

    2012-11-01

    opinions and recent examples of the animal research/training debate from both the pro- and anti- points of view and provides examples of alternative types of LTTT tuition. He hopes that this article will encourage wider discussion within respective scientific, defence and animal welfare circles, leading to further refinements in the welfare and protection of animals used for these important, although often controversial, purposes.

  13. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  14. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  15. The EU’s dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Visser Cornelis Leonardus Maria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described and underline the need for change. The EIP Agri process resulted in the assessment of the present-day yield gap of protein crops using an approach based on the market values of the protein, starch and plant oil components. Oil-based protein crops seemed to be overall better positioned than starch based protein crops because the price of oil levels is higher than that of starch. Alfalfa was identified as being interesting for regions where drying cost are low. The process also resulted in the identification of opportunities and constraints to be encountered by the innovation process, combining the knowledge and physical infrastructure, market structure, co-operation and interaction and the influence of culturally determined values and beliefs. Therefore, the recommendation is to develop a comprehensive approach to meet the challenge of substantially increasing the EU’s protein crop production.

  16. Determination of aldehydes and ketones with high atmospheric reactivity on diesel exhaust using a biofuel from animal fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R.; Monedero, E.; Guillén-Flores, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biodiesel from animal fats appears as an alternative for conventional diesel in automotive consumption. Animal fats are classified into three categories, although only one of them can be used for biodiesel production, according to regulation. Due to its novelty, researchers testing animal-fat biodiesel on diesel engines focus only on regulated emissions. In this paper, the experiments carried out analyze carbonyl compounds emissions, due to its highly atmospheric reactivity, to complete the characterization of the total emissions in this kind of biofuel. Two fuels, a reference petro-diesel and a pure animal-fat biodiesel, were tested in a 4-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine Nissan Euro 5 M1D-Bk. Samples were collected in 4 different operating modes and 3 points along the exhaust line. The analyses of samples were made in a high performance liquid chromatography, following the method recommended by the CARB to analyze air quality. Results show, on the one hand, a significant rise in carbonyl emissions, almost three times at the mode with highest hydrocarbon emissions, when biodiesel is used. On the other hand, on average, a reduction of 90% of carbonyl emissions when exhaust gases go through the different post-treatment systems installed. Despite this reduction, specific reactivity does not decrease substantially.

  17. The harmful, nontherapeutic use of animals in research is morally wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that "animal research is morally wrong" fail: ie, common arguments for the view that "animal research is morally permissible" are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research on human beings is wrong, ie, what it is about humans that makes such experimentation wrong, apply to many animals as well. Thus, harmful and nontherapeutic animal experimentation is wrong for reasons similar to the reasons that harmful and nontherapeutic human experimentation is wrong. PMID:21952174

  18. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  19. The current status of alternatives to animal testing and predictive toxicology methods using liver microfluidic biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Jean Matthieu; Leclerc, Eric

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we will consider new in vitro cell culture platforms and the progress made, based on the microfluidic liver biochips dedicated to pharmacological and toxicological studies. Particular emphasis will be given to recent developments in the microfluidic tools dedicated to cell culture (more particularly liver cell culture), in silico opportunities for Physiologically Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) modelling, the challenge of the mechanistic interpretations offered by the approaches resulting from "multi-omics" data (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, cytomics) and imaging microfluidic platforms. Finally, we will discuss the critical features regarding microfabrication, design and materials, and cell functionality as the key points for the future development of new microfluidic liver biochips. PMID:22160577

  20. Benefits and risks of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-HuiYuan; XiaohuiAi

    2014-01-01

    Benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. This review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. The positive and negative impacts, due to ban issue of antimicro...

  1. The Milky Way : The implications of using animal milkproducts in infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Howcroft, Rachel; Eriksson, Gunilla; Lidén, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Animal milks have been used in infant feeding for at least a few millennia, but this can only have become a common practice after the domestication of dairy animals during the Neolithic. Neolithic population increase has often been attributed to the effect of a reduction in breastfeeding duration on female fertility. It is possible, therefore, that animal milks were first introduced to the infant diet at this time as a replacement for the lost breastmilk. Milks are complex liquids and are spe...

  2. Use of animal based measures for the assessment of dairy cow welfare ANIBAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen , Bodil Højlund; Angelucci, Alessandra; Scalvenzi , Alessandra; Forkman, Björn; Fusi , Francesca; Tuyttens, Frank; Houe, Hans; Blokhuis, Harry; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rothmann, Janne; Matthews, Lindsay; Mounier, Luc; Bertocchi, Luigi; Richard, Marie Madeleine; Donati, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of the project was to evaluate the use of routinely collected animal based measures (ABMs) for an evaluatio n of the overall animal welfare in dairy cow herds. ABMs being able to detect worst adverse effects in relation to animal welfare were identified based on the existing literature and expert opinion. The validity and robustness of these ABMs were evaluated and cow mortality, somatic cell count and lameness were selected for further study. A number of fac...

  3. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar;

    2003-01-01

    levels in people has also come under scrutiny. Antimicrobials are used therapeutically and prophylactically in animals. More controversially, antimicrobials are also used as growth promoters to improve the ability of the animal to convert feed into body mass. Some argue that the impact of use...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry...

  4. 77 FR 59222 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and... Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service) will... Submission) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to...

  5. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  6. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Regulations (CFR) in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use in dry...

  7. 48 CFR 5452.233-9001 - Disputes: Agreement To Use Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). 5452.233-9001 Section 5452.233-9001 Federal Acquisition Regulations... of Provisions and Clauses 5452.233-9001 Disputes: Agreement To Use Alternative Dispute Resolution... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) (APR 2001)—DLAD (a) The parties agree to negotiate with each other to...

  8. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. PMID:26475721

  9. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-03-31

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations. PMID:27034398

  10. Role of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) in the promotion of care and use of laboratory animals in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kostomitsopoulos N.; Carbone Cecilia; Demers G.

    2008-01-01

    The use of animals in research, teaching, and testing is regulated around the world by specific laws. Since regulatory processes are highly variable, a broad variability in the care and use of animals in scientific procedures exists internationally, as well as in the region of Southeast Europe. It is necessary to initiate an effort to promote the harmonization and improvement of laboratory animal science world-wide. The aim of this article is to explain the structure, organization, and aims o...

  11. The Use of Radioisotopes to Study the Absorption, Distribution and Elimination of Various Insecticides in Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When insecticides are used against farm-animal parasites it is important to ensure that no harm is done to the health of the animal or the consumer. Radioisotopes provide a means of studying the behaviour of labelled insecticides in animal organisms and of obtaining extremely accurate data on residues of insecticides and insecticide decomposition products in meat and milk. The paper gives details on the rate at which DDT-C14, polychloropinene-Cl36 and chlorophos-P32 are absorbed through the skin, accumulated in the organs and tissues and eliminated from the organisms of farm and laboratory animals. (author)

  12. The Use of Feeding Behaviour in the Assessment of Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Birte; Jong, Ingrid; Devries, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is an important aspect of animal production, as it constitutes the link between the feed provided and that which is consumed. Measures of feeding behaviour can be used as a tool with which to gauge how an animal perceives the diet offered, as well as its motivation to feed, i.e. its level of hunger. The feed intake of an animal may also depend on the presentation of the food, the previous experience of the animal with a given food, and to what extent other competing motivati...

  13. ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.;

    2010-01-01

    trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and...... the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal...

  14. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-01-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Altho...

  15. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  16. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  17. Use of Animals in Education: Policy and Practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, F. Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Attitudes and policy developments in the United States on use of animals in education are reviewed, and the legislative position outlined. The influence of science competitions and national teacher associations on practice is discussed. The common invasive experimentation on sentient animals by young and inexperienced students is provoking…

  18. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  19. 21 CFR 510.110 - Antibiotics used in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Register of August 23, 1966 (31 FR 11141), asking sponsors of drugs containing any antibiotic intended for use in food-producing animals to submit data to establish whether such antibiotic and its metabolites are present as residues in edible tissues, milk, and eggs from treated animals. The data on...

  20. 9 CFR 2.31 - Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1, § 1.1 of this subchapter, unless a deviation is justified for scientific reasons, in... nonmedical care of the animals will be directed by the attending veterinarian or other scientist trained and... discomfort and pain to animals; and (5) A description of any euthanasia method to be used....

  1. Use of the Doppler technique to track free roaming animals from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of the Doppler effect to track wild animals is discussed, with artificial satellites used to provide wide range coverage. The limitations of radiotelemetry for the purpose of tracking animals are presented. The advantages of the artificial satellite, with specific reference to the Nimbus satellite, are examined.

  2. The use of pre- and probiotics to improve food safety in the live animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too many foodborne illnesses happen around the world and are linked to the consumption of meat or contact with animals or their feces. Strategies to reduce these pathogen levels in food animals include the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and competitive exclusion cultures. These products all utiliz...

  3. Using Ants, Animal Behavior & the Learning Cycle to Investigate Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A.; Dolezal, Adam G.; Hicks, Michael R.; Butler, Michael W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Ganesh, Tirupalavanam G.

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of animals is an intrinsically fascinating topic for students from a wide array of backgrounds. We describe a learning experience using animal behavior that we created for middle school students as part of a graduate-student outreach program, Graduate Partners in Science Education, at Arizona State University in collaboration with a…

  4. Improved attenuation correction for freely moving animal brain PET studies using a virtual scanner geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Kyme, Andre Z.; Fulton, Roger R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals can be very challenging since the body of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible atten- uating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the convex hull of the animal's head based on the reconstructed emission images. However, this approach ignores the potential attenuation introduced by the animal's body. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry, which moves in synchrony with the animal's head and discriminates between those events that traverse only the animal's head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal's body. For each pose a new virtual scanner geometry was defined and therefore a new system matrix was calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made rat phantom. Results showed that when the animal's body is within the FOV and not accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10%. On the contrary, at- tenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias <2%), without the need to account for the animal's body.

  5. Laser solenoid: an alternate use of lasers in fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique laser assisted fusion approach is under development at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc. (MSNW). This approach captures one of the most developed aspects of high energy laser technology, the efficient, large, scalable, pulsed electron beam initiated, electric discharge, CO2 infrared laser. This advanced technology is then combined with the simple geometry of a linear magnetic confinement system. The laser solenoid concept will be described, current work and experimental progress will be discussed, and the technological problems of building such a system will be assessed. Finally a comparison will be made of the technology and economics for the laser solenoid and alternative fusion approaches

  6. A multi-stakeholder perspective on the use of alternative test strategies for nanomaterial safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; Deshazo, J R; Hussain, Saber M; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Russell; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2013-08-27

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis. PMID:23924032

  7. The ethical justification for the use of animals in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostomitsopoulos N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the benefits, the use of animals in biomedical research is still a subject of debate with respect to its true value. The sensitivity of the community and the interest of scientists who work in the field of laboratory animal science and welfare have clearly demonstrated that the use of animals in biomedical research must be conducted under specific scientific, legal and ethical rules. The ethical justification of a research project starts from its initial designing phase until its completion and the review of the obtained results. Justification of the necessity of the project and the need to use animals in the interests of human or animal health, the importance of conducting a pilot study and a systematic review of previously published animal research on the topic, and the availability of the proper facilities, equipment and personnel are the main issues of concern in the ethical review of a research project. The ethical justification of the proposed project by the scientists themselves involves team-work, and should be a sustainable rather than a one-off procedure. This justification reflects the interest and the responsibility of scientists to reduce the number of animals, refine the procedures, and possibly replace animals in their research projects. The end-results of the ethical review process will be the creation of a trust relationship between scientists and society. .

  8. Unhairing animal hides using probiotic Bacteria bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Данилкович, Анатолій Григорович; Гвоздяк, Петро Ілліч; Романюк, Оксана Олександрівна; Ковтуненко, Ольга Василівна

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient technology of processing natural raw materials into skin and fur is the use of enzyme products for soaking and liming processes. Therefore, the use of bacterial products, which produce enzymes of various functional effects, is considered to be very promising for the above mentioned processes.Soaking and liming of flint-dried rabbit hides were carried out using probiotic bacreria Bacillus subtilis on 4 samples in a laboratory centrifuge at soaking temperature 36-38°С and wor...

  9. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  10. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  11. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamatsu Tadashi; Tsao Sai-Wah; Ng Kwan-Ming; Wang Ning; Siu Kayu; Feng Yibin; Tong Yao

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Techn...

  12. Usefulness of the permanent animal collections in biology class

    OpenAIRE

    Rimahazi, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Modern educational system emphasizes lifelong learning, and the use of teaching methods and techniques that enable this learning and encourage students. Nature awareness and responsible attitude to flora and fauna, and the environment in general, are emphasized as well. In this diploma thesis we want to give some answers to the following questions: what methods to use, how to encourage students, and how to improve their attitude. We compared the classical method of teaching with the experi...

  13. Generating and manipulating transgenic animals using transposable elements

    OpenAIRE

    Largaespada David A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Transposable elements, or transposons, have played a significant role in the history of biological research. They have had a major influence on the structure of genomes during evolution, they can cause mutations, and their study led to the concept of so-called "selfish DNA". In addition, transposons have been manipulated as useful gene transfer vectors. While primarily restricted to use in invertebrates, prokaryotes, and plants, it is now clear that transposon technology and biology ...

  14. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  15. Image quality assessment for CT used on small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Isabela Paredes; Agulles-Pedrós, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Image acquisition on a CT scanner is nowadays necessary in almost any kind of medical study. Its purpose, to produce anatomical images with the best achievable quality, implies the highest diagnostic radiation exposure to patients. Image quality can be measured quantitatively based on parameters such as noise, uniformity and resolution. This measure allows the determination of optimal parameters of operation for the scanner in order to get the best diagnostic image. A human Phillips CT scanner is the first one minded for veterinary-use exclusively in Colombia. The aim of this study was to measure the CT image quality parameters using an acrylic phantom and then, using the computational tool MatLab, determine these parameters as a function of current value and window of visualization, in order to reduce dose delivery by keeping the appropriate image quality.

  16. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Kuprasert, S.; Watanasit, S.

    2001-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullet...

  17. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros Adrianne Teixeira; Dias Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the la...

  18. From the bones : a journey of searching new uses for animal bones in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaoni, Jiao, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    This study is about using a design method to find new uses of leftover lamb bones from slaughterhouses in Iceland. As a Chinese designer studying in Iceland, I found great differences in the Icelandic and Chinese food culture, being curious about the fate of animal bone leftover from Icelandic livestock. I started investigate how and whether people use animal bones. To raise questions about the consequences of consumerism, I decided to use waste from the Icelandic food industry as my desig...

  19. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  20. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. PMID:27256452

  1. Modeling in vivo fluorescence of small animals using TracePro software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas; Rajwa, Bartek; Freniere, Edward R.; Smith, Linda; Hassler, Richard; Robinson, J. Paul

    2007-02-01

    The theoretical modeling of fluorescence excitation, emission, and propagation within living tissue has been a limiting factor in the development and calibration of in vivo small animal fluorescence imagers. To date, no definitive calibration standard, or phantom, has been developed for use with small animal fluorescence imagers. Our work in the theoretical modeling of fluorescence in small animals using solid modeling software is useful in optimizing the design of small animal imaging systems, and in predicting their response to a theoretical model. In this respect, it is also valuable in the design of a fluorescence phantom for use in in vivo small animal imaging. The use of phantoms is a critical step in the testing and calibration of most diagnostic medical imaging systems. Despite this, a realistic, reproducible, and informative phantom has yet to be produced for use in small animal fluorescence imaging. By modeling the theoretical response of various types of phantoms, it is possible to determine which parameters are necessary for accurately modeling fluorescence within inhomogenous scattering media such as tissue. Here, we present the model that has been developed, the challenges and limitations associated with developing such a model, and the applicability of this model to experimental results obtained in a commercial small animal fluorescence imager.

  2. Counter Rotating Open Rotor Animation using Particle Image Velocimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Roosenboom, E.W.M.; Schroeder, A.; Geisler, R.; Pallek, D.; Agocs, J.; Neitzke, K.-P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the two accompanying fluid dynamics videos for the "Counter rotating open rotor flow field investigation using stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry" presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics in Baltimore, Maryland, November 20-22, 2011.

  3. Generating and manipulating transgenic animals using transposable elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Largaespada David A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements, or transposons, have played a significant role in the history of biological research. They have had a major influence on the structure of genomes during evolution, they can cause mutations, and their study led to the concept of so-called "selfish DNA". In addition, transposons have been manipulated as useful gene transfer vectors. While primarily restricted to use in invertebrates, prokaryotes, and plants, it is now clear that transposon technology and biology are just as relevant to the study of vertebrate species. Multiple transposons now have been shown to be active in vertebrates and they can be used for germline transgenesis, somatic cell transgenesis/gene therapy, and random germline insertional mutagenesis. The sophistication of these applications and the number of active elements are likely to increase over the next several years. This review covers the vertebrate-active retrotransposons and transposons that have been well studied and adapted for use as gene transfer agents. General considerations and predictions about the future utility of transposon technology are discussed.

  4. Aglepristone: A review on its clinical use in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogny, Anne; Fiéni, Francis

    2016-03-01

    Aglepristone (RU 46534) is a competitive progesterone antagonist that is indicated for the treatment of various progesterone-dependent physiological or pathologic conditions. Aglepristone has proven to be an effective means of terminating pregnancy in most species. When used to induce parturition, aglepristone was effective in all cases in the bitch, cow, and goat, with no apparent adverse effects on neonatal health or milk production. When used to schedule an elective cesarean section, aglepristone treatment was deemed safe for dams and puppies, providing that the ovulation date had been accurately assessed at the time of breeding. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy at injection, treatment with aglepristone has no apparent negative effects on subsequent fertility. Aglepristone is also a safe and relatively effective means of treating pyometra. However, given the high level of septic risk and the likelihood of rapid deterioration, such therapy is not recommended in emergency situations. Treatment of feline fibroadenomatosis using aglepristone has given promising results, but repeat treatment may be necessary in cats previously treated with long-acting progestagens. The use of aglepristone in other progesterone-dependent diseases has yet to be fully evaluated but may prove valuable, especially in the treatment of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, and the treatment of some vaginal tumors in the bitch. PMID:26525399

  5. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 124I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of 124I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of 124I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of 124I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of natTeO2. These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl4 as precursor and water as solvent. The produced 124I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The 124I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na124I showed high quality PET imaging of the thyroid, with the maximum uptake at 6 h after injection. (author)

  6. Use of animal waste for the production of pet food for dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáčková, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The reason why I have chosen the topic named “Use of animal waste for the production of pet food for dogs“ was mainly the fact that I am interested in pet food for dogs its composition and use of animal waste for its prepare. Literature research is focused on the use of animal waste, such as slaughter waste, uneaten leftovers from the store, etc., to the production of feed dogs as pets. It can be industry food, which has three sections dry food, semi-dry food and canned or homemade BARF di...

  7. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  8. Use of DNA probes in animal disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional approaches for detecting aetiological agents of infectious diseases include the isolation of microorganisms and their direct detection in pathological samples by microscopy and immunoassays. Although the availability of monoclonal antibodies has improved some of these techniques, none of them alone is completely reliable. The advent of genetic engineering has opened a new approach to the diagnosis of infectious diseases by permitting detection of the genetic blueprint of the causal agent. Since each pathogen has its own unique genetic material and because nucleic acid hybridization is based on the ability of DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to their complementary sequences, genomic DNA or RNA is an ideal target for specific diagnostic tests. This new technique will allow the detection of some organisms which are difficult to culture and can broaden the spectrum of diseases which can be diagnosed. In veterinary medicine, many infectious agents are now identified by nucleic acid hybridization and some examples are given in the review. However, the use of this technique is still limited to research laboratories. Indeed there are some drawbacks to the routine use of nucleic acid technology for diagnostic tests. Firstly, radiolabelled probes have a short half-life; they are hazardous and their handling requires special equipment. Secondly, nonradioactive probes are less sensitive than radiolabelled ones. Their use on crude samples can give rise to significant non-specific background reactions, which makes them less attractive for routine diagnosis. Improvements in their sensitivity and in the signal/background ratio may allow their wider application in the future. (author). 44 refs

  9. Fly ash used to create alternative building product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-04-01

    Autoclaved Cellular Concrete (ACC), a new, concrete-like block containing 70 percent fly ash, is proving to be a superior alternative to concrete, wood and paper products. The ACC block, currently being promoted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), could reduce both the overall cost of generating electricity from coal and the need for landfill space. The typical fly ash concrete mixture is 4 to 5 percent fly ash. {open_quotes}It doesn`t take a brain surgeon to see that these blocks are a much better outlet for fly ash than the current concrete mixture,{close_quotes} said Dean Golden, EPRI`s project manager. Golden estimates that a typical coal-fired plant can save an average of $10 per ton in landfill costs alone by converting its principal by-product to these blocks. Besides fly ash, the blocks also contain water, cement, lime and aluminum powder.

  10. Zootherapeutical Uses of Animal Diversity in Coastal District of Orissa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, N; Panda, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study documents zootherapeutic practices in Kendrapara district, Orissa, India. It is primarily based on field surveys carried out in villages, where dwellers provided information on animal species used as medicine, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. The animal parts, viz. blood, excreta, feather and horn were used in raw or cooked forms for the treatment of piles, asthma, skin diseases, dysentery and rheumatism. These...

  11. A Unifying Account of Technological Knowledge: Animal Construction, Tool Use, and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Heflin, Ashley Shew

    2011-01-01

    Philosophers, historians of technology, and anthropologists often offer accounts of technology that include a â human clause,â some phrase to the effect that only humans use or make technologies. When these academics do consider tool use, they refer to a few cases, usually from chimpanzee studies, as special and unusual in the animal kingdom and whose similarities to human tool use can be explained through some shared evolutionary heritage. However, new observational and laboratory animal ...

  12. The use of animals in national high school student science fair projects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Spiegel, Crystal

    2004-06-01

    Science fair projects can provide a sound opportunity to teach students the value of scientific methodology without relying on the routine and unnecessary use of animals. Unfortunately, students are often encouraged to use animals in an expendable manner that both duplicates previous experiments and neglects the opportunity to "think outside the box" in order to generate new hypotheses/theories about human health, physiological processes or basic biological concepts. Although at least one national science fair sponsor has changed its policy regarding students' utilisation of vertebrate animals, others continue to encourage the more traditional in vivo experimental projects. This paper will review the guidelines of two major national science fairs in the USA; types of projects conducted that involve animals; numbers of animals involved; interview responses by some student finalists who used vertebrates in their projects; successful initiatives by animal advocates in the USA to eliminate the use of animals in science fairs; and potential areas of outreach to science educators, science fair sponsors, high schools and students. PMID:23581124

  13. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  14. Use of radioactively labelled bacteria in animal experiments. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-3H- or 6-14C-orotic acid labelled Pasteurella multocida were orally administered, as live or inactivated vaccine, to mice. They were soon discharged through the digestive tract but also led to growing activity in the blood, liver, spleen, and lungs. Using germs with 3H-1-D mannose-labelled cellular surface have shown that parts of the bacterial cells were easily detached and distributed through the organism, after oral, subcutaneous as well as intratracheal application. Hence, the conclusion seems to be justified that oral administration of Pasteurella multocida cells leads to resorption of bacterial cell fragments which then will readily penetrate the circulatory system, while many of these cells will soon be eliminated from the organism, largely through the digestive tract. Such elimination was found to follow an e function, and it was observed also after intratracheal and subcutaneous application, resp. Some bacteria remained in the digestive tract over a prolonged period (14 days verified). The results are discussed with regard to their possible importance to the immunological development. (author)

  15. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  16. 30 CFR 285.1005 - How do I request an Alternate Use RUE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Rights of Use and Easement for Energy- and Marine-Related Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Requesting An Alternate... provisions in this subchapter or any other Federal law. (d) Evidence that you meet the requirements of §...

  17. 75 FR 11226 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Tip Reporting Alternative Tip Agreement Used in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Used in the Cosmetology and Barber Industry AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Tip Reporting Alternative Commitment used in the Cosmetology...: Tip Reporting Alternative Commitment Agreement used in the Cosmetology and Barber Industry. OMB...

  18. 78 FR 13402 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Tip Reporting Alternative Tip Agreement Used in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Used in the Cosmetology and Barber Industry AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning tip reporting alternative commitment used in the cosmetology...: Tip Reporting Alternative Commitment Agreement used in the Cosmetology and Barber Industry. OMB...

  19. Improving animal welfare and reducing animal use for veterinary vaccine potency testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, William; Brown, Karen; KULPA-EDDY Jodie; Srinivas, Geetha; HALDER Maria; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; GIFFORD Glen; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved human and animal health and welfare by preventing diseases and deaths caused by a wide range of infectious agents. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance ...

  20. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research. PMID:23940123

  1. The use of isotopes to detect moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication comprises 12 articles of which 10 have been selected for inclusion in INIS. Their topic is the use of tracer techniques in studying the metabolism of trace amounts of mineral elements in domestic animals

  2. Use of radioisotopes in the assessment of immune status of animals in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effector immune function in human and animals can be measured using various radioisotopic techniques. Radioactive isotopes play a major role in evaluation, quantification and detection of specific changes of bio-diversified nature of immunological molecules

  3. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  4. Evaluation of alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered in this paper: internal combustion engine (ICE) and its combination with petroleum and 1st and 2nd generation biofuels blends, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The evaluation of alternative fuel modes is performed according to cost and policy aspects. In order to evaluate each alternative fuel, one base scenario and ten alternative scenarios with different weight factors selection per criterion are presented. After deciding the alternative fuels’ scoring against each criterion and the criteria weights, their synthesis gives the overall score and ranking for all ten alternative scenarios. It is concluded that ICE blended with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector. - Highlights: ► Alternative fuels for the Greek road transport sector have been evaluated. ► The method of the AHP was used. ► Seven different alternatives of fuel mode are considered. ► The evaluation is performed according to cost and policy aspects. ► The ICE with 1st and 2nd generation biofuels are the most suitable fuels.

  5. Could cannabidiol be used as an alternative to antipsychotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects close to 1% of the population. Individuals with this disorder often present signs such as hallucination, anxiety, reduced attention, and social withdrawal. Although antipsychotic drugs remain the cornerstone of schizophrenia treatment, they are associated with severe side effects. Recently, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for pharmacotherapy that is involved in a wide range of disorders, including schizophrenia. Since its discovery, a lot of effort has been devoted to the study of compounds that can modulate its activity for therapeutic purposes. Among them, cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, shows great promise for the treatment of psychosis, and is associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects than conventional antipsychotic drugs. The overarching goal of this review is to provide current available knowledge on the role of the dopamine system and the ECS in schizophrenia, and to discuss key findings from animal studies and clinical trials investigating the antipsychotic potential of CBD. PMID:27267317

  6. Documentation for the spatial analysis system (SPAN) for resource use by animals

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, David A.; Lindberg, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Nearest-neighbor analyses have been used with mapped data f or tests of spatial dispersion and association i n plant and animal ecology. This paper full describes a computer software package developed to use Monte Carlo trials instead of chi-squared distributions for assigning probabilities to observed values of nearest neighbor statistics. The program can factor-out the unique geometry of resources in a sample plot,which can affect locations of animals, thus testing for direct patterns ...

  7. Writing Activity Using a Silent Animated Film in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukawa, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : The present study aimed to clarify whether the use of using a silent animated film during a writing activity can improve students' imagination and to determine the practical effectiveness of learning fundamental writing skills and rules before the writing activity. Method : After receiving basic instruction on English essay-writing, students were asked to watch a silent animated film and then write a review of the film. Students were then asked to exchange papers with a peer and ...

  8. Using Blogs to Promote Alternative Perspective to Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, A.

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning is becoming more common in many higher education institutions making asynchronous online tools an essential component to promote positive student outcomes. California State University Los Angeles's online Natural Disasters course implements blogs as a collaborative constructive tool to allow students to build knowledge with their peers rather than to receive a body of facts in isolation. Blogs allow participants to post a chronological series of entries that give insight to thoughts and feelings about a specific event to a broader audience. In this course, students adopt an alternate identity and create a first-person commentary or diary entry as if they witnessed a historical volcanic event. Peers are instructed to post comments to blogs by offering sympathy, advice, solutions, or encouragement. Roleplaying between participants provides the opportunity for students to be engaged through multiple perspectives - a powerful means to understand societal impacts and to gain valuable insights. The blogging activity is devised so that novice students can complete the task on their own, yet read blog posts and comments from more capable peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests students have a greater appreciation and a deeper understanding of the impacts that volcanic eruptions have on society and the environment.

  9. An International Comparison of Female and Male Students’ Attitudes to the Use of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Mejdell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students’ attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar. Across countries female students were more likely to avoid meat and less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students, and were more likely to have kept pets than males. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively

  10. Alternative Processing Technology for Converting Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats to Clean Fuels and Light Olefins%动植物油生产清洁燃料和低碳烯烃的替代加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 李春义; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2008-01-01

    Since the production cost of biodiesel is now the main hurdle limiting their applicability in some areas, catalytic cracking reactions represent an alternative route to utilization of vegetable oils and animal fats. Hence, catalytic transformation of oils and fats was carried out in a laboratory-scale two-stage riser fluid catalytic cracking (TSRFCC) unit in this work. The results show that oils and fats can be used as FCC feed singly or co-feeding with vacuum gas oil (VGO), which can give high yield (by mass) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), C2-C4 olefins, for example 45% LPG, 47% C2-C4 olefins, and 77.6% total liquid yield produced with palm oil cracking. Co-feeding with VGO gives a high yield of LPG (39.1%) and propylene (18.1%). And oxygen element content is very low (about 0.5%) in liquid products, hence, oxygen is removed in the form of H2O, CO and CO2. At the same time, high concentration of aromatics (C7-C9 aromatics predominantly) in the gasoline fraction is obtained after TSRFCC reaction of palm oil, as a result of large amount of hydrogen-transfer, cyclization and aromatization reactions. Additionally, most of properties of produced gasoline and diesel oil fuel meet the requirements of national standards, containing little sulfur. So TSRFCC technology is thought to be an alternative processing technology leading to production of clean fuels and light olefins.

  11. Improving animal productivity through meeting nutrient deficiencies with multi-nutrient blocks, enhancing utilization efficiency of alternate feed resources, and controlling internal parasites: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is crucially important for provision of animal-based food products for the population, and as a source of income for many resource-poor farmers in developing countries. With the increase in human population and economic growth of many Asian countries, the demand for livestock products is likely to double in the coming 20 years. However, the main constraint to livestock development in these countries is the scarcity and fluctuation in the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. Increased populations and industrialization are making arable land scarce and in addition a large area of the available arable land is being degraded due to human activities. For sustainable development of the livestock sector it is essential for RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) member countries to secure sufficient supplies of balanced feeds from resources which do not compete with human food. The conventional feeds such as soya bean, groundnut, rapeseed meals etc. are either not available or are available at very high cost. Most of the RCA member states have recognized the need to efficiently utilize locally available feed resources such as tree and shrub leaves, agro-industrial by-products and other lesser-known and new plants adapted to the harsh conditions and capable of growing in poor, marginal and degraded soils. A severe setback impacted to the livestock industry during the nineties by the financial crisis in Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea and Malaysia has played an important role in highlighting the importance of research and development in this area. Another important limiting factor for enhancing animal productivity in tropical countries is the heavy internal parasitic load in livestock. The development of economically viable and environmentally friendly strategies and their strategic use for controlling internal parasites were also identified by the participating countries as one of the priority areas to be

  12. 77 FR 61633 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing... paperwork requirements in the regulations under ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities..., transportation, or transmission of energy from sources other than oil and gas (renewable energy)....

  13. Animal models of extracranial pediatric solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Guido; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; WARMANN, STEVEN; Fuchs, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Animal models, including xenografts, models of metastatic invasion, syngeneic models and transgenic models, are important tools for basic research in solid pediatric tumors, while humanized animal models are useful for novel immunotherapeutical approaches. Optical and molecular imaging techniques are used for in vivo imaging and may be used in conjunction with alternative treatment approaches, including photodynamic therapy. The aim of this review is to highlight the various animal models tha...

  14. [The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction. PMID:21503516

  15. Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

  16. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  17. Modeling unobserved sources of heterogeneity in animal abundance using a Dirichlet process prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, R.M.; Mukherjee, B.; Zhang, L.; Ghosh, M.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    In surveys of natural populations of animals, a sampling protocol is often spatially replicated to collect a representative sample of the population. In these surveys, differences in abundance of animals among sample locations may induce spatial heterogeneity in the counts associated with a particular sampling protocol. For some species, the sources of heterogeneity in abundance may be unknown or unmeasurable, leading one to specify the variation in abundance among sample locations stochastically. However, choosing a parametric model for the distribution of unmeasured heterogeneity is potentially subject to error and can have profound effects on predictions of abundance at unsampled locations. In this article, we develop an alternative approach wherein a Dirichlet process prior is assumed for the distribution of latent abundances. This approach allows for uncertainty in model specification and for natural clustering in the distribution of abundances in a data-adaptive way. We apply this approach in an analysis of counts based on removal samples of an endangered fish species, the Okaloosa darter. Results of our data analysis and simulation studies suggest that our implementation of the Dirichlet process prior has several attractive features not shared by conventional, fully parametric alternatives. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Multiple new site-specific recombinases for use in manipulating animal genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nern, Aljoscha; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Svoboda, Karel; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    Site-specific recombinases have been used for two decades to manipulate the structure of animal genomes in highly predictable ways and have become major research tools. However, the small number of recombinases demonstrated to have distinct specificities, low toxicity, and sufficient activity to drive reactions to completion in animals has been a limitation. In this report we show that four recombinases derived from yeast—KD, B2, B3, and R—are highly active and nontoxic in Drosophila and that...

  19. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  20. Application of MOSFET Detectors for Dosimetry in Small Animal Radiography Using Short Exposure Times

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; ANDERSON-EVANS, COLIN; Johnson, G. Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (...

  1. The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating☆

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence of “food addiction” using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and “addicted” to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a fat-rich food, are described and suggest that increased body weight can occur. How...

  2. An International Comparison of Female and Male Students’ Attitudes to the Use of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilie Mejdell; Gwi Lee; Vonne Lund; Mark Kennedy; Linda Keeling; Gudrun Illmann; Anastasija Handziska; Alison Hanlon; Bi Choe; Marta Alonso; Javid Aldavood; Serdar Izmirli; Clive Phillips; Veselinas Pelagic; Therese Rehn

    2010-01-01

    Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was great...

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Infertility: Cultural and Religious Influences in a Multicultural Canadian Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Suzanne C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Whitley, Rob; Gold, Ian; Tulandi, Togas; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for infertility in a multicultural healthcare setting and to compare Western and non-Western infertility patients' reasons for using CAM and the meanings they attribute to CAM use.

  4. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5–14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13–24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ∼3 s and ∼9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (−0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (−0.124

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  7. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  8. Text2Video: text-driven facial animation using MPEG-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurainsky, J.; Eisert, P.

    2005-07-01

    We present a complete system for the automatic creation of talking head video sequences from text messages. Our system converts the text into MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters and synthetic voice. A user selected 3D character will perform lip movements synchronized to the speech data. The 3D models created from a single image vary from realistic people to cartoon characters. A voice selection for different languages and gender as well as a pitch shift component enables a personalization of the animation. The animation can be shown on different displays and devices ranging from 3GPP players on mobile phones to real-time 3D render engines. Therefore, our system can be used in mobile communication for the conversion of regular SMS messages to MMS animations.

  9. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  10. The risks and alternatives to physical punishment use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, Christine A; Secco, M Loretta; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2003-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of negative developmental outcomes resulting from the use of physical (or corporal) punishment with children, its use by parents and other caregivers is common. Such negative outcomes include child aggression, mental health issues, and physical abuse. Health care providers have a responsibility to promote disciplinary strategies that facilitate positive parent-children relationships and keep children's self-esteem and bodies healthy and intact. The incidence, factors, and outcomes associated with parental use of physical punishment are reviewed and useful advice for parents and age-appropriate disciplinary strategies and resources are outlined for the various stages of child development from infancy to school age. PMID:12734459

  11. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. PMID:25064646

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  13. The use of alternative therapies in the Saskatchewan stroke rehabilitation population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefromova Ludmilla

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients use alternative therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of stroke rehabilitation patients in Saskatchewan using alternative therapies, whether patients found these therapies effective in alleviating stroke-related symptoms, how often those patients who used alternative therapies discuss this fact with their primary care doctor and the main reason why patients might not do so. Methods Telephone questionnaire surveys were conducted with 117 patients who had suffered a stroke and undergone inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation at Saskatoon City Hospital. Results The study revealed that 26.5% of 117 stroke rehabilitation patients visited alternative practitioners at least once or used some form of unconventional therapy. Only 16.1% of patients found that alternative therapy made them feel much better. Of those who used alternative therapy, 61.3% did not discuss this fact with their primary physician. Many of the respondents (47.3% who did not inform their physician stated that they did not see the necessity of talking about these treatments and 21.1% did not discuss the issue with their physician because they felt that he or she might disapprove of alternative therapies. Conclusion A relatively small percentage of stroke patients found alternative therapies beneficial. Doctors should be aware that a significant number of patients will try alternative treatment without discussion with their primary care physician or specialist. The current study suggests that after completing routine questioning, doctors should also ask their patients about their use of alternative therapies and, when appropriate, review issues of safety and efficacy.

  14. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manual is designed for specialist training in the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology. The theoretical part contains a general introduction to experimental work in this field. Laboratory exercises are divided into Basic Exercises (17) and Applied Exercises (25) oriented to research in the immunology and pathogenesis of host-parasite interactions using radioisotopic methods and to disease management through the use of radiation-attenuated vaccines. The closing part contains a number of practical guidelines and data for work with radioisotopes in general and for the use of radioisotopic methods in animal parasitology

  15. Solid Wastes use as an alternate Energy source in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from the collection waste up to its proper disposal. Globally, wastes are used to produce electricity or used for recycling. Recently, Europe and United States (US) are recycling waste about 41% and 32%. China is also investing US 6.3 billion dollar to achieve 30% recycling of its waste 2030. The problems arising from the solid waste can be solved by using innovative technologies. Now-a-days differe...

  16. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  17. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Animal Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Duran, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding alternative conceptions about animal diversity and classification, many of which have used a cross-age approach to investigate how students' conceptions change over time. None of these studies, however, have investigated teachers' conceptions of animal classification. This study was intended to…

  18. Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

  19. An Alternative Approach of Steganography using Reference Image

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to create a practical steganographic implementation for 4-bit images.The proposed technique converts 4 bit image into 4 shaded Gray Scale image. This image will be act as reference image to hide the text. Using this grey scale reference image any text can be hidden. Single character of a text can be represented by 8-bit. The 8-bit character can be split into 4X2 bit information. If the reference image and the data file are transmitted through network separately, we can achieve the effect of Steganography. Here the image is not at all distorted because said image is only used for referencing. Any huge mount of text material can be hidden using a very small image. Decipher the text is not possible intercepting the image or data file separately. So, it is more secure.

  20. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of seed meal from a... for the safe use of seed meal from a variety of bioengineered safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)...